Theocrasy. (Adaptation from "The Rule of God" - in this case Satan or Lucifer), 

1. Anc, Myth. A mingling of various deities 
or divine attributes into one personality ; also 
a mixture of the worship of different deities. 

Murray : New English Dictionary. 

Sometimes people reading the Truth get depressed by it.

For people with big hearts though, the truth gets them started with an Implacable Opposition to Absolute Evil.

The Battle of Armageddon can only be won by sufficient Angels to fight against the Demons.

Be an Angel!!

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THIS BOOK makes no claim to literary merit. It 
is simply a work of research and documenta- 
tion, giving evidence and facts which I trust will 
help the reader in drawing his own conclusions. 
In the course of my researches as an 
international political investigator into the causes 
of social unrest, I have probed the depths of 
infamy which now surrounds, not ours only, but 
also the next generation, whose right to lead a 
decent life should be as good as was ours. As a 
woman ofthe world I have witnessed things the 
existence of which I did not suspect and I have 
realised that, due to my " protected " position in 
life, they should never have been expected to have 
come to my knowledge. Let me tell every woman, 
however much " protected", whether Dairymaid 
or Duchess, that the safeguards which she 
imagines to be thrown around herself are but a 
mirage of the past. Her own and her children's 
future are at the mercy of those " forces " the 
activities of which it has been my business, for the 


last ten years, to follow as one of a group of 

Today, most of the good people are afraid to be 
good. They strive to be broadminded and 
tolerant ! It is fashionable to be tolerant — but 
mostly tolerant of evil — and this new code has 
reached the proportions of demanding intolerance 
of good. The wall of resistance to evil has thus 
been broken down and no longer affords 
protection to those who, persecuted by evil doers, 
stand in need of it. 

Worse still, there are cases wherein virtuous 
people's good name is relentlessly " filched from 
them ", but no effort will be made by the 
presumed good people to rally to their defence. 
Happy are they if they themselves can discover 
the cause of their ruin, materiel or moral, either 
partial or total. 

In offering this book to the public, I have 
endeavoured to expose some of the means and 
methods used by a secret world, one might 
almost say an underworld, to penetrate, dominate 
and destroy not only the so-called upper classes, 
but also the better portion of all classes. There are 
those who feel confident that if they refrain from 
joining any society or group and avoid entangle- 
ments, no harm can befall them. To such, let me 
say that situations can be, and are, created for 
innocent dupes every day and wrecked homes are 
the direct result. Neither fortune nor a blameless 


life led, as it were, in an island of strict virtue in 
the midst of a tumultuous sea of evil, spells 

Irrefutable evidence of a particular example of 
underworld tyranny has come into my possession. 
The victim's guilt was her reluctance to step from 
virtue into the mire of evil which surrounded her. 
Moreover she was intolerant of evil and sought to 
oppose and destroy it. The case of her persecution 
at the hands of her foes is complete. She belonged 
to what is termed Society as did also some of the 
other actors in this bewildering drama. The 
world, social, financial, legal and, shall we say 
also, the underworld, leaving to this word its 
generally accepted literal meaning, knows them. 
So many Jekylls and Hydes stalk about unsuspec- 
tingly in our midst ! 

From such an example I have been led to the 
conclusion that, among others, three factors can 
help one from being completely destroyed by the 
combined forces of that " underworld " : a flawless 
life, independent means and real friends, all three 
of which must be backed by a fearless determina- 
tion to fight evil on all points of the Masonic 

In these days when apparently vice triumphs 
and virtue must be penalized, it may be well for 
all of us to fight the undertow by which our 
children may be dragged under and must of 
necessity perish. Vice rings and secret societies 


form but one vortex into which youth is drawn 
and destroyed whilst the " good people ", 
because of their ignorance, look on helplessly in 

It is for their instruction that this book has been 
written. Its compilation has taken several years 
and, had it not been for the generous efforts of 
one of my friends, Mme de Shishmareff, and of 
several other persons, I would never have been 
able to complete the task which I set out to 

What must concern us all now is the protection 
of decency or, in other words — Equal rights — 
for such as are not vice adepts. 

This book is not complete. It will never be 
complete, but for the present it must remain as a 
study of the root conditions which have led to 
present day subversive upheavals and the over- 
throw of the principles of Christian civilization. 


This book claims to be an endeavour to prove that: — 

1 — Owing to their union, all secret societies, whether 
political, philanthropic or occult in appearance, 
serve a political purpose unknown to the majo- 
rity of their members. 

2 — The power wielded by such societies is real and 
its character is international. 

3 — Regardless of their exoteric objects, the esoteric 
aims of most societies are all directed towards 
the same end — namely : the concentration of 
political, economic and intellectual power into 
the hands of a small group of individuals, each 
of whom controls a branch of the International 
life, material and spiritual, of the world today. 

The main branches thus controlled are : — 

1 — The International Banking Groups and their 
2 — International, industrial and commercial control 
groups with their interlocking directorates. 

3 — Education, Art, Literature, Science, and Religion. 
as vehicles of intellectual and moral perversion. 

4 — The Groups already organized throughout diffe- 
rent countries for the study of International 
affairs political, financial and economic. 

5 — The International Press, the medium used to 
mould public opinion. 

6 — The Political party organizations of each nation, 
whether conservative, liberal, radical, socialist 
etc. existing in every country with parliamen- 
tary administration. 

7 — Internationally organized corruption, the white- 
slave traffic, vice and drug-rings, etc. 

Glancing at the body frame of all political organiza- 
tions, do we not perceive that money is its main sinew ? 
It would not sound preposterous to state that the elec- 
toral system is similar to that of auction, insomuch as 
it favours the highest bidder. In election campaigns, 
the successful candidate is not necessarily the most 
deserving or worthy of votes, but too frequently he 
who was able to buy the greater number of votes. Votes 
are captured by slogans, propaganda and, not unfre- 
quently, bribery. Only an infinitesimal percentage 
among them will ever strive to find out the power or 
powers behind the candidate, and by whom he is, in 
effect, controlled. 

Yet the importance of such an investigation is both 
obvious and necessary, for it is a proven fact that can- 
didates to parliament in one country have sometimes 
been controlled by a man, or group of men, in another 
country inimical to their own. 

If political control is international it must of neces- 
sity be subversive of patriotism. If it holds in its power 
the reckless forces of Socialism and Communism, it 
must be subversive of social order and the promoter 
of revolution. 

If spiritual control is anti-christian. Gnostic and 
occult, it must be subversive of Christianity and Reli- 
gion. If it directs vice rings of all kinds, it must aim at 
the destruction of the moral, intellectual and physical 
strength of the human Race. 

If, in conclusion. Finance is Power and as such is 
concentrated in one point, it is the arbiter of War and 
Peace, Life and Death, Welfare and Wretchedness, 
Prosperity and Ruin. 

Everything and, it is sad to say, almost everybody, 
has a price and can be bought though not always with 
money. Men who to-day wield financial power have, 
long since based their system of purchase on this 
axiom. Far be it from us to suggest that there are no 
idealists in every walk of life for whom the pursuit of 
either patriotism, religious mysticism or philanthropy 
is unadulterated. On the contrary, we shall go as far 
as to say that such people become the best tools in the 
hands of plotters by whom they are led to believe that 
disinterested material help will be given them for the 
attainment of their ideals or aims. The study of secret 
revolutionary societies will show many examples of 
remarkable cases of self sacrifice on the part of genuine 
idealists. Subversives of either religious, social and 
political order have ever known how to make use of 
such people by instilling into them the super religion 
of the secret. 

It is against this " secret " that the fight should be 
waged. If the aims of secret societies are good, one 
fails to see the need for their secret oaths and initia- 
tions. The "light " they promise should, like the sun, 
shine upon everyone. 

To use the words of Christ ; " Who lighteth a candle 
and putteth it under a bushel ? " 

Masonic and secret societies need light. 

Hence, Light should be thrown upon them from 
without that their secrets may be revealed. 

As to " Toleration " — indiscriminate toleration 
preached at random, it should be considered one of 
the exoteric bases upon which are erected subversive 

Recognizing as they do the practical power of 
thought, sects induce their novices to surrender their 
use of this power whose normal function, guided by 
the individual conscience, is to discriminate between 
good and evil in order to oppose the latter. Thus they 
create a dangerous negative state of mind as opposed 
to the Christian or positive. The individual when robbed 
of his initiative can easily be swayed and guided by 
the will of others. Therein resides the power of hyp- 
notism and in this wise the shibboleth of " toleration " 
which, in fact, paralyses opposition to evil, serves an 
esoteric purpose suspected by few. 

If the contents of this book may help in safe- 
guarding the young and the unwary against falling into 
the pitfalls set by agents of subversive sects, its author 
will not have laboured in vain. 

The work is far from being completed. It claims, in 

fact, to be only an attempt in the direction of inexhaus- 
tible research work upon the coordination of the aims 
of all societies whether political or occult. It is to be 
hoped that others, and may they be many, will begin 
work where this book ends for — 

" The harvest is great indeed but the labourers are few " 

Any one of the branches above enumerated has 
innumerable ramifications and the control of even the 
least of them cannot be obtained without money. 
Money therefore becomes one of the most powerful levers 
in the hands of men who form the controlling groups. 
Thus does research in the realm of Finance become 
indispensable to the students bent upon tracing the 
real power behind universal control. 

This power, they will find, is wholly in the hands of 
international Rothschild financiers, frontmen whose 
source of Power is the 500 trillion dollar Vatican Bank
which owns 70% of all fortune 500 companies, 70% of all 
the worlds banks, 100% of all central banks like the 
Federal Reserve.

The Pope is the CEO of Company Europe. His Advisors 
come from the Nobility of Europe and America, the Knights of Malta
the Jesuits.

The Noble Oligarchic Families of Europe and America and now China 
rule the World.

They continue to rule through weakening humanity by poverty, James Bond assassinations,
misdirection propaganda, poison of air, water, food, destruction of infrastructure  and War.
They continue to rule through 10,000 years old Mind Control
by trauma, hypnotism, and drugs of their own bloodline families, fortune 500 CEOs and politicians.
So it has been for 10,000 years.





I. — The Religion of the Secret 21

II. — The Meaning of Occultism 24
III. — Brahminism 44
IV. — Mazdeism (Zoroastrianism), Jainism 65
V. — Confucianism and Taoism 71
VI. — Egyptian Esoterism 73
VII. — Judaism, The Pharisees 75
VIII. — Orpheism and the Pagan Mysteries 90
IX. — The Druids 100
X. — Christianity 105

XI. — Manicheism 108
XII. — Witchcraft 112
XIII. — The Gnostics (The Heretics) 118
XIV. — Lamaism 123
XV. — The Yezidees 131
XVI. — Orthodox Islam 133
XVII. — Unorthodox Islam, The Ishmaelites, The
Lodge of Cairo 134
XVIII. — The Druses 138
XIX. — The Assassins 140

XX. — The Knights Templar 143
XXI. — Knights of Malta 146

XXII. — The Rosicrucians 147
XXIII. — Cathares, Albigenses, Waldenses
The Moravians or The Order of Religious
Freemasons, etc 165
XXV. — The Anabaptists 171
XXVI. — Grand Lodge of England 174

XXVII. — The Gospel of Revolution 183
XXVIII. — The Preparation 188

XXIX. — General Pepe and " The One Big Union ". 200

XXX. — Albert Pike and Giuseppe Mazzini.... 207

XXXI. — Practical Politics 241
XXXII. — Adriano Lemmi 253

XXXIII. — The Interlocking Directorate 29

XXXIV. — 1520 The Illuminati of Spain 307
XXXV. — 1541 The Order of the J e s u i t s 308, 


The Religion of the Secret .... 
The Meaning of Occultism . . 


Mazdeism (Zoroastrianism), Jainism. 

Confucianism and Taoism 71 

- Egyptian Esoterism 73 

Judaism, The Pharisees. 75 

Orpheism and the Pagan Mysteries. ... .90 

The Druids 100 

Christianity. 105 

Manicheism 108 

Witchcraft 112 

The Gnostics (The Heretics) . . .118 

Lamaism . 123 

The Yezidees (Devil Worshippers) 131 

Orthodox Islam. . 133 

Unorthodox Islam, The Ishmaelites, The Lodge of Cairo 134 

The Druses. . 138 

The Assassins 140 

The Knights Templar 143 

Knights of Malta 146 

The Rosicrucians ... .147 

Cathares, Albigenses, Waldenses 163 




XXIV. — The Moravians or The Order of Religious 

Freemasons, etc 165 

XXV. — The Anabaptists. 171 

XXVI. — Grand Lodge of England 174 

XXVII. —The Gospel of Revolution. 183 

XXVIII. — The Preparation 188 

XXIX. — General Pepe and "The One Big Union ". 200 
XXX. — Albert Pike and Giuseppe Mazzini.... 207 

XXXI. — Practical Politics 241 

XXXII. — Adriano Lemmi 253 

XXXIII. — The Interlocking Directorate 297 



Date of Foundation 

XXXIV. — 1520 The Illuminati of Spain 307 

XXXV. — 1541 The Order of the Jesuits.... 308 
XXXVI. — 1562 The Defenders {Roman Catholic) 320 


XXXVII. — 1641 Ancient Order of Hibernians (Roman Catholic) 

XXXVIII. — 1638 Jansenism. 

XXXIX. — 1688 Camisards of the Cevennes. .323 .325 327 


XL. — 1721 Rite of Swedenborg or Illuminati of Stockholm 331 

XL I. — 1725 Supreme Conseil and Grand Orient de France 333 

XLI I. — 1731 The Convulsionaries of St. Medard .... 343 

XLI II. — 1750 The Royal Order of Scotland... 349 


The Strict Observance. 350 

The Martinist Order. 353 

The Illuminati of Avignon . . . 355 
Antient and Accepted Scottish 
Rite (American), Antient and 

Accepted Rite (England) 357 

The Order of the Mopse 365 

The Rite of Zinnendorf 368 

The Phllaletes (Chercheurs de la 

Verite) 369 

The Illuminati of Bavaria . . 370 

The Tugendbund 376 

The Jacobins 379 

The Knights Templar of Ame- 
rica . . 384 


LV. — 1791 The United Irishmen . . 385 

LVI. — 1795 The Orange Society (Protestant and Masonic) . . . 391 
LVII. — 1798 The Philadelphians (The Olympians) 395 

LVllI. — 1799 The Scottish Philosophic Rite... 397 


LIX. — 1804 Modern Knights Templar, England 399 

LX. — 1804 Modern Knights Templar, France ,402 

LXI. — Modern Knights Templar, Sweden 406 

LXIL — 1805 The Rite of Mizraim . . .407 

LXIII. — 1805 The Ribbon Society (Roman Catholic) . 421 

LXIV. — 1808 The Cerneau Rite (A. & A. Scottish Rite). . .423 

LXV. — 1809 Carbonarism (Alta Vendita)... 427 



Chapter Date of 

LXVI. — 1810 The Manchester Unity of Oddfellows, England . 436 
LXVII. — 1814 The Hetairia of Greece (Etherists) ... . . 438 

LXVIII. — 1815 The Hung Society of China.. 441 

LXIX. — 1815 The Rite of Memphis 443 

LXX. — 1816 The Calderari .445 

LXXI. — 1820 French Carbonarism . .447 

LXXII. — 1822 Modern Knights Templar, Poland 452 

LXXIII. — 1825 The St. Patrick Boys . . .454 

LXXIV. — 1830 Brahmo Somaj 455 

LXXV. — 1830 The Mormons .459 

LXXVI. — 1843 The Independent Order of B'nai B'rith (Jewish Masonry) 465 

LXXVII. — 1843 Young Ireland 467 

LXXVI II. — 1S44 The Bahai Movement. 469 

LXXIX. — 1844 The Independent Order of Oddfellows (I. O. O. F.) (American) .471 

LXXX. — 1848 Modern Spiritism 473 

LXXXI. — 1850 The Eastern Star 480 

LXXXII. — 1857 The Irish Republican Brotherhood (The Fenians). . . 481 
LXXXIII. — 1858 Phoenix Society of Skibbereen. 485 
LXXXIV. — 1860 L'Alliance Israelite Universale . .486 
LXXXV. — 1860 The International (First and Second) 489 

LXXXVI. — 1865 The Ku-Klux Klan . .497 

LXXX VI I. — 1866 Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia... 499 

LXXXVIIL — 1869 The Clan-na-Gael (V. C.) 513 

LXXXIX. — 1869 The Nihilists 518 

XC. — 1871 The Cryptic Rite 519 

XCI. — 1872 The Sat Bhai of Prague 520 

XCII. — 1872 Ancient and Primitive Rite, 

Rite of Memphis (England). 522 
XCIII. — 1872 The Anarchists 526 


- 1874 Ancient and Archaeological Order of Druids 

The Theosophical Society 

Primitive and Original Ph re- 
masons, Swedenborgian Rite. 
The National Land League... 

Russellites or International 
Bible Students 

The Invincibles 

1 882 Societe Theosophique d'Orient 
et d'Occident 

Grand Lamaistic Order of 
Light (Fratres Lucis) 

The ahmadiyyah Sect. . 


Knights of Columbus. 

Christian Science 

The Fabian Society . . 

Gaelic Athletic Association.. 

Hermetic Society 

Order of The Golden Dawn in 
the Outer . . 

Modern Ilium in ism, Ancient 
Order of Oriental Templars 
(Ordo Templi Orientis) (To 

Theosophical Society of Ame- 

Irish Socialist Republican 


The Young Turk Movement.. 585 

The Amsterdam International. 587 

Stella Matutina .... . 588 

Sinn Fein 590 

The Honourable Fraternity of Antient Masonry (Female Lodges) 593 

CXVIII. — 1908 Federal Council ofthe Churches 

of Christ in America 595 

CXIX. — 1910 Sufism (Occidental) .... 599 

CXX. — 1911 Narodna Odbrana 601 

CXXI. — 1913 The Anthroposophical Society. 604 

CXXII. — 1915 Friends of Irish Freedom 606 

CXXIII. — 1915 The Knights of the Ku-Klux 607 
Klan ... 607 
CXXIV. — 1917 Sinn Fein in America .613 
CXXV. — 1919 The Third International (Com- 
munist) .614 

CXXVI. — 1919 The Fascisti 619 

CXXVII. — 1920 American Prohibition and the Anti-Saloon League 621 

CXXVIII. — 1920 The American Civil Liberties 

Union . . ... 627 

CXXIX. — 1920 The V. V. V. (Vereinigung 

Vergewaltigter Voelker) 631 

CXXX. — 1920 Juvenile Freemasonry ,634 

CXXXI. — 1920 The League Of Nations .... .636 

CXXXII. — 1920 Tenri Kenjukai ,641 

CXXXIII. — 1928 Buchmanism .643 

CXXXIV. — 1928 The Rackets .645 

CXXXV. — 1930 The New History Society .... .651 

CXXXVL — 1930 The Youth Peace Federation.. 653 

CXXXVII. — 1930 The International Bank 658 

Conclusion 661 

Bibliography , 667 


I. — Manifesto of the O. T. O .677 

II. — Extract from the Charter for Royal Order of Scotland in U. S. A . . .706 

III. — Masonic and Pagan Symbolism .709 

IV. — Photographic Reproductions of Documents interesting to Freemasonry etc, following p. 720 


All Rituals, Religion, Education, Secret Services and Political Movements have been Scientifically Engineered to create Fake Gangs for 10,000 Years. It's what the old Roman Empire, and the Babylonian Empire, and the Cult of Apollo, and the Byzantine Empire did before.

The Guy Fawkes plotters were a 'Fake gang' controlled by the London government. The UK's General Frank Kitson (Trail Blazing Fake Terrorism) refers to the 'Fake gangs' set up by the security services. The idea of the 'Fake gang' is to carry out acts of violence which can then be blamed on other people. Fake gangs have been used in Ireland (IRA), Vietnam, Italy - GLADIO, Turkey, Belgium, the Philippines, Kenya, Malaya, Iraq, Syria (ISIS), New York (Al Qaeda) and many other places. Lord Stevens, a former UK police chief, is quoted as saying that only three out of 210 terrorist suspects he arrested in a probe in Northern Ireland were not working for either the police, the security service MI5 or the UK Army. On 21 December 2011, we learnt that the IRA was run by the UK security services. Stephen Grey's book The New Spymasters says the UK intelligence services used the family of 'IRA leader' Gerry Adams as spies for the UK military. It would seem that the security services set up satanic pedophile child abuse rings in order to control certain key people.

The fake gangs idea has been used since Babylon 10,000 years ago,  with this Scientific Engineering of Society, the Satanic Religion - another fake gang - has spread and infil-traited every noble family, every noble civilisation, and it is even now infil-traiting your country, your civilisation. All Rituals, Religion, Education and Political Movements are designed to create fake gangs of psychopaths who can then be used to create control through chaos created poverty - The Oligarchic Policy of Poverty - destroying infrastructure - preventing human evolution.


1. ISIS - Venetian created MI6 created Wahhabism in 1706 - based on the same principles as Lutherism - and institutionalised it in MI6 created Saudi Arabia to create destabilising Jihadi Armies creating chaos in the Middle East, Russia and China.

2. PROTESTANTISM - Luther, like Abdul Wahhab was a paid Agent working for Venetian Cardinal Contarini

3. ETON - SINCE 1430, Whipping and Fagging to create Fierce Homosexual Warriors in an educational system based on Greece and Sparta - The foundation of the British Empire.

4. SATANISM/LUCIFERIANISM/33RD DEGREE FREEMASONRY - Pagan Rituals and Myths used to pervert, degenerate and control a psychopathic ruling class. Mao was a 33rd Degree Freemason!!

5. SATANIC SABBATEAN FRANKISTS infiltrate Jews and Jewish organisations worldwide. Pagan Rituals and Myths used to pervert, degenerate and control a Jewish psychopathic ruling class of Donmeh Attaturk, Rothschilds, Rockefellers, Schiffs, Warburgs.

6. KARL MARX - Wrote Das Capital from his MI6 provided office in the British National Museum under Ambassador Urquhart creating MI6 inspired Communism, Russian Revolution (65 millions tortured dead) and Mao's Chinese Revolution (85 millions tortured dead), and Socialism. George Orwell's Totalitarian text's "1984" "A Boot, stamping in your face, forever" - the Totalitarian or Legalist Fake Gangs sprang from this bough.  Capitalists, Marxists, Communists and Socialists spring from the same Fake Gangs bough.

7. CATHOLICISM AND CYBELE AND ATTIS WORSHIP and its castrated Galli Homosexual Pederasty Priests - the State Religion of the Roman Empire - morphed into the Catholic Church, Cybele - Mary, Adonis - Jesus, Molech - God. The Black Death. Pederasty, Inquisition - The Horror Holy Medieval Inquisition - 50 million tortured burned dead, - burning alive, breast rippers, strappado, rack etc. Fascism and the Holocaust. The Catholic Church is controlled through the Gang Kings, Queens, Nobility of Europe. The Jesuits, The Knights of Malta. Its Vatican Bank is fronted by the Rothschilds, has 500 Trillion Dollars, controls 70% of Fortune 500 companies, controls 70% of all banks Worldwide, controls 100% of all central Banks, consciously creating all depressions, all austerity, all Wars, all famine genocide, False Flags and the assassinations of JFK, RFK, and MLK, or the September 11th “Terror Attacks”.

8. EUGENICISTS started by Huxley, Darwin, Pilkington families, later named TRANSHUMANISTS by Sir Julian Huxley, Head of Rockefeller created UNESCO who spilled the beans to his brother Aldous Huxley in his book, "Brave New World" in 1932. Later in a 1963 speech at Columbia University, Aldous admitted the Aim of Eugenicists was the same as that of his book.

9 ECONOMISTS - Economists have been paid - Adam Smith (and his Satanic Mandevillian, "Public benefits come from Private Vices") was a hack, paid by Lord Shelburne, Head of the British East India Company, foundation of the British Empire - to create an Economics which would perpetuate the Bankers of the British Empire, later the Anglo-American Empire. Austrian Economics and it's Austerity - The Oligarchic Principle of Poverty - was supported and spread by Nelson Rockefeller. The Economist Fake Gangs.


The Treaties - Trans Pacific Partnership TPP - USA - SE ASIA, and Trans Atlantic Partnership TAP - USA - EUROPE, now signed into Law even though these Treaties are Secret, place Vatican Controlled International Fortune 500 Companies above all Governments to censor the internet and much more..

I guess the education system isn't full proof indoctrinating your children into Bolshevik Communism....they need more weapons to more quickly dumb down humanity...vaccines are all set up to make the tribe over at the Rockefeller medical industrial complex $90 Billion a year....autism was practically unheard of until they started pumping babies with tainted vaccines to turn them into a bunch of handicapped chimps...

If you really think that my analysis is a form of softness or passivity then you really misread me and the purpose of this site. You probably know that it is a well-known problem with despots and dictators when the gradually surround themselves with only those kind of advisors who enthusiastically agree with everything the despot wants to hear and with everything the despot says.

Enemy Propaganda is like this.

My question to you is simple: do you want to turn into a “despotic reader” – somebody who will come to this site to hear his views supported, his ideas vindicated and his hopes affirmed? Or do you prefer to come here, get what I hope is an honest, if generally cautious, analysis which you can then either accept or reject?

My job is to try to present to you the truth as best as I can distinguish it - and see below the supporting evidence. Even when that truth is cautious or, worse, unpleasant.

Look, the intelligence process goes through what is called the “Four A's”: Acquisition, Analysis, Acceptance, Action. The first one is “getting the data/info”. The second one means making sense of it and presenting it to your “client” (in this case: all of you). The third one is always overlooked: acceptance by the “client” – i.e., the willingness to hear a negative or disappointing analysis. This is the part which YOU (collective “you”) must do (or refuse to do). Last is action.

The actions I recommend are the avoidance of poison, and the active getting the poison out of the body, physically, emotionally, mentally, spiritually with Energy Enhancement Meditation Course either by Video or Live, with us. Deprogram, Become normal. Spread the plan.



Satanic ISIS, British 1710 Secret Agent Hempher Salafism and Saudi Arabian Wahhabism ISIS - Venetian created MI6 created Wahhabism in 1706 - based on the same principles as Lutherism - and institutionalised it in MI6 created Saudi Arabia

TANTRA AND HOMOSEXUALITY IN SATANIC RITUAL HOMO-OCCULTISM - The Ritual Implantation of Energy Blockages - ETON - Whipping and Fagging to create fierce homosexual Warriors in a educational system based on Greece and Sparta - The foundation of the British Empire.





The Devil Worshipping Satanic Jewish Dφnmeh and the Infiltration of Satanism into Luciferian Satanic Illuminati Kabbalist Sabbatean Frankists - Jewish Families - Rothschilds, Rockefeller, Schiff, Astor, Saud, Attaturk, Stalin, Hitler, Mao. (Only the Torah Jews were Genocided in the Holocaust)

Luciferian Satanic Illuminati Kabbalist Sabbatean Frankists - CULT OF THE ALL SEEING EYE



THE SATANIC HISTORY OF THE WORLD -  PART ONE - The Satanic Psychopathic Palmerston, Prime Minister of the British Empire circa 1850 - and his Three Satanic Psychopathic British Agents, Mazzini, Urquhart and Napoleon III - as a Continuation of the same Satanic Psychopathic Gang Families from Satanic Psychopathic Babylon through the Satanic Psychopathic Roman Empire, the Satanic Psychopathic Venetian Empire to the Satanic Psychopathic British Empire to the current Satanic Psychopathic Anglo-American Empire  - KARL MARX - Wrote Das Capital from his MI6 provided office in the British National Museum under Ambassador Urquhart creating MI6 inspired Communism, Russian (65 millions tortured dead) and Chinese Revolutions (85 millions tortured dead), and Socialism.

The Illuminati Enemy Within Freemasonry - Weishaupt, General Pike, Palladian Rite, Morals and Dogma, Rose-Croix, Templars, Alta Vendita or highest lodge of the Italian Carbonari, Mazzini, The Lost Keys of Freemasonry, Manly P. Hall the seething energies of Lucifer - Satan, or Lucifer, and the demons, Demonic Possession, Morals and Dogma, Albert Pike, Elias Ashmole edited Dr. John Dee, sorcerer who "brought through" the Enochian system of magic, of satanic ritual and demonic evocation, the Pagan Eleusinian Mysteries, Council on Foreign Relations ... the Trilateral Commission ... and the Bilderberger Group serve to disseminate and to coordinate the plans for this so-called new world order, Alice A. Bailey, 1950, 1986, "The Plan" involves a one-world government, an occult hierarchy, an elite "illumined" oligarchy ruling over a world in which Christianity has been slated to be displaced and destroyed.


Eugenics and the Nazi Fascist Holocaust - and Satanic Agents Dawkins, Darwin, Huxley, Wells, Lord Bertrand Russell, Prince Bernhard, Prince Phillip








Every noble family in Russia, Europe and the United States can trace it's genealogy back to Babylon.

See the Satanic Incas, Toltecs, Mayans cutting the hearts out of thousands of people and selling their meat at the altar.

See the Inquisition Torture and burning 50 millions of people alive.


See the Fascist Satanic Nazi SS (The Nazi SS - Sea Seclorum - Knights of the Holy See - was Authorised by the Pope Pius 12th who was Papal legate to Germany before he became Pope. The SS were controlled by Himmler who became Head of the Jesuits, the Black Pope, during WWII.) burning millions of people alive in a new inquisition holocaust.


See the Satanic Babylonian Empire, the Satanic slave trading banking Roman Empire and it's offshoots, the Catholic Church, The Holy Roman Empire, The Black Nobility, the Satanic slave trading banking Venetian Empire which after infil-traiting Britain with William of Orange became the the Satanic slave trading banking British Empire and then the British American Empire..

MI6 created Eugenics and funded Hitler who was the first guy to think of putting rat poison in the drinking water. Then Stalin put rat poison in the drinking water. Then all over the World the satanic war sacrifice "lives for satan" nobility put rat poison in the drinking water 300 micrograms of Fluoride and Fluoro-Silicic Acid per liter. The Harvard University study on Fluoride in the drinking water says that 1.7 micrograms per liter drops the IQ by 20 points and gives bone cancer.

MI6 created Eugenics - There is a video of polio vaccine creator Jonas Salk bragging about putting sv40 cancer virus into his vaccines killing hundreds of millions through cancer. Through vaccine excitotoxins and heavy metals - mercury and aluminium - in vaccines in multiple shots babies are shocked into losing 20 IQ points and sometimes killed. Through vaccine hormones young women are sterilised.

I guess the education system isn't enough - indoctrinating your children into Bolshevik Communism.... they need more weapons to more quickly dumb down humanity...vaccines are all set up to make the tribe over at the Rockefeller medical industrial complex $90 Billion a year....autism was one in 25,000 practically unheard of until they started pumping babies with tainted vaccines - now autism is one in ten moving to one in two - to turn them into a bunch of handicapped chimps...

You can't make this stuff up!!


While the globalists’ political and financial people have been busy erecting the superstructure of the multilateral/multipolar New World Order, their psychologists and sociologists have been busy as well. Through institutions like the Tavistock Institute in the UK and the Stanford Research Institute in the US, globalist minions have been formulating ways of molding the thinking of the masses to make them NWO-compatible.

Information about Tavistock and Stanford Research (now called SRI International) is all over the internet, but I found a particularly concise and informative introduction to them on page 326 of David Livingstone’s

 Black Terror White Soldiers: Islam, Fascism & the New Age…


How Satanic Lord Bertrand Russell Became an Evil Man

BaruchOld Rothschild- and Rockefeller hands created Austrian Economics and the Rockefeller-Alex Jones Libertarian-Communist dialectic

The Satanic Frankfurt School "Dums" Down Culture and Civilisation ADORNO, BENJAMIN, MARCUSE, LUKACS, BRECHT, WEILL, ECO, DERRIDA



1. Ritual sex, homosexual, sexual, and pederasty - See Sir Jimmy Savile and pederasty see.. and and

A way for Politicians and Royalty to, like the Mafia, make their bones, enter into the Elite Satanic Religion and to forever to be controlled by blackmail


2. Ritual Drugs

3. Ritual Human sacrifice see and




4a. Ritual Burning Alive.. The Inquisition (Latin inquirere, to look to) see

 is an eight hundred year old Roman Catholic tool, ceremony and institution dedicated to evil.

While the Inquisition is in one instance an ecclesiastical tribunal, an institution of the Vatican, a series of historical movements -- its first and primary purpose was and has always been for the punishment and suppressing of heresy and elimination of infidels lawfully.

In the simplest of definitions concerning the Inquisition, a "heretic" is any person who essentially believes in the sacred scriptures of Christianity but refuses to yield to the "absolute temporal power and moral authority" of the Pope. An infidel is anyone who does not believe in the Christian philosophy.

As the Inquisition has never been disbanded, nor its rules struck out, it remains the only example of lawful human sacrifice in the world today. The last time the legal framework of the (Holy) Inquisition was used was in 1940-1945 with the sacrifice of over eighteen million innocent Orthodox Christians, Protestants, ethnic Jews and other minorities by the Catholic Dictators loyal to the Vatican.

As an Inquisition is technically lawful, the sacrifice of millions of people by burning them alive in ovens cannot be "legally" considered murder. This is one of the major reasons no Pope, Cardinal or Jesuit priest has ever been held accountable for the evils they unleashed in World War II.

The Inquisition and legal human sacrifice

While Pope Lucius III was the first to establish the Inquisition through papal bull Ad Abolendam, as the legal and moral framework for human sacrifice and barbaric torture of innocent people, it was Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) who put it into full effect. The key elements being: The Laws of the Church, The Inquisitor, The Accused, The Act (or Offence), The Tribunal and The Witness.

The Inquisitor, strictly speaking, was a special but permanent judge, acting in the name of the Pope and clothed by him with the right and the duty to deal legally with offences against the Faith adhering to the canon laws of the Church. Thus, within the spectrum of enforcing Church Law, the Inquisitor had (and still has) the legal power over life or death of the accused.

Next, the Accused was to be summonsed to appear before the Inquisitor. The Accused does not actually have to be charged with any crime of heresy at this point -- once their name is written down on a piece of paper and the individual acknowledged themselves to be that person, they ceased legally being a person and instead became both a legal personality and property. Just the simple act of acknowledging themselves to be who they are in front of the Inquisitor was enough for him to legally have complete control over their destiny.

Charges could then be drafted later, if required. But more often than not, the person would be tortured until some kind of confession of some crime was obtained -- in later centuries most notably the witches and magic - promoted by the church and then used to snare millions of innocent people of intelligence.

The Spanish Inquisition - The condemnation of souls

The Inquisitions took an added evil dimension under the Spanish Inquisitions two centuries after Pope Innocent, with the introduction of the public ritual of cursing/damning the souls being sacrificed by repeating their names, their crimes and the ritual of exorcism.

Far from being a misguided Christian act, this Inquisition ritual of burning people alive was the very deliberate embodiment of Necromancy and black magic to create an egregore protecting the Catholic Church - in the control of the souls of recently departed by condemning them to eternal service to the priests and church.

The largest example of the Catholic Church ever condemning souls to itself in this was..

4b. Ritual Burning Alive.. The Holocaust see - the mass sacrifice of over eighteen million innocent Protestants, Orthodox Christians, ethnic Jews and minority groups by burning several million of them alive in ovens in Poland and Russia less than seventy years ago by Catholic dictators represents the largest and most expensive act of mass human sacrifice in history.

Far from being a misguided Christian act, this Inquisition ritual of burning people alive was the very deliberate embodiment of Necromancy and black magic to create an egregore protecting the Catholic Church - in the control of the souls of recently departed by condemning them to eternal service to the priests and church. Egregore (also egregor) is an occult concept representing a "thoughtform" or "collective group mind", an autonomous psychic entity made up of, and influencing, the thoughts of a group of people. The Catholic Church has created this consciously by burning people alive for a thousand years.  The symbiotic relationship between an egregore and its group has been compared to the more recent, non-occult concepts of the corporation (as a legal entity) and the meme. They believe this!!


So vast were the military and logistical resources ordered to be deployed to this “Great Inquisition” from Rome from 1939 to 1945 that it played a major part to the eventual downfall of the Nazi Third Reich. The effort to efficiently sacrifice the largest number of non-Catholics in 24 x 7 purpose-built ovens [24 hours a day, 7 days a week] was a massive logistical effort- not the least of which required the complete genealogy analysis of most of Europe.

If not for the genius of fledgling American technology companies such as Watson's IBM - Innovative Business Machines, who created the first computers for the task of confirming who were to be saved and who were to be slaughtered, if not for the hundreds of millions of dollars in research by pharmaceutical companies into advance nerve agents to render people unconscious in “gas” chambers for easy transport to the ovens, then the plan would have been impossible. Plus ca change.. IBM's Watson AI supercomputer now runs the Death Panels and the Death Lists for Obamacare and the Veterans to decide who gets treatment, who gets aspirin and a stick, and who dies.

But most of all, if not for the willing and complicit support by Allied leaders not to interfere with the Vatican project, the Nazis managed to kill more innocent people by fire in 1944 and 1945 than all the other years combined.

5. Ritual Cannibalism of blood, organs, appendages


The oldest and most sacred ritual in honor of cannibalism- the consumption of a victims flesh and blood, to consume their spirit and essence is the ritual of the Sacred Eucharist of Osiris.

Two and a half thousand years before the ritual was introduced into the ceremonies of Krishnianity, the ceremony of the sacred eucharist of Osiris was well established the origin of both the concept, the ritual and almost word for word the description used by the Roman Catholic Church today.

There are two streams of cannibalism concerning the Fertility Goddesses of the ancient world- the literal cannibalism associated with the frenzied death associated with Osiris in which the flesh and blood of a human victim is eaten raw by the initiates in a frenzied state called Omophagia meaning "Eating-into-the-belly". The other was the "more refined" ritual of the Sacred Eucharist in which blood of a victim was intermingled in unleavened bread to form the Eucharist.

Of the two, the physical eating of flesh and blood of a dying person was rarely ever practiced and became most common during the demonic reigns of the dynastic Popes, climaxing in the years of the 12th to 14th Centuries when the Vatican ceased all pretence of being a place of sacredness and became the most open example of human sacrifice and demon worship not seen in Europe since late Neolithic times.

None of the modern liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church concerning the Eucharist has any origin from Jewish culture whatsoever. The claim that it is a derivation of the Jewish passover is a transparent and poor lie as the Krishnian ceremony is virtually word for word identical to the ancient Osiris ceremony.

The modern significance for Roman Catholics today in participating in the purely pagan ritual of celebrating the eucharist of cannibalism to demonic gods each week has its own special significance.

The Catholic pays homage to the supreme demonic deities of the Catholic Church, the real gods hidden behind the facades of false worship- Attis is hidden behind Jesus; Cybele is Mary, Dagon/Ba'al/Molech is "god".

Even though Catholics celebrate cannibalism ceremony each week, their lack of knowledge of the truth of the ceremonies does not lessen its impact .


6. Ritual Castration - removal of genitals and breasts (See Angelina Jolie)





The Sacred Celibacy of Catholic Priests derives directly and solely from the continuation of the rituals and ceremonies concerning the worshipping of the Goddess Mother, the Queen of Heaven variously known as Inanna, Athena, Cybele and Mary, mother of god.

These rituals date back to at least 1500 BCE and when Cybele was brought to Rome as the Magna Mater (Great protector) in 204 BCE to Vatican Hill, the rituals of sacred celibacy from which Clerical Celibacy of Catholic Priests is directly derived.

Absolutely nothing concerning the Sacred Celibacy of Catholic Priests has anything to do with the early church fathers, their rules or the behaviour of the Apostles. Early church fathers were recognized as being married, as were the Apostles.

Even when celibacy began to be forced upon priests of the church from the middle of the 12th Century by Popes of the Roman Cult faction, it was for clergy of lower rank than Bishops. Bishops, Cardinals and Popes continued to father illegitimate children with abundance up until as late as the 17th Century. It was only the lower clergy who were gradually forced to adopt the extreme rights and practices of the pagan Goddess Cybele and her eunich son Attis.

The word "Celibacy" is first recorded in English from the 17th Century and claimed from the 12th Century Latin cζlibatus "state of being unmarried" and cζlebs "unmarried".

However, a much older Latin word coeleb meaning "bachelor" existed prior to the creation of these 12th Century forms, which strongly indicates the assumed etymology for Celibacy has been deliberately corrupted.

Instead, the word is much more likely formed from the combination of two ancient Latin terms celo "to hide, conceal, keep secret" and liber "child, offspring" (liber also later corrupted to mean book). Hence, the true meaning of Celibacy as 1st formed by the Roman Cult probably means literally " to hide, conceal and keep secret children and offspring".

This is crucially important as it indicates that as early as the 12th Century when the Roman Cult first introduced the Cybele practice of non-marriage of its priests, it did not demand they become modern equivalent of eunuchs but to merely "hide" their offpspring as permanent bachelors.

