"Who am I?"
is the title given to a set of questions and answers bearing on
Self-enquiry. The questions were put to Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi
by one Sri M. Sivaprakasam Pillai about the year 1902. Sri Pillai,
a graduate in Philosophy, was at the time employed in the Revenue
Department of the South Arcot Collectorate. During his visit to
Tiruvannamalai in 1902 on official work, he went to Virupaksha Cave
on Arunachala Hill and met the Master there. He sought from him
spiritual guidance, and solicited answers to questions relating
to Self-enquiry. As Bhagavan was not talking then, not because of
any vow he had taken, but because he did not have the inclination
to talk, he answered the questions put to him by gestures, and when
these were not understood, by writing. As recollected and recorded
by Sri Sivaprakasam Pillai, there were fourteen questions with answers
to them given by Bhagavan. This record was first published by Sri
Pillai in 1923, along with a couple of poems composed by himself
relating how Bhagavan's grace operated in his case by dispelling
his doubts and by saving him from a crisis in life. 'Who am I?'
has been published several times subsequently. We find thirty questions
and answers in some editions and twenty-eight in others. There is
also another published version in which the questions are not given,
and the teachings are rearranged in the form of an essay. The extant
English translation is of this essay. The present rendering is of
the text in the form of twenty-eight questions and answers.
Vicharasangraham (Self-Enquiry), Nan Yar (Who am I?) constitutes
the first set of instructions in the Master's own words. These two
are the only prosepieces among Bhagavan's Works. They clearly set
forth the central teaching that the direct path to liberation is
Self-enquiry. The particular mode in which the enquiry is to be
made is lucidly set forth in Nan Yar. The mind consists of thoughts.
The 'I' thought is the first to arise in the mind. When the enquiry
' Who am I?' is persistently pursued, all other thoughts get destroyed,
and finally the 'I' thought itself vanishes leaving the supreme
non-dual Self alone. The false identification of the Self with the
phenomena of non-self such as the body and mind thus ends, and there
is illumination, Sakshatkara. The process of enquiry of course,
is not an easy one. As one enquires 'Who am I?', other thoughts
will arise; but as these arise, one should not yield to them by
following them , on the contrary, one should ask 'To whom do they
arise ?' In order to do this, one has to be extremely vigilant.
Through constant enquiry one should make the mind stay in its source,
without allowing it to wander away and get lost in the mazes of
thought created by itself. All other disciplines such as breath-control
and meditation on the forms of God should be regarded as auxiliary
practices. They are useful in so far as they help the mind to become
quiescent and one-pointed.
For the mind
that has gained skill in concentration, Self-enquiry becomes comparatively
easy. It is by ceaseless enquiry that the thoughts are destroyed
and the Self realized - the plenary Reality in which there is not
even the 'I' thought, the experience which is referred to as "Silence".
This, in substance,
is Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi's teaching in Nan Yar (Who am I?).
T. M. P. MAHADEVAN
University of Madras
June 30, 1982
Bhagavathe Sri Ramanaya
Am I? - (Nan Yar?)
As all living beings desire to be happy always, without misery,
as in the case of everyone there is observed supreme love for one's
self, and as happiness alone is the cause for love, in order to
gain that happiness which is one's nature and which is experienced
in the state of deep sleep where there is no mind, one should know
one's self. For that, the path of knowledge, the inquiry of the
form "Who am I?", is the principal means.
1 . Who
am I ?
The gross body which is composed of the seven humours (dhatus),
I am not; the five cognitive sense organs, viz. the senses of hearing,
touch, sight, taste, and smell, which apprehend their respective
objects, viz. sound, touch, colour, taste, and odour, I am not;
the five cognitive sense-organs, viz. the organs of speech, locomotion,
grasping, excretion, and procreation, which have as their respective
functions speaking, moving, grasping, excreting, and enjoying, I
am not; the five vital airs, prana, etc., which perform respectively
the five functions of in-breathing, etc., I am not; even the mind
which thinks, I am not; the nescience too, which is endowed only
with the residual impressions of objects, and in which there are
no objects and no functioning's, I am not.
2. If I
am none of these, then who am I?
