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[1] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv, 2

[2] Ibid., 3-4.

[3] Ibid., 5-9.

[4] Ibid., 10-12.

[5] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv, 16-21.

[6] Ibid., 29-33.

[7] Ibid., 57-61.

[8] There are several methods given in Gheranda Samhitã, vii, 12-3: "The Samãdhi is a great Yoga; it is acquired by great good fortune. It is obtained through the grace and kindness of the Guru, and by intense devotion to him. That Yogin quickly attains this beautiful practice of Samãdhi, who has confidence (or faith) in knowledge, faith in his own Guru, faith in his own Self and whose mind (manas) awakens to intelligence from day to day. Separate the Manas from the body, and unite it with the Paramãtman. This is known as Samãdhi or Mukti, liberation from all states of consciousness. I am Brahman, I am nothing else, verily am I Brahman. I am not participator of sorrow, I am Existence, Intelligence, and Bliss; always free and one with Brahman. The Samãdhi is four-fold, i.e. Dhyãna, Nãda, Rasãnãnda, and Laya respectively accomplished by Sambhavi Mudrã, Khecarî Mudrã, Bhrãmari Mudrã, and Yoni-Mudrã. The Bhakti-Yoga Samãdhi is fifth, and Rãja-Yoga Samãdhi, attained through Mano-Murcchã Kumbhaka, is the sixth form of Samãdhi.

"DHYANA-YOGA SAMADHI: Performing the Sãmbhavî Mudrã perceive the Atman. Having seen once the Brahman in a Bindu (point of light), fix the mind on that point. Bring the Atman in Kha (Ether), bring the Kha (Ether or Space) in the Atman. Thus seeing the Atman full of Kha (Space or Brahman), nothing will obstruct him. Being full of perpetual bliss, the man enters Samãdhi (Trance or Ecstasy).

"NADA-YOGA SAMADHI: Turn the tongue upwards (closing the wind-passages), by performing the Khecarî Mudrã by so doing, Samãdhi (trance asphyxiation) will be induced; there is no necessity of performing anything else.

"RASANANDA-YOGA SAMADHI: Let him perform the Bhrãmari Kumbhaka, drawing in the air slowly: expel the air slowly and slowly, when a buzzing sound like that of a beetle arises. Let him carry the Manas and place it in the centre of this sound of beetle-humming. By so doing, there will be Samãdhi and by this, knowledge of soham (I am He) arises, and a great happiness takes place.

"LAYA-SIDDHJ-YOGA SAMADHJ: Performing the Yoni-Mudrã let him imagine that he is Sakti, and with this feeling enjoy the bliss of Paramãtman (and that both have been united in one). By this he becomes full of bliss, and realises Aham Brahma I am Brahman. This conduces to Advaita Samãdhi.

"BHAKTI-YOGA SAMADHI: Let him contemplate within his heart his special Deity; let him be full of ecstasy by such contemplation; let him, with thrill, shed tears of happiness, and by so doing he will become entranced. This leads to Samãdhi and Manonmani.

"RAJA-YOGA SAMADHI: Performing Manomurcchã Kumbhaka, unite the Manas with the Atman. By this Union is obtained Raja-Yoga Samãdhi.

"PRAISE OF SAMADHI: O Canda! thus have I told thee about Samãdhi which leads to emancipation. Rãja-Yoga Samãdhi, Unmanî, Sahajãvasthã are all synonyms, and mean the Union of Manas with Atman. Visñu is in water, Visñu is in the earth, Visñu is on the peak of the mountain; Visñu is in the midst of the volcanic fires and flames; the whole universe is full of Visñu. All those that walk on land or move in the air, all living and animate creation, trees, shrubs, roots, creepers and grass, etc., oceans and mountains-all, know ye to be Brahman. See them all in Atman. The Atman confined in the body is Caitanya or Consciousness, it is without a second, the Eternal, the Highest; knowing it separate from body, let him be free from desires and passions. Thus is Samãdhi obtained free from all desires. Free from attachment to his own body, to son, wife, friends, kinsmen, or riches; being free from all let him obtain fully the Samãdhi. Siva has revealed many Tattvas, such as Laya Amrta, etc., of them, I have told thee an abstract, leading to emancipation. O Canda! thus have I told thee of Samãdhi, difficult of attainment. By knowing this, there is no rebirth in this Sphere."

[9] This is called yoni-mudrã. See Gheranda Samhitã, iii, 37-44: "Sitting in Siddhãsana, close the ears with the thumbs, the eyes with the index fingers, the nostrils with the middle fingers, the upper lip with the ring-fingers, and the lower lip with the little fingers. Draw in the Prãna-Vãyu by Kãkî-mudrã and join it with the Apãna-Vãyu; contemplating the six chakras in their orders, let the wise one awaken the sleeping serpent-goddess Kundalinî, by repeating the mantra Hum and Hamsa, and raising the Sakti (Force-kundalinî) with the jiva, place her at the thousand-petalled lotus. Being himself full of Sakti, being joined with the great Siva, let him think of the Supreme Bliss. Let him contemplate on the union of Siva (spirit) and Sakti (force or energy) in this world. Being himself all bliss, let him realise that he is the Brahman. This Yoni mudrã is a great secret, difficult to be obtained even by the Devas. By once obtaining perfection in its practice, one enters verily into Samãdhi. By the practice of this Mudrã, one is never polluted by the sins of killing a Brãhmana, killing a foetus, drinking liquor, or polluting the bed of the Preceptor. All the mortal sins and the venal sins are completely destroyed by the practice of this Mudrã. Let him therefore practise it, if he wishes for emancipation."