The Galla

The celebrations of Attis around the Day of Blood, were also significant as the time upon which new initiates to the priesthood of Cybele showed their utmost devotion in cutting off their own genitals in a bloody frenzy and celebration.

The Galla, also later written as the Galli were the lowest rung in the order of priestly service to Magna Mater on Vatican Hill. The most senior was the High Priestess and then later the High priest under Emperor Claudius.

Subordinate were the Archgalla (later the role of Bishops and Cardinals), followed by the priestesses, the sacred prostitutes who were "Brides of Attis". The lowest being the ordinary Galla (Galli).

On the Day of Blood (dies sanguinis) the Galla initiate forever discarded his male attire; henceforth he wore a long garment (stola), mostly yellow or many coloured with long sleeves and a belt. On their heads these priests wore a mitra, a sort of turban, or a tiara, the cap with long ear flaps which could be tied under the chin.

The chest was adorned with ornaments, and sometimes they wore ornamental reliefs, pendants, ear-rings and finger-rings. They also wore their hair long, which earned for them the epithet of "long-haired," they sometimes dedicated a lock of hair to the goddess.

By preference they had their hair bleached. On the day of mourning for Attis they ran around wildly with disheveled hair, but otherwise they had their hair dressed and waved like women. Sometimes they were heavily made up, their faces resembling white washed walls. The galli were also very conspicuous when they showed themselves in the city outside the temple precincts.

With a procession of enthusiastic followers they wandered about begging; in exchange for alms they were prepared to tell people's fortunes (vaticinari); they performed their dances to shrill music of the pipes and the dull beat of the tambourine. When the deity entered into them and they were possessed by divine power they flogged themselves until the blood came."

The origin of the Galla and their forced celibacy

While popular mythology connects the behaviour of the Galla (Galli) displaying extreme devotion primarily emulating the god Attis in cutting off their genitals and becoming women, there existed a much older and deeper function.

It relates to secret mysteries and powers believed that priests might access if they forever eliminated the distraction of male sexual urges.

In Sumerian-Akkadian myth the Galla were daemons of the underworld, who disposed of the corpse of the dead. Literally they were the servants of Ereshkigal, Goddess of the Underworld.

When Inanna's father, Enki, heard that Inanna had descended to the underworld and did not return, He took dirt from under his fingernail and from this made Kurgarra and Galatur [that which repels Galla] and sent them to the underworld where Inanna's corpse was given to them.

"The Kurgarra sprinkled the food of life on the corpse.
The Galatur sprinkled the water of life on the corpse.
Inanna arose..."
But when,
"Inanna was about to ascend from the underworld
When the Annaua, the judges of the underworld
seized her. They said:
`No one ascends from the underworld unmarked.
If Inanna wishes to return from the underworld,
She must provide someone in her place.'"

Inanna agrees and the large Galla and the small Galla follow her to the world above where she sends her unfaithful husband, Dumuzi, to take her place.

"The Galla were demons who know no food who know no drink,
Who eat no offerings, who drink no libations,
Who accept no gifts.
They enjoy no lovemaking.
They have no sweet children to kiss.
They tear the wife from the husband's arms,
They tear the child from the father's knees,
They steal the bride from her marriage home."

In other words, they were the daemons of death, and it appears that the castrated Galli-priests of Attis performed much the same ritual of sending the castrated Adonis-Attis-Dumuzi to the underworld.

The importance of Sacred Homosexuality and the Galla (Galli)

The other most important aspect of the Galla, the Catholic Priests and the continuation of the worship of Cybele is the distinction of what is Celibacy and an abstinance of sex. Originally, the Galla cut of their genitals, so they could no longer perform sex acts as men.

This did not preclude them from having sex -quite the opposite, it opened the door for sacred homosexual acts where there Galla were sodomized during various ritual and celebrations.

Such homosexuality was considered so sacred that the promotion of homosexuality outside of a religious context was frowned upon by the priests and supporters of Cybele. Open homosexuality was considered an afront to its sacred and ancient nature.

This policy has continued today with the Roman Catholic Church strongly against open homosexuality, while sacred homosexuality between its clergy remains as strong as it has been since the days of the Galla.


Most people believe that a powerful ancient satanic goddess is concealed behind Eulogia, and that their secret patron goddess unveiled is actually the Queen Mother of Babylon, Goddess Ishtar – and another name for Lucifer’s Consort, the Goddess Cybele (Lillth).[44]

The Cult of Cybele was sanctioned by the Roman Senate. State Religion of the Roman Empire. Known as the Great Mother or Magna Mater - Mary the mother of Jesus, the Greeks identified her with the Goddess Rhea (Mother of the OLYMPIANS) and Demeter (Goddess of the Harvest).[45]

The Cult of Cybele and the Cult of Moloch (CHILD SACRIFICE) is related to the secret ancient Roman/Venetian Satanic (Brotherhood) Death Cults.[46]

Negro Divine Nine & the Ninth Satanic Circle

The Eucharistic celebration/ritual involves ancient secret Satanic Cannibalistic Rites. Cannibalism means the consumption of a victim’s flesh and blood to consume their spirit and essence.. [47] At one time in the world, cannibalism and human sacrifice had been a state of mankind before God Osiris ended the savage/barbaric practices to further separate Man from the BEAST.[48] However, the rituals of sacrificing a human being for the purpose of their blood, including rituals associated with self injury in order to cause blood loss had been the primary secret domain of worship of the Mother Goddess/Cybele for nearly ten thousand years.[49] The secret worship and blood sacrifices of Cybele has survived in ultra secrecy.

Some rituals of the Catholic Church are still tightly entwined with ancient Roman blood rituals of the Cult of Cybele. The worship of Attis or Adonis (known across the ancient world as the Good Shepherd, the son of Cybele), had always been interwoven with the worship of his mother, the Queen of Heaven.[50]

Its Vatican Bank is fronted by the Rothschilds, has 500 Trillion Dollars, controls 70% of Fortune 500 companies, controls 70% of all banks Worldwide, controls 100% of all central Banks, consciously creating all depressions, all austerity, all Wars, all famine genocide.

Behind the shroud and Black Mass (False Worship), Catholics pay homage to some of the most secret supreme demonic deities. Attis is hidden behind Jesus; Cybele is secretly behind Mary; Dagon/ Ba’al/Molech behind “god”.[51] Of all the ceremonies and festivals associated with Attis, the most important was known as Black Friday or Dies Sanguinis (the Day of Blood) on or around the 25th of March, nine (9) months before the solstice festival of his birth on 25th December.[52],[53]

Like the ‘Christ’, Attis arose when "the sun makes the day for the first time longer than the night.”

During the ceremonies of the Attis’ Day of Blood, new initiates to the priesthood of Cybele castrated themselves in imitation of the castrated god and presented their severed genitals to the goddess along with those of the gelded bull sacrificed at the Taurobolium. Sacred reeds were placed in the urethra to prevent it closing up.




The State Religion of the Roman Empire was that of Cybele and Adonis or Attis.

Cybele loved the beautiful shepherd Atys, and made him her own priest on condition that he should preserve his chastity inviolate, only worshipping Cybele. Atys broke the covenant with a nymph, the daughter of the river-god Sangarius, and was thrown by the goddess into a state of madness, in which he unmanned himself. When in consequence he wanted to put an end to his life, Cybele changed him into a fir tree, (The fir tree, reed, represents the column of Energy, the Antahkarana connecting Earth with God, the Penis)  which henceforth became sacred to her, and she commanded that, in future, her priests should be eunuchs or as in the Catholic Church, celibate, or the Jews and Islamists, circumcised.

The Christian polemicist Prudentius, 348 — c. 410, writes about the Dendrophoria festival of Cybele and the transition ritual of her cultic
servants, the Galli who castrate themselves in order to offer themselves for Sacred Ritual Sodomy as Dog Priests:

"There are rites in which you mutilate yourself and maim your bodies to make an offering of the pain. A worshipper possessed thrusts the knife into his arms and cuts them to propitiate the Mother goddess. Frenzy and wild whirling are thought to be the rule of her mysteries. The hand that spares the cutting is held to be undutiful, and it is the barbarity of the wound that earns heaven.

Another makes the sacrifice of his genitals; appeasing the goddess by mutilating his loins, he unmans himself and offers her a shameful gift; the source of the man's seed is torn away to give her food and increase through the flow of blood.

Both sexes are displeasing to her holiness, so she keeps a middle gender between the two, ceasing to be a man without becoming a woman. (Prudentius, Perist.1059-1073)

"What are profane, if these are sacred rites? Or what is pollution, if these are ablution?" 2Those fundamental cognitive orientations by which men order their lives (Spiro1987: 18).

The explanandum in this article is the self-castration of Cybele's Galli.3

Such Ritual Damage to the body allows even more easily the implantation of the Sexual Addiction Blockage - but Sexual Ritual, hetero, homo, pedo or Pornography or even the company of Implant Addiction Blockage Sexual Addicts can implant you - which like Satanism itself, Implant Addiction Blockages are used to control the elite...

There is no escape.

Only Meditation can remove these Implant Addiction Blockages.

Only Meditation can remove All Energy Blockages.


This practice is also called Spermatophagia or the Tantric Eucharist and it reminds one of new priests ordained to the Roman Catholic priesthood, offering up their manhood by making a vow of celibacy.

It is believed that by relinquishing their manhood priests will have access to the secret mysteries and powers, which will take the place of their male sexual urges.

The other most important aspect of the Galla - the priests of the ancient system Of Cybele and Adonis, The State Religion of the Roman Empire - Roman Catholic priests and their continuation of the worship of Cybele, is the distinction between celibacy and an abstinence of sex. The Galla ritually cut off their genitals so they could no longer perform sexual acts as men.

This, however, did not preclude them from having sex - quite the opposite. It opened the door for ‘sacred’ homosexual acts where the Galla were sodomized during various rituals and celebrations as Dog Priests.

Such homosexuality was considered so sacred that the promotion and practice of homosexuality outside of a religious context, was frowned upon by the priests and supporters of Cybele - open homosexuality was considered an affront to its sacred and ancient nature.

Today, there is a secret group, of which some are members of the Catholic hierarchy, known as The Ninth (9th) Satanic Circle. The Ninth (9th) Satanic Circle is a cult, requiring mandatory entry into the Circle, of every new pope before their assumption of office. At Circle rituals, Satanic sacrifices called the Magisterial Privilege are made that involve the ceremonial killing of newborns, children and the consumption of their flesh and blood by the members of this cult.[54]

The Venetian Molech Satanic Cult was founded by AntiPope Innocent III around 1198 during his reign as AntiPope and head of the Roman Death Cult.

Unlike previous members of the Roman Death Cult, AntiPope Innocent did not worship Magna Mater (Cybele) and the ancient demon gods of the Vatican. Instead, Innocent introduced a whole new religion based on Molech, the most ancient and escoteric knowledge of the Sadducee High Priests who ruled such temples as Baalbek and Jerusalem over 1,800 years prior.

Instead of worshipping Cybele, members of the Venetian Satanic Cult worship Child Burning Moloch and the demons of the underworld.

The son of Innocent III, AntiPope Honorius III was instrumental in introducing a completely new liturgy through his Grand Grimoire - the first genuine book of Witchcraft of Western Philosophy. In fact Honorius is the father of Witchraft, modern Wicca and the Inquisition.

Before the liturgy of Honorius and the invention of the Inquisition, Europeans had largely never heard of witches, witchcraft or any of the "foreign" concepts of damning people's souls. The Inquisition was brilliantly designed to "educate" people on the black arts, demons, pentagrams and other symbols while claiming to be searching for witches.

Thus the behind the scenes battle between the Religions of Cybele and Attis and that of Baal/Moloch. Between Eastern Orthodoxy Greece/Russia and Catholic Rome, between Israel and Islam. Thus Napoleon attacks Russia, Russian Revolution - WWI, WW2 - Germany against Russia and the creation of Israel, Ukraine setting Europe/NATO against Russia.

So, all these egotistical narcissist Illuminati - like drug and sex addicted Aleister Crowley - who are taught they are so superior because they do Sex and Drug Rituals, because they, "Choose to be Enlightened" or "Enlightenment comes only because I choose it and believe I am already there.."  in reality are filled with negativity, filled with Implant Addiction energy Blockages which send their psychic energy, vampirise their psychic energy back to their demonic Masters.

The 6000 Superclass Billionaires are all atheist, superstitious and classical european black magicians who believe all this - a psychopathic religion created by their myth making masters.

As I said before.., "Totally Fucked!!"

Ritual Homosexuality and Pedophilia are symptoms of the Satanic Religion and the Satanic Sex Addiction Blockages in Society. It was the arrest of the notorious Jewish born child serial killer Mr Dutroux in August 1996 that brought the Belgium Paedophile scandal to light. The rescue of the last Two young girls he kidnapped lead to an investigation of Dutroux. Five women who testified anonymously in Belgium under the code name ”X” described a generational family underworld of Satanism, where Satanic Families pimped out their children for rape, pedophilia, sadomasochism, torture, cannibalism, snuff movies, and murder. They said that Satanic politicians, Bilderbuggers and other high placed members of society were involved.

The Psychological aspect of Satanism is a very important and severely underestimated aspect of the occult because it is the power of these myths, the manipulation of belief systems and the ability to propel someone or group of people to perform insane psychopathic activities based on these beliefs that give the occultists such power.

This is the purpose of these consciously created Pagan, Satanic, Psychopathic Religions..

Remember The Catholic Church Inquisition? Religious Jihadists? The effects of "small" changes to Islam - Only worship God, do not worship Relics and Saints as the Venetian Empire did when Cardinal Contarini paid Agent Martin Luther to create Protestantism - created by British MI6 in Wahabism and Salafism - the source of Alqaeda and ISIS? Who blow up Relics and the Mosques of Saints and the enormous Buddha statues in Afghanistan - Charles Manson?

They are able to get others to commit insanely violent acts because they consciously manipulate their belief system in some way. See..

THE SATANIC INFILTRATION OF RELIGIOUS CULTS TO CREATE POVERTY AND CONTROL HUMANITY The Witchcraft of Christians Who Are Not Christians and the Satanic Infiltration of the Goddess Isis, Horus, Osiris and Dionysius; Wahabism and Salafism and the creation of Freemasonic Muslim Brotherhood ISIS Jihadi Caliphate.

This is where the occult and occultists get so much of their power. Beliefs and belief systems alone are what give people any impetus for outrageous, insane, psychopathic actions like Inquisition Torquemada's (Tortura y Quemada) torture and burning people alive or cutting out their hearts and eating them raw - as we saw on a recent Jihadi video, or just going to War...

The element that occultism focuses on are both perceptions and belief systems. There is nothing mystical about it, but the power of the occult rests very much on this and the power to deceive - google, "false flags" - by manipulating perceptions - which is why Universities, Education, Common Core Curriculum, and the mainstream media is so crucial to their power.

Sustainability, Agenda 21, Global Warming, and Climate Change as  instruments for an Austrian Economics, Global Depopulation, Genocide Agenda

It is their ability to deceive, in either making someone believe something is true when it is not or to believe that something is false when it is in fact, true. This may sound almost too juvenile an analysis but all Occultism is based on the power to deceive from the Father of Lies one into service of some sort.

"Fair is Foul and Foul is Fair. Hover through the fog and filthy air" - The Witches in Shakespeare's Macbeth

How to know what is Foul and what is Fair?

The Buddha said, "If I form a Religion, it will be Infil-Traitored, if I write a book, it will be changed"

And so, throughout history there are many Black Popes and many Cardinals who were known as Necromancers and Black Magicians.

The Dalai Lama sent Lama Zopa to investigate a Tibetan Buddhist sect who worshipped a Demon, and he excommunicated that sect.

And many Gods, and many Religions, many Symbols and many Myths.

And all the Gods, Religions, Symbols, Myths have at their heart something good.

And all the Gods, Religions, Symbols, Myths can be interpreted in a good way.

And all the Gods, Religions, Symbols, Myths can be interpreted in a Satanic way which leads to ritual sex, human sacrifice and death etc.

As Father Bede Griffiths said, "It's all in the explanation"

It is all in the source of that explanation.

Is the source Satanically Psychopathically Demonic or does it come from the One True God?

Is the person interpreting Psychopathically Satanic or is he truly good, at One with the One True God?

Does it come from a Satanic Psychopathic Chakra energetically blocked, cut off from God, or does it come from Truth an infinity of chakras
above the head, from the One True God?

How to know that which is Foul and that which is Fair?

Goodness Does Exist, Truth Exists, the One True God Exists.

"False Gold is Created to fool you because Real Gold Exists" - Tamil Siddar, Thiruvalluvar

"Gold, The More you Heat it, the More it Shines" - Tamil Siddar, Thiruvalluvar

Well, it is the evolution of every human being to arrive at the state of Enlightenment, at one with the One True God, Endless Endlessness, Nothing, Nirvana, Purity, Truth.

It is Only in Meditation, in Samadhi, in Viveka, in Samyama, in Kaivalya where we can get in Touch with that Truth, See the Truth, Be Changed by it.

That State where, "You don't get fooled again"


The issue of Blackmail must also be addressed. Because if in these bizarre rituals and secret associations, obscene and perverse acts are transpiring and these acts are recorded in some manner, as takes place in the Fascist Skull and Bones initiation ritual, then we see the kind of hold those who hold the damning evidence has over the initiates.

Secret Organisations, Blackmail and Money - the three greatest sources of Political Control.



The Phrygian Cap of castrated Attis represents the Emasculated column of Energy, the Antahkarana connecting Earth with God




" My final work is a word of warning to American women : 
Keep away from the Swamis, the Yogis, the traveling teach- 
ing men. You would need no such bidding if, for an instant, 
you guessed the truth. In your good faith, in your eager- 
minded receptivity of high-sounding doctrine, in your hunger 
for colour, romance, glamour, and dreams come true, you 
expose yourself, all unsuspecting, to things that, if you knew 
them, would kill you dead with unmerited shame. " 

Katherine Mayo in Why I wrote Mother India. 




Man is a creature of mind and matter. To the realm 
of mind belongs metaphysical thought which, whether 
trained or untrained, is peculiar to each individual and 
is subject for its development or restraint to his will. 
It is the basis of religion in the generally accepted 
sense of this word ; it is purely spiritual and can reach 
the height of mysticism. From it issue creeds or doc- 
trines and the erection of a theological system of 

Imparted to other individuals and accepted by them, 
the metaphysical thought of a few great minds has 
become the basis of religious systems. Upon its teach- 
ing was grafted a Ritual or Law, disciplining the life, 
mystic, moral, social and even physical, of its adherents 
or believers. From the exercise of such laws, theocracy 
or the rule of priesthood was evolved. It is to be found 
in every religion regardless of the fact that in some 
instances like in the Buddhist doctrine of Gautama 
and in the teaching of Jesus Christ, nothing is further 
removed than ritualism from the metaphysical thought 
or religious conception of the founders. 



The power of theocrasy or exercise of government 
rule over the masses by a hierarchy of priests or adepts 
rested on its dual system of teaching, namely ; Exote- 
rism and Esoterism, the former a code of discipline of 
the thought and mode of life of the masses, the latter 
the hierarchic school wherein were trained the chosen 
adepts destined to safeguard the rules imposed upon 
the people by the high priests. 

Upon a close study of the manifold religious systems, 
the corruption of which led to theocratic rule, namely, 
Brahminism, the Ancient Egyptian Cult, Mosaism or 
Judaism, Christianism and Mahometanism, one finds 
the accepted belief of Monotheism as the basis of 
esoteric or secret belief or doctrine. Monotheism is 
here taken in the sense of First Principle. 

Whereas the Egyptian high priesthood of Memphis 
kept this theory as the esoteric teaching of the high 
adepts, Moses, brought up as one of them, gave it as 
exoteric or popular belief to the Israelitic sect to which 
he belonged, embodying it in a deity, the terrible 
Jehovah of the Jews. 

Another side of the esoteric teaching was that of 
occultism, the development of all human psychic 
forces which, when misused, lead to the practice of 
The esoteric part of all religions or hermeticism, 
the teaching and practice of occultism, led to the 
development of what might be termed the religion 
of the secret, which eventually overshadowed and 
helped to dissimulate subversive activities. 

It is with this that we are chiefly concerned and 
will endeavour, to some degree, to show its baneful 
influence on society of all creeds and nations. Let the 
reader bear in mind that it is not the object of this 
work to discuss the place occupied and the part played 
by either Metaphysics and Philosophy on the one 


hand, and Science and Ritualism on the other. The 
limitations of each and its encroachment upon the 
territory of the others, the ensuing conflicts, are matter 
for the history of fanaticism throughout the ages. 
Our aim is to follow the outgrowth of Esoterism and 
a few of its multiple ramifications in the realm of 
perversion and subversion. 



A summary and some explanation of the principal 
forms of occultism must precede the chapters which 
deal with the historical side of this subject, and the 
objections, those of the credulous as well as those of 
the sceptics, must be foreseen and forestalled. Many 
persons are tempted to deny, arbitrarily and without 
examination, statements on matters of which they 
have no previous knowledge, but even the possible 
criticism of such as these must have received due con- 

In this age of wireless and aeroplanes, one of the 
fads of the modern highbrow is to scoif at such things 
as sorcerers, magic and evocations as old wives' tales. 
Tales of ancient history ! There are people who refuse 
to believe in the existence of the supernatural, perhaps 
we should say supernormal, even when confronted with 
the evidence. Such are the sceptics who deny every- 
thing. Hidebound in their prejudice, they ignore the 
fact that magic, White or Black, has now as many 
adepts as ever, nor can they distinguish between the 
different schools of spiritism. 

First, there are the charlatans whose tricks in the 
line of Spiritism are generally sooner or later unmasked. 



Second, there are the Occultists who operate in 
secrecy and hide their meetings from all but initiates 
with the greatest care. 

Many persons are duped by charlatans, so the scep- 
tics persuade themselves of the absolute non-existence 
of all diabolical practices in modern times. They are 
wrong. For Occultism flourishes now in Europe, Asia, 
and America. The Black Mass is said today in Paris 
and London, and Satanism has its faithful followers. 
On this subject one of the most eminent writers was 
Carl Hackse, who, under the pseudonym of Dr. Bataille, 
made an extensive study of Occultism and gave his 
extremely exaggerated views of it in the book Le 
Diablc nu XIX'- 

The following pages of this chapter are mostly either 
quotations or abridgements from that work : 

" According to the teaching of the Christian chur- 
ches, God allows demons certain limited powers, but 
they are not permitted to open the gates of hell and 
release a spirit at the request of one who evokes the 
dead. The dead, even damned, will not show themselves 
if evoked, nor would evocations be answered by those 
who had succeeded in attaining the kingdom of heaven, 
but devils can and do, says the Church, substitute 
themselves for the deceased. They will impersonate a 
dead person whose appearance is demanded by invo- 

" It is also admitted that the fallen angels or spirits 
will often manifest to people without being called. The 
theological hagiographa cite many cases of diabolical 
apparitions to saints, apparitions which these saints 
have been able to repel and conquer... but what 
sceptics and agnostic Christians alike ignore is that 
besides the drawing room mediums, mediums for 
diversion, there are occultists whose vile practices are 


veiled in the profoundest mystery. These men, whose 
moral sense is absolutely perverted, believe in Lucifer, 
but they believe him to be the equal of God and worship 
him secretly. " ^ 

Modern Occultism is on the one hand practical Cabala 
and on the other, Indian Yogism, both of which have 
always had their adepts more or less openly. 

The Cabala is Occult Science itself. It is the secret 
theology of the initiates, theology essentially Satanic. 
In a word the counter-theology. Our God, the God 
of the Christians, is the power of evil in the eyes of 
the Cabalists ; and for them the power of good, the real 
God, is Lucifer. 

" The Cabala teaches magic or the art of intercourse 
with spirits and supernatural beings. 

" One cannot be a convinced Cabalist without soon 
becoming a magician and devoting oneself to the prac- 
tices of occultism. 

" Not that our Cabalists or contemporary magicians 
practise all the different branches of occultism. Some 
of these have been abandoned and others are only 
used by charlatans for the exploitation of superstitious 
persons, but a great many, precisely the most criminal 
and perverse, are observed in the hidden dens of our 
modern Luciferians. " " 

Magic has two divisions : 

The first is divining magic, subdivided into several 
branches of which the principal are : 

Astrology Aeromancy 

Palmistry Hydromancy 

Anthropomancy Pyromancy 

Oneirocritics Cartomancy 

1. Bataille, Le Diable au XIT Siecle, vol. I, p. 28. 

2. Ibid., p. 29. 


The second is operative magic, also subdivided into 
several branches of which the principal are : 

Alchemy Necromancy 

Mesmerism Theurgy 

Various miraculous feats 

There are moreover some superstitious practices not 
specially classed. 

Bataille thus defines some of the foregoing : 

Astrology. — Divining the future by the stars. The 
casting of horoscopes is its most prevalent practice. 

Palmistry. — Divining the future by the hand. 

Anthropomancy. — This is one of the practices sup- 
posed at present to have fallen into disuse. It is a hor- 
rible, savage abomination and consists in disem- 
bowelling a human being for the purpose of divining 
the future by inspection of the entrails. 

Mediaeval history accuses Gilles de Rais of perpe- 
trating this crime on children, whom he lured to his 
castle for the purpose. Tacitus says that the Druids, 
in ancient Britain, used to consult their Gods by looking 
into the entrails of their captives. 

Oneirocritics. — Divining the future through inter- 
pretation of dreams. 

Aeromancy. — Divination by the study of aerial 

Hydromancy. — Divination by the study of liquids 
or aquatic phenomena. 

Pyromancy. — Divination by fire. 

Cartomancy. — Divination by cards. 

There is no need to expatiate further on the more 
or less grotesque means employed by those who follow 
these false sciences. One must be somewhat erratic 
to imagine that the future can be foretold by coffee 
grounds, by the antics of flames in a grate, by the order 


in which shuffled cards will be drawn, or by the odd 
shapes assumed by wind-driven clouds ! When events 
corroborate predictions made under these conditions, 
it can be attributed to the use of the power of dair- 
voyance, but these fortune tellers, some of whom have 
a thorough knowledge of the rules governing the prac- 
tices of these absurdities, are the first to distrust their 

Such expedients, disdained by the real occultists, 
are too unimportant to be worthy of note. It is quite 
another matter to expose the Satanists, ignored by the 
public, whose sects, bearing different names in different 
countries, constitute, in reality, only one, single, secret 
religion whose fanatics, imbued with the spirit of evil, 
will sacrifice themselves blindly to their cause. 

Throughout the universe, all Luciferian and Satanic 
rites bear a basic similarity. 

Dealing principally with the practices of contem- 
porary operative magic, it is Bataille's opinion that 
as regards the mysterious art of Alchemy, its theory 
is called Hermetic Science and has a double objective, 
namely, the discovery of the philosopher's stone, a 
substance capable of transmuting base metals into gold 
and drinkable gold, or the Elixir of long hfe which 
is a magic potion endowed with the properties neces- 
sary to prolong human life indefinitely or, at least, 
to maintain in old age the faculties of youth. Alchemy 
as a science seems now obsolete. 

The Alchemists knew the existence of microbes and 
toxins long before the medical discoveries of the pre- 
sent age. The laboratories of Satanic bacteriology have 
been working, for a long time, on cultures of bacilli 
or solutions of their toxic properties which, even when 
administered in infinitesimal doses, mixed with food 
or drink, disseminate disease and death where it is 


judged necessary by the " Masters " that life is to be 
destroyed. In these cases deaths occur from apparently 
natural causes! 

He further says that Magnetic Mesmerism is the occult 
medicine of the Cabalists. One must naturally not 
confuse the scientists who are at present making re- 
searches in hypnotism and suggestion, in the interest of 
science, with the emulators of Cagliostro whose aim is 
to procure diversions, often wicked and immoral. 
Scientific magnetism is still an obscure question being 
studied by theologians, physiologists and crimin- 
ologists, whereas that of the adepts of magic has nothing 
to do with this ; it is a branch of the subterranean work 
that is nearing its goal today. 

Necromancy is partly divining magic and partly 
operative magic. This practice consists in the evoca- 
tion of the spirits of the dead. Spiritism and rapping 
of tables are necromancy, but if all spiritists are not 
necessarily Cabalists, all Cabalists are practicing necro- 
mancy. People are far from suspecting the progress 
made by necromancy along these lines. Freemasonry 
is yearly more and more invaded by the spiritist element 
to the extent that, in 1889, an international convention 
of spiritist Freemasons attended by about 500 delegates 
was held at the Hotel of the Grand Orient of France, 
rue Cadet, Paris. 

This was only a beginning ! 

Eliphas Levi, a renowned occultist of the 19th 
century, writing in Histoire de la Magie, in the follow- 
ing words, sounds a warning to those who, recklessly, 
would venture into the domain of the occult. 

" The experiences of theurgy and necromancy are 

3. BatatHe, Le Diable mi XIX^ SiMe, p. 35. 

4. P. 143. 


always disastrous to those who indulge in them. When 
one has once stood on the threshold of the other world 
one must die and almost invariably under terrible 
conditions. First giddiness, then catalepsy followed 
by madness. It is true that the atmosphere is disturbed, 
the woodwork cracks and doors tremble and groan 
in the presence of certain persons, after a series of 
intoxicating acts. Weird sounds, sometimes bloody 
signs, will appear spontaneously on paper or linen. 
They are always the same and are classed by magicians 
as Diabolical writings. The very sight of them induces 
a state of convulsion or ecstacy in the mediums who 
believe themselves to be seeing spirits. Thus Satan, the 
Spirit of Evil, is transfigured for them into an angel 
of light but, before they will manifest, these so-called 
spirits require sympathetic excitement produced by 
sexual intercourse on the part of their devotees. Hands 
must be placed in hands, feet on feet, they must breathe 
in each other's faces, these acts often being followed 
by others of an obscene character. The initiates, revel- 
ling in these forms of excesses believe themselves to 
be the elect of God and the arbiters of destiny. They 
are the successors of the fakirs of India. No warning 
will save them. 

" To cure such illnesses, the priests of Greece used 
to terrify their patients by concentration and exag- 
geration of the evil in one great paroxysm. They made 
the adept sleep in the cave of Trophonius. After some 
preliminary preparations, he descended to a subter- 
ranean cavern in which he was left without light soon 
to be prostrated by intoxicating gases. Then the visio- 
nary, still in the throes of ghastly dreams caused by 
incipient asphyxia, was rescued, being carried off 
prophesying on his tripod. These tests gave their 
nervous systems such a shock that the patients 


never dared mention evocations of phantoms again. 

" Theurgy is the highest degree of occultism. Necro- 
mancy is limited to the summoning of dead souls, but 
the Theurgists of the nineteenth century evoke entities 
qualified by them as genii, angels of light, exalted spi- 
rits, spirits of fire etc. In their meetings, scattered 
throughout the world, they worship Lucifer. The three 
mysterious letters J... B... M..., that the common 
initiates see in the Masonic Temples, are reproduced 
in the meeting rooms of the Luciferians, but they no 
longer mean Jakin, Bohaz, Mahabone, as in the Lodges, 
nor Jacques Bourguignon Molay, as with the Knights 
Kadosch ; in Theurgy these three letters mean ; Jesus 
Bethlemitus Maledictus. Theurgy is therefore pure 
Satanism. " 

" Moreover it is important to note that the Cabalists, 
admitted to the mysteries of Theurgy, never mention 
the word Satan. They look upon certain dissident 
adepts who invoke the devil under the name of Satan 
as heretics, whose system they call Goety or Black 
Magic. They call their own practices Theurgy or White 
Magic. " ' 

Between these two types of Devil worshippers, the 
Luciferian occultists and the Satanists, there is a 
difference which must not be overlooked. 

Luciferians never call their infernal master " Spirit of 
Evil" or " Father and Creator of Crime ". Albert Pike even 
forbade the use of the word Satan under any circumstances. 

There is indeed a distinction between the Satanists 
and Luciferians. The Satanists, described by Mr. Huys- 
mans in his book. La Bas, are chiefly persons mentally 
deranged by the use and abuse of drugs who, while 

5. Bataille, op. cit., p. 35. 

6. Ibid., p. 36. 


suffering from a peculiar form of hysteria, accuse the 
God of the Christians of having betrayed the cause of 
humanity. They are persons who recognize that their 
God Satan occupies a position in the supernatural 
sphere, inferior to that of the Christian deity. On the 
other hand the Luciferians or the initiates of kindred 
rites, while still labouring under a strange delusion, 
act deliberately and glorify Lucifer as the principle of 
good. To them he is the equal of the God of the Chris- 
tians whom they describe as the principle of evil. 

It is necessary to recognize the distinction which 
exists between Luciferians and Satanists, for their two 
cults bear each other no resemblance, although Lucifer- 
Satan manifests indiscriminately to his faithful follow- 
ers of both denominations. One must not, however, 
imagine that the pride and satisfaction he derives from 
this adulation acts as an inducement to making him 
appear whenever he is called ! Occultists of all schools 
agree that nothing is more capricious than the conduct 
of spirits when evoked ! 

It is well moreover to remember that Luciferian 
occultism is no novelty, nor must one make the mistake 
of confusing it with ordinary Freemasonry, the Lodges 
of which are only private clubs. 

Many authors have published books on Freemasonry, 
some printing the rituals, some their personal obser- 
vations on certain facts, but few of these authors, having 
themselves passed into occult masonry, the real masonry 
of the Cabalistic degrees which is in touch with all 
secret societies. Masonic as well as non-Masonic, have 
been able to state that Luciferian Occultism controls 

Though this is indeed the case, neither the President 

7. Bataille, op. cit., p.- 36. 


of the Council of the Order of the Grand Orient of 
France, the supreme chief of French Freemasonry, nor 
the president of the Supreme Council of Scottish Rites 
will be received at the meeting of a simple Luciferian 
ceremony just on account of his title and dignity unless, 
at the same time, he possesses a diploma of Cabalistic 
grade which requires another initiation. On the other 
hand, the first Oddfellow from Canada, a member of 
the Chinese San-ho-hui of China, a Luciferian Fakir 
from India, all these can visit at their pleasure all 
lodges and inner shrines of ordinary Freemasonry in 
all countries because, in each one of the Satanic sects, 
the directing authority is exercised by heads who belong 
to the most exalted masonic degrees of the different 
rites, degrees which are for them of secondary impor- 
tance. These chiefs, at the request of their subordinates 
of the Luciferian societies, deliver to them freely the 
diplomas necessary to obtain admittance everywhere, 
as well as the sacred words and yearly and half yearly 
pass-words of all the masonic rites of the globe. 

Luciferian Occultism, as has been said before, is 
therefore not a novelty, but it bore a different name in 
the early days of Christianity. It was called Gnosti- 
cism and its founder was Simon the Magician. 

The Gnostics were not ordinary heretics but con- 
stituted an anti-christian sect. To deceive the multitude, 
they affected disagreement with certain doctrines of 
the Apostles, and the chiefs selected from among the 
initiates those destined to receive, in secret council, 
the Satanic revelation. Gnosticism is marked with the 
seal of Lucifer. It is contemporary with the Apostle 
Peter and has continued, without interruption, down 
to the present day, periodically changing its mask. 

8. Bataille, op. cit., p. 36. 


The seven founders of Freemasonry were all Gnos- 
tics, Magi of the English Rose Croix, whose names 
were : Theophile Desaguliers, named Chaplain of the 
Prince of Wales by George II, Anderson, the clergy- 
man, an Oxford graduate and preacher to the King 
of England, George Payne, James King, Calvert, 
Lumden-Madden, and Elliott. 

Gnosticism, as the Mother of Freemasonry, has 
imposed its mark in the very centre of the chief symbol 
of this association. The most conspicuous emblem which 
one notices on entering a masonic temple, the one which 
figures on the seals, on the rituals, everywhere in fact, 
appears in the middle of the interlaced square and 
compass, it is the five pointed star framing the letter G. 
Different explanations of this letter G are given to 
the initiates. In the lower grades, one is taught that it 
signifies Geometry. To the brothers frequenting the 
lodges admitting women as members, it is revealed 
that the mystic letter means Generation, but the 
revelation is attended with great secrecy. Finally, t6 
those found worthy to penetrate into the sanctuary 
of Knights Kadosch, the enigmatic letter becomes the 
initial of the doctrine of the perfect initiates which 
is Gnosticism. This explanation is no longer an imag- 
inary fabrication. It is Gnosticism which is the real 
meaning of the G in the flamboyant star, for, after 
the grade of Kadosch (a Hebrew word meaning conse- 
crated) the Freemasons dedicate themselves to the 
glorification of Gnosticism (or anti-christianity) which is 
defined by Albert Pike as " the soul and marrow of 
Freemasonry. " 

9. " The G which the Freemasons place in the middle 
of the flamboyant star signifies Gnosticism and Generation, 
the most sacred words of the ancient Cabala. " See Eliphas 
Levi, Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie, vol. II , p. 97. 


Let US add that the ancient mysteries of Gnosticism 
have been known and published in the past. There is 
no difference between the Gnosticism of the early ages 
of Christianity and modern occultism. 

The fundamental principle of Gnosticism was the 
double divinity (dual principle) and this is exactly the 
theological theory of modern occultism. The Gnostics 
claimed that the good God was Lucifer and that Christ 
was the devil, that what the Christians call vice was for 
them virtue, and to the Christian dogma they opposed 
Gnosticism, a word meaning human knowledge. 

Early Gnosticism had its doctors ; the Basilideans, 
Ophites and Valentinians. Basilide of Alexandria, one 
of them, lived at the end of the first century. He taught 
metempsychosis and the principles underlying present- 
day Theosophy. His system resembles that of the 
spiritists of the nineteenth century who have invented 
nothing, for they copy Gnosticism even in its theory 
of the transmigration of souls. Basilide affirmed that 
he was the reincarnation of Plato. Whoever has pene- 
trated into assemblies of modern theurgists can attest 
that one of its current theories is that of reincarnation. 

After Basilide came Montanus who died in 212. 
Montanus was a grand master of the art of divination. 
The Bite of Mizraim {a Freemasonry said to be Egyptian) 
copies slavishly, in its Cabalistic grades, all the phan- 
tasmagoria of Montanus. This Gnostic doctor plunged 
himself into ecstasies and, according to history, he had 
two women, Maximilla and Priscilla, trained to act as 
his accomplices. The Gnostics came in crowds to admire 
their contortions worthy of epileptics. They had the 
sacred illness, and were considered two saints of 

10. In reference to the Pagans " who (as we read in divers 
authors) consecrated most kinds of Distempers of the Body, 
and Affections of the Mind; erected Temples and Altars to 


Satan. In the assemblies of the sect, when they went into 
frenzies and prophesied, their oracular sayings were 
listened to with veneration by the adepts. 

Were they acting a part, were they just mediums 
or somnambulists, or were they what the Roman 
Catholics call " possessed " ? 

This is a hard question to answer. 

A modern example of the influence exercised by 
occult organizations on the destinies of mankind is 
to be found in the history of The Holy Alliance, founded 
in 1815 by Alexander 1, Emperor of Russia. This was 
originally a union of monarchs pledged to support the 
Christian Church and to stem the rising tide of radi- 
calism, revolution and subversion. 

In L'Histoire de la Magie (p. 467), Eliphas Levi 
states that the spiritist sect of " The Rescuers of 
Louis XVI ", wishing to penetrate this organization 
to use it for their own purposes, succeeded in insinua- 
ting one of their illumines into the good graces of the 
Czar. This was Madame Bouche, known to the adepts 
as Sister Salome. After eighteen months spent at the 
Russian Court, during which she had many secret 
interviews with the Emperor, she was supplanted by 
another medium-somnambulist of the sect, the famous 
Madame de Krudner who acquired so great an influence 

Fevers. Paleness. Madness, and Death ; to Laughter, Lust, 
Contumely, Impudence, and Calumny. Every strange Disorder, 
as well as Epilepsy, is the Sacred Disease. Sua caique Dens sit 
dira Ciipido (Each bold Fancy grows into a God). 

" But it must be remembered this Distemper was called also 
Morbus Comitialis ; because if any one fell into it, during the 
Assembly, it was a fatal Omen, and they immediately broke 
up ". 

Bishop Lavington, The Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papists 
compared, p. 123. 


over the Czar that his ministers became alarmed at the 
situation thus created. 

Levi thus describes the fall of the favorite ; 

" One day, as the emperor was leaving her, she barred 
his passage crying ' God reveals to me that your life is in 
great danger. An assassin is in the palace. ' The Emperor, 
alarmed, caused the palace to be searched and a man, armed 
with a dagger, was found. He confessed, when questioned, 
that he had been introduced into the palace by Madame de 
Krudner herself. ' 

One wonders if the whole affair was not simply the 
result of a clever intrigue calculated to get rid of the 
prophetess. As such it was singularly successful for 
Madame de Krudner was summarily banished from the 
Russian Court. 

