Jung and Archetypes.
Jung, Carl Gustav (1875-1961), Swiss psychiatrist, the founder of 'analytical psychology'. He worked with Freud in the early development of psychoanalysis, but became dissatisfied with Freud's preoccupation with instinctive sexual and self-preservative motivation. Jung posited both a personal and a collective unconscious.
The collective unconscious and the archetypes which are its manifestation underlie the personal. Jung observed that many patients described dreams that exhibited parallels with myths and symbols from different traditions. He regarded the mandala, an instrument of contemplation in Tantric yoga, as an archetypal symbol of the self, and was attracted to the idea that the archetypes afford evidence of communion with a divine mind, and that, by extension, the division in man is an expression of divine conflict.
In personality development, Jung described a process of 'individuation' leading to greater extroversion or introversion, and also to the dominance of one of the four functions of thinking, feeling, intuition, and sensation. Disturbance in the process causes neurosis. Although Jung's belief in the occult and precognition in dreams has prejudiced some against him, his theories of symbolism and work on personality types have been of enormous influence.
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