Compare Siva Samhitã, iv, 1-11: "First with a strong inspiration fix the mind in the Adhãra lotus (Mulãdhãra). Then engage in contracting the Yoni, which is situated in the perennial space. There let him contemplate that the God of Love resides in that Brahma Yoni and that he is beautiful like Bandhuk flower (Pentapetes Phoenicia)-brilliant as tens of millions of suns, and cool as tens of millions of moons. Above this (Yoni) is a very small and subtle flame, whose form is intelligence. Then let him imagine that a union takes place there between himself and that flame (the Siva and Sakti). (Then imagine that)-There go up through the Susumnã vessel, the three bodies in their due order (i.e. the etheric, the astral, and the mental bodies). There is emitted in every chakra the nectar, the characteristic of which is great bliss. Its colour is whitish rosy (pink), full of splendour, showering down in jets the immortal fluid. Let him drink this wine of immortality which is divine, and then again enter the Kulã (i.e. perennial space). Then let him go again to the Kulã through the practice of mãtrã Yoga (i.e. prãnãyãma). This Yoni has been called by me in the Tantras as equal to life. Again let him be absorbed in that Yoni, where dwells the fire of death-the nature of Siva etc. Thus has been described by me the method of practising the great Yoni Mudrã. From success in its practice, there is nothing which cannot be accomplished. Even those mantras which are deformed (chhinna) or paralysed (Kilita), scorched (stambhita) by fire, or whose flame has become attenuated, or which are dark, and ought to be abandoned, or which are evil, or too old, or which are proud of their budding youth, or have gone over to the side of the enemy, or weak and essenceless without vitality; or which have been divided into hundreds of parts, even they become fertile through time and method. All these can give powers and emancipation when properly given to the disciple by the Guru, after having initiated him according to proper rites, and bathed him a thousand times. This Yoni Mudrã has been described, in order that the student may deserve (to be initiated into the mysteries of) and receive the mantras.

"He who practises Yoni Mudrã is not polluted by sin were he to murder a thousand Brãhmanas or kill all the inhabitants of the three worlds :-Were he to kill his teacher or drink wine or commit theft, or violate the bed of his preceptor, he is not stained by these sins also, by virtue of this mudrã. Therefore, those who wish for emancipation should practise this daily. Through practice (abhyãsa), success is obtained, through practice one gains liberation. Perfect consciousness is gained through practice. Yoga is attained through practice; success in Mudrãs comes by practice; through practice is gained success in prãnãyãma. Death can be cheated of its prey through practice and man becomes the conqueror of death by practice. Through practice one gets the power of vãh (prophecy), and the power of going everywhere, through mere exertion of will. This Yoni Mudrã should be kept in great secrecy, and not be given to everybody. Even when threatened with death, it should not be revealed or given to others."

[10] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv, 64-7.

[11] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv, 68. Compare Siva Samhitã, iii, 29: "In all kinds of Yoga, there are four stages of Prãnãyãma:- u. Arambha-avasthã (the state of beginning); 2. Ghata-avasthã (the state of co-operation of Self and Higher Self); 3. Parichaya-avasthã (knowledge); 4. Nispatti-avasthã (the final consummation)."

[12] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv, 69-70. Compare Siva Samhitã, iii, 27-9: "When thus the nãdis of the truth perceiving Yogi are purified, then his defects being all destroyed, he enters the first stage in the practice of Yoga called Arambha. Certain signs are perceived in the body of the Yogi whose nãdi have been purified. I shall describe, in brief, all these various signs. The body of the person practising the regulation of breath becomes harmoniously developed, emits sweet scent, and looks beautiful and lovely.

[13] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv, 71-2. Compare Siva Samhitã, iii, 55-9: "When by the practice of Prãnãyãma, the Yogi reaches the state of Ghata (water-jar), then for him there is nothing in this circle of universe which he cannot accomplish. The Ghata is said to be that state in which the Prãna and the Apãna Vãyus, the Nãda and the Bindu, the Jivãtmã (the Human Spirit) and the Paramãtmã (the Universal Spirit) combine and co-operate. When he gets the power of holding breath (i.e. to be in trance) or three hours, then certainly the wonderful state of Pratyãhãra is reached without fail. Whatever object the Yogi perceives, let him consider it to be the spirit. When the modes of action of various senses are known, then they can be conquered. When, through great practice, the Yogi can perform one Kumbhaka for full three hours, when for eight Dandas (3 hours) the breathing of the Yogi is suspended, then that wise one can balance himself on his thumb; but he appears to others as insane.

[14] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv, 73-4. Compare Siva Samhitã, iii, 60-5: "After this, through exercise, the Yogi reaches the Parichaya Avasthã. When the air leaving the sun and the moon (the right and the left nostrils), remains unmoved and steady in the ether of the tube Susumnã, then it is in the Parichaya state. When he, by the practice of Yoga, acquires power of action (Kriyã Sakti) and pierces through the six Chakras, and reaches the sure condition of Parichaya then the Yogi, verily, sees the three-fold effects of Karma. Then, let the Yogi destroy the multitude of Karmas by the Pranava (OM): let him accomplish Kãyavyúha (mystical process of arranging the various Skandhas [constituents] of the body), in order to enjoy or suffer the consequences of all his actions in one life, without the necessity of rebirth. At that time the great Yogi practise the five-fold Dhãranã forms of concentration on Visnu, by which command over the five elements is obtained, and fear of injuries from any one of them is removed (Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Ether cannot harm him). Let the wise Yogi practise Dhãranã thus:- five Ghatis (2.5 hours) in the ãdhãra lotus (Múlãdhãra); five Ghatis in the seat of the Lînga (Svãdisthãna), five Ghatis in the region above it, (in the navel, Manipura), and the same in the heart (Anãhata); five Ghatis in the throat (Visuddha) and, lastly let him hold Dhãranã for five Ghatis in the space between the eyebrows (Ajnãpur). By this practice the elements cease to cause harm to the great Yogi. The wise Yogi, who thus continually practises concentration (Dhãranã), never dies through hundreds of cycles of the great Brahmã."