In De la Magonnerie Occulle (pp. 87-88), J. M. Ragon 
tells us that " science counts four kinds of Somnam- 
bulism : The natural, the symptomatic, the magnetic 
and the ecstatic. 

" Natural and symptomatic somnambulism are two 
essentially different states, one occurring only at night, 
the other by day as well as by night. The conduct of 
the subject is different under the two conditions. 

" Magnetic and ecstatic somnambulism differ from 
one another insomuch as the one is commanded (willed) 
and the other is not. The first is artificial, the other 
natural. In the first, the subject is dependent; in the 
second, he acts independently. That is why induced 
somnambulism cures the natural when substituted for 

" A lucid somnambulist bears no more resemblance 
to a man asleep than he does to an active man awake ". 

When the Gnostics practised magic, they evoked 
the spirits of the dead exactly as do the occultists of 


today. Dawning Christianity was prolific in miracles 
so, in order to fight it, the disciples of Gnosticism had 
recourse to diabolical marvels. In this respect, are not 
contemporaneous spiritists, with their rapping tables 
and apparitions. Gnostics under another name ? 

Secret Gnostic meetings lead to depravity, as the 
adepts indulge in every kind of turpitude and obsce- 
nity, often under the influence of drugs such as Indian 
Hemp (Cannabis indica) or Opium, the medicinal pro- 
perties of which, vfhen administered under certain 
conditions, are provocative of mediumistic phenomena. 

Thus debauched, their moral sense weakened, ini- 
tiates are ready to work. They work, they fall, and, as 
they fall the Occult power grasps its prey. Their life, 
henceforth, is subject to the will of the Hidden Masters 
who, according to their secret designs, will lead their 
slaves to power, or a semblance of power, or else to 
their downfall. To use the words of " Inquire Within " 
in Light-bearers of Darkness (p. 118) ... " These masters 

— doubtless identical with the terrible power behind 
the horrors of Russia's sufferings and World Revolution 

— have in reality no interest in soul or astral develop- 
ment, except as a means of forming passive illuminised 
tools, completely controlled in mind and actions. " ' 

" Inquire Within " further suggests that there is " a 
group of flesh-and-blood men, who can form etheric 
links, from any distance, with the leaders of these 
societies and who secretly work by means of that 
light which can * slay or make alive ', intoxicating, 
blinding, and, if need be, destroying unwary men and 
women, using them as instruments or ' Light-bearers ' 
to bring to pass this mad and evil scheme of World 

11. This refers to Gnostic Secret Societies described in this 


Dominion by the God-People — the Cabalistic Jew. " ^^ 

A further explanation of the phenomenon of induced 

mediumship is given us by the same author who quotes 

the following lines from Eliphas Levi's History of Magic: 

" This may take place when, through a series of almost 
impossible exercises... our nervous system, having been habit- 
uated to all tensions and fatigues, has become a kind of 
living galvanic pile, capable of condensing and projecting 
powerfully that Light (astral) which intoxicates and des- 

" Inquire Within " comments further : 

" It attempts to show that it leads to mastership and self 
control, but on careful consideration it proves to be merely 
conscious mediumship inspired by crafty and wilful deception, 
giving the adept a false confidence, inducing him to let go 
his physical senses and work upon the astral, where, enclosed 
by formulae given by these masters themselves, he is 
completely at their mercy. " 

A recent practical illustration of these methods is 
the teaching contained in a book Asia Mysteriosa by 
Zam Bhotiva, (published by Dorbon Aine) which sug- 
gests ways and means of communication with the 
" Hidden Masters ". 

It will be recognised by anyone having taken an 
interest in the progress of science along certain lines 
that there is nothing impossible or even improbable 
in the suggestion that telepathy may be exploited by 
organisations for their own particular ends. 

Forty years ago William Gay Hudson wrote on tele- 
pathy as follows : 

If the power exists in man to convey a telepathic 
message to his fellow-man, it presupposes the existence of 

12. " Inquire Within " op. cit., pp. 116-117. 


the power in the percipient to repeat the message to a third 
person, and so on indefinitely, until some one receives it 
who has the power to elevate the information above the 
threshold of his consciousness, and thus convey it to the 
objective intelligence of the world. Nor is the element of 
time necessarily an adverse factor in the case ; for there is 
no reason to suppose that such messages may not be trans- 
mitted from one to another for generations. Thus, the par- 
ticulars of a tragedy might be revealed many years after 
the event, and in such a way as to render it difficult, if not 
impossible, to trace the line through which the intelligence 
was transmitted. For the spiritist the easy and ever-ready 
explanation of such a phenomenon is to ascribe it to the 
intervention of spirits of the dead. But to those who have 
kept pace with the developments of modem scientific inves- 
tigation, and who are able to draw the legitimate and neces- 
sary conclusions from the facts discovered, the explanation 
is obvious, without the necessity of entering the domain 
of the supernatural. " " 

On the subject of Hypnotism and Crime, Hudson, 
writing further, reaches however a fatally false conclu- 
sion which for many years remained unchallenged. 
He states (p. 140) " It is true that, on ordinary questions, 
the truth is always uppermost in the subjective mind. 
A hypnotic subject will often say, during the hypnotic 
sleep, that which he would not say in his waking 
moments. Nevertheless, he never betrays a vital secret... 
That this is true is presumptively proved by the fact 
that in all the years during which the science of hypno- 
tism has been practised, no one has ever been known 
to betray the secrets of any society or order. The 
attempt has often been made, but it has never suc- 
ceeded. " 

Hudson attributes this reticence to auto-suggestion 

13. Hudson, The Law of Psychic Phenomena, p. 236. 


opposing the suggestion of another. This however is 
not the case, for, where a member of a secret society 
or order is concerned, that member was already hypno- 
tized during initiation and it is not his will that guards 
the secret," it is the will of another, the will of the Lodge. 

How many people know that hypnotism is about all 
there is to initiation ? Hypnotism and fear. The rest is 

In the event of this statement being doubted, we quote 
herewith from Freemasonry Universal an article which 
needs no further comment: ''^ 

" The Stewards prepare the candidate ; the Tyler first, 
and afterwards in turn the I. G., Deacons and Junior Wardens 
should inspect the candidate to see that everything is strictly 

" The preparation symbolises poverty, blindness {or 
ignorance) and poverty of spirit, — but it may also signify 
a purification, i.e., that the riches and pleasures which bind 
one to the material side of life are discarded and the spirit 
blinded to their attractions. The baring of the right arm, left 
breast, left knee and right heel being slipshod, are apparently 
a reference to the awakening of occult centres in one's being 
which may only become active when purification of the whole 
nature has begun. 

" The very specific character of the preparation points 
to real knowledge of the occult physiology of the process 
of initiation on the part of those who originated the method 
which has been so faithfully preserved. Certain Forces are 
sent through the candidate's body during the ceremony, 
especially at the moment when he is created, received and 
constituted an Entered Apprentice Freemason. Certain 
parts of the Lodge have been very heavily charged with 
magnetic force especially in order that the Candidate may 
absorb as much as possible of this force. The first object of 

14. Freemasonrx Universal vol. V, Part 2, Autumn Equinox, 
1929, p. 58. 


this curious method of preparation is to expose to this influence 
those various parts of the body which are especially used in 
the ceremony. In ancient Egypt, there was another reason 
for these preparations, for a weak current of physical electri- 
city was sent through the candidate by means of a rod or 
sword with which he was touched at certain points. It is 
partly on this account that at this first initiation the candi- 
date is deprived of all metals since they may very easily inter- 
fere with the flow of the currents. " 

All kinds of nice inspiring symbolical interpretations 
of the ritual are generally given for the benefit of 
people who seem to want them, but it is here evident 
that the candidate, unknown to himself or herself, has 
acted throughout the ceremony of initiation under 
the stress of hypnotism. No longer a free agent, the 
initiate takes the oath under hypnotic force which, 
has also been used to instil into him the feeling of fear. 
Fear guards the secret of initiation, fear born under 
the power of hypnotism to serve henceforth as the 
controlling agent of the initiators over the initiated. 

The Right Worshipful Master must be a genuine 
occultist, as it is up to him to charge (hypnotise) the 
candidate, for to give this in the words of Freemasonry 
Universal : " The R. W. M. gives the light, the pure 
white light of truth and illumination. " 

Illumination, alias Kundalini, alias Serpent power, 
alias Electro-magnetic force, alias the Sex force, etc. ! 

Even in our western world any one wishing to study 
Hatha Yoga can learn to neutralize the action of gra- 
vity and go some yards up in the air. This stunt, and 
the assumption of any size at will, are tricks for which 
training is essential, and if one works at it hard enough, 
one will eventually be able to mesmerise people for 

15. Ibid., vol. V, Part 3, Winter Solstice, p. lOS. 



one's own purposes, business, political or other, thus 
following the lure of the occult to a sinister end i.e. 
Black Magic. 

We would here observe that the miracles performed 
by Jesus Christ bore a distinctive feature, often over- 
looked, namely, that in every case altruism was the source 
of their inspiration. Thus they were a symbol of charity. 

This gives us the esoteric explanation of His silence 
when taunted on the cross. " He saved others, himself 
he cannot save. " Sooner than use this power for per- 
sonal advantage He chose death ! 

Gnostic miracles, such as that of being buried alive 
for a period of time which constitutes the Hindu reli- 
gious rites of Samadhi have no ulterior charitable pur- 
pose. They are chiefly performed for the object of crea- 
ting wonderment, curiosity or faith in magic, and as 
such, failing the altruistic motive, are classifiable under 
the general term of Black Magic. 

As a stimulus to popular faith, they are, however, 
sanctioned by most Pagan religions, though where 
such a custom prevails, the magical performers them- 
selves are not privileged to withhold their gains for 
themselves, as these are claimed by the Temple. 

Having dealt with the preliminaries of the subject, 
we will now proceed along the thorny paths of history 
— not the history of wars, battles, heroes, but that of 
the agents of their being ! 

16. In Hinduism it is known as Kala Yoga. 


For a brief study of Brahminism, the religion prac- 
tised in India, we can hardly do better than quote 
from the work of such recognized authorities as Messrs. 
Stillson and Hughan. ' In attempting to trace the origin 
of Brahminism, they make the following observations ; 

" After being conquered by the Cuthites under Rama, 
the son of Cush, referred to in Genesis x, 2, 7, the 
Mysteries of the Deluge were introduced. The worship 
soon became divided into two sects. We are not fully 
apprised when was first introduced the Brahminic 
system, composed of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, cons- 
tituting the Trimurti... one branch of which was mild 
and benevolent, and addressed to Vishnu, the Preserver, 
while the other proclaimed the superiority of Siva, who 
was called the Destroyer and the representative of 
terror and penance, barbarity and blood ; in Egypt, 
represented by Typhon. 

" These Mysteries, whatever may have been their 
origin, or for what purposes they were then instituted, 
were certainly a corruption of the original worship of 

1. Stillson and Hughan, The Histoiy of Freemasonry and 
Concordant Orders, see the chapter entitied " Hindoostan ", 
p. 74 el seq. 



the one Deity. They bore a direct reference to the happi- 
ness of Man in Paradise, where he was first placed ; his 
subsequent deviations and transgressions, and the 
destruction of the race by the general deluge... The 
great cavern of Elephanta, perhaps the most ancient 
temple in the world made by man, in which these 
rites were performed and remaining to the present day, 
is an evidence of the magnitude of that system... 

" The caverns of Salsette, of which there are three 
hundred, all have within them carved and emblematic 
characters. The different ranges of apartments are 
connected by open galleries, and only by private 
entrances could the most secret caverns, which con- 
tained the ineffable symbols, be approached, and so 
curiously contrived as to give the highest effect upon 
the neophytes when in the ceremonial of initiation. 
A cubical cisia, used for the periodical sepulture of 
the aspirant, was located in the most secret recesses 
of the cavern. The consecrated water of absolution 
was held in a carved basin in every cavern, and on the 
surface floated the flowers of the lotus. The Linga or 
Phallus appeared everywhere most conspicuous, and 
oftentimes in situations too disgusting to be mentioned... 

" Sacrifices to the sun, to the planets, and to house- 
hold gods, were made accompanied with ablutions of 
water, purifications with dung and urine of the cow. 
This last was because the dung was the medium by 
which the soil was made fertile and reminded them of 
the doctrine of ' Corruption and reproduction ' taught 
in the worship of Siva. " 

An initiation is thus described : 

" Amidst all the confusion, a sudden explosion was 
heard, which was followed by a dead silence. Flashes 
of brilliant light were succeeded by darkness. Phantoms 
and shadows of various forms, surrounded by rays of 


light, flitted across the gloom. Some with many hands, 
arms, and legs; others without them; sometimes a 
shapeless trunk, then a human body with the head of 
a bird, or beast, or a fish ; all manner of incongruous 
forms and bodies were seen, and all calculated to excite 
terror in the mind of the postulant. 

" A gorgeous appearance, with unnumbered heads, 
each having a crown set with resplendent jewels, one 
of which excelled the others; his eyes gleamed like 
flaming torches, but his neck, his tongues and his body 
were black ; the skirts of his garments were yellow, and 
sparkling jewels hung in all of his ears ; his arms were 
extended, and adorned with bracelets, and his hands 
bore the holy shell; the radiated weapon, the war 
mace, and the sacred lotus. This image represented 
Mahadeva"" himself, in his character of the Destroyer. " 

Among other learned authorities, writing on these 
subjects, is Jacolliot who gives the following descrip- 
tion of perverted Brahminism : 

" The study of philosophic truth does not relieve 
the Nirvanys and Yogys from the necessity of the tapas- 
sas, or bodily mortifications. On the contrary, it would 

seem that they carry them to the greatest extremes 

Everything that affects or consumes the body, every- 
thing that tends to its annihilation, without actually 
destroying it, is thought to be meritorious. 

" Several centuries previous to the present era, 
however, these bodily mortifications had assumed a 
character of unusual severity. 

" To the contemplative dreamers of the earliest ages 
in India, who devoted the whole of their time to medi- 
tation, and never engaged in practices involving phy- 

2. Mafia (Sanscrit) = grand. 

3. Louis Jacolliot, Occult Science in India, pp. 92-93. 


sical suffering oftener than once a week, had suc- 
ceeded a class of bigoted fanatics, who placed no limit 
to their religious enthusiasm, and inflicted upon them- 
selves the most terrible tortures. 

" A spiritual reaction, however, occurred, and those 
who had been initiated into the higher degrees took 
that opportunity to abandon the practice of the tapas- 
sas, or corporal mortification. They sought rather to 
impress the imagination of the people by excessive 
asceticism in opposition to the laws of nature. A pro- 
found humility, an ardent desire to live unknown by 
the world, and to have the divinity as the only witness 
to the purity of their morals, took possession of them, 
and though they continued the practice of excessive 
abstemiousness, they did so perhaps more that they 
might not seem to be in conflict with the formal teach- 
ings of the sacred scriptures. 

" That kind of austerity is the only one now enjoined 
upon all classes of initiates. 

" The Fakirs appear to have gradually monopolized 
all the old modes of inflicting pain, and have carried 
them to the greatest extremes. They display the most 
unbounded fanaticism in their self-inflicted tortures 
upon all great public festivals 

" The Nirvanys live in a constant state of ecstatic 
contemplation, depriving themselves of sleep as far 
as possible, and taking food only once a week, after 

" They are never visible either in the grounds or 
inside the temples, except on the occasion of the grand 
festival of fire, which occurs every five years. On that 
day, they appear at midnight upon a stand erected 
in the centre of the sacred tank. They appear like 

4. Bataille, op. cit., for a fanciful description of such rites. 


spectres, and the surrounding atmosphere is illumined 
by them by means of their incantations. They seem to 
be in the midst of a column of light rising from earth to 

" The seven degrees of initiation in the sacerdotal 
cast of the Brahmins are : 

Grihasta — or House-Master. 

Pourohita — or Priest of Popular Evocations. 

Fakir — Performing. 

Sanyassis — or Naked Cenobites, Superior Exorcists. 

Nirvanys — Naked Evocators. 

Yogys — Contemplative. 

Brahmatma — Supreme Chief 

" Upon reaching the third degree of initiation, the 
Brahmins were divided into tens, and a superior Guru, 
or professor of the occult sciences, was placed over each 
decade. He was revered by his disciples as a god. 

" Seventy Brahmins more than seventy years old 
are chosen from among the Nirvanys to see that the 
law of the Lotus, or the occult science, is never revealed 
to the vulgar, and that those who have been initiated 
into the sacred order are not contaminated by the 
admission of any unworthy person. " (Quoted from the 

" In addition to its attributes as an initiatory tribunal, 
the council of the elders also had charge of adminis- 
tering the pagoda property, from which it made provi- 
sion for the wants of its members (of the three classes) 
who shared everything in common. It also directed 
the wanderings of the Fakirs, whose duty it is to give 
manifestations of occult power outside. 

It also elected the Brahmatma from its own members. 

5. Louis Jacolliot, op. cit., p. 72. and Bataille, op. cit. 

6. Louis Jacolliot, op. cit., pp. 73 to 101. 


With regard to the rise to power of the Brahmin 
caste in India, Mr. Jacolliot writes in Les Fils de Dieu : 

" Doubtless, in the midst of this new society discon- 
tent and discord were unavoidable. Happy in the power 
they had secured, the chiefs of the Brahmins, however, 
had to consider means for preserving and insuring it 
against a reversal of popular favour. At this distance, 
it is impossible for us to judge the mental influences at 
work during a period covering about two thousand 
years, that is to say, from the day when the priests 
united into a kind of corporation to the time when, 
enjoying unchallenged authority, they published the 
Vedhas. This was a collection of prayers and ancient 
ceremonies interspersed with the texts necessary to 
maintaining their supremacy under the name of Manou 
(Sanscrit meaning : wise law giver), a new code of law 
which, rejecting all the ancient customs of equality 
and dividing the people into castes, invested the Brah- 
mins with world power and established the dogma of the 
Trimourti or Trinity of God, from which eventually 
was to spring polytheism and a host of the most mons- 
trous superstitions. 

" This religious revolution occurred about twelve 
thousand years before our era, under the Brahmatma 

" The Vedhas and Manou, collected and codified by 
the Brahmins were given as coming from Brahma him- 
self, and anyone doubting the truth of this origin was 
liable to the penalty of death. " 

As among the Ancient Egyptians the teaching 
of monotheism was restricted to the highest initiates 
alone. Jacolliot emphasises this when he writes : 

" The worship of the one God or Zeus unrevealed, 
reserved to the priests, was forbidden to the lower 


classes, but three temples dedicated to the three persons- 
of the Trimourti, Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, opened their 
doors to the adoration of the people, all of whom were 
allowed to select one of the three personages of the 
trinity they would prefer to worship. " 

This division in religious worship which eventually 
led to the caste system shows the power of theocratic 
tyranny, the Brahmins, seeking to justify the method 
whereby the control of the masses is vested in the hands 
of a few, when preaching in the pagodas, even now 
say : " See how logical is this system of division of the 
people into castes. It was formed in the likeness of the 
divinity, Zeus, sovereign master of all things, but 
taking no action himself. This is the Brahmin priest 
Brahma, the God who creates, who acts, who directs, 
that is the aristocrat or the prince ; Vishnu, the God 
who preserves, that is the artisan, the merchant, who 
produces taxes, preserving and assuring the prosperity 
of the State by his work and industry. As for Siva, the 
terrible God, he keeps the Soudra (peasant) in a state 
of humility and obedience appropriate to his station 
in life. 

" Another very important function appears how- 
ever to have been early assigned to him, on which much 
more stress is laid in his (Siva) modern worship — that 
of destroyer — viz., the character of a generative power, 
symbolized in the phallic emblem (Linga) and in the 
sacred bull (Nandi), the favourite attendant of the god. 
This feature being entirely alien from the nature of the 
Vedic god, it has been conjectured with some plausi- 
bility, that the Linga-worship was originally prevalent 
among the non-Aryan population, and was thence 
introduced into the worship of Siva. 

7. Article on Brahminism : Eric. Brit. 9th Edition. 


One of the most curious facts in the Theocratic 
System ruling India is that the principle of equality 
is evidenced only in the teaching and practice of Occul- 
tism. Members of all castes are admitted on the same 
footing to learn magic or fakirism and compose the 
class known under the name of Fakirs. This system of 
equality is similar to the brotherhood principle and 
teaching of democracy advocated in Freemasonry 
which was so effectively exploited in all the lodges that 
fomented the French Revolution. 

" As all castes are admitted to the congregation 
of the Fakirs, the lowest of the soudras on entering it 
becomes the equal of the Brahmins. In spreading the 
belief that whosoever consented to enrol among the 
high initiates of the pagoda, and to die for the faith, 
was transported to the abode of Brahma without 
accomplishing further migration on earth or having to 
pass through hell, the Brahmins provided for an 
inexhaustible supply of fakirs. " 

" Before entering the category of fakir, those who 
are destined to illustrate the ceremonies of the cults 
by their tortures and death, the new recruits practise 
the occult sciences under the direction of initiated 
Brahmins in the innermost recesses of the pagodas. " 

While " there are indeed extraordinary phenomena 
in what is termed by the Brahmins occult science, there 
are none which cannot be explained and which are not 
in accordance with the law of nature. " 

" To become expert in magic, like the believers in 
the philosophic doctrine of the Pitris, the pupil must 
learn, from a magician whom the sorcerers call their 
Guru, the formulas of evocation, by means of which the 
malign spirits are brought into complete subjection. 

" Some of these spirits the magician evokes in pre- 


ference to others, probably on account of their willing- 
ness to do anything that may be required of them. " 

" An intimate connection exists between the doctrine 
of the ancient Jewish Cabalists and those of the Hindu 
votaries of the Pitris — or spirits — whose scientific 
book is the Agrouchada-parikchai. 

" It would be impossible to enumerate the different 
drugs, ingredients and implements that compose the 
stock-in-trade of a magician. " 

The standard Indian book on magic is the Oupnek'hat. 
Therein is to be found a detailed description of methods 
available for producing catalepsy, somnambulism, 
hallucination and ecstasy by strength of will and fatigue 
of the nervous system. 

This is what is known to the modern common-sense 
mortal as " Yogi stuff ", and it is mostly based on 
breathing exercises. 

We will now quote from Mr. Sellon : 

" It is a little remarkable that of the host of 
Divinities, especially in Bengal, Siva is the God whom 
they are especially delighted to honour. As the Destroyer, 
and one who revels in cruelty and bloodshed, this terrible 
deity, who has not inaptly been compared to the Moloch 
of Scripture, of all their Divinities suggests most our 
idea of the Devil. It may therefore be concluded that 
the most exalted notion of worship among the Hindus is 
a service of Fear. The Brahmins say that the other 
Gods are good and benevolent, and will not hurt their 
creatures, but that Siva is powerful and cruel, and 
that it is necessary to appease him. 

8. Jacolliot, op. cit. 

9. Ibid. 

10. E. Levi, Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie, p. 70. et seq. 


" Although this deity is sometimes represented in 
the human form in his images, it is not thus that he 
is most frequently adored. The most popular repre- 
sentation of him is unquestionably the Linga ; a smooth 
stone rising out of another stone of finer texture, 
simulacrum membri virilis, et pudendum muliebre. 
This emblem is identical with Siva in his capacity of 
' Lord of all.' •' 

" It is necessary, however, to observe here that 
Professor Wilson, while admitting that ' the Linga 
is perhaps the most ancient object of homage adopted 
in India', adds, ' subsequently to the ritual of the 
Vedhas, which was chiefly, if not wholly, addressed to 
the Elements, and particularly to fire. How far the 
worship of the Linga is authorized by the Vedhas is 
doubtful, but that it is the main purport of several 
of the Puranas there can be no doubt.' ^^ 

" The worship of Siva under the type of the Linga 
is almost the only form in which that deity is reverenced. 
Its prevalence throughout the whole tract of the Ganges 
as far as Benares is sufficiently conspicuous. In Bengal, 
the Lingam Temples are commonly erected in a range 
of six, eight, or twelve on each side of a Ghaut leading 
to the river. At Kalma is a circular group of one hun- 
dred and eight temples erected by the Rajah of Burdwan. 
These temples, and indeed all those found in Bengal, 
consist of a simple chamber of a square form surmounted 
by a pyramidal centre ; the area of each is very small. 
The Linga of black or white marble, and sometimes of 
alabaster slightly tinted and gilt, is placed in the 
middle. " '^ 

11. Edward Sellon, Annotations on the Sacred Writings of 
the Hindus, p. 8. 

12. Ibid., p. 8. 

13. Ibid., p. 10. 


" Benares is the peculiar seat of this form of worship. 
The principal Deity, Siva, there called Viweswarra, is 
a Linga ; and most of the chief objects of pilgrimage 
are similar blocks of stone. No less than forty-seven 
Lingas are visited, all of preeminent sanctity; but 
there are hundreds of inferior note still worshipped, 
and thousands whose fame and fashion have passed 
away. It is a singular fact, that upon this adoration 
of the procreative and sexual Sacti (or power) seen 
"throughout nature, hinges the whole gist of the Hindu 
faith. '^ 

" Bacchus or Osiris was represented by an equi- 
lateral triangle, and the sectarian mark of the worship- 
pers of Siva is this hieroglyphic. The worship of 
Bacchus was the same as that which is paid to Siva, 
it had the same obscenities, the same cruel bloodthirsty 
rites, and the same emblem of the generative power. ^ 

" Durga, Kali, or Maha Kali as the Sacti, spouse or 
energetic will of Siva, the destructive power, bears 
a remarkable analogy with the Moloch of Scripture, 
as well as with Typhon, Saturn, Dis, Pluto, and other 
divinities of the West. 

" When the attributes of the Supreme Being began 
to be viewed in the light of distinct individuals, mankind 
attached themselves to the worship of the one or the 
other exclusively, and arranged themselves into sects : 
the worshippers of Siva introduced the doctrine of the 
eternity of matter. In order to reconcile the apparent 
contradiction of assigning the attribute of creation to 
the principle of Destruction, they asserted that the 

14. Ibid., p. 12. 

15. Ibid., p. 20. 

16. Ibid., p. 21. 


dissolution and destruction of bodies was not real 
with respect to matter, which was in itself indestruc- 
tible, although its modifications were in a constant 
succession of mutation ; that the power must neces- 
sarily unite in itself the attributes of creation and 
apparent destruction ; that this power and matter 
are two distinct and co-existent principles in nature ; 
the one active, the other passive ; the one male, the other 
female; and that creation was the effect of the myster- 
ious union of the two. 

" This Union is worshipped under a variety of names : 
Bhava, Bhavani, Mahadeva, Mahamaya, etc. Thus the 
attribute of creation was usurped from Brahma, by 
the followers of Siva, to adorn and characterise their 
favourite divinity. " 

" This seems to have been a popular worship for a 
great length of time, out of which sprang two sects : 
the one personified the whole Universe and dispensa- 
tions of providence (in the regulation of it) under the 
name of Prakriti, and which we from the Latin call 
nature. This sect retains the Sacti only, and were the 
originators of the Sactas sects, or worshippers of Power. 
The other sect took for their symbol the Male emblem 
(Linga) unconnected with the female Sacti (or Yoni). 
There was also a third sect, who adored both male and 

" According to Theodoret, Arnobius, and Clemens 
of Alexandria, the Yoni of the Hindus was the sole 
object of veneration in the mysteries of Eleusis. 

" It is not only the votaries of Siva who adore 
their God under the symbolic form of the Linga; the 
Vaishnavas, or followers of Vishnu, use the same 

17. ibid., p. 23. 


medium. They also are Lingayetts, one of the essential 
characteristics of which is wearing the Type on some 
part of their dress or person. 

" The Vaishnavas are divided into many sects. They 
comprise the Ghoculasthas, the Yonijas, the Ramani, 
and Radha-balluthis. 

" The Ghoculasthas adore Krishna, while the Ramani 
worship Rama ; both have again branched into three 
sects — one consists of the exclusive worshippers of 
Krishna, and these only are deemed true and orthodox 
Vaishnavas... As Parameswarra, Krishna is represented 
of a black or dark blue colour. Now the Tulasi is the 
black Ocymum, and all animals or vegetables of a black 
or blue colour are sacred to him. His linga also is always 
either black or dark blue, and may thus be distinguished 
from that of Siva, which is generally white. 

" This divinity, as Parameswarra, is Janan'nauth 
(Juggernaut), or ' Lord of the Universe ', and it is 
under the wheels of his sacred car that so many mis- 
guided beings annually immolated themselves. 

" To return, however, to the Vaishnavas. Another 
of their sects adore Krishna and his mistress Radha 
united. These are the Lingionijas, whose worship is 
perhaps the most free of all the Pujas. A third, the 
Radha-ballubhis, dedicate their offerings to Radha 
only. The followers of these last mentioned sects have 
adopted the singular practice of presenting to a naked 
girl the oblation intended for the Goddess, constituting 
her the living impersonation of Radha. Rut when a 
female is not to be obtained for this purpose, the votive 
offerings are made to an image of the Yoni, or emblem 
of the feminine power. These worshippers are called 

IS. Ibid., p. 40. 


Yonijas, in contradistinction to the Lingayats, or ador- 
ers of the Krishna (Vishnu) Linga. 

" As the Saivas are all worshippers of Siva and 
Bowannee (Pavati) conjointly, so the Vaishnavas also 
offer up their prayers to Laksmi-Nayarana. The exclu- 
sive adorers of this Goddess are the Sactas. 

" The caste mark of the Saivas and Sactas consists 
of three horizontal lines on the forehead with ashes 
obtained, if possible, from the hearth on which a conse- 
crated fire is perpetually maintained. The adoration of 
the Sacti is quite in accordance with the spirit of the 
mythological system of the Hindus. It has been com- 
puted that, of the Hindus in Bengal, at least three- 
fourths are Sactas, of the remaining fourth, three parts 
are Vaishnavas, and one, Saivas. 

" Independently of the homage paid to the principal 
Deities, there are a great variety of inferior beings, 
Dewtas, and demi-gods of a malevolent character and 
formidable aspect, who receive the worship of the multi- 
tude. The bride of Siva, however, in one or other of her 
many and varied forms, is by far the most popular 
goddess in Bengal and along the Ganges. 

" The worship of the female generative principle, as 
distinct from the Divinity, appears to have originated 
in the literal interpretation of the metaphorical lan- 
guage of the Vedhas, in which Will, or purpose to Create 
the Universe, is represented as originating from the 
Creator and co-existent with him as his bride, and part 
of himself. " 

" Although the adoration of the Sacti (the personified 
energy of the Omnipotent) is authorized by some of 
the Puranas, the rites and formulae are more clearly 
set forth in a voluminous collection of books called 
Tantras. These writings convey their meaning in the 


similitude of dialogue between Uma (or Siva) and Pavati. 

" The followers of the Tantras profess to consider 
them as a fifth Vedh, and attribute to them equal 
antiquity and superior authority. " 

" The Tantras are too numerous to specify them 
further, but the curious reader will find them under 
the heads of Syama Rahasya, Anandra, Rudra, Yamala, 
Mandra, Mahodahi, Sareda, Tilika, and Kalika-Tantras. 

" Although any of the goddesses may be objects 
of the Sacta worship, and the term Sacti comprehends 
them all, yet the homage of the Sactas is almost restric- 
ted, in Bengal, to the consort of Siva. The Varnis, or 
Vamacharis, worship Devi as well as all goddesses. 
Their worship is derived from a portion of the Tantras. 

" According to the immediate object of the worship- 
per is the particular form of worship ; but all the forms 
require the use of some or all of the five Makaras — 
Mansa, Matsya, Madya, Maithuna, and Mudra — that 
is : flesh, fish, wine, women, and certain mystical gesti- 
culations with the fingers. Suitable Muntrus, or incan- 
tations, are also indispensable, according to the end 
proposed, consisting of various unmeaning monosyllabic 
combinations of letters, of great imaginary efficacy. 

" When the object of worship is to acquire an inter- 
view with, and control over, impure spirits, a dead 
body is necessary. The adept is also to be alone, at 
midnight, in a cemetery or place where bodies are 
burnt. Seated on the corpse he is to perform the usual 
offerings, and if he do so without fear or disgust, the 
Dhutas, the Yoginis, and other male and female demons 
become his slaves. 

" In this and many of the observances practised, 

19. Ba.ta\l\&, Le Diable au XIX'' siecle, for fanciful description 
of such rites. 


solitude is enjoined, but all the principal ceremonies 
comprehend the worship of Sacti, or Power, and require, 
for that purpose, the presence of a young and beautiful 
girl, as the living representative of the goddess. This 
worship is mostly celebrated in a mixed society ; the 
men of which represent Bhairavas, or Viras, and the 
women, Bhanravis and Nayikas. The Sacti is personi- 
fied by a naked girl, to whom meat and wine are 
offered, and then distributed among the assistants. 
Here follows the chanting of the Muntrus and sacred 
texts, and the performance of the Mudra, or gesticu- 
lations with the fingers. The whole terminates with 
orgies amongst the votaries of a very licentious descrip- 
tion. This ceremony is entitled the Sri Chakra or Purna- 
bisheka. The Ring or full Initiation. 

" This method of adoring the Sacti is unquestionably 
acknowledged by the texts regarded by the Vanis as 
authorities for the impurities practised. 

" The members of the sect are sworn to secrecy, 
and will not therefore acknowledge any participation 
in Sacta-Puja. Some years ago, however, they began 
to throw off this reserve, and at the present day they 
trouble themselves very little to disguise their initia- 
tion into its mysteries, but they do not divulge in what 
those mysteries consist. 

" The Kauchiluas are another branch of the Sactas 
sect; their worship much resembles that of the Caulas. 
They are, however, distinguished by one particular 
rite not practised by the others, and throw into confu- 
sion all the ties of female relationship ; natural re- 
straints are wholly disregarded, and a community of 
"women among the votaries inculcated. 

" On the occasions of the performance of divine 

20. Sellon, op. cit, p. 53 et seq. 


worship, the women and girls deposit their " julies ", 
or bodices, in a box in charge of the Guru, or priest. 
At the close of the rites, the male worshippers take 
each a " julie " from the box, and the female to whom 
it belongs, even were she his sister, becomes his partner 
for the evening in these lascivious orgies. 

" In every temple of any importance in India we 
find a troupe of Nautch or dancing girls attached. 

" These women are generally procured when quite 
young, and are early initiated into all the mysteries of 
their profession. They are instructed in dancing and 
vocal and instrumental music, their chief employment 
being to chant the sacred hymns, and perform nautches 
before the God, on the recurrence of high festivals. 
But this is not the only service required of them, for 
besides being the acknowledged mistresses of the offi- 
ciating priests, it is their duty to prostitute themselves 
in the courts of the temple to all comers, and thus raise 
funds for the enrichment of the place of worship to 
which they belong... A Nautch woman esteems it a 
peculiar privilege to become the Radha Dea on such 
occasions. It is an office indeed which these adepts 
are, on every account, better calculated to fulfil with 
satisfaction to the sect of Sacteyas, who require their 
aid, than a more innocent and unsophisticated girl. 

" The worship of Sacti is the adoration of Power, 
which the Hindus typify by the Yoni, or womb, the 
Argha or vulva, and by the leaves and flowers of cer- 
tain plants thought to resemble it. 

" In Ananda Tantram, cap. VII, 148, and other pas- 
sages, reference is made to Bhagamala. She appears 

21. Author's note : Sex power = Kundalini, electro-magnetic 
force, astral light, fire. 

22. See Lotus-Padma, explanation in chapter on Symbolism. 


to be the goddess who presides over the pudendum 
muliebre, i.e. the deified vulva ; and the Sacti is thus 

" Such are some of the peculiar features of the 
worship of Power (or Gnosticism), and which, combined 
with the Linga Puga (or adoration of the Phallus), 
constitutes at the present day one of the most popular 
dogmas of the Hindus. " 

Heckethorn tells us that the Maharajas constitute 
another sect of priests and adds : " It appears abun- 
dantly from the works of recognized authority written 
by Maharajas, and from existing popular belief in the 
Vallabhacharya sect, that Vallabhacharya is believed 
to have been an incarnation of the god Krishna, and 
that the Maharajas, as descendants of Vallabhacharya, 
have claimed and received from their followers the 
like character of incarnations of that god by hereditary 
succession. The ceremonies of the worship paid to Krishna 
through these priests are all of the most licentious 
character. The love and subserviency due to a Supreme 
Being are here materialized and transferred to those 
who claim to be the living incarnations of the god. 
Hence the priests exercise an unlimited influence over 
their female votaries, who consider it a great honour to 
acquire the temporary regard of the voluptuous Maha- 
rajas, the belief in whose pretensions is allowed to 
interfere, almost vitally, with the domestic relations of 
husband and wife. " 

Miss Mayo, in her book Mother India, published in 
1927, gives an interesting description of a temple of 
Kali. " Kali Ghat " — place of Kali — is the root- 
word of the name Calcutta. " Kali is a Hindu goddess, 

23. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, 
vol. II, p. 307. 


wife of the great god Siva, whose attribute is destruc- 
tion and whose thirst is for blood and death-sacrifice. " 

Kali has thousands of temples in India, great 
and small. 

Heckethorn further explains that " the association 
of Thugs, after having existed in India for centuries, 
was only discovered in 1810. The names by which the 
members were known to each other, and also to others, 
was Funsiegeer, that is, ' men of the noose '. The 
name Thug is said to be derived from thaga, to deceive, 
because the Thugs get hold of their victims by luring 
them into false security. One common mode of decoying 
young men having valuables upon them is to place a 
young and handsome woman by the wayside, and appa- 
rently in great grief, who, by some pretended tale of 
misfortune, draws him into the jungle, where the gang 
are lying in ambush, and on his appearance strangle 
him. The gang consists of from ten to fifty members ; 
and they will follow or accompany the marked-out 
victim for days, nor attempt his murder until an oppor- 
tunity, offering every chance of success, presents itself. 
After every murder they perform a religious ceremony, 
called Jagmi; and the division of the spoil is regulated 
by old-established laws — the man that threw the 
handkerchief gets the largest share, the man that held 
the hands the next largest proportion, and so on. In 
some gangs their property is held in common. Their 
crimes are committed in honour of Kali who hates our 
race, and to whom the death of man is a pleasing 

" Kali, or Bhowany, for she is equally well known 
by both names, was, according to the Indian legend, 
born of the burning eye which Shiva has on his forehead, 

24. Heckethorn, op. cil., p. 318, vol. 11. 


•whence she issued, like the Greek Minerva, out of the 
skull of Jupiter, a perfect and full-grown being. She 
represents the Evil Spirit, delights in human blood, 
presides over plague and pestilence, and directs the 
storm and hurricane, and ever aims at destruction. 
She is represented under the most frightful effigy the 
Indian mind could conceive ; her face is azure, streaked 
with yellow ; her glance is ferocious ; she wears her 
dishevelled and bristly hair displayed like the pea- 
cock's tail and braided with green serpents. Her purple 
lips seem streaming with blood ; her tusk-like teeth 
descend over her lower lip ; she has eight or ten arms, 
each hand holding some murderous weapon, and some- 
times a human head dripping with gore. With one foot 
she stands on a human corpse. She has her temples, 
in which the people sacrifice cocks and bullocks to 
her, but her priests are the Thugs, the ' Sons of Death ', 
who quench the never-ending thirst of this divine 

As regards the sect of Kali's worshippers, Hecke- 
thorn gives the following details : 

" A newly admitted member takes the appellation 
of Sahib-Zada. He commences his infamous career as 
lughah, or gravedigger, or as belhal, or explorer of 
the spots most convenient for executing a projected 
assassination, or bhil. In this condition he remains 
for several years, until he has given abundant proof 
of his ability and good will. He is then raised to the 
degree of Bhuttotah, or strangler, which advancement, 
however, is preceded by new formalities and ceremonies. 
On the day appointed for the ceremony, the candidate 
is conducted by his guru into a circle, formed in the 

25. Heckethorn, op. cit, vol. II, p. 318 and, for recent 
corroboration, see Katherine Mayo, Mother India. 


sands and surrounded by mysterious hieroglyphics, 
where prayers are offered up to their deity. The cere- 
mony lasts four days, during which the candidate is 
allowed no other food but milk. He occupies himself in 
practising the immolation of victims fastened to a cross 
erected in the ground. On the fifth day the priest 
gives him the fatal noose, washed in holy water and 
anointed with oil, and after more religious ceremonies, 
he is pronounced a perfect bhuttotah. He binds himself 
by fearful oaths to maintain the most perfect silence 
on all that concerns the society, and to labour without 
ceasing towards the destruction of the human race. 
He is the rex sacrificulus, and the person he encoun- 
ters, and Bhowany places in his way, the victim. Cer- 
tain persons, however, are excepted from the attacks 
of the Thugs. " 

The political significance of such a sect in any Theoc- 
rasy can be easily understood when one realizes what 
it means to the rulers of a land to have at their disposal 
a staff of fanatics trained to kill anyone on the order 
of a priest! The utility of such organizations is obvious 
in a hierarchy where the rulers are also priests reigning 
by "Divine Right". 