After negating all of the above-mentioned as 'not this', 'not this',
that Awareness which alone remains - that I am.
is the nature of Awareness?
The nature of Awareness is existence-consciousness-bliss
will the realization of the Self be gained?
When the world which is what-is-seen has been removed, there will
be realization of the Self which is the seer.
there not be realization of the Self even while the world is there
(taken as real)?
There will not be.
The seer and the object seen are like the rope and the snake. Just
as the knowledge of the rope which is the substrate will not arise
unless the false knowledge of the illusory serpent goes, so the
realization of the Self which is the substrate will not be gained
unless the belief that the world is real is removed.
will the world which is the object seen be removed?
When the mind, which is the cause of all cognition's and of all
actions, becomes quiescent, the world will disappear.
is the nature of the mind?
What is called 'mind' is a wondrous power residing in the Self.
It causes all thoughts to arise. Apart from thoughts, there is no
such thing as mind. Therefore, thought is the nature of mind. Apart
from thoughts, there is no independent entity called the world.
In deep sleep there are no thoughts, and there is no world. In the
states of waking and dream, there are thoughts, and there is a world
also. Just as the spider emits the thread (of the web) out of itself
and again withdraws it into itself, likewise the mind projects the
world out of itself and again resolves it into itself. When the
mind comes out of the Self, the world appears. Therefore, when the
world appears (to be real), the Self does not appear; and when the
Self appears (shines) the world does not appear. When one persistently
inquires into the nature of the mind, the mind will end leaving
the Self (as the residue). What is referred to as the Self is the
Atman. The mind always exists only in dependence on something gross;
it cannot stay alone. It is the mind that is called the subtle body
or the soul (jiva).
is the path of inquiry for understanding the nature of the mind?
That which rises as 'I' in this body is the mind. If one inquires
as to where in the body the thought 'I' rises first, one would discover
that it rises in the heart. That is the place of the mind's origin.
Even if one thinks constantly 'I' 'I', one will be led to that place.
Of all the thoughts that arise in the mind, the 'I' thought is the
first. It is only after the rise of this that the other thoughts
arise. It is after the appearance of the first personal pronoun
that the second and third personal pronouns appear; without the
first personal pronoun there will not be the second and third.
will the mind become quiescent?
By the inquiry 'Who am I?'. The thought 'who am I?' will destroy
all other thoughts, and like the stick used for stirring the burning
pyre, it will itself in the end get destroyed. Then, there will
is the means for constantly holding on to the thought 'Who am I?'
When other thoughts arise, one should not pursue them, but should
inquire: 'To whom do they arise?' It does not matter how many thoughts
arise. As each thought arises, one should inquire with diligence,
"To whom has this thought arisen?". The answer that would emerge
would be "To me". Thereupon if one inquires "Who am I?", the mind
will go back to its source; and the thought that arose will become
quiescent. With repeated practice in this manner, the mind will
develop the skill to stay in its source. When the mind that is subtle
goes out through the brain and the sense-organs, the gross names
and forms appear; when it stays in the heart, the names and forms
disappear. Not letting the mind go out, but retaining it in the
Heart is what is called "inwardness" (antar-mukha). Letting the
mind go out of the Heart is known as "externalisation" (bahir-mukha).
Thus, when the mind stays in the Heart, the 'I' which is the source
of all thoughts will go, and the Self which ever exists will shine.
Whatever one does, one should do without the egoity "I". If one
acts in that way, all will appear as of the nature of Siva (God).
there no other means for making the mind quiescent?
Other than inquiry, there are no adequate means. If through other
means it is sought to control the mind, the mind will appear to
be controlled, but will again go forth. Through the control of breath
also, the mind will become quiescent; but it will be quiescent only
so long as the breath remains controlled, and when the breath resumes
the mind also will again start moving and will wander as impelled
by residual impressions. The source is the same for both mind and
breath. Thought, indeed, is the nature of the mind. The thought
"I" is the first thought of the mind; and that is egoity. It is
from that whence egoity originates that breath also originates.