[15] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv, 75-8. Compare Siva Samhitã, iii, 66-83: "After this, through gradual exercise, the Yogi reaches the Nispatti Avasthã (the condition of consummation). The Yogi, having destroyed all the seeds of Karma which existed from the beginning, drinks the waters of immortality. When the Jîvan-mukta (delivered in the present lide), tranquil Yoga has obtained, through practice, the consummation of Samãdhi (meditation), and when this state of consummated Samãdhi can be voluntarily evoked, then let the Yogi take hold of the Chetanã (conscious intelligence) together with the air, and with the force of (Kriyãsakti) conquer the six wheels, absorb it in the force called Jnãna-sakti. Now we have described the management of the air in order to remove the troubles (which await the Yogi); through the knowledge of Vãyusãdhanã vanish all sufferings and enjoyments in the circle of this universe. When the skilful Yogi, by placing the tongue at the root of the palate, can drink the Prãna Vãyu, then there occurs complete dissolution of all Yogas (i.e. he is no longer in the need of Yoga). When the skilful Yogi, knowing the laws of the action of Prãna and Apãna, can drink the cold air through the contraction of the mouth, in the form of a crowbill, then he becomes entitled to liberation. That wise Yogi, who daily drinks the ambrosial air, according to proper rules, destroys fatigue, burning (fever), decay, and old age, and injuries. Pointing the tongue upwards when the Yogi can drink the nectar flowing from the moon (situated between the two eyebrows) within a month he certainly would conquer death. When having firmly closed the glottis by the proper yogi method, and contemplating on the goddess Kundalinî, he drinks (the moon fluid of immortality), he becomes a sage or poet within six months. When he drinks the air through the crow-bill, both in the morning and evening twilight, contemplating that it goes to the mouthof the Kundalinî, consumption of the lungs (phthisis) is cured. When the wise Yogi drinks fluid day and night through the crow-beak, his diseases are destroyed; he acquires certainly the powers of clairaudienceand clairvoyance. When firmly closing the teeth (by pressing the upper and lower jaw), and placing the tongue upwards, the wise Yogi drinks the fluid very slowly, within a short period he conquers death. One, who daily continues this exercise for six months only, is freed from all sins, and detroys all diseases. If he continues this exercise for a year, he becomes a Bhairava; he obtains the powers of animã etc., and conquers all elements and the elementals. If the Yogi can remain for half a second with the tongue drawn upwards, he becomes free from disease, death and old age. Verily, verily, I tell you the truth that the peson never dies who contemplates by pressing the tongue, combined with the vital fluid or Prãna. Through this exercise and Yoga, he becomes like a Kãmadeva, without a rival. He feels neither hunger, nor thirst, nor sleep, nor swoon. Acting upon these methods the great Yogi becomes in the world perfectly independent; and freed from the obstacles, he can go everywhere. By practising thus, he is never reborn, nor is tainted by virtue and vice but enjoys (for ages) with the gods."

[16] Compare Siva Samhitã, v, 22-30: "Let him close the ears with his thumbs, the eves with index fingers, the nostrils with the middle fingers, and with the remaining four fingers let him press together the upper and lower lips. The Yogi, by having thus firmly confined the air, sees his soul in the shape of light. When one sees, without obstruction, this light for even a moment, becoming free from sin, he reaches the highest end. The Yogi, free from sin, and practising this continually, forgets his physical, subtle and causal bodies, and becomes one with that soul. He who practises this in secrecy, is absorbed in the Brahman, though he had been engaged in sinful works. This should be kept secret; it at once produces conviction; gives Nirvãna to mankind. This is my most beloved Yoga. From practising this gradually, the Yogi begins to hear the mystic sounds (nãdas). The first sound is like the hum of the honey-intoxicated bee, next that of a flute, then of a harp; after this, by the gradual practice of Yoga, the destroyer of the darkness of the world, he hears the sounds of ringing bells; then sounds like roar of thunder. When one fixes his full attention on this sound, being free from fear he gets absorption. O my beloved! When the mind of the Yogi is exceedingly engaged in this sound, he forgets all external things, and is absorbed in this sound. By this practice of Yoga he conquers all the three qualities (i.e. good, bad and indifferent); and being free from all states he is absorbed in Chidakãsa (the ether of intelligence). There is no posture like that of Siddhãsana, no power like that of Kumbha, no Mudrã like the Khecarî, and no absorption like that of Nãda (the mystic sound)."

[17] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv. 79-101. Compare what is said about Rãja Yoga in Siva Samhitã, v, 158-82: "The Rãja Yoga-By this knowledge the modifications of the mind are suspended, however active they may be: therefore, let the Yogi untiringly and unselfishly try to obtain this knowledge. When the modifications of the thinking principle are suspended, then one certainly becomes a Yogi; then is known the Indivisible, holy, pure Gnosis. Let him contemplate on his own reflection in the sky as beyond the Cosmic Egg: in the manner previously described. Through that let him think on the Great Void unceasingly. The Great Void, whose beginning is void, whose middle is void, whose end is void, has brilliancy of tens of millions of suns, and the coolness of tens of millions of moons. By contemplating continually on this, one obtains success. Let him practise with energy daily this dhyãna, within a year he shall obtain all success undoubtedly. He whose mind is absorbed in that place even for a second, is certainly a Yogi, and a good devotee, and is revered in all worlds. All his stores of sins are at once verily destroyed. By seeing it one never returns to the path of this moral universe; let the Yogi, therefore, practise this with great care by the path of Svãdhisthãna. I cannot describe the grandeur of this contemplation. He who practises, knows. He becomes respected by me. By meditation one at once knows the wonderful effects of this Yoga (i.e. of the contemplation of the void); undoubtedly he attains the physic powers, called animã and laghimã, etc. Thus have I described the Rãja Yoga, it is kept secret in all the Tantras; now I shall describe to you briefly the Rãjãdhirãja Yoga.