26. Heckethorn, op. cit, vol. II, p. 323. 



While the origin of Mazdeism seems shrouded in 
mystery, one may nevertheless recognize its antiquity, 
probably the same as that of the Rig-Vedha, for it has 
been proved by Eugene Bournouf and Spiegel that 
certain parts of the AvesTa are as old as the Rig, and 
the many similarities of this religion with that of the 
Vedhas proves that Mazdeism must have had its origin 
at the time when the Aryans undertook the conquest 
of India, that is to say seventeen to eighteen centuries 
before our era. 

From Le Mazdeisme, I'avesta of G. de Lafont, we 
extract the following facts : The historic role of Media 
began with Ouwakshatara, a name written by the 
Greeks Kyouxares, the founder of the Median empire. 
After defeating the Scythians, Kyouxares went to 
Assyria where he laid siege to Nineveh, after the de- 
struction of which the Assyrian empire came to an end. 
(612 B. C.) 

Kyouxares left a son Astyage whose daughter Man- 
dane married the Persian Cambyses and from their 

1 . Passim. 



union sprang the great Cyrus the founder of the Per- 
sian empire. 

The Parthian dynasty of the Arsacides, who reigned 
from 256 B. C. until 226 A. D., marks a fatal period 
for Mazdeism. It was only on the accession of Ardeschir 
Babejan, the founder of the Sassanide dynasty, that 
Mazdeism regained its strength. With Ardeshir, Maz- 
deism became the state religion and Shapour II caused 
all the Avesta texts treating of philosophy, medicine, 
cosmogony and astronomy to be collected. 

Under the last Sassanides appeared several heretical 
sects, the most celebrated of which were those of Manes 
and of Mazdeck. However, in the seventh century, 
came the Arab conquest; with Yesdegirt the Persian 
empire of the Sassanides disappeared and with it the 
influence of Mazdeism. 

Towards the tenth century, a few thousand Per- 
sians, faithful to the old cult, went into exile taking 
with them their laws and altars. Some of these took 
refuge in the Kirman in the Yezd while the others fled 
to India where they now constitute the well known 
sect of the Parsees. 

The Zend Avesta, the sacred book of Persia and of 
the modern Parsees, contains the teaching of Zoroaster 
(Zarathustra), a reformer, said to have lived some 
7000 years before Christ. It was first translated into 
French by Hyacinthe-Anquetil Duperron in 1761. 

The Chevalier de Ramsay, giving Plutarch as his 
authority, says : — " Zoroaster taught that there are 
two Gods contrary to each other in their Operations, 
the one the Author of all the Good, the other of all 
the Evil in Nature. The good Principle he calls Oro- 
mazes, (Ahura-Mazda) the other the Daemon Arima- 
nius (Agra-Mainyus). He says that the one resembles 
Light and Truth, the other Darkness and Ignorance. 


There is likewise a middle God between these two 
named Mythras, whom the Persians call the Intercessor 
or Mediator. Mythras is the Yazata (spirit) of light 
and the guardian of justice and truth. " 

For the benefit of the reader we compile the follow- 
ing interesting information from the previously men- 
tioned author, G. de Lafont : 

Pure Zoroastrianism was monotheistic, for in the 
beginning Ahura-Mazda was recognized as infinitely 
more powerful than Agra-Mainyus, thus dualism, or 
the potential equality of these two deities, was actually 
the development of a later corruption of the Zoroas- 
trian teaching. 

The Avesta, the bible of Mazdeism, containing the 
revelations of Ahura-Mazda to the Prophet Zoroaster, 
is composed of two principal parts — the Avesta, con- 
taining the Vendidad, the Yacnca and the Vispered, 
and the Khorda Avesta, or little Avesta, itself composed 
of six parts. 

Mazdeism taught the immortality of the soul, a 
compensating justice in another world of Heaven or 
Hell, the resurrection of the body, the last judgment 
and the freedom of the soul to choose between right 
and wrong as a free agent, as opposed to the Islamic 
theory of fatalism. 

Oromazes is the Universal Creator of all that is 
good, eternal, he created the Good Genii, the spiritual 
and material world ; man is his creature, and at the 
end of time he will resurrect him to endow him with 
eternal happiness and will cause the powers of evil 
and evil itself to vanish from the earth. No cult is 
rendered to Agra-Mainyus (Lucifer) who, with his 
Devas (evil spirits) fights Ahura-Mazda (God) through 
the ages. 

Fire, in the Mazdean religion, was worshipped as 


the luminous and pure element, the work of Ahura- 
Mazda and for that reason always burns sheltered 
from defilement. But it is not material fire that in this 
case is to be considered as a Yazata. The Avesta dis- 
tinguishes several kinds of fire : 

1. Berezucavanha, or internal fire of the earth. 

2. Vohufryana or fire of the human body and animals. 

(Kundalini, Sex-force, Serpent Power). 

3. Urvazista or fire of vegetation. 

4. Vazista or fire of lightning. 

5. Cpenista or fire of Ahura-Mazda, represented by the fire 

on the Altar. 

The Fravashis (modern Ferouers) are supposed to 
be the souls of the dead deified. Their cult also forms 
the basis of the Ancestor worship, of the Pitris of 
India and the Manes of Latin Countries. 

According to Geiger, by " Fravashis " must be 
understood the immortal, divine part in man, which 
unites with a body for a limited time only. Consequently 
there are Fravashis of those who are dead, of those 
who are living, and of those who are still unborn. 
Darmstater further explains that the Fravashis are 
the spiritual form of a being, independent of its mate- 
rial life and anterior to it. According to Mazdean 
teaching, Oromazes offered to the Ferouers of men 
the choice of remaining in the spiritual world or of 
descending on earth to incarnate in human bodies. 

At the advent of death, corpses were supposed 
immediately to become the prey of the Demon Druge 
Nacus, the demon of the impurity of corpses. Thus, it 
being most essential never to allow the elements of 
fire, water and earth to be sullied by contact with 
anything unclean, the funeral rites and ceremonies of 
the Mazdeans differ from those of other religions. 


Their ancient customs persist today among the Parsees 
of India where the bodies of the dead are carried to 
" The Towers of Silence " there to be exposed and 
devoured by the birds of prey. 

Besides the many other parallels between Mazdeism 
and Christianity, the deity of the Mazdeans, their per- 
sonal God, Ahura-Mazda, was not a god of vengeance 
as was the Jehovah of the Jews. He was the essence of 
universal love, charity, justice and activity and the 
ideal of Mazdean virtue in early times was similar 
to that of the Christians of today. 


Jainism, which like Buddhism denies the authority 
of the Vedhas and is therefore regarded by the Brah- 
mins of India as heretical, may have been founded by 
Parsva whose death is placed at 250 years before that 
of Vardhamana Mahavira, the last of the prophets of 
the Jains and a contemporary of Buddha. 

Vardhamana Mahavira died at the age of 72 at Pava 
527 B. C. He had eleven disciples to whom he preached 
the law. Many authorities however believe the Jain 
Church to be as old as Brahminism itself. 

The following paragraph quoted from Hastings' 
Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics, article on 
Jainism, describes the Jain theory of the Transmi- 
gration of Souls as opposed to the orthodox theory 
of Reincarnation. It is here referred to as " a peculiarity 
of the Jains which had struck all observers more than 
any other, viz. their extreme carefulness not to destroy 
any living being, a principle which is carried out to 
its very last consequences in monastic life, and has 
shaped the conduct of the laity in a great measure. 


No layman will intentionally kill any living being, not 
even an insect, however troublesome : he will remove 
it carefully without hurting it. It goes without saying 
that the Jains are strict vegetarians. This principle of 
not hurting any living being bars them from some pro- 
fessions, e. g. agriculture, and has thrust them into 
commerce and especially into its least elevating 
branch of money-lending. Most of the money lending 
in Western India is in the hands of the Jains, and this 
accounts in a great measure both for their unpopula- 
rity and for their wealth. A remarkable institution 
of the Jains, due to their tender regard for animal life, 
is their asylums for old and diseased animals, the pan- 
jarapolas, where they are kept and fed till they die a 
natural death. " 

The reluctance on the part of an orthodox Jain to 
discourage vermin on the theory that a louse may 
actually be his reincarnated grandmother or a scor- 
pion some other reincarnated relative is only a logical 
development of his religious belief in the transmigra- 
tion of souls. 

The Jains are subdivided today into numerous schools 
each following the teachings of a certain master but 
united in certain fundamental beliefs. 



Previous to the Christian era, China, judging from 
the available annals, presented the spectacle of a 
country whose social life was based almost solely on 
what might be called the family cult. The metaphy- 
sical tradition, overshadowing the life of the people, 
leading to a monotheistic belief in a Supreme Being, 
was the knowledge and belief of a few. Vaguely, the 
people believed that the Monarch alone held commu- 
nication with the Sublime Sovereign or God. The rites 
had nothing of a religious character, they were purely 
social. Then in 1122 B. C, when the Chinese dynasty 
of Chang-Yin was overthrown by the Tcheou, there 
were introduced in China numerous innovations, most 
of them appertaining to magic and occultism, also 
brahminic and avestic dogmas and beliefs. The whole 
construction of social ideology in China had undergone 
a slow but radical change. The ground was prepared 
for the pantheistic teaching of the philosopher Lao-Tse 
whose doctrine was bitterly fought by Confucius (551- 
479) who opposed the dualist theory, and strove to 
regenerate the former state of Chinese social life, the 
cult of the family and ancestors. Moreover, the whole 
moral code of Confucius was contained in a few 



words : loyalty and good feeling towards one's 

Only in about 65 A. D. was Buddhism introduced 
in China, followed in turn by Mazdeism, Manicheism 
and Mahomedanism. 


More than any other country. Ancient Egypt was 
an illustration of theocratic power. There, priesthood 
ruled and adumbrated royalty. Depositories of the 
Indo-Iran tradition of Ra, Zarathustra and Manu, 
the priests of Thebes and Memphis made of Egypt 
the fortress of antique esoterism. Their Sovereign Lord 
God and Teacher bore the name of Hermes or Thoth, 
the Great Initiator. In him were typified the three 
great powers of royalty, law-giving or legislative and 
high priesthood which made the Greeks, disciples of 
the Egyptians, surname him Hermes Trismegistus or 
thrice great. 

To Hermes was credited a large number of books 
containing the secrets of Indo-Aryan occult science. 
Fire was the first Principle, the basis of all teaching 
and the law of Ammon-Ra, the Sun God of Thebes. 

Only after the conquest of Egypt by the Hyksos 
(2000 B. C.) did the priests spread among the people 
the cult of Osiris and Isis and their son Horus. This 
popular religion served as a screen which most effec- 
tively shielded the Hermetic mysteries from intrusion 
and disclosure and safeguarded ancient and Aryan esoter- 
ism which had to fear annihilation at the hands of 



the priesthood of the black or Ethiopian race whose 
esoterism was based upon a different conception of 
occult and psychic knowledge. 

A striking example of the rivalry of the two esoteric 
schools is given in the Bible when Moses and Aaron, 
practising the magic taught them by the Ethiopian 
Jethro, failed to confound the Egyptian priests before 

Concealed behind the popular cult of Osiris and Isis 
was the soul of Egyptian esoterism which no one could 
reach, except after having been deemed worthy to 
penetrate the most sacred mysteries of Isis whose 
statue, with its face veiled, stood before the door of 
the temple of occultism. 

The trials of initiation which a candidate had to 
withstand before he beheld the light of Osiris and under- 
stood the " Vision of Hermes " were long and terrible. 
They were interspersed, however, by states of trance 
induced by special beverages, during which the initiate 
had voluptuous visions of Isis preceded by the five- 
pointed flamboyant star or the Rose of Isis. 

Two great flowing currents issued from the esoteric 
wisdom, jealously safeguarded by the Egyptians, namely: 
Mosaism or Judaism, taught by Moses whose God was 
Jehovah, and Orpheism taught by Orpheus whose God 
was Zeus or Jupiter. The former adapted his beliefs 
to suit the mentality of undisciplined, rebellious masses 
of Israelites in Egypt, hence a god of Fear and Ven- 
geance ; the latter legislated for a people whose hellenic 
genius touched sublime heights of philosophic wisdom 
on the one hand, and sought on the other to carry its 
irrepressible sense of beauty and light-heartedness in 
its pursuit of material pleasures. Hence the great dif- 
ference between the two currents which had derived 
their initial teaching from the same source. 


The Pharisees 

Judaism has been described by Moses Mendelssohn, 
a learned Jew, in this way : — " Judaism is not a reli- 
gion but a Law religionized. " This definition does away 
effectively with the erroneous belief prevalent among 
the non-Jews that Judaism is a religion. 

In spite of the loud and frequent assertions, made 
by Jews and Christian divines alike, contending that 
the Jews were the first monotheists, it is a well proven 
fact that the high initiates of the Memphis priesthood 
were monotheists long before the Jews ever went to 

Judaism would be best described as a rite or com- 
pendium of rites, for, if one lends belief to the existence 
of the Jewish Lawgiver, Moses, one must bear in mind 
that he first studied among the high initiates of 
Egypt, and later, became the pupil and son-in-law of 
black Jethro, the Ethiopian magician whom one might 
call the Father of Voodooism, name given to the magic 
practices and rites performed by the negroes. 

The closer one studies the history of the Jews, the 
clearer it appears that they are neither a religious entity 
nor a nation. The absolute failure of Zionism which 



was a desperate effort on the part of certain Jewish 
leaders to bind all the Jews of the world into a national 
entity, whose territory would have been Palestine, 
proves the futility of such an effort. 

Judaism is not a religion and the Jews are not a 
nation, but they are a sect with Judaism as a rite. 

The obligations and rules of the rite for the Jewish 
masses are contained in the Talmud and Schulchan 
Ariik, but the esoteric teachings for the higher initiates 
are to be found in the Cabala. 

Therein are contained the mysterious rites for evoca- 
tions, the indications and keys to practices for conju- 
ration of supernatural forces, the science of numbers, 
astrology, etc. 

The practical application of the Cabalist knowledge 
is manifested in the use made of it, through the ages, 
by Jews to gain influence both in the higher spheres 
of Gentile life and over the masses. Sovereigns and 
Popes, both, usually had one or more Jews as astrol- 
ogers and advisers, and they frequently gave Jews 
control over their very life by employing them as 
physicians. Political power was thus gained by Jews 
in almost every Gentile country alongside with finan- 
cial power, since Jewish court-bankers manipulated 
state funds and taxes. 

Through the ages also, can be followed the spreading 
power of the sect, and no more awful example of the 
devastating and destructive power of the penetration 
of a secret subversive society has ever been witnessed. 

With its B'nai B'rith Supreme Council as the direc- 
ting head, the sect with its members swarming among 
all nations has become the sovereign power ruling in 
the councils of all nations and governing their poli- 
tical, economic, religious and educational policies. 

In his book Nicholas II et les Juifs, Netchvolodow 


explains that " the Chaldean science acquired by 
many of the Jewish priests, during the captivity of 
Babylon, gave birth to the sect of the Pharisees whose 
name only appears in the Holy Scriptures and in the 
writings of the Jewish historians after the captivity 
(606 B. C). The works of the celebrated scientist Munk 
leave no doubt on the point that the sect appeared 
during the period of the captivity. 

" From then dates the Cabala or Tradition of the 
Pharisees. For a long time their precepts were only 
transmitted orally but later they formed the Talmud 
and received their final form in the book called the 
Sepher ha Zohar. " ' 

The Pharisees were, as it were, a class whose tendency 
was to form a kind of intellectual aristocracy among 
the Jews. At first, they formed a sort of brotherhood, 
a haburah, the members being called haburim or 
brothers. They were a subversive element, aiming 
at the overthrow of the Sadducean High-priesthood, 
whose members prided themselves on their aristocracy 
of blood and birth, to which the Pharisees opposed 
an aristocracy of learning. The war waged by the latter 
extends over a long period of time, and the rivalry was 
bitter. The Pharisees, who, although they professed, 
as one of their chief tenets, the utmost contempt of 
the am-haretz or simple people, did not overlook 
the fact that they needed their mass support for the 
attainment of their own aim, and they enlisted it by 
opposing the Sadducean strictness of the Law in many 
instances, namely, in the observance of the Sabbath. 

The power of the Sadducees fell with the destruction 
of the Temple by Titus and thenceforth the Pharisaic 
element held supremacy among the Jews. 

1. Lt. Gen. A. Netchvolodow, Nicolas II el les Juifs, p. 139. 


Quoting an acknowledged authority on Judaism, 
Mr. Flavien Brenier, Lt. Gen. Netchvolodow further 
describes the policy of the sect as follows : " 

" Before appearing proudly as the expression of 
Jewish aspirations. The Tradition of the Pharisees had 
serious difficulties to surmount, the chief of which was 
the revival of the orthodox faith stimulated in the 
Jewish people by the Captivity. To the exiles, bemoan- 
ing the fall of the Temple of Jerusalem and begging 
Jehovah to end the misfortunes of their homeland, the 
revelation that Jehovah was only a phantom, entailed 
not only certain defeat, but also their own exposure 
to perils the least of which would have been the loss 
of all authority over Israel. 

" The Pharisees then, judging it wiser to capture 
the confidence of their compatriots by taking the lead 
of the religious movement, affected a scrupulous obser- 
vance of the slightest prescriptions of the law and 
instituted the practice of complicated rituals, simul- 
taneously however cultivating the new doctrine in 
their secret sanctuaries. These were regular secret 
societies, composed during the captivity of a few hun- 
dred adepts. At the time of Flavius Josephus which was 
that of their greatest prosperity they numbered only 
some 6,000 members. 

" This group of intellectual pantheists was soon to 
acquire a directing influence over the Jewish nation. 
Nothing, moreover, likely to offend national sentiment 
ever appeared in their doctrines. However saturated 
with pantheistic Chaldeism they might have been, the 
Pharisees preserved their ethnic pride intact. This 
religion of Man divinised, which they had absorbed 
at Babylon, they conceived solely as applying to the 

2. Ibid., p. 139 et seq. 


profit of the Jew, the superior and predestined being. 
The promises of universal dominion which the orthodox 
Jew found in the Law, the Pharisees did not interpret 
in the sense of the reign of the God of Moses over the 
nations, but in that of a material domination to be 
imposed on the universe by the Jews. The awaited 
Messiah was no longer the Redeemer of original Sin, a 
spiritual victor who would lead the world, it was a 
temporal king, bloody with battle, who would make 
Israel master of the world and ' drag all peoples under 
the wheels of his chariot'. The Pharisees did not ask 
this enslavement of the nations of a mystical Jehovah, 
which they continued worshipping in public, only as 
a concession to popular opinion, for they expected its 
eventual consummation to be achieved by the secular 
patience of Israel and the use of human means. 

" Monstrously different from the ancient law were 
such principles as these, but they had nothing one 
could see, which might have rendered unpopular 
those who let them filter, drop by drop, among the 

" The admirably conceived organization of the Pha- 
risees did not fail soon to bear fruit. 

" One cannot better define its action in the midst 
of Jewish society before Jesus Christ, " said Mr. Fla- 
vien Brenier, " than in comparing it with that of the 
Freemasons in modern society. " 

" A carefully restricted membership tightly bound, 
imposing on their members the religion of ' the secret', 
the Pharisees pursued relentlessly their double aim 
which was : — 

1. The seizure of political power, by the possession of the 

great political offices (the influence of which was tremendous 
in the reconstituted Jewish nation) and the conquest of the 
Sanhedrin {Jewish parliament). 


" 2. To modify gradually the conceptions of the people in 
the direction of their secret doctrine. " 

The first of these aims was achieved when Hillel, 
a Pharisee of Babylon who claimed Davidic descent, 
was elected president of the Sanhedrin. Thus ended 
the bitter fight between the Pharisees and the Sad- 
ducees. Opposed to Hillel was Shammai, a Sadducee, 
supporter of the Sadducean High Priest who was made 
Chief Judge of the assembly. The attitude of the two men 
towards each other is amatterof long record in the Talmud 

Among the most noted Pharisees, after Hillel, are : — 

Yochanan ben Zakkai, founder of the school of Yamnai, 
Akibah who, with Bar Cochba, fomented the revolt 
against the Romans under Hadrian, rebellion ending 
with the order for the dispersion of Jews (132 A. D.) 
Also Simon ben Yohai, who might be termed the great 
Magician and Father of the Cabala, lastly Judah 
the Prince who compiled the Babylonian Talmud. 
Under these chiefs, the Pharisaic power was definitely 
established in the Sanhedrin. Those among the Jews 
who clung to the Sadducean tradition and refused to 
acknowledge the dominion of the Pharisees, remained 
as dissidents. Such were the Samaritans and the 
Karaites who rejected the Talmud. 

The second of the aims and its method of attain- 
ment is exposed in the so-called Protocols of the Wise 
Men of Zion so loudly denounced by the descendants 
of those who devised The Secret Doctrine in Israel, 
Israel here meaning the Jews as a religious community, 
most of whom remain quite ignorant of the intricate 
subversive schemes imputed to them. 

The attitude of Jesus Christ to this sect is definitely 
expressed in the New Testament (see Luke xi and 
John viii). 


Exoteric Judaism, the Jewish religion as practised 
in the twentieth century, is based on the Old Testa- 
ment, and on equally ancient commentaries on it, pre- 
served for ages as oral traditions, and known, as above 
stated, under the general name of The Talmud. All copies 
of this book were ordered to be burned by Philip IV, 
the Fair, King of France, in 1306, but the book sur- 
vived the holocaust. 

We know that the Jewish God is not the father of 
all men and the ideal of love, justice and mercy, like 
the Christian God, or even like Ahura-Mazda or Brahma. 
On the contrary, he is the God of vengeance down to 
the fourth generation, just and merciful only to his 
own people, but foe to all other nations, denying them 
human rights and commanding their enslavement that 
Israel might appropriate their riches and rule over 

The following quotations will serve to illustrate this 
point : — 

" And when the Lord thy God shall dehver them before 
thee ; thou shalt smite them, and utterly destroy them ; thou 
shalt make no covenant with them, nor shew mercy unto 
them. " — Deut. vii, 2. 

" For thou art an holy people unto the Lord thy God ; 
the Lord thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people 
unto himself, above all people that are upon the face of the 
earth. " — Deut. vii, 6. 

The Talmud comments upon it ; " You are human 
beings, but the nations of the world are not human 
beings but beasts. " Baba Mecia 114,6. 

On the house of the Goy (non-Jew) one looks 
as on the fold of cattle. " — Tosefta, Erubin viii. 

From The Talmud (a prayer said on the eve of 
Passover, to the present day) " We beg Thee, Lord, 


indict Thy wrath on the nations not believing in Thee, 
and not calling on Thy name. Let down Thy wrath on 
them and inflict them with Thy wrath. Drive them 
away in Thy wrath and crush them into pieces. Take 
away, O Lord, all bone from them. In a moment indict 
all disbelievers. Destroy in a moment all foes of Thy 
nation. Draw out with the root, disperse and ruin 
unworthy nations. Destroy them ! Destroy them imme- 
diately, in this very moment! " — (Pranajtis ; Chris- 
tianus in Talmudas Judeorum, quotations from : Syna- 
goga Judaica, p. 212. Minhagin, p. 23. Crach Chaim 
480 Hagah). 

" When one sees inhabited houses of the ' Goy ' 
one says, ' The Lord will destroy the house of the 
proud '. And when one sees them destroyed he says, 
' The Lord God of Vengeance has revealed himself ' — 
(The Babylonian Talmud, Berachot 58,6.) 

" Those who do not own Torah and the prophets 
must all be killed. Who has power to kill them, let 
him kill them openly with the sword, if not, let him 
use artifices till they are done away with. " — (Schul- 
chan Aruch : Choszen Hamiszpat, 425,50). 

The Jewish Sages soon understood that Christ's 
way of commenting upon the old Law introduced, 
instead of hatred towards foreign nations, brotherly 
feelings and equality of all men in the face of God, thus 
denying the Jews their privileged position as masters 
of the world. 

At the same time, Christ's reforming the very primi- 
tive and rough moral ideas of the Old Testament, 
deprived the Jews of their very convenient-in-the- 
battle-of-life, unscrupulous, double morality. Thence 
the Jewish hatred for the Christian faith is conspicuous 
in the following quotations from Talmudic sources : — 


" The estates of the Goys are like wilderness, who first 
settles in them has a right to them. (Baba Batra, 54 b.) 

" The property of the Goys is like a thing without a mas- 
ter. " (Schulchan Aiuch : Choszen Hamiszpat, 156,5). 

" If a Jew has struck his spade into the ground of the 
Goy, he has become the master of the whole. " (Baba Batra, 
55 a.) 

In order to enhance the authority of the Old Testa- 
ment equally recognized by the Christians, while simul- 
taneously augmenting that of the Talmud and the 
Rabbis, its commentators and authors teach : — 

" In the law (the Bible) are things more or less important, 
but the words of the Learned in the Scripture are always 

" It is more wicked to protest the words of the rabbis 
than of Torah " (Misma, Sanhedryn xi, 3.) " Who changes 
the words of the rabbis ought to die. " (Erubin, 21, b.) 

" The decisions of the Talmud are words of the living God. 
Jehovah himself asks the opinion of earthly rabbis when 
there are difficult affairs in heaven. " (Rabbi Menachem, 
Comments for the Fifth Book.) 

" Jehovah himself in heaven studies the Talmud, stand- 
ing : he has such respect for that book. " (Tr. Mechilla). 

To enhance the dignity of religions dogmas the 
following commandments are given : 

" That the Jewish nation is the only nation selected by 
God, while all the remaining ones are contemptible and 

" That all property of other nations belongs to the Jewish 
nation, which consequently is entitled to seize upon it without 
any scruples. " 

" That an orthodox Jew is not bound to observe principles 
of morality towards people of other nations, and on the con- 
trary, he even ought to act against morality, if it were pro- 
fitable for himself or for the interest of Jews in general. " 


" A Jew may rob a Goy (Goy means unclean, and is the 
disparaging name for a non-Jew), he may cheat him over 
a bill, which should not be perceived by him, otherwise the 
name of God would become dishonoured. " (Schulchan Aruch, 
Choszen Hamiszpat, 348.) 

" Should a Goy to whom a Jew owed some money die 
without his heirs knowing about the debt, the Jew is not 
bound to pay the debt. " (Schulchan Aruch, Choszen Hamisz- 
pat 283, 1.) 

" The son of Noah, who would steal a farthing ought to 
be put to death, but an Israelite is allowed to do injury to 
a goy; where it is written. Thou shalt not do injury to thy 
neighbour, is not said. Thou shalt not do injury to a goy. " 
(Miszna, Sanhedryn, 57.) 

" A thing lost by a goy may not only be kept by the man 
who found it, but it is forbidden to give it back to him. " 
(Schulchan Aruch, Choszen Hamiszpat. 266, 1.) 

" Who took an oath in the presence of the goys, the rob- 
bers, and the custom-house officer, is not responsible. " 
(Tosefta Szebnot, 11.) 

" In order to annul marriages, oaths and promises, a 
Jew must go to the rabbi, and if he is absent, he must call 
three other Jews, and say to them that he is sorry to have 
done it, and they say, ' Thou art allowed to. ' (Schulchan 
Aruch, 2, 1. lAl.) 

The Kol Nidre prayer on the Day of Judgment, that 
acquits beforehand from the nonfulfilment of all kinds 
of oaths and vows, is given here. 

" All vows, oaths, promises, engagements, and swea- 
ring, which, beginning this very day of reconciliation, 
we intend to vow, promise, swear, and bind ourselves 
to fulfil, we are sorry for already, and they shall be 
annulled, acquitted, annihilated, abolished, value- 
less, unimportant, our vow shall be no vows, and our 
oaths no oaths at all. " (Schulchan Aruch, edit. I., 


" If a goy wants a Jew to stand witness against a 
Jew at the Court of Law, and the Jew could give fair 
evidence, he is forbidden to do it, but if a Jew wants 
a Jew to be a witness in a similar case against a goy, 
he may do it. " — (Schulchan Aruch, Choszen Hamisz- 
pat, 28 art, 3 and 4.) 

" Should a Jew inform the goyish authorities that 
another Jew has much money, and the other will suffer 
a loss through it, he must give him remuneration. " 
(Schulchan Aruch. ~ Ch. Ha., 338.) 

" If there is no doubt that someone thrice betrayed 
the Jews, or caused that their money passed to the 
goys, a means and wise council must be found to do 
away with him. " 

" Every one must contribute to the expense of the 
community (Kahal) in order to do away with the trai- 
tor. " Ibid., 163, 1.) 

" It is permitted to kill a Jewish denunciator every- 
where it is permitted to kill him before he has 

denounced.... though it is necessary to warn him and 
say, ' Do not denounce. ' But should he say, ' I will 
denounce, ' he must be killed, and he who accom- 
plishes it first will have the greater merit. " (Ibid., 388, 

" How to interpret the word ' robbery '. A goy is 
forbidden to steal, rob, or take women slaves, etc., 
from a goy or from a Jew, but he (a Jew) is not forbidden 
to do all this to a goy. " (Tosefta, Aboda Zara, viii, 

" If a goy killed a goy or a Jew he is responsible, but 
if a Jew killed a goy he is not responsible. "(Ibid., 
viii, 5.) 

The authors of the Talmud, having issued this horrible 
moral code, that acquits all kinds of crimes, in order 
to make easier the strife with foreigners to their own 


nation, understood the necessity of keeping its con- 
tents a secret and thus legislated : 

" To communicate anything to a goy about our religious 
relations would be equal to the killing of all the Jews, for 
if the goys knew what we teach about them, they would 
kill us openly. " (Book ofLibbre David, 37.) 

" It is forbidden to disclose the secrets of the Law. 
He who would do it would be as guilty as if he des- 
troyed the whole world " (Jaktu Chadasz, 171,2). 
The restrictions and commandments bearing this in 
view were raised to the dignity of dogmas of faith. It 
is not astonishing that in face of such prohibitions the 
secrets of the Talmud have been so little known to other 
nations, especially to the Western ones, and till the 
present day, even the most progressive and citizen-like 
Jews think the disclosure of the principles of the Tal- 
mud a proof of the most outrageous intolerance, and 
an attack on the Jewish religion. 

In order to separate the Jewish nation from all 
others, and thus prevent it from mixing with them, 
and losing their national peculiarities, a great many 
precepts of the ritual and rules for every-day life, pre- 
judices and superstitions, the remainder of the times 
of barbarism and obscurity, have been gathered in 
the Talmud and consecrated as canons. The precepts 
observed by Eastern Jews till the present day deride 
even the most simple notions of culture and hygiene. 
For instance they enjoin : 

" If a Jew be called to explain any part of the rabbinic 
books, he only ought to give a false explanation, that he 
might not, by behaving differently, become an accomphce in 
betraying this information. Who will violate this order shall 
be put to death. " (Libbre David, 37.) 

" It is forbidden to disclose the secrets of the Law. " 


" One should and must make false oath, when the goys 
ask if our books contain anything against them. Then we 
are bound to state on oath that there is nothing like that. " 
(SzpaloT-UTszflhot. The book of J ore d'a, 17.) 

" Every goy who studies Talmud, and every Jew who 
helps him in it, ought to die. " (Sanhedryn 59 a. Aboda Zora 
8-6. Szagiga 13.) 

" The eai's of the goys are filthy, their baths, houses, 
countries are filthy. " (Tosefta Mikwat, v. 1.) 

" A boy-goy after nine years and one day old, and a girl 
after three years and one day old, are considered filthy. " 
(Pereferkowicz ■' Talmud t. v., p. 11.) 

These principles afford an explanation of the action 
of governments in excluding Jews from judicial and 
military positions. They also explain that mysterious 
phenomenon known as Antisemitism. 

In his Manual of Freemasonry Richard Carlile makes 
the following observations : 

" The disposition of the mistaken Jew is to mono- 
polise his portion of the Sacred Scriptures as a charm 
or benefit prepared and presented to his people in 
their sectarian character. 

" That there was no such nation as the Israelites, 
is a truth — found in the consideration that they are 
not mentioned beyond the Bible in any records what- 
ever. Egypt knew them not, Persia knew them not, 
Hindostan knew them not, Scythia knew them not, 
Phoenicia knew them not, Greece knew them not, as 
a nation. And in the first general notice that we have 
of the Jews, they are introduced to the world as a 
sect, or a series of sects, being Pharisees, Sadducees, 
and Essenes ; and in that general notice, beyond that 
sort of mistaken allegorical history which Josephus 

• Carlile, Manual of Freemasonry, p. 88. 


has copied from the books of the Old Testament, and 
which is not otherwise corroborated, and no better 
authority than the boolc of the Old Testament, there 
is no presentation of the Jews as the descendants of 
a larger nation of Israelites ; as a religious or philo- 
sophical sect of distinction, mixed up with, and found 
in real human history, they are not to be traced higher 
than the century before the Christian era. It is satis- 
factory to be able to show the origin of anything, for 
such a knowledge is a common passion and curiosity 
among mankind ; and I think the Rev. Robert Taylor 
has discovered and developed the origin of the titles 
of Hebrew, Israelite, and Jew. 

" Hebrew, Israelite, and Jew, are Syriac, Phoenician 
and Egyptian terms used in the mysterious degrees ; 
and it would be as reasonable to argue that the Free- 
masons are a dispersed nation, as that the Jews are, 
or were, a dispersed nation. The Rev. Mr. Taylor has 
beautifully explained this in his discourses. ^ 

" The scenes and characters of the mysterious drama, 
as found in the Eleusinian Orgies of Greece, were : — 

Eleusis. — The Advent, or coming-in light — • the birth 
and character of the subject of the drama — the title of 
the whole play or mystery. 

Hierophant. — The Expounder of the Mysteries, the High 
Priest, the Pope, the Archbishop. 

Hupereet. — The Minister, or Ordinary Priest. 

Diaconos. — The Deacon, or Lower Officer. 

Diadochos. — The Torch-bearer. 

Photagogue. — The Bringer-in of Light. 

Autoptos. — The Candidate admitted to see the sight. 
The visitor of the Temple — the Church- and Chapel-goer. 

Autopsy. — The sight itself. 

4. Ibid., p. viii. 

5. Ibid., p. X i . 


Hebrew. — The initiated Candidate who had passed through 
all the degrees of the mystery. 

Teleios. — The adept, or perfected. 

Israelite. — God-seer, purified from all guile. 

Jew . — The God himself, or the mysterious perfection and 
deification of the human character. 

" The whole type of what may be made of human nature 
by cultivation of mind, which is the conditional promise 
of paradise, or kingdom of heaven. This is the revelation of 
all the mysteries. " 

Carlile further states " We are prepared with 
historical disproofs of the existence of such a people 
as Israelites or Jews as a nation. They were a religious 
or philosophical sect, who had been made adepts in 
the higher Pagan Mysteries ; a sect among nations ; 
but not a nation among sects. " 

Judaism sanctions Gnosticism which is further elabo- 
rated in their books of the Cabala. For further study 
of this subject we refer the reader to Chapter XIII. 

6. Ibid., p. V of Introduction. 


There is no greater or more erudite authority than 
Fabre d'Olivet (1768-1825) on Orpheus or Dyonisius 
and to such an eminent source, among many others, 
must the reader be referred. 

The feats of the white Dorian race of Greece and the 
mysticism of its priests of Thrace as well as the cen- 
turies-long rivalry between the solar or male cult and 
the lunar or female cult, have provided inexhaustible 
sources of religious and literary lore. 

The legendary birth of Orpheus adorned with his 
descent from Apollo, his flight from Thrace, initiation 
in the temple of Memphis and return to his own coun- 
try as a high adept of the most profound mysteries, 
constitute but the first part of his life. 

After his return to Greece, he united the cults of 
Dyonisius and Zeus, reformed that of Bacchus and 
instituted the Mysteries. To him was allotted the task 
of reducing the power of the Bacchantes, priestesses 
of Hecate, by a magic superior to theirs, and their ven- 
geance, which caused his death, has been the theme of 
many a poet. 

1 . Pythagore, Les Vers Dores. 



One follows the evolution of Greece from Orpheus 
to Pythagoras, Socrates and Plato and one searches for 
the remnants of Egyptian esoterism in the utmost 
recesses of the Delphic temples and in the ceremonies 
of initiation to the Eleusinian mysteries. These, having 
still been practised until the Emperor Theodosius I, 
the Great, (379-395) prohibited them and ordered the 
destruction of the Eleusinian Temple, much material 
is available for their description. 

We are indebted to Bishop Lavington, an erudite 
member of the Anglican Church, for a graphic descrip- 
tion of the perversion to which they gave rise, but we 
preface this article with that author's apology to the 
reader, which, like the text of most of this chapter, we 
quote verbatim from the Bishop's book The Enthusiasm 
of Methodists and Papists compared, Part III : 

" We wallow indeed in the mire, by publishing these 
things. But lest any one should fall into the mire of these 
heretics, from mere ignorance, 1 purposely and knowingly 
defile my own mouth, and the ears of the auditors, because 
it is beneficial. For it is much better to hear absurdity and 
filthiness in accusing others, than to fall into them out of 
ignorance. Much better to be informed of the mire, than, 
for want of information, to fall into it. " 

Bishop Lavington then proceeds with the explana- 
tion of the Pagan Mysteries from which we quote : "" — 

" The Gods and Goddesses each had their special 
mysteries. Even Cotytto, the Goddess of Turpitude, had 
her rites and devotees. 

" A high opinion of the Mysteries was very far from 
being general, or received by great and good Persons. 
Those great Men, Agesilaus and Epaminondas, would 

2. Bishop Lavington, The Enthusiasm of Methodists and 
Papists compared, p. 313 etseq. 


not submit to an Initiation. . . The Athenians aslcing 
Diogenes to be initiated because such had the Prece- 
dency in a future State ; he replied, ' Ridiculous thing ! 
that Agesilaus and Epaminondas must rowl in dirt; 
and every Scoundrel initiated, such as Patecion the 
Thief, be happy in the Elysian Fields. ' Nor shall 
we entertain the better Notion of the Mysteries when 
we find so wise and good a Man as Socrates refusing 
initiation. For which (though perhaps he had stronger) 
he gives this Reason : ' If the Mysteries were bad, he 
should not be able to conceal the Secret, but must 
discourage every one from Initiation; and if good. 
Humanity would oblige him to discover it for the public 
Benefit. ' 

" Rut whether the Mysteries were good or bad. 
Authors are pretty well agreed as to the preparatory 
Ceremonies, and manner of Initiation : whereby they 
were to Represent, and Act over again, the Actions and 
passions of the Deities, for whose Honour the Mys- 
teries were instituted. 

" That Initiation might seem a venerable and solemn 
Thing, the Devotees were taught to qualify themselves 
by Prayer to the Demons, Fastings, Watchings, Con- 
fession to the Priest, and other Lustrations. We read 
in Plutarch, ' that fasting is to precede the Mysteries 
of Ceres, ' and that Confession was required ; ' Antal- 
cidas being examined by the Priest, in order to his 
initiation, what grievous crimes he had committed, 
made Answer, ' If I have been guilty of any such Crime, 
the Gods know it already. ' The Confession was a 
trick of the Masters of the Ceremonies to get the people 
under their Girdle. 

" Tertullian says, ' As to the superstition of the 
Eleusinian Mysteries, what they conceal is the Shame 
of them. Therefore they make the Admission tortuous. 


take Time in the Initiation, set a Seal on. the Tongue, 
and instruct the Epoptae for five Years, to raise a 
high Opinion of them by Delay and Expectation. But 
all the Divinity in the sacred Domes, the Whole of 
what they aspire to, what sealeth the Tongue, is this : 

Simulacrum membri Virilis revelatur. But for a 

Cover of their Sacrilege, they pretend these Figures are 
only a mystical Representation of venerable Nature. ' 

" The original Reason of such figures being exposed 
to View, and had in Veneration, in the Mysteries, we 
learn from others. Clemens Alexandrinus giveth a full 
account of this religion of the Mysteries, too prolix 
to be transcribed ; — 'Of their wicked Institution, 
Cruelty, Stupidity, Madness, making Goddesses of 
Harlots, corrupting Mankind : — the Mysteries of 
Ceres are nothing but representations of incestuous 
Deities : — their ridiculous Exclamations upon Admis- 
sion were, I have eat out of the Timbrel, I have drank 
out of the Cymbal, I have carried the Chest, I have 
crept into the secret Chamber. ' In the Chest Pudendum 
Bacchi inclusum erat. — Cistam et veretnim nova Reli- 
gione colenda tradunt. — It is a shame to mention the 
filthy circumstances in the story of Ceres... 