Therefore, when the mind becomes quiescent, the breath is controlled,
and when the breath is controlled the mind becomes quiescent. But
in deep sleep, although the mind becomes quiescent, the breath does
not stop. This is because of the will of God, so that the body may
be preserved and other people may not be under the impression that
it is dead. In the state of waking and in samadhi, when the mind
becomes quiescent the breath is controlled. Breath is the gross
form of mind. Till the time of death, the mind keeps breath in the
body; and when the body dies the mind takes the breath along with
it. Therefore, the exercise of breath-control is only an aid for
rendering the mind quiescent (manonigraha); it will not destroy
the mind (manonasa).
Like the practice of breath-control. meditation on the forms of
God, repetition of mantras, restriction on food, etc., are but aids
for rendering the mind quiescent.
on the forms of God and through repetition of mantras, the mind
becomes one-pointed. The mind will always be wandering. Just as
when a chain is given to an elephant to hold in its trunk it will
go along grasping the chain and nothing else, so also when the mind
is occupied with a name or form it will grasp that alone. When the
mind expands in the form of countless thoughts, each thought becomes
weak; but as thoughts get resolved the mind becomes one-pointed
and strong; for such a mind Self-inquiry will become easy. Of all
the restrictive rules, that relating to the taking of sattvic food
in moderate quantities is the best; by observing this rule, the
sattvic quality of mind will increase, and that will be helpful
residual impressions (thoughts) of objects appear wending like the
waves of an ocean. When will all of them get destroyed?
As the meditation on the Self rises higher and higher, the thoughts
will get destroyed.
it possible for the residual impressions of objects that come from
beginningless time, as it were, to be resolved, and for one to remain
as the pure Self?
Without yielding to the doubt "Is it possible, or not?", one should
persistently hold on to the meditation on the Self. Even if one
be a great sinner, one should not worry and weep "O! I am a sinner,
how can I be saved?"; one should completely renounce the thought
"I am a sinner"; and concentrate keenly on meditation on the Self;
then, one would surely succeed. There are not two minds - one good
and the other evil; the mind is only one. It is the residual impressions
that are of two kinds - auspicious and inauspicious. When the mind
is under the influence of auspicious impressions it is called good;
and when it is under the influence of inauspicious impressions it
is regarded as evil.
The mind should not be allowed to wander towards worldly objects
and what concerns other people. However bad other people may be,
one should bear no hatred for them. Both desire and hatred should
be eschewed. All that one gives to others one gives to one's self.
If this truth is understood who will not give to others? When one's
self arises all arises; when one's self becomes quiescent all becomes
quiescent. To the extent we behave with humility, to that extent
there will result good. If the mind is rendered quiescent, one may
long should inquiry be practised?
As long as there are impressions of objects in the mind, so long
the inquiry "Who am I?" is required. As thoughts arise they should
be destroyed then and there in the very place of their origin, through
inquiry. If one resorts to contemplation of the Self unintermittently,
until the Self is gained, that alone would do. As long as there
are enemies within the fortress, they will continue to sally forth;
if they are destroyed as they emerge, the fortress will fall into
is the nature of the Self?
What exists in truth is the Self alone. The world, the individual
soul, and God are appearances in it. like silver in mother-of-pearl,
these three appear at the same time, and disappear at the same time.
The Self is that where there is absolutely no "I" thought. That
is called "Silence". The Self itself is the world; the Self itself
is "I"; the Self itself is God; all is Siva, the Self.
not everything the work of God?
Without desire, resolve, or effort, the sun rises; and in its mere
presence, the sun-stone emits fire, the lotus blooms, water evaporates;
people perform their various functions and then rest. Just as in
the presence of the magnet the needle moves, it is by virtue of
the mere presence of God that the souls governed by the three (cosmic)
functions or the fivefold divine activity perform their actions
and then rest, in accordance with their respective karmas. God has
no resolve; no karma attaches itself to Him. That is like worldly
actions not affecting the sun, or like the merits and demerits of
the other four elements not affecting all pervading space.
the devotees, who is the greatest?
He who gives himself up to the Self that is God is the most excellent
devotee. Giving one's self up to God means remaining constantly
in the Self without giving room for the rise of any thoughts other
than that of the Self. Whatever burdens are thrown on God, He bears
them. Since the supreme power of God makes all things move, why
should we, without submitting ourselves to it, constantly worry
ourselves with thoughts as to what should be done and how, and what
should not be done and how not? We know that the train carries all
loads, so after getting on it why should we carry our small luggage
on our head to our discomfort, instead of putting it down in the
train and feeling at ease?