"The Rãjãdhirãja Yoga :-Sitting in the Svastikãsana, in a beautiful monastery, free from al men and animals having paid respect to his Guru, let the Yogi practise this contemplation. Knowing through the arguments of the Vedanta that the Jiva is independent and self-supported, let him make his mind also self-supported; and let him not contemplate on anything else. Undoubtedly, by this contemplation the highest success (Mahã-siddhi) is obtained, by making the mind functionless; he himself becomes perfectly Full. He who practises this always, is the real passionless Yogi, he never uses the word I, but always finds himself full of ãtman. What is bondage, what is emancipation? To him ever all is One; undoubtedly, he who practises this always, is the really emancipated. He is the Yogi, he is the true devotee, he is worshipped in all the worlds, who contemplates the Jivãtmã and the Paramãtmã as related to each other as I, and I Am, who renounces I, and thou and contemplates on the indivisible; the Yogi free from all attachments takes shelter in that contemplation in which, through the knowledge of superimposition and negation, all is dissolved. Leaving that Brahma, who is manifest, who is knowledge, who is bliss, and who is absolute consciousness, the deluded wander about, vainly discussing the manifested and the unmanifested. He who meditates on this movable and immovable universe, that is really unmanifest, but abandons the supreme Brahman- directly manifest-is verily absorbed in this universe. The Yogi, free from all attachment, constantly exerts himself in keeping up this practice that leads to Gnosis, so that there may not be again the upheaval of Ignorance. The wise one, by restraining all his senses from their objects, and being free from all company, remains in the midst of these objects, as if in deep sleep, i.e. does not perceive them. Thus constantly practising the Self-luminous becomes manifest; here end all the teachings of the Guru, (they can help the student no further). Henceforth he must help himself, they can no more increase his reason or power, henceforth by the mere force of his own practice he must gain the Gnosis. That Gnosis from which the speech and mind turn back baffled, is only to be obtained through practice; for then this pure Gnosis bursts forth itself. The Hatha Yoga cannot be obtained without the Rãja Yoga, nor can the Raja Yoga be attained without the Hatha Yoga. Therefore, let the Yogi first learn the Hatha Yoga from the instructions of the wise Guru. He who, while living in this physical body, does not practise Yoga is living merely for the sake of sensual enjoyment."

[18] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, i, 66-9. Compare Siva Samhitã, iii, 19: "Having received instructions in Yoga, and obtained a Guru who knows Yoga, let him practise with earnestness and faith, according to the method taught by the teachers."

[19] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, i, 12-14: "The Yogi should practise Hatha Yoga in a small room, four cubits square, situated in a solitary place, and free from stones, fire, water, and disturbances of all kinds, and in a country where justice is properly administered, where good people live, and food can be obtained easily and plentifully. The room should have a small door, be free from holes, hollows, and burrows, neither too high nor too low, well plastered with cow-dung and completely free from dirt and insects. The outside should be pleasant with bowers, a raised platform and a well, and surrounded with a wall. These characteristics of a room for Hatha Yoga have been described by adepts in the practice of Hatha. Having seated in such a room and free from all anxieties, he should only practise Yoga, as instructed by his Guru."

Compare Gheranda Samhitã, v, 1-15: "Now I shall tell these the rules of Prãnãyãma or regulation of breath. By its practice a man becomes godlike. (Four things are necessary in practising Prãnãyãma). First, a good place; second, a suitable time; third, moderate food; and lastly, the purification of the nãdis (Nerve vessels of the body).

"1. PLACE: The practice of Yoga should not be attempted in a far-off country (from home), nor in a forest, nor in a capital city, nor in the midst of a crowd. If one does so he does not achieve success. In a distant country one loses faith (because of the Yoga not being known there); in a forest one is without protection; and in the midst of a thick population, there is danger of exposure (for then the curious will trouble him). Therefore, let one avoid these three. In a good country whose king is just, where food is easily and abundantly procurable, where there are no disturbances, let one erect there a small hut, around it let him raise walls. And in the centre of the enclosure, let him sink a well and dig a tank. Let the hut be neither very high nor very low; let it be free from insects. It should be completely smeared over with cow dung. In a hut thus built and situated in such a hidden place, let him practice Prãnãyãma.

"2. TIME: The practice of Yoga should not be commenced in these four seasons out of six: hemanta (winter), sisira (cold), grisma (hot), varsa (rainy). If one begins in these seasons, one will contract diseases. The practice of Yoga should be commenced by a beginner in spring (vasanta); and autumn (sarad). By so doing, he attains success; and verily he does not become liable to diseases. The six seasons occur in their order in the twelve months beginning with Caitra and ending with Phãlguna: two months being occupied by each season. But each season is experienced for four months, beginning with Mãgha and ending with Phãlguna. The six seasons are as follows:

MONTHS
SEASONS (SANSKRIT) ENGLISH
Vasanta or Spring Caitra and Vaisakha Mar., Apr.
Grisma or Summer Jyestha and Asãdha May, June
Varsã or Rainy Srãvana and Bhãdra July, Aug.
Sarad or Autumn Asvina and Kãrttika Sept., Oct.
Hemanta or Winter Agrahãyamma and Pausa Nov., Dec.
Sifira or Cold Mãgha and Phãlguna Jan., Feb.
"Now I shall tell thee the experiencing of seasons. They are as follows:"
BEGINNING / ENDING SEASON ENGLISH
Mãgha to Vaisãkha Vasantãnubhava Jan. to Apr.
Caitra to Asãdha Grismãnubhava Mar. to June
Asãdha to Asvina Varsãnubhava June to Sept.
Bhadra to Agrahãyana Saradnubhava Aug. to Nov.
Kãrttika to Mãgha Hemantãnubhava Oct. to Jan.
Agrahãyana to Phãlguna Sisirãnubhava Nov. to Feb.

"The practice of Yoga should be commenced either in Vasanta (spring) or Sarad (autumn). For in these seasons success is attained without much trouble."

[20] Injurious and recommended foods and conduct for the practice of Yoga are given. Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, i, 61-5: "Food Injurious to a Yogi; Bitter, sour, saltish, hot, green vegetables, fermented, oily, mixed with til seed, rape seed, intoxicating liquors, fish, meat, curds, chhaasa pulses, plums, oil cake, asafoetida (hingu), garlic, onion, etc. should not be eaten. Food heated again, dry, having too much salt, sour, minor grains, and vegetables that cause burning sensation, should not be eaten.

"Fire, women, travelling, etc. should be avoided. As said by Goraksa, one should keep aloof from the society of the evil-minded, fire, women, travelling, early morning bath, fasting and all kinds of bodily exertion.