" The Pagan Mysteries being of such an immoral 
Nature, and Tendency, it might justly be thought 
strange, were no Notice taken of them in the Holy 
Scriptures. And therefore, though such an Enquiry 
might carry us into too great a Length, yet I shall 
not entirely pass it over. There can be then little Doubt, 
but they are pointed out by St. Paul : ' It is a Shame 
even to speak of those Things that are done of them 
in Secret. ' And where Christianity is termed the Mys- 
tery of Godliness, it is set, I am persuaded, in Opposi- 
tion, not only to the Mystery of Iniquity that was 
to work in the Christian World, but likewise to the 


preceding Mysteries among the Gentiles. Nor is it 
improbable, that the Apostle writeth in direct Opposi- 
tion to the Appearances, Pretences, and Impostures 
of those false Divinities : Without Controversy great 
is the Mystery of Godliness... 

" In the Old Testament, Deut. xxiii. 17 (not indeed 
in the Hebrew, but in the Septuagint) after the Words, 
' There shall be no Whore, — nor Sodomites of the 
Sons of Israel, ' we find added Words of this Import, 
' There shall not be an Initiator, nor an Initiated, of 
the Sons or Daughters of Israel. ' ' Tis possible this 
additional Clause may have been inserted by the 
Seventy, by Way of Interpretation of the preceding 
Words. They knew the Nature of the Mysteries full 
well; and we are led to this Meaning by the Impu- 
rities forbidden, and by the Price of the Dog in the next 
Verse ; the Egyptian God Anubis being usually figured 
with a Dog's Head. (Edit. Daniel. Schol.) 

" We may observe also, that Philo the Jew (de 
Sacrific.) expressly ranketh the Prohibition of the 
Mysteries among the Laws of Moses. ' The Law, saith 
he, expressly excludeth the whole of the Mysteries, 
their Inchantments and execrable Scurrilities, from the 
Holy Ordinances : not permitting those educated in 
her Society to celebrate such Heathen Rites; nor, 
depending on such mystical Ceremonies, to disregard 
the Truth ; and to follow the Works of Night and 
Darkness, omitting what deserveth the Light and 
the Day. Let none therefore among the Disciples of 
Moses either initiate, or be initiated : it being equally 
wicked either to teach, or to learn the Mysteries. — 
' Tis generally the Case with them, that no good Per- 
son is initiated ; but Thieves, and Pirates, and mad 
Gangs of abominable and immodest women; after 
parting with their Money to the initiating Priests. " 


Several of the Fathers have taken Notice of the same 
Passage in the Septuagint, and explained it in the same 

" For further Proof of the Turpitude in the Mysteries 
of Isis and Osiris, and that it was so from the Begin- 
ning, we need only consult Diodorus Siculus, Lib. 1. 
' Isis being overwhelmed with Grief for the Loss of 
her Husband Osiris, toolc particular Care in deifying 
him to consecrate his Pudenda ; which she ordered to 
be peculiarly honoured and adored in the Mysteries. 
And the same holy Institution was observed with the 
same Ceremonies, when carried into Greece by Orpheus : 
where the common People, partly from Ignorance, 
and partly from a Love of the new god (Phallus), were 
very fond of being initiated. ' 

" Much more might be collected (even from initia- 
ted Authors, however, generally shy) concerning the 
infamous Origin of the Mysteries, which I pass over... 

" The celebration of the Eleusinian Mysteries com- 
menced in Greece about 1400 years before Christ but 
' whenever or however they were brought into Greece, 
and transferred to the Honour of Ceres and Proser- 
pina, they were of the same Nature, and observed with 
equally chaste Ceremonies, with those of Isis... ' 

" One contrivance for ' giving the Initiated a Sight 
of the Divinities, was by means of a Looking-glass, 
wherein none could see their own Faces, but had a 
clear View of the Gods and Goddesses. ' This we have 
from Pausanias : and Eusebius relates the same Thing. 
- So easily might weak People, and under the utmost 
Astonishment, be deluded by Figures behind a glass, 
in a proper Habit and Posture ; and especially by living 
Persons, personating the Deities in any Manner they 
thought fit. 

' As a proof of the Indecencies, Sozomen writeth, 


' that Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria, egregiously 
ridiculed and exposed to public View the shameful 
Figures belonging to the Mysteries, the Phallus, etc. 
which he brought out of the Pagan Temple. For which 
the enraged Heathens raised a Tumult, and massacred 
a great Number of the Christians. ' — Even the initia- 
ted Pausanias (notwithstanding his usual Reservedness) 
sometimes blurts out a little too much, and intimates 
something shameful — : ' as frequent assignations ; 

— the proneness of the religious Females to venery 

— a Mixture of the Obscene and Miraculous ; — 
the continuance of the Eleusinian Festival for a 
week ; on the third Day whereof all Males, even the 
Dogs, are excluded ; but the next Day the Men are 
admitted among them, when they pass the Time in 
sporting, and light Discourse ; — the Amours of Ceres, 
of a very strange Kind ; with the Secrecy enjoined ; — 
The Obscenities in the Mysteries of Cupid, and suitable 
Hymns. ' 

" A man initiated, and under an Oath of Silence, 
could not well have discovered more of the true Nature 
of the Mysteries, and the Reason why they ought not 
to be divulged. We are assured too, that one Day of 
the Eleusinian Festival was set apart for the Rites of 
Venus and Cupid, and another for those of Bacchus : 
both of which were confessedly beyond measure abomi- 
nable. Nor will our Opinion be more favourable, 
when we remember what Athenixus writes ; ' Apelles, 
being extremely desirous of drawing a Venus from the 
famous Phryne, could find no Opportunity of seeing 
her naked, without going to the Eleusinian and Nep- 
tunian Games ; where she stripped herself in the Sight 
of all the Men, and went into the sea to wash herself...' 

" I apprehend therefore that no great Stress is to 
be laid upon those initiated Authors, who have thought 


themselves obliged to say nothing but what was good 
of the Mysteries ; or have tallced of the Unity of the 
Deity, as the great Secret of them; perhaps to avoid 
the Shame of being thought Dupes to a foolery, or 
inquisitive into something worse. " " 

On the same subject the Chevalier de Ramsay, repu- 
ted founder of Scottish Rites, writes the following : — 

" About the fifteenth Olympiad, six hundred 
Years before the Christian £era, the Greeks having lost 
the traditional Knowledge of the Orientals, began to 
lay aside the Doctrine of the Ancients, and to reason 
about the Divine Nature from Prejudices which their 
Senses and Imagination suggested. Anaximander lived 
at that time, and was the first that set himself to de- 
stroy the Belief of a supreme Intelligence, in order to 
account for everything from the Action of blind Matter, 
which by necessity assumes all Sorts of Forms. He was 
followed by Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus, Strato, 
Lucretius, and all the School of the Atomical Philo- 

" Pythagoras, Anaxagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aris- 
totle, and all the great Men of Greece, opposed this 
impious Doctrine, and endeavoured to prove the 
ancient Theology of the Orientals. These Philosophers 
of a superior Genius observed in Nature, Motion, 
Thought and Design. And as the Idea of Matter in- 
cludes none of these three Properties, they inferred 
from thence, that there was another Substance different 
from Matter. 

" Greece being thus divided into two Sects, they 
disputed for a long time, without either Party being 

3. Lavington. 

4. The Chevalier de Ramsay, A Discourse upon the Theology 
and Mythology of the Antients in The Travels of Cyrus, vol. II, 
P. 76 et seq. (published 1728). 


convinced. At length about the 120th Olympiad Pyrrho 
formed a third Sect whose great Principle was to doubt 
everything, and determine nothing. All the Atomists 
who had laboured in vain to find out a Demonstration 
of their false Principles, presently struck in with the 
Pyrrhonian Sect. They ran wildly into the System of 
an universal Doubt, and carried it almost to such an 
Excess of Frenzy, that they doubted of the clearest 
and most sensible Truths. They maintained without 
any Allegory, that everything we see is only an Illusion, 
and that the whole Series of Life is but a perpetual 
Dream of which those of the Night are only so many 

" At last Zeno set up a fourth School about the 130th 
Olympiad. This Philosopher endeavoured to reconcile 
the Disciples of Democritus with those of Plato, by 
maintaining that the first Principle was indeed an infi- 
nite Wisdom, but his Essence was only a pure Aether, 
or a subtile Light, which diffused itself everywhere, 
to give Life, Motion,' and Reason to all Beings. 

" In these last Ages the modern Freethinkers have 
done nothing but revive the ancient Errors. Jordano 
Bruno, Vannini and Spinoza, have vamped up the 
monstrous System of Anaximander; and the last of 
the three has endeavoured to dazzle weak Minds, by 
dressing it up in a geometrical Form. 

" Some Spinosists, finding that they were every 
Moment at a Loss for Evidence in the pretended Demon- 
strations of their Master, are fallen into a senseless sort 
of Scepticism, called Egomism, where every one fan- 
cies himself to be the only Being that exists. 

" Mr. Hobbes and several other Philosophers, with- 
out setting up for Atheists, have ventured to main- 
tain, that Thought and Extension are Properties of 
the same Substance. 


" Descartes, F. Malebranche, Leibnitz, Dr. Bentley, 

Clarke, and several Philosophers of a Genius equally 

Mile and profound, have endeavoured to refute 

these Errors, and brought Arguments to support the 

ancient Theology. Besides the Proofs which are drawn 

from the Effects, they have insisted on others drawn 

from the Idea of the first Cause. They shew plainly 

that the Reasons of believing, are infinitely stronger 

than any Arguments there are for doubting. This is 

all that can be expected in metaphysical Discussions. 

"The History of former times is like that of our 

own Human Understanding takes almost the same 

Forms in different Ages, and loses its Way in the same 

Labyrinths. " 



We heard, in 1928, of a " Druid " celebration at 
Stonehenge. Shortly afterwards we read of another, 
an initiation ceremony, at Penzance where " 12 bards 
of Britain, including Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, the 
author, were initiated by the Archdruid of Wales into 
a sect revived after a lapse of 2000 years. " 

Some of us might prefer the lapse to have continued 
and as the subject of the Druid Mysteries is here rele- 
vant we quote verbatim the chapter entitled " The 
Druids " from Mr. Charles William Heckethorn's inte- 
resting boolf Secret Societies of All Ages and Countries : 

" The secret doctrines of the Druids were much the 
same as those of the Gymnosophists and Brahmins of 
India, the Magi of Persia, the priests of Egypt, and of 
all other priests of antiquity. Lilce them, they had two 
sets of religious doctrines, exoteric and esoteric. Their 
rites were practised in Britain and Gaul, though they 
were brought to a much greater perfection in the for- 
mer country, where the Isle of Anglesey was considered 
their chief seat. The word Druid is generally supposed 

to be derived from '■-r^^ "an oak ", which tree was 

1. The Daily Telegraph, Sept. 24, 1928. 



particularly sacred among them, though its etymology 
may also be found in the Gaelic word Druidh, ' a wise 
man ' or ' magician. ' 

" Their temples, wherein the sacred fire was pre- 
served, were generally situate on eminences and in 
dense groves of oaks, and assumed various forms. 

" The adytum or ark of the mysteries was called a 
cromlech, and was used as the sacred pastos"", or place 
of regeneration. It consisted of three upright stones, 
as supporters of a broad, flat stone laid across them on 
the top, so as to form a small cell. Kit Cotey's House, 
in Kent, was such a pastos. Considerable space, however, 
was necessary for the machinery of initiation in its 
largest and most comprehensive scale. Therefore, the 
Coer Sidi, where the mysteries of Druidism were per- 
formed, consisted of a range of buildings, adjoining the 
temple, containing apartments of all sizes, cells, vaults, 
baths, and long and artfully-contrived passages, with 
all the apparatus of terror used on these occasions. Most 
frequently these places were subterranean. 

" The system of Druidism embraced every religious 
and philosophical pursuit then known in these islands. 
The rites bore an undoubted reference to astronomical 
facts. Their chief deities are reducible to two, — a male 
and a female, the great father and mother, Hu and 
Ceridwen, distinguished by the same characteristics 
as belonged to Osiris and Isis, Bacchus and Ceres, or 
any other supreme god and goddess representing the 
two principles of all being. The grand periods of initia- 
tion were quarterly, and determined by the course 
of the sun, and his arrival at the equinoctial and sol- 
stitial points. But the time of annual celebration was 

2. Pastos — The altar upon which the ritual desecration of 
virginity obligatory for initiation into the phallic cult took place. 


May-eve, when fires were kindled on all the cairns and 
cromlechs throughout the island, which burned all 
night to introduce the sports of May-day, whence all 
the national sports formerly or still practised, date 
their origin. Round these fires choral dances were per- 
formed in honour of the sun, who, at this season, was 
figuratively said to rise from his tomb. The festival 
was licentious, and continued till the luminary had 
attained his meridian height, when priests and atten- 
dants retired to the woods, where the most disgraceful 
orgies were perpetrated. But the solemn initiations were 
performed at midnight, and contained three degrees, 
the first or lowest being the Eubates, the second the 
Bards, and the third the Druids. The candidate was 
first placed in the pastos bed, or coffin, where his sym- 
bolical death represented the death of Hu, or the sun ; 
and his restoration in the third degree symbolized the 
resurrection of the sun. He had to undergo trials and 
tests of courage similar to those practised in the mys- 
teries of other countries, and which therefore need not 
be detailed here. 

" The Druids taught the doctrine of one supreme 
being, a future state of rewards and punishments, the 
immortality of the soul and a metempsychosis... Their 
doctrines were chiefly those of Pythagoras. 

" Their authority in many cases exceeded that of 
the monarch. They were, of course, the sole inter- 
preters of religion, and consequently superintended all 
sacrifices; for no private person was allowed to offer 
a sacrifice without their sanction. They possessed the 
power of excommunication, which was the most hor- 
rible punishment that could be inflicted next to that 
of death, and from the effects of which the highest 
magistrate was not exempt. The great council of the 
realm was not competent to declare war or conclude 


peace without their concurrence. They determined all 
disputes by a final and unalterable decision, and had 
the power of inflicting the punishment of death. And, 
indeed, their altars streamed with the blood of human 
victims. Holocausts of men, women, and children, 
enclosed in large towers of wicker-work, were some- 
times sacrificed as a burnt-offering to their super- 
stitions, which were, at the same time, intended to en- 
hance the consideration of the priests, who were an 
ambitious race delighting in blood. The Druids, it is 
said, preferred such as had been guilty of theft, rob- 
bery, or other crimes, as most acceptable to their 
gods; but when there was a scarcity of criminals, they 
made no scruple to supply their place with innocent 
persons. These dreadful sacrifices were offered by the 
Druids, for the public, on the eve of a dangerous war, 
or in the time of any national calamity ; and also for 
particular persons of high rank, when they were afflic- 
ted with any dangerous disease. 

" The priestesses, clothed in white, and wearing a 
metal girdle, foretold the future from the observation 
of natural phenomena, but more especially from human 
sacrifices. For them was reserved the frightful task 
of putting to death the prisoners taken in war, and 
individuals condemned by the Druids ; and their 
auguries were drawn from the manner in which the 
blood issued from the many wounds inflicted, and also 
from the smoking entrails. Many of these priestesses 
maintained a perpetual virginity, others gave them- 
selves up to the most luxurious excesses. 

" As the Romans gained ground in these islands the 
power of the Druids gradually declined ; and they were 
finally assailed by Suetonius Paulinus, governor of 
Britain under Nero, A. D. 61, in their stronghold, the 
Isle of Anglesey, and entirely defeated, the conqueror 


consuming many of them in the fires which they had 
kindled for burning the Roman prisoners they had 
expected to make — a very just retaliation upon these 
sanguinary priests. But though their dominion was thus 
destroyed, many of their religious practices continued 
much longer; and so late as the eleventh century, in 
the reign of Canute, it was necessary to forbid the people 
to worship the sun, moon, fires, etc. Certainly many 
of the practices of the Druids are still adhered to in 
Freemasonry ; and some writers on this order endeavour 
to show that it was established soon after the edict 
of Canute, and that as thereby the Druidical worship 
was prohibited in toto, the strongest oaths were requi- 
red to bind the initiated to secrecy. " 

There is no mystery as to the existence in Berlin 
of the " Druidenorden " today. It is a branch of 
Freemasonry and its Sovereign Grand Master, until 
late, was Dr. Hubbe-Schleiden. 


To define Christianity, one could hardly do better 
than use the words of Frederic W. Farrar, Canon of 
Westminster and Chaplain to Queen Victoria, who in 
1874 wrote a Life of Christ. In his preface are the fol- 
lowing lines : 

" We study the sacred books of all the great reli- 
gions of the world ; we see the effect exercised by those 
religions on the mind of their votaries ; and in spite 
of all the truths which even the worst of them enshrined, 
we watch the failure of them all to produce the ines- 
timable blessings which we have ourselves enjoyed 
from infancy, which we treasure as dearly as our life, 
and which we regard as solely due to the spread and 
establishment of the Christian faith. We read the sys- 
tems and treatises of ancient philosophy, and in spite 
of all the great and noble elements in which they abound, 
we see their total incapacity to console, or support, or 
deliver, or regenerate the world. Then we see the light 
of Christianity dawning like a tender spring day amid 
the universal and intolerable darkness. From the first, 
that new religion allies itself with the world's utter 
feeblenesses, and those feeblenesses it shares; yet 
without wealth, without learning, without genius, 



without arms, without anything to dazzle and attract the 
religion 'of outcasts and exiles, of fugitives and priso- 
ners — numbering among its earliest converts not 
many wise, not many noble, not many mighty, but 
such as the gaoler of Philippi, and the runaway slave 
of Colossae — with no blessing apparently upon it 
save such as cometh from above — with no light what- 
ever about it save the light that comes from heaven — 
it puts to flight kings and their armies ; it breathes a 
new life, and a new hope, and a new and unknown holi- 
ness into a guilty and decrepit world. This we see ; 
and we see the work grow, and increase, and become 
more and more irresistible, and spread ' with the gent- 
leness of a sea that caresses the shore it covers. ' " 

Words fail when attempting to speak of Jesus 
Christ, the Founder of Christianity. His birth, life and 
death are known to all. His teaching was public and 
accessible to the humblest. Long years of learning, 
awful initiation ceremonies striking terror in the 
adept's soul were not required from the followers of 
Christ. Himself, the bearer of that Light which He 
taught was not to be found in man's earthly nature 
but was to be sought from without, He invoked God 
with humble prayer and faith, and performed all mira- 

Therein, is Christ's teaching diametrically opposed 
to that of the high adepts whose secret doctrine was 
that man had divinity in himself and could bring it 
out by exercise of will, by concentration of thought 
and scientific psychic development. Fear, the pre- 
dominant feature attendant upon the gaining of know- 
ledge in all other religious systems, was foreign to the 
adherents of Christ who were repeatedly told : ' Fear 
not'... "Be not afraid '. No bonds, no fetters were 
imposed by Him in the shape of ritualism. Love of 


God and love of neighbour were the only precepts. 
Faith and Charity the only means through which the 
divine Spirit gave man transcendental power over moral 
evil and physical ills. 

No purer and simpler doctrine, no greater know- 
ledge of the communion possible between God and man 
had ever been given. Yet, within a very short time 
after the death of Christ, Christian ritualism began to 
appear. A theological system of dogmas and beliefs 
was devised, modes of worship elaborated and a hie- 
rarchy arose with all its attendant evils. However, 
the Christian faith, under the lash of persecution, had 
shown the world the power of Faith and Charity. 

And against this power the forces of evil have 
ever been unfurled. Blow after blow was dealt to the 
rising church. Both its beliefs and practices were 
attacked by those who professed other views and 
worshipped other gods and who designed all schemes to 
subvert and pervert Christianity. Henceforth, as it has 
ever been with all religions, the history of Christianity 
and of Gnosticism will develop side by side, the per- 
version and destruction of the former being the aims 
of the latter. 

The Tree of Christianity gave forth three main 
branches, the Catholicism of Rome, Greek Catholi- 
cism, and in the XVI Century, Lutherism. The two 
former bodies remained homogeneous but Lutherism 
gave birth to innumerable sects all dissenting from the 
parent church. 


Manicheism is the religion of the followers of Manes, 
a slave who was sold to a widow who freed and adopted 
him, thus making him the " son of the widow " a name 
which after him passed to all his followers and is still 
used in Masonic Lodges. 

Of Manicheism, C. W. Olliver, considered an autho- 
rity on all masonic matters, writes : 

" Manicheism was one of the most important attempts 
to found a universal religion and to reconcile the Chris- 
tian, Buddhist, and Mazdean with the Greek philo- 
sophy. It presented the same syncretic ideas found 
later among Moslem Druzes and among Sikhs. It 
failed in the first place because Islam presented a 
much simpler system in the East, and because in the 
West Christianity was already developing, in the time 
of Manes, a religion which aimed at reconciling the 
Paganism of Italy and Gaul with the ethics of Christ, 
this presenting a simpler and more familiar faith. But 
the one achievement of Manes was the creation of the 
Devil which led to an afterwards unremovable taint 
throughout religion. Manes was a notable philosopher 
and religious teacher born about the year A. D. 216, 
and he was crucified and flayed alive by the Persian 



Magi under Bahram I in the year A. D. 277. His Per- 
sian name was Shuraik, rendered Cubricus in Latin. " 

He was the slave of the wife of a certain Terebinth 
who was a disciple of Scythianus of the race of the 

Olliver tells us further that : " His Acta Archdei 
became the Manichean Bible with sundry added epistles. 
He taught the Mazdean dualism of the powers of light 
and darkness, as representing good and evil beings, 
and an asceticism which aimed at the control of all 
passions. Manes repudiated Judaism, and like the 
Gnostics, regarded Jehovah as an evil God. The Mani- 
cheans were more hated and feared by Catholic Chris- 
tians than any other sect. They were still in existence 
in spite of constant persecution as late as our tenth 
century, and their influence was felt from China to 
Spain and Gaul. It still lingers in Asia, and among 
the ' Christians of St. Thomas ' in Madras it survived 
till the fifteenth century. St. Augustine had listened 
for nine years to Manes, but the Roman Empire felt 
the force of this system chiefly in A. D. 280. The Romans 
knew it themselves in A. D. 330, and Faustus became 
its missionary among them. Many clung to Manicheism 
till A. D. 440, when Leo the Great found that he must 
stamp it out if the Roman creed was not to be extin- 
guished. It was the basis of the Paulican heresy, and of 
that of the Albigenses in the South of France which 
was only quenched by blood in the thirteenth century. 

" The doctrine of Manes can be summed up as fol- 
lows. He believed in two gods, or, more exactly, prin- 
ciples, the principle of good and that of evil. Before 
the creation of the world the ' people of darkness ' 
revolted against the God, and God, incapable of with- 

1. C. W. OWiver, An Analysis of Magic and Witchcraft, 'p. 102. 


Standing the attack, gave to them a portion of His 
essence. The people of darkness having within them the 
principle of evil by their very nature, and the principle 
of good which they had just acquired, were able to 
constitute the world, where both these principles are 
combined, but where the principle of evil predomi- 
nates as the natural characteristic of its originators. 
Man is a mixture of two natures, the spiritual being 
the work of God, the body, and especially sex, the work 
of the Devil. " 

Summers, another authority, further explains that 
" it must be clearly borne in mind that these heretical 
bodies with their endless ramifications were not merely 
exponents of erroneous religious and intellectual beliefs 
by which they morally corrupted all who came under 
their influence, but they were the avowed enemies of 
law and order, red-hot anarchists who would stop at 
nothing to gain their ends. Terrorism and secret mur- 
der were their most frequent weapons.... The Manichean 
system was in truth a simultaneous attack upon the 
Church and the State, a desperate but well-planned 
organization to destroy the whole fabric of society, 
to reduce civilization to chaos. " ' 

Manicheism possessed its- dogmas, liturgies, devo- 
tees, and churches. 

But again to quote Olliver : " First and foremost 
amongst the manifestations of what had become Devil 
worship we find the Black Mass or Devil Masses of the 
Middle Ages, from which the ceremonial and ritual 
of Black Magic are derived. The principle which forms 
the very essence of the Devil, the idea of opposition, 
also underlies the whole ceremonial and ritual of 

2. C. W. Olliver, op. cil., p. 103. 

3. M. Summers, History of Witchcraft and Demonology, p. 17. 


Black Magic and Black Masses. Such ideas as repeating 
prayers backwards, reversing tlie cross, consecrating 
obscene or filthy objects, are typical of this sense of 
opposition or desecration, which is also a recognised 
form of mental disease. The key-word to the whole 
of the practices of Black Magic is desecration. " 

Yet another authority not to be overlooked, namely 
Abbe Baruel, author of Memoires pour servir a I'his- 
toire du Jacobinisms shows the remarkable analogy 
between the dogmas and rituals of Freemasonry, Tem- 
plarism and those of Manicheism. Grades concur in 
number and signs are identical. The mourning for 
'Jacques Molay is a ceremony analogous to that prac- 
tised by the Manicheans in remembrance of Manes and 
known as Bema. The term MacBenac still used in 
Masonic lodges was the reminder of the execution of 
Manes which all Manichean adepts sought to avenge. 
The practice of so called Fraternity or Brotherhood 
was in Manicheism extended only to adepts of the 
sect, just as it is similarly practised by Freemasons 
towards one another only. 

The question which naturally comes up to one's 
mind when one follows closely the links of the Mani- 
chean chain is this : — Is not Freemasonry, such as 
we see it to-day, the full development of the idea of 
Cubricus or Manes the slave, the apotheosis of Mani- 
cheism as achieved by Albert Pike, Sovereign Pontiff 
of Universal Freemasonry ? 

4. C. W. Olliver, op. aV., p. 106. 


Margaret Alice Murray, writing in The Witch-cult 
in Western Europe establishes both the phallic and 
religious character of the " craft ", in her remarkable 
book from which we extract part of the following 
valuable information : 

The deity worshipped by the witches was in some 
cases Lucifer, as the Good God in opposition to Adonay, 
the Christian God in His character of the benefactor 
of humanity, and in other instances Satan, the same 
spirit, as the Principle of Evil. 

This is evident from the various references to their 
deity adduced in the trials of persons accused of this 
heresy. In both cases however, the devotees, whether 
of Lucifer or Satan, were obliged formally to renounce 
Christ, the Holy Ghost and the Christian God, before 
embracing the Devil faith which was the logical out- 
growth of the Mazdean-Manichean Dualist doctrine 
of the double divinity. 

1. " Epiphanius gives an account of a sect of Heretics 
called Satanians. ' Satan, say they, is a very great and potent 
Person, and author of much Mischief. Why, therefore, should 
we not chiefly fly to him, and adore him, honour, and praise 
trim, that for our flattering worship he may do us no harm, but 



The God of the witches seems to have been generally 
represented either as the double faced God Janus or 
the goat-headed Baphomet, the latter variously modi- 
fied but usually bearing between the horns on its head 
the phallic emblem of a lighted candle. 

Esoterically, this candle symbolized the sex-force 
or Kundalini risen to the pineal gland. 

Cotton Mather stated that the witches " form them- 
selves after the manner of Congregational Churches, " 
and M. A. Murray gives the following description of 
their leader : 

" The Chief or supreme Head of each district was 
known to the recorders as the ' Devil '. Below him in 
each district, one or more officers — according to the 
size of the district — were appointed by the chief. 
The officers might be either men or women; their 
duties were to arrange for meetings, to send out notices, 
to keep the record of work done, to transact the busi- 
ness of the community, and to present new members. 
Evidently these persons also noted any likely convert, 
and either themselves entered into negotiations or 
reported to the Chief, who then took action as oppor- 
tunity served. At the Esbats the officer appears to 
have taken command in the absence of the Grand 
Master ; at the Sabbaths the officers were merely 
heads of their own Covens, and were known as Devils 
or Spirits, though recognized as greatly inferior to 
the Chief The principal officer acted as clerk at the 
Sabbath and entered the witches' report in his book ; 
if he were a priest or ordained minister, he often 
performed part of the religious service ; but the Devil 

Pardon us as being his own servants ? ' Hence they call them- 
selves Satanians. " Bishop Lavington, The Moravians Corn- 
Pared and Detected, p. 170. 


himself always celebrated the mass or sacrament. " 

From Lemoine in La Tradition, published 1892, 
we learn that the garter is the distinctive mark of the 
witch leader, for a woman shared this honour with 
the Grand Master as the Grand Mistress and in some 
cases occupied the office of deacon. 

Animal masks seem to have been a popular form of 
disguise adopted by the witches and wizards attend- 
ing meetings, and this custom is probably respon- 
sible for many of the stories of witch lycanthropy. 

Among other obscene and phallic witch-rites was 
the Black Mass, celebrated by a renegade priest upon 
the naked body of the adept for whose benefit it was 
performed. It symbolized the perversion of all the 
rites of the Catholic church. Black candles instead 
of white, inverted crosses, chalices containing the blood 
of new-born infants sacrificed for ritual purposes, 
urine for holy water, all these were part of the para- 
phernalia needed, according to historians, to propi- 
tiate the Prince of Darkness and his retinue of minor 
Devils. Besides evocations, casting of spells and sex- 
orgies, devil worship entailed such inanities as dese- 
cration of the hosts stolen from catholic churches and 
the kissing of the Grand Master (devil) on the tail 
or membrum virile. 

Only hosts consecrated in Roman Catholic churches 
could serve for Black Mass purposes as it was essen- 
tial, in order to achieve desecration, that the miracle 
of transubstantiation should have taken place. The 
host had actually to be, not merely to represent, the 
body and blood of Christ. 

As regards the Black Mass, M. Emile Caillet makes 

2. Margaret Alice Murray, The Witch-cull in Western Europe, 
p. 186. 


the following astute observation in La Prohibition 
de L'Occuhe, page 113. 

" One may wonder if it was not in order to canalize 
such an overflow of sacrilege that the church, in the 
Middle Ages, tolerated the ' Feast of Fools ', a last 
vestige of the saturnalia of Ancient Greece. Before 
the altar, upon the communion table, writes C. Lenient, 
were spread pell meil, grilled hogs puddings, sausages, 
playing cards and dice. For perfumes, old shoe-leather 
burned in the incense burners. Even the text of the 
divine service... becomes the butt of an interminable 
parody..., a confused jumble of jests and nonsense, 
of grotesque alleluias and latin buffooneries.... an 
indescribable charivari of cat calls, cries and whistles, 
etc. A few days afterwards the church, purged of all 
these impurities, washed and cleaned, resumed its 
usual appearance ; God again became master of His 
Altar ; the flood of human folly had passed ! " 

In 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued a bull against the 
craft couched in the following terms : 

" It has come to our ears that numbers of both sexes 
do not avoid to have intercourse with demons, Incubi 
and Succubi; and that by their sorceries, and by their 
incantations, charms and conjurations, they suffocate, 
extinguish, and cause to perish the births of women, 
the increase of animals, the corn of the ground, the 
grapes of the vineyard and the fruit of the trees, as 
well as men, women, flocks, herds, and other various 
kinds of animals, vines and apple trees, grass, corn and 
other fruits of the earth ; making and procuring that 
men and women, flocks and herds and other animals 
shall suffer and be tormented both from within and 
without, so that men beget not, nor women conceive ; 

^' La Satire en France au Moyen-Age, p. 422. 


and they impede the conjugal action of men and wo- 
men. " 

Eliphas Levi, in Histoire de la Magie, (p. 116) gives 
the following explanation of the supposed origin of 
" elementais " known by spiritists as " dwellers on 
the threshold. " 

He states that; " according to the best authorities, 
these spirits (larves) possess an ethereal body formed 
of the vapour of blood. That is why they seek blood 
and why they were supposed, formerly, to feed on the 
smoke of sacrifices. 

" They are the Incubi and Succubi, the monstrous 
children of impure dreams. 

" When sufficiently condensed to be visible, they 
are only a vapour coloured by the reflection of a picture 
and, having no independent life, they imitate the life 
of him who evokes them as the shadow does the body. 

" They generally manifest around the persons of 
idiots and beings devoid of morality whose isolation 
has led them to develop irregular habits. 

" Owing to the feeble cohesion of the parts of their 
fantastic bodies, they fear the open air, fire, and above 
all, the point of swords, and as they live only by the 
hfe of those who have created or evoked them, they 
become the vaporous appendices of the real body of 
their parents. So it can happen that an injury inflicted 
on them might actually react upon the parent body, 
as the unborn child is really wounded or disfigured 
by an impression made upon its mother. 

" These elementais draw the vital heat from persons 
in good health and quickly exhaust those who are 

" They are the source of the stories of vampires, 
stories only too true and periodically recurrent, as 
everyone knows. 


" That is why one feels a chill of the atmosphere 
when approaching mediums who are persons obsessed 
by these spirits that never manifest in the presence of 
anyone able to unveil the mystery of their monstrous 
birth. They are children of an exalted imagination or 
unbalanced mentality... " 

In politics, throughout the ages, witchcraft, as prac- 
tised by subversive sects, has played a prominent part. 

Illustrations of this are to be found in the case of 
the North Berwick Witches who were tried for treason 
in 1592 when their Devil or Grand Master, Francis 
Stewart, Earl of Bothwell, attempted to supplant 
James VI as King of Scotland. The Black Masses held 
by the infamous Abbe Guibourg for Madame de Mon- 
tespan, with the object of regaining for her the favour 
of Louis XIV, are famous in history. 

Eliphas Levi, the great initiate, has thus defined 
the aims of magic and witchcraft : 

" To deceive the peoples for the purpose of exploit- 
ing them, to enslave them and delay their progress, 
or prevent it even if possible, such is the crime of black 
magic. " 

Proof of the foregoing devil worship and contact 
with spirits or devils is found in history, even as late 
as 1819 when we read that; " The Devil met Margaret 
Nin-Gilbert etc... " Studying the history of the Mopses 
in 1761 we find its Grand Masters, Grand Mistresses 
and Deacons, adorned with the distinctive " Garter " 
of the witch, performing the ceremonial of kissing the 
Devil's tail as part of the ritual of 18th Century Ma- 
sonry. The "Coven" of the Middle Ages is the Masonic 
' Lodge " of today, but the " Craft " remains the 
" Craft ". 

'^' Eliphas Levi, La Clef des Grands Mysteres, p. 308. 



(The Heretics) 

Gnosticism, like the Ancient Mysteries, was founded 
on Spiritism, their mediums giving instructions pur- 
porting to come from the Gods or Spirits. 

In the Christian era, one of the earliest prominent 
Gnostics was Simon Magus, a Jew and an adept of 
the sect of Dosithians. 

This article is composed of certain passages trans- 
cribed verbatim from The Moravians Compared and 
Detected by Lavington. (See pages XIII, 59, 105 to 109 
and 133). 

Among the successive disciples of Simon Magus 
were — Basiiides, Valentinius, Carpocrates, Marcus, 
Marcion, Cerdo, Epiphanes, Montanus, etc., and accor- 
ding to Bishop Lavington, " these were Heretics, and, 
that they were Heretics of the worst Kind that ever 
defiled and disgraced the Christian Name, is allowed 
by all Denominations of Christians. 

" Some of these lived in the first Century and even 
in the Apostles' Days, but the second Century was 
most fruitful in the Production of this Generation of 
Vipers and we must receive our Knowledge of their 
abominable Tenets from the early Ecclesiastical writers 



such as Irenoeus... Epiphanius... Theodoret... and many 

" The Spirit among these Heretics went by different 
Names, Ogdoas, Sophia, Terra, Jerusalem and Lord 
in the masculine Gender : — Is particularly called both 
Prunicus and Prunica ; Mother Prunica the bold, and 
Mother Achamoth : — Their Mother is a Woman from 
a Woman. Sometimes their celestial Beings are neither 
Male nor Female : sometimes interchangeably either 
male or female. 

" Such was the Excellency of their Knowledge and 
Illumination, who arrogantly styled themselves Gnos- 
tics, that they are superior to Peter or Paul or any 
of Christ's other disciples. They only, have drunk up 
the supreme Knowledge, are above Principalities and 
Powers, secure of Salvation : and for that very Reason 
are free to debauch Women, or indulge all manner of 
Licentiousness — This Knowledge is of itself perfect 
Redemption, and sufficient. " — " Simon Magus, who 
taught that his Harlot Helena was the Holy Ghost, 
instituted certain foul and infamous Mysteries inex- 
pressibly filthy and had Assemblies equally filthy to 
celebrate them : These being the Mysteries of Life, 
and of the most perfect Knowledge. " 

" The Carpocratians... practised all manner of Phil- 
tres and Enchantments : in order, as they speak, to 
have full Power in all Things, and to do whatever they 
please. — Hence they spend their Time in Luxury 
and Pleasure and bodily Enjoyments : nor ever come 
among us, unless it be to ensnare unstable Souls, and 
entice them into their impious Doctrine. " 

" For this end they taught Incontinence to be obli- 
gatory, as a Law : and not only lawful, but necessary 
to Salvation ; not only compatible with the Saviour's 
Religion, but an essential Part of it : and those were 


the best Men, who in the common Opinion were the 
most vicious. 

" The Carpocratians grew to that Degree of Madness, 
that being unable to conceal their Debaucheries, they 
made Incontinence to be a Law " — " Prodicus added 
this to the Tenets of Carpocrates, that Fornication 
ought to be open and public, and the Use of Women 
common. For which Reason, in their Feasts, the Candles 
were extinguished, each lay with the Women, as Chance 
appointed; and they called this Lasciviousness a 
mystical Initiation, a mystical Communion. " 

" Clemens Alex, gives a long Passage from the 
Writings of Epiphanes, contending for a Community 
of Women, as being the Law of Heaven; and that Men 
and Women ought no more to be confined in their 
Amours than other Animals. 'For', says Epiphanes, 'he 
hath implanted a strong and vehement Desire in Man 
of propagating his Species ; which neither Law, nor 
Custom, nor any Thing else, can abolish ; forjt is the 
Decree of God. ' 

" The Ophites, or Cainites, say, that Cain was the 
Progeny of a higher Principality than Abel; and they 
confess that Esau, Corah, and the Sodomites, and all 
such, were their Relations : — That Vulva was the 
Creator of the Universe ; and that none could be saved, 
unless he passed thro' all. So also Carpocrates taught. — 
Most of the Gnostics, with wonderful Artifice of Impro- 
bity, taught what is not fit to be named, in the pro- 
miscuous Use of Women, and to roll in all manner of 
filthy Communication. The Banquet being over, says 
the Man to the Woman, Arise, and shew thy Love to 
a Brother. So they proceed to Copulation ". — " Some 
of them, by a most horrible Abuse of Scripture, apply 
the Words, Give to every one that asketh thee, towards 
enticing the Women. " — " Take hold, says Isidorus, 


of some robust woman, that you be not plucked away 
from Grace ; and when you have spent your seminal 
Fire, you may pray with a good Conscience. ". 

" Both Epiphanius, and Irenoeus before him, say 
of the Founder of the Nicolaitans : ' Being ashamed 
of his own Remissness, he audaciously pronounced, that 
no one, who was not lascivious every Day could be 
Partaker of eternal life. ' • — " Therefore those Gnostics, 
after a Debauchery, were used to boast of their Happi- 
ness, as having done a meritorious Thing : and when 
they had their Will on a complying Female, they 
told her ' she was now a pure Virgin' ; though 
she was daily corrupted, and for many Years to- 
gether. " 

" This may be a proper Place to introduce The 
Confession of Epiphanius; who in his Youth had 
fallen into the Gnostic Heresy ; whence he received what 
he writes concerning them, from the professed Tea- 
chers' own Mouths : when their Women, one in parti- 
cular, used all their Arts to debauch him. But by the 
Help of the divine Grace he overcame their tempta- 
tions. I was then, says he, reproached by those pesti- 
lent Women, who thus scoffmgly talked with each 
other, ' We would have saved this Youth, but not 
being able, we have suffered him to perish in the Hands 
of the Principalities. ' For the most beautiful among 
them makes herself the bait; and those whom she 
enticeth, she is said not to destroy, but to deliver. 
Whence the handsomest are used to upbraid those who 
are less so ; ' 1 am an elect Vessel, able to save those 
whom I attempt; which you have not Power to do. ' 
The most beautiful of them were employed to seduce 
me ; but God delivered me from their Wickedness ; 
so that, after reading their Books, I escaped from among 
them, and discovered the several Names of them to the 


Bishops of those Parts ; and near eighty of them were 
sent into Banishment. " 

" The Valentinians, says Irenoeus, being in Love 
with certain Women, would, without a Blush, seduce 
them from their Husbands, and make them their own 
Wives. Others of them, seemingly modest at first, pre- 
tended to live with them as Sisters ; and in Process 
of Time were discovered. Sister being found pregnant 
by Brother. " 

" And to aggravate their wickedness, they esteemed 
Copulation as a most sacred Mystery, known only to 
themselves ; and which the Profane were not allowed 
to put in Practice : What was abominable in others 
being highly meritorious in themselves. For, saith 
Irenoeus again, ' They have this Grace descending 
to them from the unspeakable and unnameable Copu- 
lation above. For which Reason they ought always to 
be meditating on the Mystery of Copulation.' And thus 
they persuade silly People, addressing them in Dis- 
course, ' Whoever is in the World and of the World, 
and mingleth with a Woman is not of the Truth, nor 
shall pass into the Truth ; because he mingleth in Con- 
cupiscence. ' Therefore Continence, say they, is neces- 
sary to us natural Men ; but by no means to themselves, 
who are spiritual and perfect; among whom the Seed, 
small from above, is perfected here. " Compare Ter- 
tullian, p. 261. 