As thoughts arise, destroying them utterly without any residue in
the very place of their origin is non-attachment. Just as the pearl-diver
ties a stone to his waist, sinks to the bottom of the sea and there
takes the pearls, so each one of us should be endowed with non-attachment,
dive within oneself and obtain the Self-Pearl.
it not possible for God and the Guru to effect the release of a
God and the Guru will only show the way to release; they will not
by themselves take the soul to the state of release. In truth, God
and the Guru are not different. Just as the prey which has fallen
into the jaws of a tiger has no escape, so those who have come within
the ambit of the Guru's gracious look will be saved by the Guru
and will not get lost; yet, each one should by his own effort pursue
the path shown by God or Guru and gain release. One can know oneself
only with one's own eye of knowledge, and not with somebody else's.
Does he who is Rama require the help of a mirror to know that he
it necessary for one who longs for release to inquire into the nature
of categories (tattvas)?
Just as one who wants to throw away garbage has no need to analyse
it and see what it is, so one who wants to know the Self has no
need to count the number of categories or inquire into their characteristics;
what he has to do is to reject altogether the categories that hide
the Self. The world should be considered like a dream.
there no difference between waking and dream?
Waking is long and a dream short; other than this there is no difference.
Just as waking happenings seem real while awake. so do those in
a dream while dreaming. In dream the mind takes on another body.
In both waking and dream states thoughts. names and forms occur
it any use reading books for those who long for release?
All the texts say that in order to gain release one should render
the mind quiescent; therefore their conclusive teaching is that
the mind should be rendered quiescent; once this has been understood
there is no need for endless reading. In order to quieten the mind
one has only to inquire within oneself what one's Self is; how could
this search be done in books? One should know one's Self with one's
own eye of wisdom. The Self is within the five sheaths; but books
are outside them. Since the Self has to be inquired into by discarding
the five sheaths, it is futile to search for it in books. There
will come a time when one will have to forget all that one has learned.
Happiness is the very nature of the Self; happiness and the Self
are not different. There is no happiness in any object of the world.
We imagine through our ignorance that we derive happiness from objects.
When the mind goes out, it experiences misery. In truth, when its
desires are fulfilled, it returns to its own place and enjoys the
happiness that is the Self. Similarly, in the states of sleep, samadhi
and fainting, and when the object desired is obtained or the object
disliked is removed, the mind becomes inward-turned, and enjoys
pure Self-Happiness. Thus the mind moves without rest alternately
going out of the Self and returning to it. Under the tree the shade
is pleasant; out in the open the heat is scorching. A person who
has been going about in the sun feels cool when he reaches the shade.
Someone who keeps on going from the shade into the sun and then
back into the shade is a fool. A wise man stays permanently in the
shade. Similarly, the mind of the one who knows the truth does not
leave Brahman. The mind of the ignorant, on the contrary, revolves
in the world, feeling miserable, and for a little time returns to
Brahman to experience happiness. In fact, what is called the world
is only thought. When the world disappears, i.e. when there is no
thought, the mind experiences happiness; and when the world appears,
it goes through misery.
is wisdom-insight (jnana-drsti)?
Remaining quiet is what is called wisdom-insight. To remain quiet
is to resolve the mind in the Self. Telepathy, knowing past, present
and future happenings and clairvoyance do not constitute wisdom-insight.
is the relation between desirelessness and wisdom?
Desirelessness is wisdom. The two are not different; they are the
same. Desirelessness is refraining from turning the mind towards
any object. Wisdom means the appearance of no object. In other words,
not seeking what is other than the Self is detachment or desirelessness;
not leaving the Self is wisdom.
is the difference between inquiry and meditation?
Inquiry consists in retaining the mind in the Self. Meditation consists
in thinking that one's self is Brahman, existence-consciousness-bliss.
Inquiring into the nature of one's self that is in bondage, and
realising one's true nature is release.
V. S. RAMANAN
PRESIDENT, BOARD OF TRUSTEES
TIRUVANNAMALAI, S. INDIA