"Wheat, rice, barley, sãstika (a kind of rice), good corns, milk, ghee, sugar, butter, sugar candy, honey, dried ginger, Parwal (a vegetable), the five vegetables, moong, pure water, these are very beneficial to those who practise Yoga. A Yogi should eat tonics (things giving strength), well sweetened, greasy (made with ghee), milk, butter, etc., which may increase humours of the body, according to his desires." To understand these requirements it is necessary to study the Indian medical work Susruta.

Compare Gheranda Samhitã, v, 16-32: "He who practices Yoga without moderation of diet, incurs various diseases, and obtains no success. A Yogin should eat rice, barley (bread), or wheaten bread. He may eat Mudga beans (Phaseolus mungo), Mãsa beans (Phaseolus radiatus), gram, etc. These should be dean, white, and free from chaff. A Yogin may eat payola (a kind of cucumber), jack-fruit, mãnakacu (Arum Colocasia), kakkola (a kind of berry), the jujube, the bonduc nut (Bonducella guilandine), cucumber, plantain, fig; the unripe plantain, the small plantain, the plantain stem, and roots, brinjal, and medicinal roots and fruits (e.g. rhhi, etc.). He may eat green, fresh vegetables, black vegetables, the leaves of payola, and Vãstuka, the hima-locikã. These are the five sãkas (vegetable leaves) praised as fit food for Yogins. Pure, sweet and cooling food should be eaten to fill half the stomach; eating thus sweet juices with pleasure, and leaving the other half of the stomach empty is called moderation in diet. Half the stomach should be filled with food, one quarter with water; and one quarter should be kept empty for practising prãnãyãma.

"Prohibited Foods: In the beginning of Yoga practice one should discard bitter, acid, salt, pungent and roasted things, curd, whey, heavy vegetables, wine, palm nuts, and overripe jack-fruit. So also kulattha and masur beans, pãndu fruit, pumpkins and vegetable stems, gourds, berries, katha-bel, (feronis elephantum), kanda-bilva and palãsa (Butea frondosa). So also kadamba (Naucles cadamba), jambira (citron), bimba, lakuca (a kind of bread fruit tree), onions, lotus, Kãmaranga, piyãla (Buchananis latifolia), hingu (asafoetida), sãlmali, kemuka.

"A beginner should avoid much travelling, company of women, and warming himself by fire. So also he should avoid fresh butter, ghee, thickened milk, sugar, and date-sugar, etc., as well as ripe plantain, coco-nut, pomegranate, dates, lavani fruit, amlaki (myrobalans), and everything containing acid juices. But cardamom, jaiphal, cloves, aphrodisiacs, or stimulants, the rose-apple, haritaki, and palm dates, a Yogin may eat while practising Yoga. Easily digestible, agreeable and cooling foods which nourish the elements of the body, a Yogin may eat according to his desire. But a Yogin should avoid hard (not easily digestible), sinful, or putrid, very hot, or very stale, as well as very cooling or very much exciting food. He should avoid early morning (before sunrise) baths, fasting, etc., or any-thing giving pain to the body; so also is prohibited to him eating only once a day, or not eating at all. But he may remain without food for three hours. Regulating his life in this way, let him practise Prãnãyãma. In the beginning before commencing it, he should take a little milk and ghee daily, and take his food twice daily, once at noon and once in the evening."

Compare Siva Samhitã, iii, 33-8: "The Yogi should renounce, the following:- 1. Acids; 2. astringents; 3. pungent substances; 4. salt; 5. mustard; 6. bitter things; 7. much walking; 8. early bathing (before sunrise); and 9. things roasted in oil; 10. theft; 11. killing (of animals); 12. enmity towards any person; 13. pride; 14. duplicity; and 15. crookedness; 16. fasting; 17. untruth; 18. thoughts other than those of moksa; 19. cruelty towards animals; 20. companionship of women; 21. worship of(or handling or sitting near) fire; and 22. much talking without regard to pleasantness or unpleasantness of speech; and lastly, 23. much eating.

"Now I will tell you the means by which success in Yoga is quickly obtained; it must be kept secret by the practitioner so that success may come with certainty. The great Yogi should observe always the following observances:- He should use 1. clarified butter; 2. milk; 3. sweet food; and 4. betel without lime; 5. camphor; 6. kind words; 7. pleasant monastery or retired cell, having a small door; 8. hear discourses on truth; and 9. always discharge his household duties with Vairãgya (without attachment); 10. sing the name of Visñu; 11. and hear sweet music; 12. patience, 13. constancy; 14. forgiveness; 15. austerities; 16. purifications; 17. modesty; 18. devotion; and 19. service of the Guru.

"When the air enters the sun, it is the proper time for the Yogi to take his food (i.e. when the breath flows through the Pingalã); when the air enters the moon, he should go to sleep (i.e. when the breath flows through the left nostril or the Idã). Yoga Prãnãyãma) should not be practiced just after the meals, nor when one is very hungry; before beginning the practice, some milk and butter should be taken. When one is well established in his practice, then he need not observe these restrictions. The practitioner should eat in small quantities at a time though frequently; and should practice Kumbhaka daily at the stated times."

[21] See above, pp. 34-37.

[22] Ibid., p. 39 ff.

[23] Ibid., p. 37.

[24] Ibid., pp. 41-44.

[25] Ibid., p. 43.

[26] See above, p. 29.

[27] Ibid., pp. 44-45.

[28] Ibid., pp. 21-25.

[29] Three different forms of contemplation are discussed in Gheranda Samhitã, vi, 1-22: "The Dhyãna or contemplation is of three sorts: gross, luminous and subtle. When a particular figure (such as ones Guru or Deity), is contemplated on, it is Sthula or gross contemplation. When Brahman or Prakriti is contemplated on as a mass of light, it is called Jyotis-contemplation. When Brahman as Bindu (pont) and Kundali force is contemplated on, it is Suksma or Subtle contemplation."