" To quote Clemens Alexandrinus. ' I will bring in 
to open Light your most secret Mysteries : not ashamed 
to speak what you are not ashamed to worship " 
i. e. the secrets of both Sexes. ' For I may well call 
them Atheists, who impudently worship those Parts, 
which modesty forbids to mention. " 



Lamaism was founded about 407 A. D. by a Bodi- 
satva called, it is said, Chomschim, in Chinese Boyan- 
chi-yin, (the voice which reflects the world) on the 
mountain Bouthala around which was built the sacred 
city of Lhassa. 

Lamaism is not only a religion, it is a theistic govern- 

In 1206, when Tibet was conquered by Ghengis 
Khan (Mongol), Buddhism became the established reli- 
gion but in 1368 when Tibet fell from the hands of 
the Mongols into those of the Chinese, Lamaism, 
losing its temporal power, became merely a religion, 
its spiritual power remaining however the same and 
the religion of more than 250 million men. 

The Lamas are Priests of Buddha among the Mon- 
gols and Tibetans, but Lamaism is not orthodox 

Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, laid 
down the following laws governing the attainment of 
Nirvana (state of not being). Their enumeration will 
serve to show how Buddhism and Lamaism differ. 

According to that great teacher the ten obstacles 
which prevent people from attaining the supreme 
liberation are : — 



1. The belief in the " Ego ", 

2. Doubt, 

3. The belief in the efficacity of rites and ceremonies, 

4. Sensual desires, 

5. Anger, 

6. The wish to live in a world less coarse than our own, 

7. The wish to hve in a more subtle world than our own, 

8. Pride, 

9. Agitation, 
10. Ignorance. 

The few quotations given hereafter from the very 
remarkable books of Madame Alexandra David-Neel 
can only serve to show students of these subjects the 
great value of the books themselves. 

Quoting Bhagavad Gita, she writes : 

" Orthodox Buddhism denied the existence of a 
permanent soul which transmigrated, and considered 
this theory as the most pernicious of errors but the 
great majority of Buddhists have fallen back into this 
old belief of the Hindus concerning the 'jiva' (self) 
which periodically changes its old body for a new one, 
as we cast off old clothes for new. " 

The Tibetan clergy comprises a theocratic aristoc- 
racy the members of which are called Lamas, " tulkous ". 

" According to popular belief, a tulkou is either the 
reincarnation of a saint or dead sage or else the incar- 
nation of a superhuman being, a god or a demon. 

In answer to a question she put to the Dalai- 
Lama on the definition of the word " tulkou " Madame 
David-Neel quotes him as saying : — "A Bodhisatva 
is the base from which can spring numberless magical 
forms. The force he engenders by a perfect concentration 

2. David-Neel, Parmi les Mystiques et les Magiciens du 
Tibet, pp. 110-llL 


of thought enables him simultaneously to show a phan- 
tom similar to himself in thousands and thousands of 
worlds. He is not only able to create human forms, but 
every other kind as well, even to inanimate objects such 
as houses, enclosures, forests, roads, bridges, etc. etc. 
and he can produce atmospheric phenomena, as well 
as the elixir of immortality which quenches all thirst. 
(This expression, he explained, was to be taken both 
in a literal and symbolic sense.) 

" In fact, concluded the Dalai-Lama, his power to 
create Magic forms is limitless. " 

" The Kandhomas are reincarnated women, fairies, 
and may either be married or in holy orders. " 

The usual method employed for locating the new 
body appropriated by an old soul is the following : — 

" A child answering to the prescribed conditions 
is discovered and a lama diviner is consulted. Should 
he pronounce in favour of the candidate the following 
form of trial takes place : — Some personal belongings 
of the deceased lama are mixed with other similar 
ones, and the child must point out the first, thus 
proving that he recognizes the things that were his 
in his former existence. 

" This system assumed its present form towards 
the year 1650 when the fifth Grand Lama Lobzang 
Gyatso, having become sovereign of Tibet, but wish- 
ing to acquire a higher dignity, proclaimed himself 
the reincarnation (avatar) of Tchenrezigs, a dignitary 
of the Mahayanist Pantheon. Simultaneously he estab- 
lished his master as Grand Lama of the monastery 
of Trachilhumpo, proclaiming him the reincarnation 

3. David-Neel, op. cit., p. 115. 

4. Ibid., p. 111. 

5. Ibid., p. 118. 


of Eupamed, a Mystic Buddha of whom Tchenrezigs 
was the spiritual son. 

" The example thus given by the lama-king stim- 
ulated the creation of tulkous. Soon all monasteries 
made a point of having at their head the incarnation 
of some celebrated personage. Thus the Dalai-Lama, 
the political head of Tibet today, is said still to be a 
reincarnation of Tchenrezigs and the present Trachi 
Lama one of Eupamed. " 

The palace of the Dalai-Lamas is the monastery of 
Gahlden situated some twenty kilometres from Lhassa. 
It was founded by Tsong Khapa in the XV century. 
Tsong Khapa, the reformer, forbade marriage and the 
use of fermented beverages to the clergy. His followers 
called Gelougspas are known as the Yellow Sect and 
their favourite God is Jigsdjied, the destroyer (the 
terrible), another version of the Hindu god Siva. The 
Red Sect, the Sakyapas, those distinguished by their 
red hats, are their religious opponents. 

As regards the Tibetan gods and the ritual pertain- 
ing to their worship Madame David-Neel gives us the 
following most illuminating description : 

" To the respiratory exercises repeated several times 
a day the recluse often joins meditation-contemplation 
assisted by Kyilkhors. 

" A Kyiikhor, or magic circle, is a kind of diagram 
drawn on paper or stuff or engraved on metal, stone or 
wood... Deities or lamas are generally represented 
on them by little pyramids of paste called ' torma. ' 

" Kyilkhors are also designed with coloured powder 
on boards or on the floor, but only such persons as 
have received a special initiation may compose or 

6. David-Neel, op. dr., p. IIO. 

7. Ibid., p. 259. 


draw them. Each Kyilkhor, moreover, requires a par- 
ticular initiation and that erected by a non-initiate 
would remain a dead thing impossible to animate and 
powerless. An advanced student, wishing to evoke a 
Bodhisatva or deity, seeks to animate the Kyilkhor 
which has hitherto only served as a focus for concen- 

" The Hindus endow magical diagrams as well as 
the statues of deities with life before worshipping them. 
The object of this rite, called prana-pratishtha, is to 
convey to the inanimate object, by means of psychic 
currents, the energy of the worshipper. The life thus 
infused into the latter is kept up by the daily cult 
which is rendered it, for it lives on the concentration 
of thought which has given it birth. Should it suddenly 
be deprived of this subtle food, the living soul within 
it will perish and die of inanition the object reverting 
to its former condition of inert matter. " 

The Tibetan mystics animate their Kyilkhor by a 
similar method, but they do not aim at making it an 
object of worship and the material representation of 
the Kyilkhor is abolished when, after a certain amount 
of practice, it becomes purely a mental image. 

A tradition of the Kahgyudpas relates that the 
founder of their sect, Marpa, was blamed by his master 
(guru) Narota for having paid homage first to the 

" It is I who constructed the Kyilkhor ", declared 
Narota. " Its life and energy were infused in it by me. 
Without me, those figures would be only inert objects. 
The gods that inhabit it are born of my spirit therefore, 
it is to me that homage is primarily due. " 

8. David-Neel, op. cit, p. 260. 
9. David-Neel, Initiations Lamaiques, p. 59. 


" According to Tibetan occultists, these beings, 
(the gods) have acquired a Icind of real existence due 
to the innumerable thoughts which have been concen- 
trated on them . 

" According to the Tibetans, during the celebra- 
tion of a rite, the thoughts of the officiating evocator, 
concentrated on the deities who ' exist already ', 
cause these to become more powerful and more real 
for him. By identifying himself with them the evocator 
establishes contact with an accumulation of energy 
infinitely greater than that which he alone might 
generate. " 

Thus we must conclude that the gods of Eastern 
Magic correspond to what our occidental scientists 
call thought-forms. That these thought-forms can be 
projected and reabsorbed into the person of their 
creator is a theory with which all students of spiritism 
and psychic science are familiar, but that they can 
detach from their makers and lead separate existences, 
empowered for good or evil by the collective thought- 
force of their worshippers, is an idea with which the 
western world is still unfamiliar. 

" Gods, Demons, the whole universe is a mirage, a 
fantasy of the brain issuing therefrom and resolvant 
thereto. " 

" Thus the aim of the teaching is to bring the student 
to understand that the world and all its phenomena 
are but phantasms born of our own imagination. This 
in short is the fundamental teaching of the Mystics 
of Tibet. " '^ 

10. David-Neel, op. ciL, p. 103. 

11. Ibid., p. 104. 

12. Ibid., p. 280. 

13. Ibid., p. 262. 


Among the various tricks taught to initiates and 
described by Madame David-Neel in her books are: — 


Yoga breathing exercises .... 119 in Initiations 

Levitation 209 in Parmi les Mys- 
tiques et les Ma- 
giciens du Thibet. 
Loung-gom (fast walking), ,211 » 

Toumo (self heating) 219 » 

Telepathy ... ... 231 » 

Buddha who, after a thorough investigation of them, 
rejected the physical practices of the Brahmins, pays 
little heed to the breathing exercises of Yoga, in his 
spiritual teaching. 

Madame David-Neel tells the following anecdote 
of the Great Master. 

" One day Buddha, travelling with one of his disciples, 
met an emaciated Yogi alone in a hut in the middle of 
the forest. 

The master stopped, enquiring how long the ascetic 
had lived in that place practising such austerities. 
" Twenty-five years ", answered the Yogi. 

" And what results have you obtained after such 
dire efforts " ? queried the Buddha further. 

" I am able to cross a river walking on the water ", 
proudly declared the anchorite : — 

" Ah 1 My poor friend! " answered the Sage sympathet- 
ically, " have you really wasted so much time for that, 
when for a pittance you can get taken across it on the 
ferry ! " 

On page 157 of her remarkable book Initiations 
Lamaiques Madame David-Neel explains further 

14. David-Neel, Initiations Lamaiques, p. 116. 


the existence of another school of curious rites, pre- 
sumably a development of degenerate Hindu Tantric 
Buddhism, to the practice of which may be ascribed 
much that seems objectionable in the Oriental occult- 
ism, which has filtered through to the Western world. 
There we are told that : — "A certain class of Tibe- 
tan occultists teach a method of semi-physical semi- 
psychic stimulation, which consists in such singular 
practices as that of causing the seminal flow, ejected 
in the course of sexual union, to be reabsorbed etc. 
etc. " 

Tibet is indeed the land of Demons where Official 
Lamaism competes with Unofficial Sorcery, and Magic, 
white and black, still remains the law of the land. 


The sect of the Yezidees was founded by Sheik Adi 
in the fifth century. 

Mr. W. B. Seabrook's observations on the Yezidees, 
as recorded in his book. Adventures in Arabia, form a 
basis for the study of the beliefs of this sect. 

According to his informant, the Yezidee faith is 
briefly this : 

" God created seven spirits ' as a man lighteth one 
lamp after another ', and the first of these spirits was 
Satan, whom God made supreme ruler of the earth 
for a period of ten thousand years. And because Satan 
was supreme master of the earth, those who dwelt on 
it could prosper only by doing him homage and wor- 
shipping him. 

" Since the true name was forbidden ", Mechmed 
Hamdi told me, " they referred to Shaitan as Melek 
Taos (Angel Peacock) and worshipped him in the form 
of a brass bird . . ." 

While the name of Shaitan was forbidden ", he said, 
" so much so that if a Yezidee hears it spoken, their 
law commands him either to kill the man who uttered 

1. Seabrook, Adventures in Arabia, pp. 310 and 325. 



it or kill himself — yet we could talk as freely with 
them about Melek Taos as we could to a Christian 
about Jesus. " 

A priest of the cult also volunteered the following 
information to Mr. Seabrook on the Yezidee divinity. 

" Our difference from all other religions is this — 
that we know God is so far away that we can have no 
contact with Him — and He, on his part, has no know- 
ledge or interest of any sort concerning human affairs. 
It is useless to pray to him or worship Him. He cares 
nothing about us. 

" He has given the entire control of this world for 
ten thousand years to the bright spirit Melek Taos, and 
Him, therefore, we worship. Moslems and Christians 
are wrongly taught that he whom we call Melek Taos 
is the spirit of evil. We know that this is not true. 
He is the spirit of power and the ruler of this world. 
At the end of the ten thousand years of his reign — of 
which we are now in the third thousand — he will 
re-enter paradise as the chief of the Seven Bright 
Spirits, and all his true worshippers will enter para- 
dise with him. " 

The Grand Priest of the order, the " Mir ", receives 
one-seventh part of the harvests of the land. He is the 
arbiter of all religious matters and under him rank 
seven ecclesiastical orders. 

The doctrine of the Yezidees is contained in three 
sacred books The Black Book, The Revelation and The 
Contract with the Devil; but a knowledge of reading 
and writing is restricted to the priests of the first 
order and is classified by the sect as a serious sin. 


The Arabian peninsula was the home of nomads and 
mountaineers when, in the seventh century, Mahomet 
arose as a self styled Prophet and the creator of Islam- 
ism. The doctrine of Islam has three dogmas : — 

1. Monotheism. 

2. Belief in the Prophet, namely Mahomet. 

3. The law of retribution. 

The sacred book of Islamism, the Koran, was devoid 
of mystic teaching. The Figh, for every believer, is the 
code of morals and obligations such as fast, prayer, pil- 
grimage to Mecca, etc. Mysticism was interjected into 
Islamism by Sufism. 

Mahomet aimed at the establishment of a religion 
which, he declared, was revealed to him during periods 
of trance which he frequently underwent. He was deter- 
mined to impose this religion on all the Arabs and, 
through much bloodshed, he succeeded in stamping 
out the Koraishites from whom he took Mecca. 

The death of Mahomet was the signal for disruption 
among his followers and innumerable divisions both 
political and religious, from the history of the Arabs 
during their periods of conquest which began immedia- 
tely after the death of Mahomet during the Khalifate 
of Omar (634-644). 




Manicheism was not the only secret association 
that sprang from the initiations of the Magi. In the 
seventh century of our era we meet with similar socie- 
ties, possessing an influence not limited to the regions 
in which they arose, variations of one single thought, 
which aimed at combining the venerable doctrines of 
Zoroaster with Christian belief. Of these societies or 
sects the following may be mentioned : the followers 
of Keyoumerz; the worshippers of Servan, certain 
Zoroastrians, so-called " Dualists " ; Gnostics and, 
lastly, the followers of Mastek, the most formidable 
and disastrous of all, preaching universal equality 
and liberty, the irresponsibility of man, and the com- 
munity of property and women. 

The Arabs having rendered themselves masters of 
Persia in the seventh century, the sects of that country 
set to work to spread their tenets among Islam in order 
to undermine it. 

This is corroborated by Heckethorn who writes : 

" The Persian sects examined the Koran, pointed out 
its contradictions, and denied its divine origin. And so 



there arose in Islamism that movement which attacks 

dogmas, and destroys faith, and substitutes for blind 
belief free enquiry. " 

In Persia and in Mesopotamia had spread the new 
rationalism, the philosophical heresy of the Mutazi- 
lites (schismatics) exposed by Hassan al-Basri. 

The Jew Abdailah Ibn Saba " presented himself as 
the prophet of the future Imam, who was to manifest. 
He meant to overthrow the caliphate and to uphold 
the rights of Mahomet al-Hanafi, the son of Ismael, 
the descendant of the prophet by his daughter Fatima, 
the wife of All. Thus was founded the Shi'a sect. 

The Fatmite dynasty (from Fatima, daughter of 
Mahomet) was founded in 909 A. D. when Ahmed- 
Said, the son of a Jewess who had married the Shi'a 
chief al-Hussain,' conquered Egypt and Syria, estab- 
lishing the centre at Cairo. Declaring himself to be 
the long expected Imam, Said, on coming to power, 
assumed the name of Obaid Allah el-Mahdi. The 
Fatmite dynasty lasted from 909 to 1171. Heckethorn 
informs us that " The Doial-Doat, or supreme mission- 
ary or judge, shared the power with the prince. 

" Meetings were held in the Lodge at Cairo, which 
contained many books and scientific instruments; 
science was the professed object, but the real aim was 
very different. The course of instruction was divided into 
nine degrees... the ninth degree... as the necessary result 
of the teaching of all the former, taught that nothing 
was to be believed, and that everything was lawful. 

1. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of All Ages and Countries, 
vol I, p. 162. 

2. Jewish Encyclopaedia, Art. Abdailah Ibn Saba. 

3. Ibid., Art. Caliphs. 

4. Mahdi -Messiah. 

5. Heckethorn op. cit., p. 165. 


" Egypt, especially, seems as if predestined to be 
the birthplace of secret societies, of priests, warriors 
and fanatics. It is the region of mysteries... Cairo has 
succeeded the ancient Memphis, the doctrine of the 
Lodge of Wisdom that of the Academy of Heliopolis... 
The throne of the descendants of Fatima was to be 
surrounded with an army of assassins, a formidable 
body-guard; a mysterious militia was to be raised, 
that should spread far and wide the fame and terror 
of the caliphate of Cairo, and inflict fatal blows on the 
abhorred rule of Bagdad. The missionaries spread 
widely, and in Arabia and Syria, partisans were won, 
to whom the designs of the order were unknown, but 
who had with fearful solemnity sworn blind obe- 
dience. " 

The Fatmites had received from the sect the mission 
of destroying, or at least of disrupting Islam. The 
successor of Obaid-Allah continued this work, having 
himself proclaimed a Shi'a while in reality he was 
sceptic. It was under the Caliph Hakim that the Druses 
came into being. 

The Shi'a sects who recognized Mohammed al- 
Hanafi as the last living " Imam " were called Ismae- 
lites or Septimans. From their midst sprang a secret 
body, the Khoja, which, in spite of persecution still 
exists in Persia and India, where its exoteric chief is 
the Anglicised Indian, the Aga Khan, whose followers 
are the moneylenders of Islam, a profession forbidden 
by Mahomet. 

Still another Shi'a sect, the Duodecimans or Ima- 
nites, recognize Mohamed ai-Muntazar the twelfth 

Under the Fatmite Caliph Hakim, a new religion 
sprang out of Ismailism, that of the Druses, so called 
from its inventor, a certain Darosi. This religion differs 


little from Ismailism, except that it introduces the 
dogma of the incarnation of God himself on Earth, 
under the form of the Caliph Hakim. 

When the Fatmite Caliph Mostansir ascended the 
throne, he re-established the Ismailian belief : and the 
Druses, driven from Egypt, took refuge in Lebanon, 
where they still exist. 



The Druses, as afore stated, are a gnostic sect among 
the Ismaelite Mahommedans. It was founded in the 
tenth century during the reign of the Fatimite Caliph 
al-Hakim Biambellalu. 

The founder is usually recognised as Mohammed al 
Darazi or al Druzi (Nouchtegin ben Ismail al Bokhari) 
born near Bokhara cir. 960. He adopted the doctrine 
then preached by al-Hakim of the successive reincar- 
nations of the divinity under human form and wrote 
a treatise in which he established the continuous series 
of divine incarnations ending with the statement that 
the last living manifestation was al-Hakim, the Caliph 
of Egypt. So pleased was al-Hakim with the book that 
he called Mohammed al-Druzi to him, and gave him 
great authority in the conduct of affairs. From that 
time, al-Hakim who hitherto had been known as 
Biambellalu that is " the one governing by the order 
of God, changed his name to Biam-Eh meaning " the 
one governing by his own right. " He then caused him- 
self to be worshipped as God. The public reading of 
Mohammed al-Druzi's book, in one of Cairo's mosques, 
•caused popular riots and its author was obliged to 

1. Compare with Lamaism. 



flee from Egypt. He took refuge in the mountains of 
Syria and made many proselytes by allowing his 
adepts the use of wine, condoning licentiousness and 
encouraging the propagation of ideas tending To the 
confiscation of property. Later, he returned to Egypt 
but was confronted by the power gained by one of 
his disciples, Hamza al-Hadi, who had become leader 
of the Druses there. In the conflict that ensued, Moham- 
med al Druzi took up arms against his rival and adver- 
sary and was killed in 1019. 

Hamza, later, went to Syria and Lebanon and 
preached to the Druses the doctrine of al-Hakim such as 
prevailed in Egypt. Hamza was declared the prophet, 
the Imam of al-Hakim who, being the divine incarna- 
tion, will yet manifest himself to the Druses, be their 
Messiah and give them all earthly power. The sect is 
divided into three degrees: Profanes, Aspirants and Wise. 

The Druses, from a political point of view, are divi- 
ded into two parts, the Djumblatiehs and the Yezbe- 
kiehs and religiously they have their own rites, mys- 
teries, and exoteric and esoteric doctrines. The high 
initiates or priests rule the people and through reli- 
gious fanaticism have reduced the Druses to a state 
of theocrasy with all its attendant law of fear and nume- 
rous restrictions upon which theocratic power can 
alone be edified. 

In his book on Secret Societies, Heckethorn comments 
on the similarity existing between the law of the Druses 
and that of the Jews whereby " to a brother, perfect 
truth and confidence are due but it is allowable, nay, 
a duty, to be false towards men of another creed. " 

Subsequently, he draws yet another comparison 
between the Druses and the Freemasons and mentions 
the Masonic degrees of " The United Druses " and 
" Commanders of Lebanon ". 



The Judeo-Shi'a sect of the Assassins or Hashish- 
ims was founded in 1090 by Hassan Sabah, a Per- 
sian, who had been initiated into Ismailism at Cairo, 
in the household of the Fatimite Caliph, al-Mostansir. 
He was known as " The Old Man " or rather " The Lord 
of the Mountain ". His influence in Egypt having exci- 
ted the envy of many, he was sent into exile. Caliph 
al-Mustansir's " vizir was a Jew named Abu Mansur 
Sadakah ibn Yussuf ", under whose protection Hassan 
traversed Persia as a missionary, preaching and making 
proselytes, and, having seized the fortress of Alamut, 
on the borders of Irak and Diiem, which he called the 
" House of Fortune ", he there established his rule. 

The history of his time is full of his name. Kings in 
the very centre of Europe trembled at it; his powerful 
arm reached everywhere. 

According to Heckethorn, " he reduced the nine 
degrees into which the adherents of the Lodge of 
Cairo were divided to seven, placing himself at the head, 
with title of Seydna or Sidna, whence the Spanish Cid, 
and the Italian Signore. The term Assassins is a 

1. Von Hammer, History of the Assassins. 



corruption of Hashishim, derived from Hashish (Indian 
hemp) with which the chief intoxicated his followers 
when they entered on some desperate enterprise/ 

" To regulate the seven degrees he composed the 
Catechism of the Order. The first degree recommended 
to the missionary attentively to watch the disposition 
of the candidate, before admitting him to the order. 
The second impressed it upon him to gain the confi- 
dence of the candidate, by flattering his inclinations 
and passions ; the third, to involve him in doubts and 
difficulties by showing him the absurdity of the Koran ; 
the fourth, to exact from him a solemn oath of fidelity 
and obedience, with a promise to lay his doubts before 
his instructor ; and the fifth, to show him that the most 
famous men of Church and State belonged to the secret 
order. The sixth, called ' Confirmation ', enjoined 
on the instructor to examine the proselyte concerning 
the whole preceding course, and firmly to establish him 
in it. The seventh finally, called the ' Exposition of 
the Allegory ', gave the keys of the sect. 

" The followers were divided into two great hosts, 
' self-sacrificers ' and ' aspirants '. The first, despising 
fatigues, dangers, and tortures, joyfully gave their 
lives whenever it pleased the master, who required 
them either to protect himself or to carry out his man- 
dates of death. " 

According to the legend " the man selected by 
the lord to perform the dangerous exploit was first 
made drunk, and in this state carried into a beautiful 
valley where he was, on waking, surrounded by lovely 
sylph-like women who made him believe he was in 
Elysium ; but ere he wearied or became satiated with 

2. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, 
p. 1 68 et seq. 


love and wine, he was once more made drunk, and in 
this state carried baclc to his own home. When his 
services were required, he was again sent for by the 
lord, who told him that he had once permitted him to 
enjoy paradise, and if he would do his bidding he could 
luxuriate in the same delights for the rest of his life. 
The dupe, believing that his master had the power to 
do all this, was ready to commit whatever crime was 
required of him. " 

" Several Christian princes were suspected of con- 
niving at the deeds of the Assassins. Richard of England 
is one of them ; and it has been the loyal task of English 
writers to free him from the charge of having instigated 
the murder of Conrad of Montferrat... There also 
existed for a long time a rumour that Richard had 
attempted the life of the King of France through 
Hassan and his Assassins. The nephew of Barbarossa, 
Frederick II, was excommunicated by Innocent II 
for having caused the Duke of Bavaria to be slain by 
the Assassins ; and Frederick II, in a letter to the 
King of Bohemia, accuses the Duke of Austria of having 
by similar agents attempted his life. " 

The corruption of the Order of The Templars which 
brought about its downfall has been imputed by most 
historians to this sect which was suppressed in 1256, 
when the Mongolians, led by Prince Hulagu, attacked 
and overthrew them. 



The first Knights Templar Order, founded in 1118 
by Hugh de Payens, had 13 degrees. So has its modern 
successor; these are : — 


1. Entered Apprentice. 

2. Fellow Craft. 

3. Master Mason. 


4. Mark Mason. 

5. Past Master. 

6. Most Excellent Master. 

7. Royal Arch. 

8. Royal Master. 

9. Select Master. 

10. Super Excellent Master. 

11. Knights of the Red Cross 

12. Knights Templar. 

13. Knights of Malta. 

It is chronicled that several of the founders of the 
Templar Order were initiates in the sect of The Assas- 



Blanchard, writing of it, says : — 

" During tiie middle ages, the most eminent warriors and 
noblemen of Europe entered its ranks. Tiie Knights of the 
Temple became the bulwark of the Holy Land against the 
Saracens. France, England and other countries formed 
associations (Priories) of Templar Knights, each with its 
own Grand Master and other officers. Such great wealth was 
accumulated in the treasuries of the order that in the year 
1185 its annual income represented a sum equal to thirty 
millions of dollars. The Templars were bankers and loaned 
money on their own terms. But wealth and prosperity natu- 
rally led to licentiousness, neglect of Templar law and in 
the end destruction. " ' 

Having embraced Gnosticism while in Palestine, 
and in touch with the sect of the Assassins, the 
Templar order degenerated, and some of its mem- 
bers, under the influence of that sect, were said to 
practice Phalli cism or sex- worship and Satanism and 
to venerate " The Baphomet ", the idol of the Luci- 
ferians. The crime of Sodomy was a rite of Templar 

It is here interesting to note that the Phallus holds 
the lowest rank in Brahmin theology for, in countries 
where the people are virtually enslaved by superstition, 
this kind of heresy is useful to the ruling classes. 

Morris thus summarizes the fall of the Templars. 
" In the year 1307, the Grand Master of the order, 
Jacques de Molay, was arrested in Paris with sixty 
of his knights and imprisoned upon charges of idolatry 
and other crimes. Shortly afterward, all the Knights 
Templar in France were put in prison in Paris. May 
12, 1310, fifty-four of them were burnt alive. March 
18, 1314, the Grand Master, with three of his most 

1. Blanchard, Knight Templarism Illustrated. 


eminent officers, suffered in lilce manner. The great 
possessions of the order were now confiscated and the 
society suppressed both by the Pope and the leading 
monarchs of Europe. " " 

In England, the Knights Templar were dissolved in 
the reign of Edward II, and after the grant of their 
properties to the Knights Hospitallers, these in their 
turn were dissolved by Henry VIII. 

After the death of Molay, the Knights Templar found 
a protector in King Dinis II of Portugal who reformed 
the order in 1317, under the name Knights of Christ. 

A complete bibliography of literature both in print 
and in manuscript, dealing with the subject of the 
Knights Templar has been compiled by M. Dessubre 
and the student is referred to his book : Bibliographie 
de I Ordre des Templiers. 

2. Morris' Die, Art. Templar Knight. 


The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, or Hospi- 
tallers of St. John, afterward called Knights of Rhodes 
and finally Knights of Malta, were founded about the 
commencement of the Crusades, as a military and reli- 
gious order. 

1. Mackey's Lexicon, Art. Knights of Malta. 



Speculation has been rife as to the origin of the 
Rosicrucians, and the many fables and legends connec- 
ted with the subject have but little historical value. 

Owing to the great discrepancy between the infor- 
mation contained in the following article and that given 
in the more modern editions of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, it has been deemed advisable to reprint 
the former. (See Enc. Brit., 3' Edition, Vol. 16, year 
MDCCXCVII (1797) Edinburgh. Bell and Macfarquhar.) 

" Rosicrucians, a name assumed by a sect or cabal 
of hermetical philosophers ; who arose, as it has been 
said, or at least became first taken notice of in Germany, 
in the beginning of the fourteenth century. They bound 
themselves together by a solemn secret, which they all 
swore inviolably to preserve : and obliged themselves, 
at their admission into the order, to a strict observance 
of certain established rules. They pretended to know 
all sciences, and chiefly medicine : whereof they pub- 
lished themselves the restorers. They pretended to be 
masters of abundance of important secrets, and, among 
others, that of the philosopher's stone : all which they 
affirmed to have received by tradition from the ancient 
Egyptians, Chaldeans, the Magi, and Gymnosophists. 



They have been distinguished by several names, accom- 
modated to the several branches of their doctrine. 
Because they pretend to protect the period of human 
hfe, by means of certain nostrums, and even to restore 
youth, they were called Immortals ; as they pretended 
to know all things, they have been called lUuminati; 
and because they have made no appearance for several 
years, unless the sect of Illuminated which lately 
started up on the continent derives its origin from 
them, they have been called the Invisible Brothers. 
Their society is frequently signed by the letters F. R. C. 
which some among them interpret fratres roris cocti; 
it being pretended that the matter of the philosopher's 
stone is dew concocted, exalted, etc. Some, who are 
no friends to free-masonry, make the present flourish- 
ing society of free-masons a branch of Rosicrucians ; 
or rather the Rosicrucians themselves, under a new 
name or relation, viz. as retainers to building. And it 
is certain, there are some free-masons who have all 
the characters of Rosicrucians ; but how the aera and 
original of masonry, and that of Rosicrucianism here 
fixed from Nadaeus, who has written expressly on 

the subject, conflict, we leave others to judge 

Notwithstanding the pretended antiquity of the Rosi- 
crucians, it is probable that the alchemists, Paracel- 
sists, or fire-philosophers, who spread themselves 
through almost all Europe about the close of the 
16th century, assumed about this period the obscure 
and ambiguous title of Rosicrucian brethren, which 
commanded at first some degree of respect, as it seemed 
to be borrowed from the arms of Luther, which were 
a cross placed upon a rose. But the denomination 

1. Followers of Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim 


evidently appears to be derived from the science of 
chemistry. It is not compounded, says Motheim, as 
many imagine of the two words rosa and crux, which 
signify rose and cross, but of the latter of these words, 
and the Latin ros, which signifies dew. ... At the head 
of these fanatics were Robert Fludd, an English 
physician, Jacob Behmen, and Michael Mayer ; but if 
rumour may be credited, the present Illuminated have 
a head of higher rank. The common principles, which 
serve as a kind of centre of union to the Rosicrucian 
society, are the following : They all maintain that the 
dissolution of bodies, by the power of fire, is the only 
way by which men can arrive at true wisdom, and come 
to discern the first principles of things. They all acknow- 
ledge a certain analogy and harmony between the 
powers of nature and the doctrines of religion ; and 
believe that the Deity governs the kingdom of grace 
by the same laws with which he rules the kingdom of 
nature ; and hence they are led to use chemical denomi- 
nations to express the truth of religion. They all 
hold that there is a sort of divine energy, or soul, 
diffused through the frame of the universe, which some 
call the argheus, others the universal spirit, and which 
others mention under different appellations. They all 
talk in the most superstitious manner of what they 
call the signatures of things, of the power of the stars, 
over all corporeal beings, and their particular influence 
upon the human race, of the efficacy of magic, and the 
various ranks and orders of demons — These demons 
they divide into two orders, sylphs and gnomes. " 

2. Whereas the article mentions only two kinds of demons 

tne Rose Croix are credited with recognizing four different 

species accredited to each of the four elements : Earth spirits 

77 Gnomes, Fire spirits — Salamanders, Water spirits — 

Undines, Air spirits — Sylphs. 


This article having been written in 1747 only hinted 
at what the Rose Croix might have been. Subsequent 
research upon the organization of the Fraternity, its 
tenets and its achievements, shows it to have been a 
medium for the propagation of Gnosticism and a centre 
for political activities. Before it conquered Freemasonry, 
which was officially instituted in 1717, many names 
were already associated intimately with this esoteric 
organization. Among others were Faustus Socinius, 
Cesare Cremonini, Michael Maier, Valentin Andrea, 
Thomas Vaughan (Philaletes), Charles Blount, Frede- 
rich Helvetius, Richard Simon, and Theophilus Desa- 

It is claimed that Faustus Socinius, named after 
Faustus, the Manichee, nephew of Lelius Socinius, 
whose teacher was Camillo Renato, was an intimate 
of Rosicrucianism and the founder of the Socinians. 

Catholics and Protestants alike opposed Faustus 
Socinius in his efforts to graft a secret cult on the exis- 
ting orthodox religions, and in 1598, the people of 
Cracovia, revolted by his doctrines, pillaged his house, 
burned his books and manuscripts and almost massa- 
cred their author. He had sworn hatred to the church 
and busied himself in founding an association the aims 
of which were to be subversive to all its teachings, and 
two years before his death, he was obliged to take refuge 
from his enemies with one Abraham Bionski. 

The membership of the Rose Croix was composed 
of Alchemists, Astrologers and Spiritists whose quest 
was the search for a process for transmuting base 
metals into gold and the secret of life. To most of these 
" generation was the root principle of Achemy. " 

The order of the Rose Croix revealed itself in 1614 

3. Charlotte Fell Smith, John Dee. 


with the appearance of two books, Fama Fraternitatis 
and the Confessio attributed to Valentin Andrea giving 
the legend of the travels of Christian Rosenkreutz. 
According to Charles T. MacClenachan 33°, Historian, 
Grand Lodge State of New York, this same legend had 
appeared as the work of Raymond Lulli, who died in 


In this legend, translated into English in 1616 by 
Robert Fludd, a symbolic personage called Christian 
Rosenkreuz, destined to live 106 years on earth, tra- 
velled in the East where he studied the Cabala and, 
on his return to his native Germany, he revealed to 
three disciples the secret of secrets, the great secret of 
theosophy. Finally, he retired to a cave to finish his 
days in solitude, dying in 1484 at the age of 106. His 
disciples came, enshrouded him and disappeared. His 
grave was to be unknown for six times twenty years 
at the end of which period it was to become the hearth 
of the light destined to illuminate the world at the 
time appointed by God. In 1604, chance brought men 
to this cave. On entering, great was their surprise to 
find it resplendent with a bright light. It contained an 
altar bearing upon a copper plate the inscription 
" Living, I reserved this light for my grave. " One 
mysterious figure was accompanied by this epigram 
" Never vacant ". A second figure " The Yoke of the 
Law ". A third figure " The Liberty of the Gospels ". 
A fourth " The Glory of the Whole God ". The hall 
still contained lamps burning without fuel, mirrors 
of various shapes and boks. Upon the wall was writ- 
ten " In six times twenty years I will be discovered ". 
The prophecy was fulfilled, adds the fable, by way of 

• Fire, alias Kundalini, alias sex-force. 


The movement was greatly furthered by the impulse 
given it when, after the appearance of the Fama Frater- 
nitatis and Confessio, a German Alchemist, Michael 
Maier, an English Physician, Robert Fludd and a 
Pietist, Julius Sperber, wrote treatises in defence or 
explanation of the order of the Rose Croix. 

It has repeatedly been stated that Michael Maier, 
who frequently visited England, was a friend of Robert 
Fludd. He was the author of Themis Aurea and 
Silentium post Clamores, both Rosicrucian works. His 
political influence may be judged from his career. 
Physician to Rudolf H, he was created by him Count 
of the Palatinate, and acted as adviser to his sovereign. 
In 1609, Rudolf II issued an Imperial Charter granting 
religious liberty to the Moravians.' 

Masonic authorities state that Maier, as a Rosicru- 
cian, changed his official title to Summus Magister, 
Sovereign Master, which is that used by all his suc- 
cessors and borne by the principal Socinian Rose-Croix 
documents, dating from the time of Faustus Socinius 
to that of Johann Wolff, which are preserved in the 
Sovereign Patriarchal Council of Hamburg. (That is 
the Supreme Jewish Lodge secretly affiliated to Inter- 
national Masonry.) 

In his book Themis Aurea, written in 1616 and 1617 
and printed in 1618, Maier, the Grand Master, refers 
to a resolution passed at a meeting in 1617 in which 
it was formally agreed that the Brotherhood of the 
Rose Croix must maintain the strictest secrecy for a 
hundred years. On October 31 1617, the Convention 
of the Seven at Magdebourg had indeed agreed to qua- 
lify its members during the ensuing one hundred years 

5. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. Art. 


of secrecy as " The Invisibles ". It had renewed its 
oath to destroy the church of Jesus Christ and had 
decreed that, in the year 1717, it would transform the 
fraternity into an association which could carry on a 
more or less open propaganda, while adopting such meas- 
sures of prudence as might then be deemed expedient 
by the leaders of the sect. Finally, the Seven adopted 
definitely, as being sufficiently original to appeal to 
the popular imagination, Valentin Andrea's curious 
story of the Rose Croix which had been secretly print- 
ted in Venice towards 1613. 

Robert Fludd was the author of Tractatus Apologe- 
ticus (1617) and Clavis Philosophiae et Alchymiae (1633). 
He was greatly helped in the foundation of the Rose 
Croix order in England by Francis Bacon, author of 
Nova Atlantis ^ (1624). 

Valentin Andrea to whom, as we have seen, are 
ascribed the works Fama and Confessio, as well as Che- 
mycal Nuptials, had, in 1640, been appointed preacher 
to the Duke of Brunswick Wolfenbuttel, who was soon 
to make him his chaplain. 

To those who know the important part played by 
a Duke of Brunswick during the French Revolution, 
this entrance of the Brunswick family into the sect 
is very interesting. As a Rosicrucian, Andrea was the 
teacher of Comenius (Amos Kominsky), who frequently 
visited England during his mysterious political career. 
Bishop of a Moravian community, Comenius was the 
leader of the Moravian Brethren, a sect pledged to 
achieve the extermination of the Catholic church and 
which, being considered heretical, was also suspected 
of practising secret satanism. The Moravians were 
imbued with Socinianism, that is the doctrine of Lelius 

■ Wittemans, Hisloire des Rose Croix, p. 71. 


Socinius which had been spread among them by his. 
nephew Faustus Socinius who had found refuge in 
Moravia when persecuted by the Church. Their link 
with Rosicrucianism had ah'eady been established in 
the person of the pietist, Julius Sperber, who was also 
one of their leaders. When Kominsky was persecuted, 
he first went to London in 1641 and, early the next 
year, went to Sweden where he was granted refuge 
and help by the powerful Swedish Minister, Count Axel 
Oxenstiern, himself a Rosicrucian adept and protector 
of another initiate, Ludwig van Geer from Holland. 

The combination of the pursuit of alchemy and her- 
meticism with political aims was frequently evidenced 
even before the official appearance of Rosicrucianism. 
The influence of adepts on the destinies of nations was 

To Queen Elizabeth, the advice of John Dee, her 
alchemist, was always considered in matters affecting 
national policy, and to Dee, his crystal gazer, Edward 
Kelly, was indispensable as a medium. 

Ludwig van Geer, {one of the Seven present at 
Magdebourg) had settled in Sweden and had won over 
the chancellor. Count Axel Oxenstiern, then the real 
regent, in view of the minority of Queen Christina. 
A great industrialist of Dutch birth, with a colossal 
fortune made in the manufacture of cannon, he had 
become a Baron, and as owner of 20 ships of the Swedish 
fleet, he was an indispensable man. 

Another striking Rosicrucian figure was Thomas 
Vaughan, (Eugenius Philaletes) not to be confused 
with his pupil, George Starkey, known as Irenius Phi- 

It is said that it was Thomas Vaughan who, inspired 

7. Charlotte Fell Smith, op. cit., p. 182. 


by the writings of Nick Stone, conceived the idea of 
subverting to the ambition of the sect to which he 
belonged, the guild of the Freemasons which, owing 
to its universal character, lent itself better than any 
other to the realization of his project. 

Nick Stone was one of the Seven of the Convention 
of Magdebourg. As an architect, belonging to the guild 
of the Freemasons, he had helped Inigo Jones, the 
grand-master of the English Lodges which, at this 
period, were nonsectarian. On the other hand, as a 
Rosicrucian he had grasped, in the Luciferian sense, the 
idea given by Faustus Socinius, and he had composed, 
for the nine grades of the fraternity, rituals which the 
chiefs declared remarkable. His ritual of the eighth 
degree (Magister Templi) was really Satanic. 

Thomas Vaughan, struck by these manuscripts 
wondered whether it would be possible to extend the 
teaching of the Rose Croix to all " accepted masons ", 
who were then admitted to the lodges in an honorary 
capacity ; the Freemasons received in their guild, 
under the name of " accepted masons ", peers and 
men of letters or professional men, as well as rich 
bourgeois, who enhanced the brilliancy of their meet- 
ings and patronized their entertainments. These bono- 
rary members were their protectors and benefactors. 
Vaughan believed that this element, gifted with cer- 
tain intellectual qualities, would lend itself better to 
the propagation of the principles of occult Socinian- 
ism than the workers of the Fellow Craft, and, having 
made up his mind that this was the solution of the prob- 
lem, he hastened to put it into practice. 

8. This is still customary. Many of the English Guilds of 
today such as the Goldsmiths have honorary members who, 
for attending their dinners receive a box of chocolates and £3 
in cash. 


Some brothers of the Rose Croix were already ming- 
ling with the Freemasons. Among the members of the 
Warrington Lodge were Richard Penkett, James Collier, 
Richard Sankey, Henry Littler, John Ellam and Hugh 
Brewer and in London, the Whartons and their friends 
had slipped into a lodge as " accepted masons ". 

Thomas Vaughan encouraged them to spread the 
principles of Socinius. Finally, at a meeting on the 
I4th May 1643, he announced that their desultory 
efforts at restrained proselytizing should be supplanted 
by a definite programme of entering the guild lodges 
with the object of using them as instruments to an end. 

The account of this meeting of the 14th May 1643, is 
given in full in the Memoirs of Philaletes and the whole 
plan of the Freemasonry of today is therein revealed. 

So blended are truth and fiction in the active career 
of this adventurous adept that Vaughan must always 
remain one of the most mysterious characters of 

" When the plague of 1665 drove the Court from 
London to Oxford, Thomas Vaughan went thither with 
his patron (the king) and, a little later, took up his 
residence with the Rector of Albury, the Rev. Sam. 
Kem, at whose house, on February 27th of that year, 
he was killed by an explosion in the course of chemical 

His work in Masonry however has remained as his 
monument. Together with Elias Ashmole, pupil of 
Rabbi Solomon Frank and protege of James Pagitt, 
Thomas Vaughan worked up the masonic system of 
the first three degrees. These degrees, those of Entered 
Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason were 

9. A. E. "Waite, The Works of Thomas Vaughan, Biographical 
Preface, p. xii. 


devised for the temptation of the masses, while outside 
and above them continued the former secret system 
of the Rose Croix, four degrees of which belonging 
to the Gold Cross were known as : 1st, Zelator ; 2nd, 
Theoricus; 3rd, Practicus ; and 4th, Philosophus; 
teaching merely the principles of alchemy, while the 
degrees of the Rose Croix were ; 5th, Adeptus Minor; 
6th, Adeptus Major ; 7th, Ademptus Exemptus, 8th, 
Magister Tempii and 9th, Magus. 

Contemporaneous with the evolution of free thought 
against revealed religion broke the revolution against 
civil authority plunging England into the throes of 
civil war, Oliver Cromwell was successful at the head 
of the Parliament troops while Charles I was every- 
where betrayed by men on whom he relied. Henry 
Blount was among the traitors accruing to Cromwell 
after the battle of Edgehill; at least the defeat of the 
king was his pretext, for treason was everywhere pre- 
meditated. The word of order was given by the Rose 
Croix, which had spread rapidly among the Puritans. 

The year 1644 ended with the destruction of the 
Royal power, and Feb. 9, 1649, the day on which the 
head of Charles I fell at Whitehall, consummated its 
ruin. The Royal power had in fact been wrecked when 
the troops of Parliament were victorious, when the 
queen was obliged to take refuge in France, when the 
Prince Palatine, Robert, had been defeated, when York 
had been taken, and when the Commons had obtained 
against Laud, the Protestant Episcopal Bishop of 
London, Archbishop of Canterbury, the bill of attainder 
which declared him guilty of the crime of treason. 
Laud had stood for resistance to the Puritans. 

10. Henry Blount, 1602-1680, Father of Charles Blount, the 


The connection of the Cromwell family with that 
of the celebrated Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, 
whose political ideas, formed in Italy, under the gui- 
dance of Machiavelli, had so greatly affected the trend 
of English history, is here not devoid of interest. 

In 1767, a document was discovered which revealed 
the existence of a society of Freemasons in Italy with 
about 64,000 members. " " 

The document said : — "At last the great mine of 
the Freemasons of Naples is discovered, of whom the 
name, but not the secret, was known. Two circum- 
stances are alleged by which the discovery was brought 
about : — a dying man revealed all to his confessor, 
that he should inform the king thereof ; a knight, who 
had been kept in great state by the society, having 
had his pension withheld, betrayed the Grand Master 
of the order to the king. This Grand Master was the 
Duke of San Severo. The king secretly sent a confiden- 
tial officer with three dragoons to the duke's mansion, 
with orders to seize him before he had time to speak 
to any one, and bring him to the palace. The order 
was carried out; but a few minutes after, a fire broke 
out in the duke's mansion, destroying his library, the 
real object being, as is supposed, to burn all writings 
having reference to Freemasonry. The fire was extin- 
guished, and the house guarded by troops. The duke 
having been brought before the king, openly declared 
the objects, system, seals, government, and posses- 
sions of the order. He was sent back to his palace, and 
there guarded by troops, lest he should be killed by his 
former colleagues. Freemasons have also been discov- 
ered at Florence, and the Pope and the Emperor 

11. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of AH Ages & Countries, 
vol. I, p. 342. 


"have sent thither twenty-four theologians to put a 
stop to the disorder. The king acts with the greatest 
mercy towards all implicated, to avoid the great dan- 
gers that might ensue from a contrary course. He has 
also appointed four persons of great standing to use 
the best means to destroy so abominable a sect; and 
has given notice to all the other sovereigns of Europe 
of his discovery, and the abominable maxims of the 
sect, calling upon them to assist in its suppression, 
which it will be folly in them to refuse to do. For the 
order does not count its members by thousands, but 
by millions, especially among Jews and Protestants. 
Their frightful maxims are only known to the members 
of the fifth, sixth, and seventh lodges, whilst those of 
the first three know nothing, and those of the fourth 
act without knowing what they do. They derive their 
origin from England, and the founder of the sect was 
that infamous Cromwell, first Bishop, and then lover 
of Anne Boleyn, and then beheaded for his crimes, 
called in his day ' the scourge of rulers. ' He left the 
order an annual income of £10,000 sterling. It is divided 
into seven lodges : the members of the seventh are 
called Assessors ; of the sixth. Grand Masters ; of the 
fifth. Architects ; of the fourth. Executors (here the 
secret ends); of the third, Ruricori (!) ; of the second 
and first, Novices and Proselytes. Their infamous idea is 
based on the allegory of the temple of Solomon, con- 
sidered in its first splendour, and then overthrown by 
the tyranny of the Assyrians, and finally restored — 
thereby to signify the liberty of man after the creation 
of the world, the tyranny of the priesthood, kings and 
laws, and the re-establishment of that liberty. " 

As for Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, 
there is no record of his having been an " accepted 
mason ". He was however on the best of terms with 


Richard Penkett and is supposed by many to have 
been secretly affiliated to the Rose Croix but whether 
an adept or not he served the purpose of the sect, 
destruction of the Royal and Ecclesiastical Christian 
Power ! 

After the death of Charles I, Cromwell appointed 
an assembly of lawyers and divines to consider the 
petition of Manasseh ben Israel (1604-1657) demanding 
the abolition of the legal exclusion of the Jews from 
England. In December 1655 the legal prohibition was 
removed. Eleven years after (1666) occurred the great 
fjre of London. 

Does the following letter help to solve the mystery 
of this historical disaster ? It was one of many written 
by the Secretary-Interpreter of the Marquis de Louvois, 
an English spy, to his chief in England, published in 
London in 1697 by D. Jones, Gent. 

Of the firing of the City of London, in 1666. 


I am fully satisfied by what I have both seen and heai'd 
at Paris and elsewhere, that the Duke of York was in the 
Year 1666 brought quite over to the French Interest; and I 
have heard strange Stories related concerning his conduct 
at the time of that dreadful conflagration of the City, looking 
upon it Janus-like, with one face seeming concerned for the 
lamentable disaster, and with the other rejoycing to see that 
noble pile reduced to ashes, and its citizens ruined ; who had 
at all times been the greatest propugnators for liberty and 
property, and opposers of that religion which he now not 
only secretly protest, but was even ready publickly to own, 
and rewarding those incendiai'ies at St. James, who then 
were suspected generally to be Frenchmen, as your Lorship 
well may remember ; but by our Minutes it does appear 

12. Afterwards James II. 


they were not such ; but they were persons, at least many of 
them set on work by French councils, and such as at that 
time were of all men least suspected ; I mean Jews, of which 
they had then several in pay, not only in England, but all 
over Christendom ; not only to give them Intelligence in 
which they are wondrous active, but likewise to promote 
and act the worse of mischiefs, as which they make no baulk. 
By these, fires have been kindled, not only in England, but 
in Germany, Poland and elsewhere, which the Germans 
imputed to Turkish Emissaries, though they were Jews 
hired with French money, the Turkish Policy not being so 
refined in mischief, these sorts of Jews put on the shape of 
what Christians they pleased, and of this sort imploy'd by 
France, there were and are still several in England, the 
names of one or two of which I think I shall be able to give 
your Lorship in sometime, though they go by several, as 
time and occasion doth require, and so at present I remain. 

My Lord, 

Your Lordship's most Humble Servant, 
Paris, April 7 1676. N. St. 

More shadows of the past! More strange suggestions 
to shake the foundations of our belief in things as they 
seem ! 

The last of the Grand Masters of the Rose Croix 
was Johann Christian Wolff. Masonry, which as a 
secret association had maintained its existence for 
years had uncovered itself and become an avowed 
organization with the proclamation of the Anderson 
Constitution. ' "' Once in the open it was to be the uni- 
versal screen behind which all secret societies, whether 
theurgic or political, would operate clandestinely. 
Masonry with its proclamation of three philanthropic 

13. According to Sedir (see Histoire des Rose-Croix, p. 112) 
the last master of Rose Croix died in 1750. His name was Brun. 

14. Grand Lodge of England. 


and altruistic degrees, with no apparent real secret, 
declaring itself Christian and non-political, would 
become the centre in which ignorant men, recruited 
and duped, could act like puppets animated by unseen 
hands pulling unseen strings. 

Thus it came about that all blows dealt to Chris- 
tianity and States were prepared by the secret Societies- 
acting behind the veil of Masonry. 



Manicheism, with its hierarchy and missionary 
system, had taken root in Europe and, with its chief 
seat in Bulgaria, had thus found its way into Nor- 
thern Italy and the southern part of France. 

Unquestionably Manicheans in their beliefs and 
teachings, the Cathares (purifiers or pure) held the 
unadulterated tradition of Manes. Their hierarchy was 
that established by their founder. In the 12th century, 
their supreme chief was in Bulgaria having under him, 
bishops, priests, deacons and simple Perfects. These 
composed the class of Perfects who were distinguished 
from the second degree of Believers. 

As to the Albigenses, their name derived from Albi, 
a town of Languedoc, covered not one but many sects 
issued from Manicheism and Arianism, and counted 
also many Jews or judaised Christians. Under this 
appellation of Albigenses, historians, whether poli- 
tical or religious, have almost unanimously included 
the Cathares. 

A revolt against the then existing Church power of 
the 12th century is only too comprehensible, when one 
recollects the excesses of which popes, bishops and 
almost all dignitaries of the Church were guilty. The 



pioneers of the rebellion had been Peter of Bruys (died 
1126) and the monk Henri (died 1148). 

They had openly attacked the vices of the clergy 
and fallen victims, the first to his own fanaticism (he 
was killed by the mob whose anger he had aroused by 
pulling down a wooden cross to be used as burning wood 
for the purpose of cooking meat on a Good Friday); 
the second was imprisoned by a bishop against whose 
vices he had raised his voice. Both had attacked the 
beliefs and practices of the Church ; like the Baptists 
of today they rejected the practice of baptism for 
children, and denied the dogmas of transubstantiation 
and redemption through Christ. 

They gained many adherents and left numerous disci- 
ples whose Manichean opposition to the Church was iden- 
tical with that of the Cathares. Upon such grounds fell the 
preaching of Peter Waldo who, although he repudiated 
the dualist doctrine of the Manicheans, formed a serious 
opposition to the Church. He created the sect of the 
Waldenses divided in two degrees. Perfect and Belie- 
vers. The former made a vow of Poverty and as such 
took the names of Poor Brethren, the latter formed the 
Outer or Third Order. From the South of France and 
Northern Italy, persecution drove the Waldenses to 
the Central and Northern provinces of France, thence 
to England, then from Lombardy into Germany and 
Bohemia. John Wickiiffe (1324-1384) in England and 
John Huss (1369-1415) in Bohemia, were their foremost 
representatives and in the latter country they formed 
the Bohemian Brethren who later also took the name 
of Moravian Brethren or Religious Masons. 



Margrave Albert expelled the Jews from the town of 
Iglau, in Moravia, on the ground that they had been 
in league with the Taborites, the subversive element 
among the Hussites. The Taborites were Bohemians. 

The Moravian Brothers or Unitas Fratrum, a Gnos- 
tic sect, were founded in 1457 at Kunewald, near 
Seftenberg, by Gregory ; the nephew of the Calixtine 
leader Rokyzana. They were an offshoot of the Bohe- 
mian Brethren said to represent the religious kernel 
of the Hussite movement. 

At the Synod of Lhota near Reichenau, in 1467, they 
constituted themselves into a Church separate from the 
Calixtine or National church of Bohemia. 

The constitution of the society was revised at a 
second Synod held at Lhota under the direction of 
Luke of Prague, who may be regarded as their second 
founder. This reorganization enabled the society to 
grow rapidly. In the early years of the 16th cent, the 



Unitas included nearly 400 congregations in Bohemia 
and Moravia, with 150,000 members, and, inclu- 
ding Poland, embraced three provinces — Bohemia, 
Moravia, where the Jews are the best educated of the 
inhabitants, and in a few small towns form a full half 
of the population, and Poland. Each province had its 
own bishops and synods, but all were united in one 
church and governed by the general synod. 

The Lutheran movement in Germany awakened 
lively interest among the Brethren, and some unsuc- 
cessful attempts were made under the leadership of 
Agusta to unite with the Lutheran Church (1528-1546); 
but when the Calvinist reformation reached Bohemia, 
the Brethren found themselves more in sympathy with 
it than with the Lutheran. The Jesuit anti-reforma- 
tion, instigated by Rudolf and his brothers Matthias 
and Ferdinand, found the Brethren a prosperous church, 
but the pitiless persecution which followed the unsuc- 
cessful attempt at revolution crushed the whole Pro- 
testantism of Bohemia, and in 1627 the Evangelical 
churches there had ceased to exist. About the same 
time, the Polish branch of the Unity, in which many 
refugees from Bohemia and Moravia had found a 
home, was absorbed in the Reformed Church of Poland. 
A few families, however, especially in Moravia, held 
religious services in secret, preserved the traditions of 
their fathers, and, in spite of the vigilance of their 
enemies, maintained some correspondence with each 
other. In 1722, some of these left home and property 
to seek a place where they could worship in freedom. 
The first company, led by Christian David, a mechanic, 
settled by invitation from Count Zinzendorf on his 

1. Said to have been head of the Rose Croix, succeeding 
Theophilus Desaguliers ; he was Spener's godchild. 


estate at Bertheldsdorf near Zittau, in Saxony. They 
were soon joined by others (about 300 coming within 
seven years), and bulk a town which they called Her- 
renhut. The small community at first adopted the 
constitution and teaching of the old Unitas. The episco- 
pate had been continued, and in 1735, David Nitsch- 
mann was consecrated first bishop of the Renewed 
Moravian Church. The new settlement was not, however, 
destined to be simply a revival of the organization of 
the Bohemian Brethren. Zinzendorf, who had given 
them an asylum, came with his wife, family, and chap- 
lain to live among the refugees. He was a Lutheran 
who had accepted Spener's pietism, and he wished to 
form a society distinct from national churches and 
devoted to good works. After long negotiations, a 
union was effected between the Lutheran element and 
the adherents of the ancient Unitas Fratrum. The 
emigrants at Herrenhut attended the parish church at 
Berthelsdorf, and were simply a Christian (Gnostic) 
society within the Lutheran Church. (Ecclesiola in 
ecclesia). This peculiarity is still to some extent pre- 
served in the German branch of the church, and the 
Moravian Brethren's Congregation within the Evan- 
gelical Protestant churches, which enables them to do 
evangelistic work without proselytizing. The society 
adopted a code of rules in 1727, and ordained twelve 
elders to carry on pastoral work. This was the revival 
of the Unitas Fratrum as a church. 

Besides congregational work, special home missions 
were and are carried on in each province. In the Ger- 
man province there is a peculiar home mission called 
the Diaspora, which dates from 1829.'' 

2. Diaspora = The Jews of the Dispersion. 

3. For the foregoing refer Enc. Brit, Art. " Moravian Breth- 
ren ", 9th Edition, p. 812. 


The Moravians came to England in 1724, brought 
by Count Zinzendorf. The following extract from the 
work of an Anglican Bishop, written in 1751, shows 
that they were not particularly appreciated in that 
country as a force for good ! 

" Of what dangerous Consequence the Moravian 
System is to Government and Civil Society, appears 
by their progressive Multiplicity of Prevarications, 
Lies, Frauds, Cheats, and juggling Impostures, (Greatly 
detrimental to Princes and States, as well as ruinous 
to private Persons) which have so plainly been proved 
by Mr. Rimius, and others, particularly in ' the His- 
tory of the Moravians, very lately published, from the 
public Acts of Budingen, and other authentic Vou- 
chers. ' Of this Nature are their devouring the whole 
substance of any wealthy Convert, and declaring that 
the Society may say to a young rich Brother ' Either 
give up all that thou hast, or get thee gone. ' — Send- 
ing away any of the Society to the remotest Parts of 
the World, at a Minute's Warning, by the Authority 
of the Saviour, who will have it done Post-haste : 
' Whereby any, though his Majesty's Subjects, whom 
they suspect, or that dislike their Proceedings, or, for 
prudential Reasons, must be married up, or may dis- 
cover any of their Iniquities, are instantly sent into 
Banishment, and condemned to Transportation ; not 
for any Crime, but for their Virtue and Duty, Which 
is more than all the Authority of Great Britain can do, 
for any Crime, without an open and legal Trial, Making 
Marriages void, though before contracted, unless the 
carnal Cohabitation has been performed in the Presence 
of the Elders. — Seducing Men's Wives and Daughters, 
and then keeping them by Force, or sending them out 
of the Way ; and allowing no Power of Earth to reclaim 
them, though the Parents beg it on their Knees ; — 


Taking away the natural Authority of the Parents, and 
making their Children disobey and renounce them, 
under Pretence of obeying the Saviour, the Father that 
created them : ' thereby making the Fifth Command- 
ment of no Effect. — Sometimes bribing, and some- 
times threatening States, as Occasion serves, and 
denouncing Argumenta Regum, if they are opposed ; 
and telling Princes, that such or such a Place in their 
Dominions, was founded by the Saviour for his Theo- 
cracy ; which he won't fail to maintain. ' — These 
Things have been proved upon the Moravians, both as 
to Doctrine and Practice, by divers Instances. And 
that in Fact they claim an Independency on Govern- 
ment appears from the ' Letter to the Regency of 
Budingen, from the Count (Zinzendorf) and his Bre- 
thren, wherein it is said, in plain Terms, ' That all the 
Sovereigns on Earth must consent to the Theocracy 
in the Moravian Brotherhood, or have no Brethren in 
their Dominions. ' I need not add, that Theocracy 
signifies an immediate Government by God, which 
of Course excludeth all Civil Authority. " 

The Moravian dogma was Spiritism which generally 
means Black Magic. 

As for their moral code, it can be summarized in 
the few following words of Count Zinzendorf in a dia- 
logue with Mr. Wesley. " We reject all Self Denial, we 
trample it under Foot. We Believers do what we please, 
and no more. " 

Claiming to be free from all law by their Marriage 
with Christ, they refuse to be bound by any law at 
all : either of the Old Testament or the New. 

To bring all Sects under his sway, Roman Catholics, 
Socinians, Fanaticks, Chiliasts, Anabaptists etc.. Count 
Zinzendorf made a new translation of the New Testa- 
ment... "This was the practice of almost all the Gnostic 


Heretics, in order to deceive, and draw disciples. Nor 
did they make any Scruple of Omissions, Expungings, 
or any Corruptions that might serve their Purpose... 

" Missionaries were sent abroad, everything being 
done by the Saviour's Injunction... 

" Heaven, for them, is to consist in their being meta- 
morphosed into Female Angels, for a carnal Enjoyment 
of Christ in his human Nature, in the eternal Bed- 

" Where in the Scriptures do you find panegyrical 
Hymns in Honour of your Phallus ? " asks Lavington. 

For what follows we refer the reader to page 140 of 
the Bishop's book. 

Count Zinzendorf is said to have been the head of 
the Rose Croix from 1744 to 1749. He was on intimate 
terms with John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. 

Of all its names, that of " The Order of Religious 
Freemasons " is the most significant today. It should 
also be remembered that the head of this order was 
also the head of the " Esoteric Rosicrucians " of the 
time ! 

4. Bishop Lavington, The Moravians Compared and Detected, 
p. 157. 



(Founded 1521) 

The Anabaptists were founded in 1521 by Nicolas 
Storch, Mark Stubner and Thomas Muncer. 

Their Heresies were founded on the following Luthe- 
ran maxim interpreted subversively : A Christian man 
is master of everything and is subject to no one. They 
further claimed that infant baptism is null, therefore 
adults only can be baptized. 

" If the Anabaptists ", writes Hoeninghaus, a Ger- 
man Protestant writer, in La Reforme centre la Reforme, 
were not all equally intolerant, they were nevertheless 
all equally detested, hated, and persecuted by the Pro- 
testants much more than by the Catholics. " 

Queen Elizabeth ordered them to be excluded from 

Madden, in Phantasmata, describes their religion in 
the following terms : 

" We find among them claims to intercourse with God 
and angels — to the gift of prophecy — to the power of 
driving out evil spirits — to the right of persecuting oppo- 
nents — to visions, ecstasies, trances, convulsive seizures 
attributed to supernatural influences — and all these evi- 



dences of epidemic religious mania in countries which were 
Protestant. " ' 

At certain periods in its history, this sect wielded 
great power and Madden further writes that in Westpha- 
lia " for a length of time, the entire senate was 
composed of theomaniacs. As the republic was composed 
alone of fools and madmen, it is incredible to what 
a length they carried their excesses in Munster ; each 
magistrate proposed for the rule of government the 
wild chimeras of his own imagination, disguised under 
the imposing name of revelation. It was a sad 
spectacle to hear the deliberations of a senate composed 
altogether of fanatics : some being inspired in a per- 
fectly contrary way to that suggested to others : 
nevertheless, each one adhering to the dictates of 
his inspiration, because he believed that a special 
revelation had been made to him. When such things, 
says Calmeil, take place in a country, where pseudo- 
prophets are tolerated who disseminate terror, and 
run about the streets without any clothing, when 
the multitude set these things down as super-human 
phenomena ; when the inspired of both sexes walk about 
thus in public places in the midst of their disciples and 
apostles, the will of the Supreme Being is supposed to 
serve as a rule and direction to all the extravagances 
that mortals fall into, and it is difficult to say where 
will end the excesses of this religious delirium... The Ana- 
baptists, when they fell into the hands of their enemies, 
allowed their fingers, tongue, nose and ears, to be cut off, 
nay, even suffered themselves to be drowned by hundreds 
in torrents, rather than desist or depart for a moment 
from the orders they imagined came from God. " - 

1. Madden, Phantasmata, vol. II, p. 457. 

2. Ibid., vol. II, p. 450. 


In 1525, Luther headed an alliance of the Princes 
and governments to repress these excesses, and they 
were defeated at the Battle of Franlcenhausen in that 
year, their leader Thomas Muncer being seized and 

In 1536, John of Leyden proclaimed himself King 
of the New Jerusalem but his glory was of short dura- 
tion. He was taken by " the ungodly " and put to death. 

The principal leaders of the sect were John Mathias, 
John Boclfhold, David George, William Hacket, Kotte- 
rus, Kuhlmann and Dabricius. 

" The principal offshoots of the Anabaptist fanaticism 
in Germany, Holland, and Switzerland, were the Ada- 
mites, the Apostolics, the Taciturn, the Perfect, the 
Impeccable, the Liberated Brethren, the Sabbatarians, 
the Clancularians, the Manifestarians, the Bewailers, 
the Rejoicers, the Indifferent, the Sanguinarians, the 
Antimariens. " 

3. Madden, op. cit., vol. II, p. 456. 


(Founded 1717} 

John Valentin Andrea, the Rosicrucian, having elabo- 
rated a plan to merge all the existing religious Societies 
into one organization, published in 1614 a book Uni- 
versal and General Reformation of the Whole Wide 
World, in which he advocated the foundation of a secret 
society of all classes, pledged to work quietly for the 
benefit of their fellows. 

To this period also belongs the legend of Christian 
Rosenkreutz (see page 151). 

Andrea, however, failed in his endeavours but Jan 
Amos Komensky (Comenius) joined actively in his 
efforts and, as early as 1628, begged leave to share in 
this work of which he presently was given sole charge. 

About this time, Comenius wrote his renowned work 
on All-wisdom, the Pansophia, which embodied his ideas 
on the foundation of humanity's Utopia. 

This Moravian school-master, Comenius, while doubt- 
less an idealist, was also interested in spiritism, pro- 
phecies, revolution. Antichrist, the Millenium and such 
like whims of a dangerous fanaticism. He collected the 
visions of the Anabaptists, Kotterus and those of Dab- 
ricius and published them at Amsterdam. Those visions 



promised such wonders as the extermination of the 
Pope, the House of Austria, Gustavus Adolphus, Gus- 
tavus. King of Sweden, Cromwell and others and were 
of a most disturbing character. 

When Anderson undertook the task of uniting the 
old traditions of practical Masonry with the more recent 
development and broadened ideas of the new world- 
league, he incorporated in his book of constitution a 
reproduction of the main part of the plans and ideas 
of Comenius. Their true meaning was faithfully adhered 
to, and important and decisive passages were adopted 
almost literally. 

The transformation of the Lodge was actually carried 
out in 1663 when, in the General Assembly of Masons, 
the masters of operative masonry, feeling themselves 
supplanted and overruled, realized that if they did not 
wish to forsake their Lodge they must unite with its 
new masters and subordinate themselves to their 
designs — Henry Jermyn, Lord St. Albans, was elected 
and installed Grand Master, Sir John Denham became 
his deputy and Sir Christopher Wren and John Webb, 

The English Grand Lodge, as we know it, was founded 
on June 24, 1717, by Anderson, Desaguliers (an expa- 
triated Frenchman said to have been the head of the 
Rose Croix), Calvert, James King, Elliot, Lumden 
Madden and George Payne." It works only the first 
three degrees. Apprentice, Fellow-Craft and Master 
Mason (Blue Masonry) and constitutes the nursery 
for the selection of initiates for the higher or so called 
" spurious " masonry. Masons desirous of rising in the 

1. Bayles Dictionary, vol. 2, Art. " Comenius ", p. 1011, year 

2. Said to have all been members of the English Rose 


ranks of the Fraternity are therefore obliged to enter 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites, (in England 
Ancient and Accepted Rites) Grand Orient, Memphis 
and Mizraim, Swedenborg or some other International 
order which works the higher grades and selects its 
members from graduates of the original English sys- 

English masonry claims to be a purely charitable 

It is Blue Masonry which answers to the lesser myste- 
ries of the ancients wherein, in reality, nothing but the 
exoteric doctrines were revealed, whilst spurious 
masonry, or all subsequent degrees (for no one can be 
initiated into them who has not passed through the 
first three degrees) answer to the greater Mysteries. 

" According to Anderson's own showing", stater, 
Freemasonry Universal, " previous to the formation of 
Grand Lodge in 1717 the ceremonies of the Freemasons 
were purely Christian, but soon after that important 
change it was decided to widen the basis of the Craft so 
that men of all religious persuasions could enter her 
portals and benefit by her teaching. " 

On page 303 of The Rosicrucian and Masonic Record 
can be found the " Articles of Union ", dated 1813, 
of the two Fraternities of Free and Accepted Masons of 
England ; the " Society of Free and Accepted Masons " 
and " The Grand Lodge of the Society of Freemasons ". 
At the same time. Grand Lodge agreed to recognize 
a fourth degree, that of Holy Royal Arch. 

In these articles it is specified that the represen- 
tation of a Lodge in Grand Lodge shall be by its 

3. Heckethorn, op. cit., p. 266, vol. I. 

4. Freemasonry Universal, The Official organ of the British 
Federation of the Co-Masonic Order, vol. 2, part 2, Autumnal 
Equinox, 1926, p. 79. 


actual Master, Wardens and one Past master only. 
Prior to the revival in 1717, and the reconstruction 
of Masonry in its present symbolic form we find in 
another article in The Rosicrucian and Masonic Record 
(page 167) that : 

" Very little is known of the proceedings of Masonic 
bodies, from the fact that very few written documents were 
permitted to be recorded, and of these few, owing to the 
jealousy or over-caution of their rulers, many were burnt 
in London in 1721. " 

We can accept the causes given above for the destruc- 
tion of these documents with a smile! 

On initiation. Masons receive an alias by which 
name they are henceforth known in the Lodge. 

All Masonry is founded on the usual system of secta- 
rian help. " Help a Mason " supplants the Christian 
teaching of " Help everyone ". 

Until the last few years this rule had not assumed 
a subversive character. Lately however, it is said that 
" to get anywhere in business in the City (London) one 
must be a Mason ". This has stimulated Masonic recrui- 
ting, implying as it does a virtual business boycott 
against non-masons. Each new recruit weakens the 
forces of those whose free, unhampered judgment could 
serve the cause of real liberty, democracy, and humanity. 

Masonry, English and Continental, has been very 
useful to persons with political ambitions and minor 
mental and moral capacities. 

In Magonnerie Pratique, Corns d'Enseignement Supe- 
rieur de la Franc-Magonnerie, Rite Ecossais Ancien et 
Accepte, published 1885, in Paris, page 206, and attri- 
buted to Paul Rosen, we are given the following as the 

• Paul Rosen, Satan et C\ published 1888. 


esoteric explanation of the Ritual of Master Mason, 
Third Degree. It is an interesting fact that very few 
of the editions of certain works quoted herein are 
accessible to the profane public in museums and 

" The Temple, being emblematic of the human body, 
the Master's Lodge is known as the Middle Chamber 
within which the most intimate mysteries of Freema- 
sonry are celebrated. It represents the Uterus wherein 
is accomplished the reproduction of all beings . 

" The two parts, separated longitudinally by a dark 
curtain, represent, — one side, the West, dark, and 
lighted only by a single light, the abode of death, of the 
sterile seed, is the ovary. That of the Eastern side, 
brilliantly illuminated, is the seed fertilized by the 
fulfilment of the act of generation and absorbed by the 
Uterus '. 

" The Master holds the mallet, the two Wardens 
each holding a roll of cardboard nine inches in circum- 
ference by 18 inches long. These rolls represent the 
membrum virile . 

" In the middle of the Lodge is a mattress, coffin 
or ditch, which symbolises the bed, the Pastos of the 
Antients, upon which are performed the mysteries of 
human generation . 

" This mattress, coffin or ditch, also represents the 

Notes 6 to 18 are the authorities quoted by P. Rosen : 

6. J. M. Ragon, Orthodoxie Magonnique, p. 368, Paris. 

7. Henri Cauchois, Grand orateur du Grand Orient de 
France, Corns oral de Franc-Magonnerie symbolique, p. 140. 
Paris, 1863. 

8. Clavel, Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Magonnerie, 
p. 43. Paris, 1844. 

9. Mackey, Lexicon of Freemasonry, pp. 59 and 241. Lon- 
don, 1873. 


Arch of Noah, and the antient Arch of the Old Testa- 
ment, these two Arches being again the symbols of the 
place where the generation of beings is accomplished. 

" The acacia, the initiatic emblem of the Gauls and 
Scandinavians, and the fig tree, the initiatic emblem 
of the Syrians and the Orientals, signify that all the 
mysteries are derived from one source and rest on one 
base, that of India. 

" The Phallus is used by the Freemasons in the 
degree of Master where it is designated by the word 

" This fecundation is supposed to take place as fol- 
lows : 

" In the early period of initiation the seed of the 
unfertilized grain is dead. The Candidate, bearing within 
him this inert seed, is a male as he only wears upon his 
breast the Compass emblem of the membrum virile. 
He is stretched upon a mattress, or in a coffin or ditch, 
emblematic of the bed of the Pastos or the mysteries 
of generation. 

" Neither the second, nor the first warden can endow 
him with life. Alone, the Worshipful Master, wearing 
upon his chest the Square, symbol of the genitalia 
mulieris representing the female, (the Lodge) can 
fertilize this seed by leaning over the Candidate, who, 
representing the male, unites with him by the five 
points of perfection '". 

" The seed is fertilized by the Union of the male and 
the female, and the Lodge becomes pregnant of the 
Candidate, which she brings into the world nine months 

10. George Oliver, Grand Commander of the Supreme Council 
of England, The Book of the Lodge, p. 45. London, 1867. 

11. Mackey, op cil., p. 241. London, 1873. 

12. Richard Carlile, The Mysteries of Freemasonry, p. 64. 


later, as Perfect Master, fourth degree, it being estab- 
lished that nine full months must have passed since 
the aspirant had received the degree of Master 

In summing up : — The basis on which are founded 
the first three degrees of practical masonry are : — 

" That the Apprentice, Bohaz, the personification 
of Osiris or of Bacchus, coming to search for Truth in 
the Lodge, finds that he is a Male-God and incomplete 
for the generation of beings. 

" That the Companion Jackin, personification of Isis 
or Venus, the Female-God, completes the Male-God 
by rendering possible the generation of beings. ^ 

" That the Master Mahabone or MacBenac is the 
Hermaphrodite, complete son of Loth and his daughter, 
son of the sun and the earth. 

" And that because : 

1. All originates by Generation, and not by Creation, 

which is only the simple induction of Generation. 

2. Corruption or destruction follovfs generation in all its 


3. Regeneration restores, under other forms, the effects 

of destruction. 

" The formula of the three first degrees of Free- 
masonry is therefore : 

" The Incomplete man, the Profane, by initiation in 

13. Comte de Grasse-Tilly, Tableau des grades ecossais suivant 
I'ordre general decrete par le Supreme Conseil du 33^ degre, 
date du 22 decembre 1804. 

14. George Olivier, History of Initiation, p. 128. London, 

15. Albert Thomas, George Pearson, Grand Master of the 
Templars of the United States, The Tradition of Freemasonry, 
New York, 1850. 


Freemasonry, becomes Bohaz and is completed by 
Jackin in the Lodge which restores his corrupted divi- 
nity in Mahabone ". 

The special masonic significance of the Flamboyant 
Star, or Seal of Solomon, in Masonry ^^ is essentially 
the creative element. 

Man reclining presents a protuberance in the middle. 

Woman reclining, on the contrary, presents a cavity 
in the middle. 

The two enlaced form the Flamboyant Star. 

Small wonder that Mackey states that " no eunuch 
can be initiated a mason ! " 

Unfortunately, many corrupt and vicious persons 
seek Masonic protection and it is to the interest of all 
such aspirants to power thus to encourage vice and 
corruption through blackmail, using their votaries in the 
sect to further their own private ends. This is the funda- 
mental danger inherent in all secret societies, whatever 
their reputation, where Power is the object. 

" A Mason is said to demit from the order when he 
withdraws from all connection with it. It relieves the 
individual from pecuniary contributions and debars him 
from pecuniary relief, but it does not cancel his Masonic 
obligations, nor exempt him from that wholesome con- 
trol which the order exercises over the moral conduct 
of its members. In this respect the Mason is once a 
Mason and always a Mason. " 

' The fact that a Mason not a member of any 
particular lodge, but who has been guilty of immoral 
or unmasonic conduct, can be tried and punished by 

16. Moise Reghellini de Scio, LaMagonnerie consideree comme 
le lesuitat des Religions Egyptienne, Juive et chretienne. Paris, 
1833, n° 1, p. 364. 

17. John Yarker, Grand Master of Ancient and Primitive 
Rite, Speculative Freemasonry, p. 27. London, 1872. 


any lodge, within whose jurisdiction he may be residing, 
is not to be doubted. " 

Quoting Brother Moore (from Moore's Magazine, 
vol. 1, p. 36). " Again every Mason is bound to obey 
the summons of a Lodge of Master Masons whether 
he be a member or otherwise. This obligation on the 
part of an individual clearly implies a power in the 
lodge to investigate and control his conduct in all 
things which concern the interest of the Institution. " 

The clipping from the Daily Telegraph of Oct. 15th, 
1930, which we reproduce herewith, shows the organi- 
zation of a Masonic bureaucracy within our midst, an 
Imperium in Imperio of political office holders and 
magistrates, pledged first to Freemasonry, then possibly 
to the people. 


The Brighton Borough Lodge of and past Mayor of Brighton. The 

Freemasons, the first of its kind in Mayor-Elect, Alderman S. C. Thomp- 

the Province of Sussex, was conse- son, will be the first initiate. Other 

crated to-day by the Provincial officers are : 

Grand Master, Major R. L. Thornton. ^r. W- Hall Hunter, and Mr W. E. 

The lodge will comprise past and Trory wardens ; Mr. T. Read, chaplain ; 
present members of Brighton Town Mn H. Hone, treasurer ; Mr. H- G. Win- 
Council and magistrates, and the E^rton, secretary , Mr. T Talbot Nansoii, 
present Mayor, Councillor H. W. D of C. ; Mn R. Major and Mr. H J. 
AlHrirh is its first Mnsier Galliers, deacons ; Mn W. E. Radford, 
Aldrich, IS Its tirst IVlasler. assistant D. of C. ; Mn F.G.Beal, almoner; 

The mstallatLon of the Worship- Mn A. W. Wardell, assistant secretary ; 
ful Master was performed by the Mn H. G. W- Bishop; Mn L G. O. Dai- 
Deputy Provincial Grand Master, ton, end Mn G. W. Fabian, stewards, and 
Dr. H. Gervis, who is an alderman Mn A. Couzens. 

The Grand Masters of the United Grand Lodge of 
England have been : 1813 H. R. H. The Duke of 
Sussex. K. G. 1843 The Earl of Zetland. K. T. 1870 The 
Marquis of Ripon. K. G. 1874 H. R. H. The Prince of 
Wales. 1908 Lord Ampthill. 

18, Clavel, Hisfoire Pittoresque de la Franc-Magonnerie, 
p. 49. Paris. 



Apart from the Rosi crucians already mentioned, 
we see the foundation and growth of such societies as : 

1. The Strict Observance of the Baron Hund and the noto- 
rious Jew Leucht who had assumed the name of Johnson, 
and several other aliases. It recruited its members in the 
Lodges and went from occultism into political Intrigue, later 
even formulating a plan of economic and financial rule. 

2. The Martinists, which, founded by a Portuguese Mar- 
rano Jew, Martinez Depasqualy, united political intrigues, 
fomented for the overthrow of the monarchy, together with 
magical practices. It numbered among its members the chief 
politicians who prepared the French Revolution. These 
were Savalette de Lange, William Law and Mirabeau. 

3. The Scottish Rite. 

4. The Moravian Brothers. 

5. The Alta Vendita. 

6. The Egyptian Rites of Cagliostro (Mizraim). 

The adepts of all these different rites knew but little 
beyond the fact that they had shaken off the yoke of 
Christian principles which were replaced by the cult 
of nature, and in almost all cases licentiousness. They 
"Were but mere puppets manipulated by unseen men 



whose sinister aims were the destruction of Christianity 
and disruption of States and to whom all the above 
named orders or organizations were but so many recruit- 
ing grounds. It was only when each and all had 
gathered sufficient strength that the " Invisible Masters " 
attempted to unite them all under one supreme sway, 
namely that of Illuminism at the Convent of Wilhelms- 
bad in 1782. 