"1. Sthula Dhyãna: (Having closed the eyes), let him contemplate that there is a sea of nectar in the region of his heart: that in the midst of that sea an island of precious stones, the very sand of which is pulverized diamonds and rubies. That on all sides of it, Kadamba trees, laden with sweet flowers; that, next to those trees, like a rampart, a row of flowering trees, such as mãlati, mallika, jãti, kesara, campaka, pãrijãta and Padma, and that the fragrance of these flowers is spread all round, in every quarter. In the middle of this garden, let the Yogi. imagine that there stands a beautiful Kalpa tree, having four branches, representing the four Vedas, and that it is full of flowers and fruits. Beatles are humming there and cuckoos singing. Beneath that tree let him imagine a rich platform of precious gems, and on that a costly throne inlaid with jewels, and that on that throne sits his particular Deity as taught to him by his Guru. Let him contemplate on the appropriate form, ornaments and vehicle of that Deity. The constant contemplation of such a form is Sthula Dhyãna.

"Another Process :-Let the Yogin imagine that in the pericarp of the great thousand-petalled Lotus (Brain) there is a smaller lotus having twelve petals. Its colour is white, highly luminous, having twelve Bija letters, named ha, sa, ksa, ma, la, va, ra, yum, ha, sa, kha, phrem. In the pericarp of this smaller lotus there are three lines forming a triangle, a, ka, tha; having three angles called ha, la, ksa: and in the middle of this triangle, there is the Pranava Om. Then let him contemplate that in that there is a beautiful seat having Nãda and Bindu. On that seat there are two swans, and a pair of wooden sandals. There let him contemplate his Guru Deva, having two arms and three eyes, and dressed in pure white, anointed with white sandal-paste, wearing garlands of white flowers; to the left of whom stands Sakti of blood-red colour. By thus contemplating the Guru, the Sthula Dhyãna is attained.

"2. Jyotir-dhyãna: I have told thee of the Sthula Dhyãna; listen now to the contemplation of Light, by which the Yogin attains success and sees his Self. In the Mulãdhãra is Kundalinî of the form of a serpent. The Jivãtman is there like the flame of a lamp. Contemplate on this flame as the Luminous Brahman. This is the Tejo-dhyãna or Jyotir-dhyãna.

"Another Process: In the middle of the eyebrows, above the Manas, there is the Light of Om. Let him contemplate on this flame. This is another method of contemplation of Light.

"3. Suksma Dhyãna: O Canda! thou hast heard the Tejo-dhyãna, listen now to the Suksma Dhyãna. When by a great good fortune, the Kundali is awakened, it joins with the Atman and leaves the body through the portals of the eyes; and enjoys itself by walking in the royal road. It cannot be seen on account of its subtleness and great changeability. The Yogi, however, attains this success by performing Sãmbhavî Mudrã, i.e. by gazing fixedly at space without winking. (Then he will see his Suksma Sarira.) This is called Suksma Dhyãna, difficult to be attained even by the Devas, as it is a great mystery.

"The contemplation on Light is a hundred times superior to contemplation on Form; and a hundred thousand tunes superior to Tejo-dhyãna is the contemplation of the Suksma. O Canda! thus have I told thee Dhyãna Yoga-a most precious knowledge; for, by it, there is direct perception of the Self. Hence Dhyãna is belauded."

[30] Siva Samhitã, v, 22-6: "Let him close the ears with his thumbs, the eyes with index fingers, the nostrils with the middle fingers, and with the remaining four fingers let him press together the upper and lower lips. The Yogi, by having thus firmly confined the air, sees his soul in the shape of light. When one sees, without obstruction, this light even a moment, becoming free from sin, he reaches the highest end. The Yogi, free from sin, and practising this continually, forgets his physical, subtle, and causal bodies, and becomes one with that soul. He who practises this in secrecy, is absorbed in the Brahman, though he had been engaged in sinful works. This should be kept secret; it at once produces conviction; it gives Nirvana to mankind. This is my most beloved Yoga. From practising this gradually, the Yogi begins to hear the mystic sounds (nãdas)."

[31] Compare Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv, 38: "Fix the gaze on the light (seen on the tip of the nose) and raise the eyebrows a little, with the mind contemplating as before (in the Sãmbhavî Mudrã, that is, inwardly thinking of Brahman, but apparently looking outside). This will create the Unman-Avasthã at once." See also 39-40: "Some are devoted to the Vedas, some to a Nigama, while others are enwrapt in Logic, but none knows the value of the Tãraka Mudrã, which enables one to cross the ocean of existence. With steady calm mind and half closed eyes, fixed on the tip of the nose, stopping the Idã and the Pingalã without blinking, he who can see the light which is the all, the seed, the entire, brilliant, great Tattvam, approaches Him, who is the great object. What is the use of more talk?"

[32] The colours of the lights that appeared were blue, yellow, red, and white.

[33] Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, iv, 34-6. Compare Gheranda Samhitã, iii, 64-7: "Fixing the gaze between the eyebrows, behold the Self-existent. This is Sãmbhavî, secret in all the Tantras. The Vedas, the scriptures, the Purãnas are like public women, but this Sãmbhavî should be guarded as if it were a lady of a respectable family. He, who knows this Sãmbhavî, is like the Adinãtha, he is Nãrãyana, he is Brahmã, the Creator. Mahesvara has said, Truly, truly, and again truly, he who knows, the Sãmbhavî, is Brahman. There is no doubt of this."

[34] See Siva Samhitã, v, 15-21: "The invocation of Pratika (shadow) gives to the devotee the objects seen as well as unseen; undoubtedly, by its very sight, a man becomes pure. In a clear sun-lit sky, behold with a steady gaze your own divine reflection; whenever this is seen even for a single second in the sky, you behold God at once in the sky. He who daily sees his shadow i. the sky will get his years increased and will never die an accidental death. When the shadow is seen fully reflected in the field of the sky, then he obtains victory; and conquering the vãyu, he goes everywhere.

"How to invoke: At the time of the rising sun, or by moon, let him steadily fix his gaze on the neck of the shadow he throws; then after some time, let him look into the sky; if he sees a full grey shadow in the sky, it is auspicious. He who always practises this and knows the Paramãtmã, becomes fully happy, through the grace of his shadow. At the time of commencing travel, marriage, or auspicious work, or when in trouble, it is of great use. This invocation of the shadow destroys sins and increases virtue. By practising it always, he begins at last to see it in his heart, and the persevering Yogi gets liberation."

[35] See Serpent Power, by Arthur Avalon, for full treatment of this subject-the chapter on the Centres.

[36] They are described in Gheranda Samhitã, iii, 68-81: "The Sãmbhavî has been explained: hear now the five Dhãranãs. Learning these five Dhãranãs, what cannot be accomplished in this world? By this human body one can visit and revisit Svargaloka, he can go wherever he likes, as swiftly as mind, he acquires the faculty of moving in the air. [These five Dhãranãs are: Pãrthivi (Earthy), Ambhasi (Watery), Vãyavi (Aerial), Agneyi (Fiery) and Akãsi (Ethereal).]

"PARTHIVI: The Pãrthivi-Tattva has the colour of orpiment (yellow), the letter la is its secret symbol or seed, its form is four-sided, and Brahmã, its presiding deity. Place this Tattva in the heart, and fix by Kumbhaka the Prãna-Vãyus and the Citta there for the period of five ghatikas (2.5 hours). This is called Adho-dhãranã. By this, one conquers the Earth, and no earthy-elements can injure him; and it causes steadiness. He who practises daily this dhãranã becomes like the conqueror of Death; as an Adept he walks this earth.

"AMBHASI: The Water-Tattva is white like the Kunda-flower or a conch or the moon, its form is circular like the moon, the letter va is the seed of this ambrosial element, and Visñu is its presiding deity. By Yoga, produce the water-tattva in the heart, and fix there the Prãna with the Citta (consciousness), for five ghatikas, practising kumbhaka. This is Watery Dhãranã; it is the destroyer of all sorrows. Water cannot injure him who practises this. The Ambhasi is a great mudrã; the Yogin who knows it never meets death even in the deepest water. This should be kept carefully concealed. By revealing it success is lost, verily I tell you the truth.

"AGNEYI: The Fire-tattva is situated at the navel, its colour is red like the Indra-gopa insect, its form is triangular, its seed is ra, its presiding deity is Rudra. It is refulgent like the sun, and the giver of success. Fix the Prãna along with the Citta on this Tattva for five ghatikas. This is called Fire-dhãranã, destroyer of the fear of dreadful death, and fire cannot injure him. Even if the practitioner is thrown into burning fire, by virtue of this Mudrã he remains alive, without fear of death.

"VAYAVI: The Air-tattva is black as unguent for the eyes (collirium), the letter ya is its seed, and Isvara its presiding deity. This Tattva is full of Sattva quality. Fix the Prãna and the Citta for five ghatikas on this Tattva. This is Vãyavi-dhãranã. By this, the practitioner walks in the air. This should not be taught to the wicked or to those devoid of faith. By so doing success is lost. O Canda! this is verily the truth.

"AKASI DHARANA: The Akãsa-tattva has the colour of pure sea-water, ha is its seed, its presiding deity is Sadãsiva. Fix the Prãna along with Citta for five ghatikas in this tattva. This is Ether-dhãranã. It opens the gates of emancipation. He who knows this Dhãranã is the real Yogin. Death and old age do not approach him, nor does he perish at the Pralaya [dissolution of the Universe at the end of a world period]."

Compare Siva Samhitã, v, 43-51: "(Various kinds of Dhãranã.) Let the Yogi seat himself in the Padmãsana and fix his attention on the cavity of the throat, let him place his tongue at the base of the palate; by this he will extinguish hunger and thirst. Below the cavity of the throat, there is a beautiful Nãdi (vessel) called Kurma; when the Yogi fixes his attention on it, he acquires great concentration of the thinking principle (citta). When the Yogi constantly thinks that he has got a third eye-the eye of Siva-in the middle of his forehead, he then perceives a fire brilliant like lightning. By contemplating on this light, all sins are destroyed, and even the most wicked person obtains the highest end. If the experienced Yogi thinks of this light day and night he sees Siddhas (adepts), and can certainly converse with them. He who contemplates on Sunya (void or vacuum or space), while walking or standing, dreaming or waking, becomes altogether ethereal and is absorbed in the Chid Akãsa. The Yogi, desirous of success, should always obtain this knowledge; by habitual exercise he becomes equal to me; through the force of this knowledge he becomes the beloved of all. Having conquered all the elements and being void of all hopes and worldly connections, when the Yogi sitting in the Padmãsana, fixes his gaze on the tip of his nose, his mind becomes dead and he obtains the spiritual power called Khecarî. The great Yogi beholds light, pure as holy mountain (Kailãs), and through the force of his exercise in it, he becomes the lord and guardian of the light. Stretching himself on the ground, let him contemplate on this light; by so doing all his weariness and fatigue are destroyed. By contemplating on the back part of his head, he becomes the conqueror of death."

[37] See above, p. 33 n.

[38] The emphasis placed on mantras by some schools of thought is expressed in Siva Samhitã, v, 188-204: "Now shall I tell you the best of practices, the Japa [repetition] of Mantra: from this one gains happiness in this as well in the world beyond this. By knowing this highest of the Mantras, the Yogi certainly attains success (Siddhi): this gives all power and pleasure to the one-pointed Yogi. I. the four-petalled Mulãdhãra lotus is the bija [seed] of speech, brilliant as lightning (i.e. the syllable Aim). In the heart is the bija of love, beautiful as the Bandhuka ower (klim). In the space between the two eyebrows (i.e. in the Ajña lotus), is the bija of Sakti (strim), brilliant as tens of millions of moons. These three seeds should be kept secret-they give enjoyment and emancipation. Let the Yogi repeat these three Mantras and try to attain success. Let him learn this Mantra from his Guru, let him repeat it neither too fast nor too slowly, keeping the mind free from all doubts, and understanding the mystic relation between the letters of the Mantra. The wise Yogi, intently fixing his attention on this Mantra, performing all the duties peculiar to his caste, should perform one hundred thousand Homas (fire sacrifices), and then repeat this Mantra three hundred thousand times in the presence of the Goddess Tripura. At the end of this sacred repetition (Japa) let the wise Yogi again perform Homa, in a triangular hollow, with sugar, milk, butter and the flower of Karavi (oleander). By this performance of Homa-Japa-Homa, the Goddess Tripura Bhairava, who has been propitiated by the above Mantra, becomes pleased, and grants all the desires of the Yogi. Having satisfied the Guru and having received this highest of Mantra, in the proper way, and performing its repetition in the way laid down, with mind concentrated, even the most heavy-burdened with past Karmas attains success. The Yogi, who having controlled his senses, repeats this Mantra one hundred thousand times, gains the power of attracting others. By repeating it two lacs [two hundred thousand] of times he can control all persons-they come to him as freely as women go to a pilgrimage. They give him all that they possess, and remain always under his control. By repeating this Mantra three lacs of times, all the deities presiding over the spheres as well as the sphere are brought under his dominion. By repeating it six lacs of times, he becomes the vehicle of power-yea, the protector of the world-surrounded by servants. By repeating this twelve lacs of times, the lords of Yaksas, Rãksas and the Nãgas come under his control; all obey his command constantly. By repeating this fifteen lacs of times, the Siddhas, the Vidyãdharãs, the Gandharvas, the Apsarãs come under the control of the Yogi. There is no doubt of it. He attains immediately the knowledge of all audition and thus all-knowing hood. By repeating this eighteen lacs of times, he, in this body, can rise from the ground; he attains verily the luminous body; he goes all over the universe, wherever he likes; he sees the pores of the earth, i.e., he sees the interspaces and the molecules of this solid earth. By repeating this twenty-eight lacs of times, he becomes the lord of the Vidyãdharãs, the wise Yogi becomes Kãmarupi (i.e., can assume whatever form he desires). By repeating these thirty lacs of times, he becomes equal to Brahmã and Visñu. He becomes a Rudra, by sixty lac repetitions, by eighty lac repetitions, he becomes all-enjoyer, by repeating one ten of millions of times, the great Yogi is absorbed in the Parama Brahman. Such a practitioner is hardly to be found throughout the three worlds."

[39] The absorption of the different elements is treated in Siva Samhitã, i, 78-88: "The earth becomes subtle and is dissolved in water; water is resolved into fire; fire similarly merges in air; [sic] gets absorption in ether, and ether is resolved in Avidyã (Ignorance), air which merges into the Great Brahma. There are two forces-Viksepa (the out-going energy), and Avarana (the transforming energy) which are of great potentiality and power, and whose form is happiness. The great ~ when non-intelligent and material, has three attributes Sattva (rhythm) Rajas (energy) and Tamas (inertia). The non-intelligent form of Mãyã covered by the Avarana force (concealment), manifests itself as the universe, owing to the nature of Viksepa force. When the Avidyã has an excess of Tamas, then it manifests itself as Durga; the intelligence which presides over her is called Isvara. When the Avidyã has an excess of Sattva, it manifests itself as the beautiful Lakshmi; the Intelligence which presides over her is called Visñu. V/hen the Avidyã has an excess of Rajas, it manifests itself as the wise Sarasvati; the intelligence which presides over her is known as Brahmã. Gods like Siva, Brahmã, Visñu, etc., are all seen in the great Spirit; bodies and all material objects are the various products of Avidyã. The wise have thus explained the creation of the wor1d-Tattvas (elements) and Not-Tattvas (non-elements) are thus produced-not otherwise. All things are seen as finite, etc. (endowed with qualities, etc.), and there arise various distinctions merely through words and names; but there is no real difference. Therefore, the things do not exist; the great and glorious One that manifests them, alone exists; though things are false and unreal, yet, as the reflection of the real, they, for the time being, appear real. The One Entity, blissful, entire and all-pervading, alone exists, and nothing else; be who constantly realises this knowledge is freed from death and the sorrow of the world-wheel. When, through the knowledge that all is illusory perception (Aropa) and by intellectual refutation (Apavãda) of other doctrines, this universe is resolved into the one, the, there exists that One and nothing else; then this is clearly perceived by the mind."

[40] The order of cosmic creation is discussed in Siva Samhitã, i, 69-77: "The Lord willed to create his creatures; from His will came out Avidyã (Ignorance), the mother of this false universe. There takes place the conjunction between the Pure Brahma and Avidyã, from which arises Brahms, from which comes out the Akãsa. From the Akãsa emanated the air; from air came the fire; from fire-water; and from water came the earth. This is the order of subtle emanation. From ether, air; from the air and ether combined came fire; from the triple compound of ether, air and fire came water; and from the combination of ether, air, fire, and water was produced the (gross) earth The quality of ether is sound; of air motion and touch. Form is the quality of fire, and taste of water. And smell is the quality of the earth. There is no gainsaying this. Akãsa has one quality; air two, fire three, water four, and earth five qualities, viz.-sound, touch, taste, form and smell. This has been declared by the wise. Form is perceived through the eyes, smell through the nose, taste through the tongue, touch through the skin and sound through the ear. These are verily the organs of perception. From Intelligence has come out all this universe, movable and immovable; whether or not its existence can be inferred, the All Intelligence One does exist.

[41] For, a more comprehensive discussion of tãntrik rituals see the works of Sir John Woodroffe (Arthur Avalon), The Principles of Tantra, Vols. I-II, "The Great Liberation," "Shakti and Shakta," and "The Garland of Letters."

[42] Siva Samhitã, v, 210-12. A similar comment is made in another section, 185-7. "Let him practise this in secrecy, free from the company of men, in a retired place. For the sake of appearance he should remain in society, but should not have his heart in it. He should not renounce the duties of his profession, caste or rank; but let him perform these merely as an instrument of the Lord, without any thought of the event. By thus doing there is no sin. Even the householder (Grihastha) by wisely following this method may obtain success, there is no doubt of it. Remaining in the midst of the family, always doing the duties of the householder, he who is free from merits and demerits, and has restrained his senses, attains salvation. The householder practicing Yoga is not touched by sins, if to protect mankind he does any sin, he is not polluted by it."

[43] Siva Samhitã, v, 207. Compare Hatha Yoga Pradîpikã, i, 11; for description see p. 17.