Illuminism represented the efforts of the heads of the 
powerful Jewish Kahal which has ever striven for the 
attainment of political financial, economic and moral 
world dominion. The movement had been founded in 
1776 by Adam Weishaupt. Bernard Lazare, himself 
a Jew, has written that " There were Jews behind 
Weishaupt ", and upon a close study of Illuminism, 
we find that the destructive forces which culminated in 
the French Revolution were of three kinds ; financial, 
intellectual and anti-christian. 

In the first class, we come upon the names of Jewish 
Financiers such as : — Daniel Itzig, Friedlander, Ceerf- 
beer, Benjamin and Abraham Goldsmid, Moses Mocatta, 
Veitel Heine Ephraim. 

In the second category, we find Moses Mendelssohn, 
Naphtali Wessely, Moses Hersheim — who are the 
inspirers of Lessing — Frederic Nicolai, Weishaupt, 
Mirabeau, I'Abbe Gregoire, the Duke of Brunswick- 
WolfenbutteL and Anacharsis Clootz. 

Lastly, the third class is composed mostly of the 
group known as the Encyclopedists : d'Alembert, Dide- 
rot, Rousseau, Voltaire and of all the Cabalists practis- 
ing magic and among whom we find : Martinez Depas- 
qualy, Leucht, the enigmatic Count of Saint Germain, 
Falke and Joseph Balsamo surnamed Cagliostro. 

The objects of this powerful organization of the 
Bavarian Illuminati, were : 


1. The destruction of Christianity and of all Monarchical 
Governments ; 

2. The destruction of nations as such in favour of universal 
internationalism ; 

3. The discouragement of patriotic and loyal effort bran- 
ded as nan'ow minded prejudice, incompatible with the 
tenets of goodwill to all men and the cry of " Universal 
Brotherhood " ; 

4. The abolition of family ties and of marriage by means 
of systematic corruption ; 

5. The suppression of the rights of inheritance and pro- 

Moses Mendelssohn, himself the head of the Haskalah, 
(Jewish Illuminati) cooperated with the Bavarian Illu- 
minati of Weishaupt and with the prominent members 
of the other revolutionary secret societies aspiring to 
political power, but, in 1784, the Elector of Bavaria 
made an abortive effort to stamp out the conspiracy 
which, being international, was necessarily impervious 
to local measures. The poison of subversion was working 
in France where on January 21, 1793, it culminated 
in the death on the scaffold of Louis XVI, an event 
that in masonic jargon is known as " The second can- 
non shot ". The capture of Rome by Cadorna in 1870 
was the third. 

As a further confirmation of concerted masonic 
action let us bring yet another illustration : 

In the first days of the French Revolution (1848), 
300 Freemasons, with their banners flying over brethren 
of every rite representing French Freemasonry, marched 
to the Hotel de Ville, and there offered their banner to 
the Provisional Government of the Republic, proclaim- 
ing aloud the part they had just taken in the glorious 

M. de Lamartine made them this answer, which was 


received with enthusiasm by the Freemasonry Lodges: 
" It is from the depths of your lodges that the ideas 
have emanated, first in the dark, then in the twilight, 
and now in the full light of day, which have laid the 
foundations of the Revolutions of 1789, 1830, and 
1849. " ' 

Fourteen days later, a new deputation of the " Grand 
Orient ", adorned with their Masonic scarfs and jewels, 
repaired to the Hotel de Ville. They were received by 
A. Cremieux", and G arnier Pages, attended by pages, 
who also wore their Masonic emblems. The Represen- 
tative of the Grand Master spoke thus ; — " French 
Freemasonry cannot contain her universal burst of 
sympathy with the great social and national movement 
which has just been effected. The Freemasons hail 
with joy the triumph of their principles, and boast of 
being able to say that the whole country has received 
through you a Masonic consecration. Forty thousand 
Freemasons in 500 lodges, forming but one heart and 
one soul, assure you here of their support happily to 
lead to the end the work of regeneration so gloriously 
begun ". Brother Cremieux, a Jewish brother, member 
of the Provisional Government, replied : " Citizens and 
brothers of the Grand Orient, the Provisional Govern- 
ment accepts with pleasure your useful and complete 
adhesion. The Republic exists in Freemasonry. If the 
Republic do as the Freemasons have done, it will become 
the glowing pledge of union with all men, in all parts of 
the globe, and on all sides of our triangle. " 

1. Gargano, Irish Freemasons and Their Foreign Brothers, 
p. 55. 

2. The means for the attainment of Cremieux's ambition 
are set forth in a book entitled Paris : Capitate des Religions, 
by Jean Izoulet. 

3. Gargano, Op. cit. 


If the wielding of power and their national political 
economic and financial strength over the peoples by a 
few hidden hands can result in such calamitous uphea- 
vals as the French Revolution, the World War of 1914 
and the Russian Revolution of 1917, were it not wise 
to apply the lesson of experience to ascertain whether 
the supposed harmless Masonry of today does not 
again serve as a screen or curtain behind which thrive 
secret societies no less subversive, revolutionary and 
demoralising than those which we have just so briefly 
sketched ? 

We know that most of them such as the Martinists, 
the Illuminatis, the Scottish Rite and the Egyptian 
Lodges of Memphis and Mizraim still exist today, so, on 
what grounds can we base our assumption of a change 
of their revolutionary and anti-christian principles? In 
the face of late events, namely, the Peace Conference, 
the creation of the League of Nations, the amalgama- 
tion of international resources, the confiscatory inheri- 
tance taxes, the development of international finance, 
the proposed establishment of an international non- 
christian cult, have we the right to refrain from lifting 
the veil of Masonry behind which subversive movements 
are so conveniently hidden? 



This chapter is compiled largely of extracts, 
some transcribed verbatim and others elaborated 
to include information necessary to the reader 
from : — 

History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders 
by H. L. Stillson & W. J. Hughan. 

Adriano Lemmi 

by Domenico Margiotta 33°. 

Ex-Secretaire de la Loge Savonarola, de Florence ; 

Ex-Venerable de la Loge Giordano Bruno, de Palmi ; 
Ex-Souverain Grand Inspecteur General 33° degre, du 

Rite Ecossais Ancien et Accepte; 
Ex-Souverain Prince de I'Ordre (33° 90° 95°) du Rile de 

Memphis et Misraim de Naples ; etc. etc. 
Ex-Inspecteur permanent et Souverain Delegue DU GRAND 


(Haute-Ma9onnerie Universelle). 

It is necessary to give a brief review of the history 
of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites. This society 
originates from the rite called Scottish of Perfection or 
of Heredom, in twenty-five degrees, worked in the 
eighteenth century in Europe by Masons devoting 
themselves to occultism. The following statement with 



regard to the introduction of this rite in America is 
made in a report by Albert Pike : 

" We can soon learn how it was that the Council 
degrees came, about 1766, from France, and not from 
Prussia. In 1761, the Lodges and Councils of the 
superior degrees being extended throughout Europe, 
Frederic II (Frederic the Great), King of Prussia, 
as Grand Commander of the. Order of Princes of 
the Royal Secret, or 32 degrees, was by general consent 
acknowledged and recognized as Sovereign and Supreme 
Head of the Scotch Rite. " ' 

" On the 25th Oct. 1762, the Grand Masonic Consti- 
tutions were finally ratified in Berlin and proclaimed 
for the government of all Masonic bodies working in 
the Scotch Rite over the two hemispheres; and in the 
same year they were transmitted to the Jew, Stephen 
Morin, who had been appointed, at the request of 
Lacorne, in August, 1761, Inspector General for the 
New World by the Grand Consistory of Princes of the 
Royal Secret, convened at Paris, under the presidency 
of Chaillon de Joinville, representative of Frederic 
(the Great) and Substitute General of the Order. " 
It will be remembered that the 33rd degree was not then 
created; and under Frederic the Great, there was no 
rank higher than the 32nd degree nor anybody superior 
to a Consistory. " 

1. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 480. 

"• " He (Morin) probably — ignorant charlatan as he was — 
mistook Frederick II, Grandson of Barbarossa, an actual 
King of Jerusalem, for his contemporary Frederick II of 
Prussia. " 

2. The Comte de Clermont was Grand Master of the Grande 
Loge Nationale de France. 

3. H. L. Stillson &W. J. Hughan, op. cit, p. 243. 

See also Morris's Masonic Dictionary, Article, " Sovereign 
Grand Inspector General ". 


Morin went to Santo Domingo where he was joined 
by Moses M. Hays and Henry Andrew Francken. The 
latter founded a branch of the rite in Jamaica, while to 
the former was entrusted the task of founding lodges in 
North America. The Jew Hays established a Sublime 
Lodge of Perfection in Boston, of which he constituted 
himself Grand Master and charged one of his co-reli- 
gionscs, and brother Mason, Isaac Dacosta, who, 
in 1758 had founded the St. Andrew Lodge in Boston, 
with the mission of introducing Masonry into South 

Though on August 27, in 1766, Bro. Morin's patent 
was revoked by the Grand Body in Paris for " propaga- 
ting strange and monstrous doctrines " exercising bad 
faith etc., etc. **, and given to Bro. Martin, Morin con- 
tinued constituting chapters and councils and, with 

Sovereign Grand Inspector General, The 33rd and ultimate 
degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. It is not 
known when or where this grade originated. The theory which 
ascribes it to the King of Prussia has long since been discarded 
by intelligent Masons. The number of Inspectors in a kingdom 
or republic must not exceed nine. These, organized in a body, 
constitute the Supreme Council, which claims jurisdiction over 
all the Ineffable and Sublime degrees. The presiding officer 
is styled Sovereign Grand Commander. 

See also Blanchard 33, Scottish Rite Masonry, vol. II, p. 484. 

" And though made within the memory of men now 
living, we read, in the same Note by Macoy : It is not cer- 
tainly known, when or where this degree originated ; that is to 
say, its origin is concealed. This is the most infamous Masonic 
act, next to burning their records of fifty-nine years before the 
war, (American Civil War) to hide treason. But slavery then 
ruled the country, and this 33rd Charleston degree ruled the 
lodge. And the Southern lodge-rooms worked up the most 
unjustifiable and infamous war on record. The Southern people 
"were dragooned into it, by leaders secretly sworn to obey 
Masonic leaders, or have their throats cut. " 

4. Peckham, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites, p. 6. 


Dacosta, in 1783, seventeen years after his patent had 
been annulled, he erected in Charleston " The Grand 
Lodge of Perfection ". 

Dacosta was its Grand Master. Joseph M. Meyers 
was his eventual successor, and " when the Grand Coun- 
cil of Princes of Jerusalem was established in Charleston, 
February 20, 1788, he, as one of the Deputy-Inspectors 
who established it, deposited in the archives certified 
copies of the degree of Royal and Select Masters from 
guidance and government of that new body. " 

The two Masonic powers of Boston and Charleston 
created numerous lodges and inner shrines in the 
United States and gave themselves the title of Mother 
Lodges of the United States. 

In view of the historical fact that the American War 
of Independence broke out in 1773, it is interesting to 
find that the Lodge of Perfection, at Albany (New- 
York), was directed as early as 1770 to transmit reports 
to Berlin. This indeed becomes significant when consi- 
dered with the circumstances surrounding the " Boston 
Tea Party ", which are so ably described in The History 
of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders by Stillson and 
Hughan, that we take the liberty of here transcribing 
some lines from this remarkable publication : 

" Grand Master (Joseph) Warren was appointed on 
March 3, 1772, by the Grand Master of Scotland, 
Grand Master of Masons for the Continent of America. 

" Tradition says that the ' Mohawks ', the ' High 
Sons of Liberty ', met at the lodge at the ' Green Dragon 
Tavern' which was denounced by the Tories as a 

nest of traitors '. General Joseph Warren and other 

5. H. L. Stillson & W. J. Hughan, op, cit., p. 649. 

6. Ibid., p. 801. 

7. Ibid., p. 247. 


leading Masons made it the headquarters of the Revo- 
lution. On November 30, 1773, the Lodge of 
St. Andrew's (that founded by Dacosta and of which 
Warren was a member) was closed without the tran- 
saction of any business, in consequence of the fewness 
of the brethren present, the consignees of tea having 
broken up the brethren's nerve. On the 16th of Decem- 
ber following, it is said the line of march was taken from 
the lodge-room to destroy the tea on the then arriving 

" On April 8, 1776, the Grand Lodge was convened 
for the performance of a sad and solemn duty, that of 
attending the funeral of Grand Master Warren, who was 
killed at Bunker Hill. " 

In 1738, Pope Clement XII had excommunicated the 

We extract the following instructive points from 
Adriano Lemmi by Margiotta : 

" Sovereign Princes of Jerusalem was the title born 
by the deputies of the Grand Master when they received 
missions to found lodges and visit regions where they 
had high jurisdiction. The name was that of a function 
and not a degree of initiation and there was one deputy 
only for each region. On May 15, 1781, at a convention 
of Deputy Inspectors convoked by Hays and Meyers 
at Philadelphia, Moses Cohen was named deputy inspec- 
tor of Jamaica, as Francken, originally appointed by 
Stephen Morin to found lodges there, had neglected his 
mandate. Soon another Jewish Freemason came to 
Jamaica. This was Hyman Isaac Long who derived his 
powers from Morin, through Francken, Hays, Spitzer 

8. Margiotta, op. cit, p. 86 et seq. 

Isaac Long was the son of Isaac Long, a Dutch writer, one 
of the foremost Moravian brethren, and closely connected with 
Count Zinzendorf. 


and Moses Cohen, and who was to play a great role 
in the sect. 

"The convention of Philadelphia had decided that, 
in the future, there might be several Sovereign Princes 
of Jerusalem per region. By virtue of this decision, Moses 
Cohen conferred this title on Isaac Long who, finding 
his sphere of action too restricted at Jamaica soon went 
to Charleston. He was an active man who had formed 
great plans. Not only did he create other Lodges, but 
he brought other rites (such as that of Royal Arch) 
under the obedience of the Mother Lodge at Charleston. 
The Mother Lodge at Boston however did not prosper. 

" Nevertheless, when one thinks of the immense 
territory of the United States, one understands that 
the Lodges, at the start, could only be very few and far 
between, so masonry vegetated for a long time in North 
America. In 1795, Isaac Long went to Europe, leaving 
Colonel John Mitchell the direction of the Mother Lodge 
of Charleston. 

" When he returned to the United States, six years 
later, he brought the plan of his great idea, which was 
the creation of a rite of 33 degrees destined to become 
universal. With Colonel John Mitchell, Doctor Frederic 
Dalcho, Abraham Alexander, Isaac Auld and Emanuel 
de la Motta, all Sovereign Princes of Jerusalem, he 
constituted this rite, taking twenty-five degrees of the 
system of Heredom, six Templar grades in which were 
merged four degrees borrowed from the German Illu- 
minism of Adam Weishaupt, and two grades called 
grades of administration, the last of which supplanted 
the function of Deputy Inspector (Sovereign Prince of 
Jerusalem) and took the title of Sovereign Grand 
Inspector General 33rd and last degree. This was his 

9. The 9th, lOth, 11th and 21st degrees. 


crowning achievement. Isaac Long gave the institution 
the name of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites, and 
the first great constitutions were signed at Charleston, 
on May 31st 1801. " 

It was Isaac Long who created de Grasse and his 
father-in-iaw, de la Hogue, Deputy Grand Inspectors 

" In order to insure great popularity for the rite, he 
linked it directly with the Templars by a mysterious 
legend. The high grades of other rites had already 
thought of pretending to avenge the Templars, condemn- 
ed in the Middle Ages by the Papacy and the Monar- 
chy. In the ceremonial of certain initiations, a pretext 
was thus contrived for swearing hatred and death to 
royalty and the church. 

But Isaac Long had found better than that. 

According to the tradition, the Knights Templar, 
convicted of secret conspiracy and maleficent occultism, 
had taken refuge in Scotland where they succeeded in 
eluding their pursuers. It was said that they had 
succeeded in buying the head of the Grand Master 
Jacques Bourgignon de Molay from the executioner, 
after it had been severed from the body and that they 
had contrived to place in safety the monstrous idol called 
Baphomet which they worshipped in their secret 

When Long arrived in Charleston in 1801, he brought 
with him this Baphomet which he claimed to have 
recovered as well as a skull which he declared to be 
that of the Grand Master Molay. They were signal 
relics, holy things! Long affirmed that he had been 
assured by the Good God in person that victory over the 
Church was contingent on these precious relics, and that 
the Templar Baphomet was the Palladium which 
would lead Freemasonry to victory ". 


To this Other authors have added that this skull is 
known as the relic of Saint Jacques and is placed 
upon a high pedestal in the Hall of the Supreme Council 
of Scottish Rites, in the temple at Charleston, where 
annually, on the 11th of March, it talks and vomits 

Its conversational propensities were however not 
revealed until Gallatin Mackey, who claimed to be the 
reincarnation of Jacques de Molay, developed the 
proclivity for going into an annual trance on the 11th 
of March. This trance lasted about one hour, during 
which the skull conversed volubly about itself and all 
sorts of other things." 

Pursuing the subject further, Margiotta states that: 

" The Mother Lodge of Boston had ceased func- 
tioning for some years but that of Charleston, recon- 
stituted according to the new Scottish System in 33 
degrees, became the root of the tree which was to spread 
its branches over the entire world. The Superior Lodge 
of the Grand Sovereign Inspectors General, in each 
country, was to be called the Supreme Council, and it 
is from the Supreme Council of Charleston that all the 
others were to emanate. It is thus the first Supreme 
Council of the Globe. 

" Such is the history of the origin of this rite which 
attracted Mazzini's attention for, during the years 
which preceded the taking of Rome by the army of 
Piedmont, he could see that the previsions of Isaac 
Long had been realized. So it was in Pike, the successor 
of Long, himself the Sovereign Commander Grand 
Master, that the great revolutionary conspirator sought 
an ally in his work the object of which was the total 
destruction of the church. " 

10. Margiotta, op. cit., p. 88 et seq. 


The following address, issued from Paris by Giuseppe 
Mazzini " to his friends in Italy, October 1846, fully 
sets forth the deep laid plans by which Freemasonry 
sought to engage all classes. 

" In great countries, it is by the people we must go 
to regeneration ; in yours, by the princes. We must 
absolutely make them of our side. It is easy. The Pope 
will march in reform through principle and of necessity ; 
the King of Piedmont through the idea of the crown of 
Italy; the Grand Duke of Tuscany through inclination 
and irritation ; the King of Naples through force ; and 
the little princes will have to think of other things 
besides reform. The people yet in servitude can only 
sing its wants. Profit by the least concession to assemble 
the masses, were it only to testify gratitude.... Fetes, 
songs, assemblies, numerous relations established among 
men of all opinions, suffice to make ideas gush out, to 
give the people a feeling of its strength and render it 
exacting... Italy is still what France was before the 
Revolution ; she wants, then, Mirabeau, Lafayette, and 
others. A great lord may be held back by his material 
interests, but he may be taken by vanity. Leave him 
the chief place whilst he will go with you. There are 
few who would go to the end. 

" The essential thing is, that the goal of the great 
revolution be unknown to them ; let us never permit 
them to see more than the first step. In Italy, the clergy 
are rich in money and the faith of the people. You must 

1 1 . Michael di Gargano, Irish and English Freemasons, p. 66. 

12. See Larousse: Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIX"^ siecle. 
Mazzini. 1808-1872. He had become the chief of a particular 

sect much given to mysticism. Without being a catholic he 
was profoundly religious... In Oct. 1871, he organized in Rome 
a congress of workmen which attracted little attention. " I am 
not a christian.", he wrote to Daniel Stern. 


manage them in both those interests, and as much as 
possible make their influence of use. 

" Learned discussions are neither necessary nor 
opportune. There are regenerative words which contain 
all that need be often repeated to the people. Liberty, 
rights of man, progress, equality, fraternity, are what 
the people will understand above all when opposed to 
the words, despotism, privileges, tyranny, etc., etc. 

" Nearly two thousand years ago, a great philosopher, 
called Christ, preached the fraternity which the world 
yet seeks. Accept, then, all the help offered you. Who- 
ever will make one step towards you must be yours till 
he quits you. A king gives a more liberal law ; applaud 
him, and ask for the one that must follow. A minister 
shows intention of progress ; give him out as a model. 
A lord affects to pout at his privileges ; put yourself 
under his direction if he will stop, you will have time to 
let him go : he will remain isolated, and without strength 
against you, and you will have a thousand ways to make 
unpopular all who oppose your projects. All personal 
discontent, all deceptions, all bruised ambition, may 
serve the cause of progress by giving them a. new direc- 
tion. The army is the greatest enemy to the progress of 
socialism. It must be paralysed by the education of the 
people. Clerical power is personified in the Jesuits. 
The odium of that name is already a power for the 
socialists. Make use of it. Associate! Associate! every- 
thing is in that word. The secret societies give irresist- 
ible strength to the party that can call upon them. Do 
not fear to see them split: the more the better. All go to 
the same end by different ways. The secret will be often 
violated ; so much the better ; the secret is necessary to 
give security to the members, but a certain trans- 
parency is needed to inspire fire to the stationary. 

Courage, then and persevere! " 


That Freemasonry has not always enjoyed immunity 
the following quotation will serve to show. 

" In the year 1735, the States General of Holland 
proscribed the secret Masonic League, and the French 
government imitated the example in 1735. In 1757, in 
Scotland, the Synod of Stirling adopted a resolution 
debarring all adhering Freemasons from the ordinances 
of religion. 

" The Great Council of Berne proscribed Freemasonry 
in 1748, Bavaria followed in 1799, and its total suppres- 
sion took place in 1845, The Regency of Milan and the 
Governor of Venice acted in a similar manner by it 
in 1814. John VI, King of Portugal, prohibited Free- 
masonry in the strictest manner in 1816, and renewed it 
in 1824. In 1820 several lodges were closed in Prussia 
for political intrigues ; and in the same year Alexan- 
der I banished the order from the whole Russian Empire. 
A similar occurrence took place four years later in Modena 
and Spain... Yet today, some men boast of belonging 
to a secret society, the members of which were declared, 
by an Act of George III, felons, and liable to transporta- 
tion for life ! " '^ 

Speaking of Masons, in 1876, Richard Carliie wrote : 
" Let them not wait to be disbanded by the Legisla- 
ture, as a useless and mischievous association : but let 
them anticipate the spirit of a coming age... The deluge 
of mystery has not only overwhelmed Babylon but 
Egypt, Greece, Rome, and will, if we do not light up 
the spirit of revelation in time, most assuredly over- 
throw this British nation. It is even now in danger, 
from the dissension of its internal mysteries, of becoming 
an easy prey to some more barbarously mysterious 
power. Thus fell Babylon, Egypt, Jerusalem, Greece, 

13. Michael di Gargano, op. cit. 


"Rome, and why not Britain, if Britain retain those seeds 
of disease and weakness? Te!l me not that the safety 
of a country is in its superstition, or in its secret and 
mysterious bands. " 

This warning however passed unheeded. During the 
time that has elapsed between the publication of Car- 
lile's book and the present day, we see England honey- 
combed with societies, subversive of law, order and 

Numerous are the homes which have become resorts 
where, today, the shameful orgies of Medmenham are 
enacted anew. They are the secret haunts of social 
cliques and associations, and behind such screens as art, 
antiques and dressmaking thrive, as though they were 
highly protected, the white slave traffic, the dope traffic 
and gambling which serve as a drag-net and decoy 
for the service of the Great God Pan. 

14. Carlile, Manual of Freemasonry, p. 94. 



At the present moment, when we are surfeited with 
the words unions and mergers, to say nothing of car- 
tels, a new interest is awakened by the perusal of 
Thomas Frost's book on Secret Societies, from which 
we extract the following : 

" Two results of great importance in the progress 
of the European revolution proceeded from the events 
that occurred at Naples in 1820-21. One was the reorga- 
nization of the Carbonari, consequent upon the publicity 
given to the system when it had brought about the revo- 
lution, and the secrecy in which it had hitherto been 
enveloped was no longer deemed necessary ; the other 
was the extension of the system beyond the Alps. When 
the Neapolitan revolution had been effected, the Car- 
bonari emerged from their mystery, published their 
constitution and statutes, and ceased to conceal their 
patents and their cards of membership. In the Papal 
States, in Lombardy, and in Piedmont, the veil of 
secrecy was maintained for a little time longer, partly 
through the adoption by the Carbonari in those portions 
of the peninsula of symbols and pass-words different 
from those of the Neapolitan lodges, partly by the for- 



mation of the various societies of the Adelphi, the 
Guelphs, the Brother Protectors, and the Italian Fede- 
rati, which were similar, and yet not the same, though 
all holding the same principles, and having a common 
object. But after the collapse of the Piedmontese revo- 
lution, so much doubt and fear existed among the leaders 
as to the extent to which the secrets of the system were 
known that they were all effaced, and consigned to 
oblivion. The scattered directors of the movement drew 
together the broken threads of the conspiracy as soon 
as they were able, but with a new nomenclature and 
a new symbolism. 

" The dispersion of the Carbonaro leaders had, at the 
same time, the effect of extending the system in France, 
where it had been introduced towards the end of 1820 
and creating centres of revolutionary agitation in the 
foreign cities in which they temporarily located them- 

General Pepe proceeded to Barcelona when the 
counter-revolution was imminent at Naples, and his 
life was no longer safe there ; and to the same city 
went several of the Piedmontese revolutionists when 
their country was Austrianized after the same lawless 

Scalvini and Ugoni took refuge at Geneva ; others of 
the proscribed proceeded to London. This dispersion, 
and the progress which Carbonarism was making in 
France, suggested to General Pepe the idea of an 
international secret society, which should combine for 
a common purpose the advanced political reformers of 
all the European States. 

Shortly after his arrival at Madrid, to which city 
he proceeded from Barcelona, he propounded to two or 

1. Thomas Frost, Secret Societies of the European Revolution, 
vol. II, p. 1 et seq. 


three ultra-Liberal deputies tlie plan of tliis society, the 
object of which, he says, 

' was to enable the members to correspond and by these 
means preclude the possibility of a renewal of that want 
of union which had been experienced amongst the most 
noted patriots of Spain and Portugal, Naples and Piedmont. 
Several deputies of the Cortes were inclined to regard 
such an association as extremely beneficial to the public 
cause, more especially in their own peninsula, where a great 
want of concord existed between the Portuguese and the 
Spaniards. The society was accordingly founded; several 
members of the Cortes formed part of it, as well as General 
Ballesteros, Councillor of State. I still preserve the regulations 
of this society, the great object of which was to open a com- 
munication between the most enlightened patriots of the 
different cities in Europe. It was decided that I should exert 
myself to give it extension in Lisbon, London and Paris ; 
and that, in the event of my success, other members should 
proceed to propagate it over Italy and Germany. ' 

" Having organized in Madrid the first circle of the 
Constitutional Society of European Patriots, Pepe 
proceeded to Lisbon, where he was even more successful 
in his efforts than in the Spanish capital. Two of the 
Ministers, and several Councillors of State and members 
of the Cortes signified their adhesion, and, before Pepe 
left, a flourishing circle was formed, under the direction 
of Almeida-Moraes, the president of the Cortes. From 
Lisbon the general proceeded by sea to London, where, 
as he says, he soon found that ' a secret society in 
England among men of mind is a thing quite out of the 
order of probability '. He mentioned the society to a 
few, but met with no encouragement. The Duke of 
Sussex and Sir Robert "Wilson read the statutes and 
regulations of the society, but only as a matter of 
curiosity. " 


This curiosity is doubtless responsible for the creation 
of what was later known as The International Committee 
of London. The particular Duke of Sussex, here referred 
to was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England 
from 1813-1843, and this interview with the Italian 
revolutionary is of great significance showing as it does 
the effort, at this date, to subvert English Freemasonry 
to the aims of The International. According to the 
system which worked out later, English Freemasonry 
retained, to all appearances, its original autonomy. 

But to proceed with the statement of Frost : 

" Pepe next opened a correspondence with Lafayette, 
who hailed the proposed international organization of 
the secret societies as ' a Holy Alliance opposed to that 
of despotism, ' and at once associated himself with it. 
He, with Manuel and Argenson, the triumvirate that 
was supposed to have directed the Associated Patriots 
of 1816, were earnestly engaged at that time in the 
reorganisation of the Carbonari of France, upon a new 
system, which promised more perfect impenetrability ; 
and Buonarotti was similarly engaged at Geneva, with 
a view to renewed operations in Italy. " 

" It has been doubted whether Lafayette, Manuel , 
and Argenson', with others who were supposed to be 
the leaders of the Carbonari in France, were actually 
the chiefs of the society; and, with regard to Manuel 
at least, the point is not susceptible of positive demon- 
stration. There are, in all countries, men of superior 
station who, when a collision between the people and 
the Government is impending, are aware of what is 
going on, and hold themselves prepared to step to the 
front when the movement has advanced to a point 

2. Andre Jacques Manuel {1791-1857). 

3. Marc-Rene de Voyer, Marquis d 'Argenson, harboured 
Buonarotti, one of the group of conspirators led by Babeuf. 


at which they can do so with advantage to the cause and 
safety to themselves ; but who take care not to commit 
themselves to it prematurely, or to allow any trace to 
exist of their connexion with it. This has been thought 
by some to have been the real position of the individuals 
whom others have asserted to have been the actual 
leaders of the Carbonari, as they had previously been 
held to be of the Associated Patriots ; but though there 
is no absolute proof that they were the Grand Elect 
there can be very little, if any, moral doubt upon the 
point. " 

The Author of Secret Societies of the European Revolu- 
tion writes the foregoing paragraph but fails to explain it. 

Who and what are the men he refers to ? 

Such indeed are the political principles adopted by 
the leaders of Freemasonry. Therein lies its power. As 
soon as any political movement becomes inevitable, as 
soon as public pressure on an existing government 
becomes too strong, this sect, in the name of Liberty, 
Equality and Fraternity, takes the secret leadership 
of the opposing faction. Through the new government 
which becomes the subservient tool of its capricious 
master, who, at any moment, may suppress its fledgling, 
by creating and backing a new opposition, it holds, 
not the balance of power but all the power. 

Thus : Those who rule Freemasonry today, rule the world. 

And Frost further adds : 

" In 1831, the French Government had not only 
proclaimed a policy of non-intervention, but had express- 
ly declared that France would not permit intervention 
on the part of any other Power in the affairs of any 
nation in Europe. Lafayette was deceived by these 
professions, and assured Misley (the agent of the Masonic 
Revolutionary Committee) that the Italians had nothing 
to fear. " 


In that year Masonry made an attempt to cast off 
the Austrian yoke in Italy by using France as its base 
of operations. Owing however to French non-cooperation 
the revolution failed. 

" A few days afterwards, Misley and Linati arrived at 
Marseilles and chartered a vessel, aboard which they put 
a couple of cannon and twelve hundred muskets. They 
were joined by General Pepe, Count Grilenzoni, the 
advocate Mantovani, Dr. Franceschini, and Lieutenant 
Mori; but, at the last moment, the Prefect received a tele- 
graphic order from Paris to prevent their embarkation 
and lay an embargo on the vessel. General Pepe evaded 
the vigilance of the police, however, and contrived to 
reach Hyeres, where he heard of the entrance of the 
Austrians into Bologna, and thereupon abandoned his 
intention of giving the aid of his reputation and expe- 
rience to the revolutionary cause. " 

In connexion with the agitation provoked in Pied- 
mont, during the reign of Charles Albert, by Mazzini's 
" Young Italy " movement in 1848, the veteran General 
Pepe again comes into prominence. On March 29, 
1848, he arrived at Naples, and was sent for by King 
Ferdinand who invited him " to form a Ministry, of 
which he should have the Presidency, with the Minis- 
tries of War and Marine. " Every difficulty however 
was thrown in the way of Pepe's projected military 
operations, " the Naval Department insisting that the 
fleet could not convey troops, the King interposing 
various delays and the Pope refusing permission for 
more than one battalion or squadron to pass daily. 
Seventeen thousand troops at last started, but with 
orders not to cross the Po until the King commanded 
the passage ! " 

. Thomas Frost, op. cit., vol. 11, p. 174. 


There was much marching and countermarching 
but the secret societies had not yet won. 

The tangled history of the " Young Italy " move- 
ment in its early stages is well explained by Thomas 
Frost in Secret Societies of the European Revolution, 
and anyone particularly interested in that phase of 
political history would do well to refer to this book. 
Due allowance must however be made for certain 
omissions and inaccurate deductions on the part of the 
author who, in 1876, could not have access to informa- 
tion which is now available to anyone seeking it. 



This Chapter is compiled iai'gely of extracts, 
some transcribed verbatim and others elaborated 
to include information necessary to the reader, 
Ikim : 

Adriano Lemmi 

by Domenico Margiotta 33° 
Magonnerie Pratique 

by Paul Rosen 33° 
Initiation Human and Solar 

by Alice A. Bailey 
LeDiableau XIX" Siecle 

by Dr. Bataille. 

Adriano Lemmi wrote : " The anniversary of Sept. 20, 
the day on which Rome became the capital of Italy, 
when the temporal power of the Pope was over- 
thrown, concerns Freemasonry exclusively. It is an 
anniversary, a purely masonic festival, which marks 
the date of the arrival of Italian Freemasonry in Rome, 
the aim for which it had for many years been striving. " 

The date of Sept. 20, 1870, is not only an Italian 
date, it is above all a great masonic date, for it marks 



the organization of a supreme rite, introduced into 
Freemasonry, to lend a satanic character to the vague 
divinity more or less well known by the name of " The 
Great Architect of the Universe ". 

During the last years preceding the capture of Rome, 
Mazzini had established relations with the Masonic 
chief of Scottish Rites, Albert Pike, President of the 
Supreme Council of Charleston, United States. 

Pike was a great student of the Cabala and the 

Mazzini had understood that Freemasonry was a 
powerful lever with which to revolutionize the world, 
but he saw it divided into numerous rites, often rivals, 
and even hostile to one another. Aspiring to Italian 
Unity as a means of breaking the temporal power of the 
Holy See, he dreamt of a union of masonry throughout 
the world to destroy the church itself as a spiritual 

He addressed himself to Pike in preference to another 
Grand Orient or Supreme Council chief because of the 
many international ramifications of Ancient and Accep- 
ted Scottish Rites, as Pike, its recognised chief, had 
succeeded in gaining considerable influence over all the 
Supreme National Councils of this rite which had 
hitherto been of a purely dogmatic and liturgic cha- 

Mazzini, who was very practical, said that it would 
be inadvisable to favour one rite only to the exclusion 
of all the others. In a letter to Albert Pike, dated Jan. 
22, 1870, he writes. " We must allow all the federa- 
tions to continue just as they are, with their systems, 
their central authorities and their divers modes of corres- 
pondence between high grades of the same rite, orga- 
nized as they are at present, but we must create a 
supreme rite, which will remain unknown, to which 


we will call those Masons of high degree whom we shall 
select. With regard to their brothers in masonry, these 
men must be pledged to the strictest secrecy. Through 
this supreme rite, we will govern all Freemasonry which 
will become the one international centre, the more 
powerful because its direction will be unknown. " 

Thus at the time when Mazzini formed the scheme 
of unifying Freemasonry by creating one central uni- 
versal direction reserved to a small number of high 
masons chosen with the greatest care, he selected 
Albert Pike as an ally. 

Pike was born in Boston on Dec. 29, 1809. 

His parents, in modest circumstances, succeeded in 
giving him a course at Harvard College. He then went 
to join his family at Newbury port. There, for a while, 
he taught in a primary school till he moved to Fair- 
haven where he continued his career of pedagogue. 

In 1833 he went to Little Rock. 

From 1830 to 1840, Masonry in the United States 
had fallen into disrepute and almost ceased to exist. 
After the torture and death of William Morgan in 1826, 
many lodges faded into oblivion to resuscitate only after 
the storm of public censure had abated. 

During the Civil War, Pike served as brigadier- 
general in the Confederate army. The Confederate 
government named him Indian Commissioner and 
charged him with the conduct of negotiations with the 
most powerful savage tribes, to raise an army of their 
warriors. To facilitate his organization of this army he 
was made Governor of Indian Territory, and once these 
hordes were united, they were placed under his com- 
mand. What followed can be easily understood as his 
troops were composed of Chickasaws, Comanches, 

Creeks, Cherokees, Miamis, Osages, Kansas and Choc- 
aws, with all of whom he personally was on the best 


of terms. Among them, he was known as " the faithful 
pale-face friend and protector ". It was no longer war — 
it was an orgy of murder and atrocities so terrible that 
the foreign powers interfered. Representations made by 
England, threatening intervention in the name of 
humanity, finally compelled Jefferson Davis to disband 
his auxiliary Indian troops. 

Mrs. Liliana Pike Room gives us the following chrono- 
logical history of her father's early Masonic career. 
She says that he became an Oddfellow, some time in 
the forties, and in 1850 entered the Masonic Fraternity. 
After that he gradually ceased to be active as an Odd- 
fellow. Soon becoming prominent in Masonry he advan- 
ced rapidly to the highest honours. His Masonic record 
is as follows : 

" He was initiated in Western Star Lodge at Little 
Rock, Arkansas, in 1850. 

" Raised to the degree of Worshipful Master, in 
Western Star Lodge No. 1, Little Rock, Arkansas, 
in July 1850. 

" He became Charter Member of Magnolia Lodge, 
No. 60, Little Rock, Arkansas, and was Worshipful 
Master ad vitam of that lodge in 1853. 

' Exalted in Union Chapter No. 2 R. A. M. Little 
Rock, Arkansas, in 1850. 

" Greeted as Royal and Select Master at Washington, 
D. C, 1852. 

" Created Knight Templar 1858 Washington Com- 
mandary No. 1. K. T. in Washington. 

" Elected Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter 
of Arkansas, in 1853. 

" In 1856, met Brother Theodor S. Parvin of Connec- 
ticut and received degrees of A. A. (Ancient and Accep- 
ted Scottish Rite) from 4° to 32° inclusive, on March 
20th, 1853. 


" Coroneted Honorary Inspector General, April 25th, 
1857. Crowned Active Member of Supreme Council, 
Southern Jurisdiction March 20th, 1858, at Charleston, 
South Carolina, and on the resignation of Brother John 
Honour as Grand Commander, was elected M. P. Sove- 
reign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council for 
the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, January 
2nd, 1859. " 

Mrs. Room further adds " I will state here what he 
told me himself, that Sovereign Grand Commander 
Honour, his predecessor, resigned that office expressly 
that he might be elected Sovereign Grand Commander. " 

The secretary of the Supreme Council at Charleston, 
at this time, and its ruling power was Pike's great friend, 
Gallatin Mackey. 

On the other hand, Margiotta gives the following 
particulars : 

" Towards this epoch. Pike and Mackey received the 
visit of Longfellow. This Longfellow was a Scottish 
Rites Mason who, in 1837, had taken up his residence 
in the United States, becoming the intimate friend and 
private secretary of Moses Holbrook, then Sovereign 
Commander of the Supreme Council of Charleston. The 
intimacy between Longfellow and Holbrook became 
quickly serious as both had thoroughly studied the 
occult sciences and enjoyed discussing the mysteries of 
the Cabala. 

' When Longfellow asked his Grand Master's 
permission to join the order of the Oddfellows for the 
purpose of studying its organization, his request was 

" Oddfellow is the name adopted by the members of 
a society founded in London towards 1788. Their meeting 

1. Margiotta, Adriano Lemmi, p. 93 et seq. 


places were called Lodges, as in Masonry, and many 
were dissolved under the suspicion that their character 
was subversive, though the visible aims of the fraternity 
were simply mutual help and diversion. But the society, 
changing its location and its name, continued a preca- 
rious existence till, in 1809, several members founded 
a new lodge at Manchester. Then some of them separa- 
ted in 1813 and formed the independent Order of 
Oddfellows (I. 0. 0. F.) the members of the general 
council of which were all to reside at Manchester. The 
order was introduced in America, in 1819, by the 
blacksmith (Thomas) Wildey, who founded Washing- 
ton Lodge No. 1, at Baltimore. This town became the 
headquarters of the American and Canadian Oddfellows 
and, thanks to the energy of Wildey, the order made 
great headway and spread with rapidity. 

" Longfellow and Holbrook, while exchanging views 
on the Cabala, had formed the project of creating a 
Satanic rite in which the adepts would be instructed 
in Black Magic, but Holbrook, the Grand Master of the 
Supreme Council of Charleston, who had already com- 
posed a suitable ritual and sacrilegious mass called 
Adonaicide Mass, died, retarding the fulfilment of the 
project. " He was succeeded by John Honour, after 
whose death the dream of the Jew, Moses Holbrook, 
to subvert Masonry, was fulfilled by Albert Pike on a 
gigantic scale. 

" Longfellow left Charleston after the death of his 
patron and, in 1854, went to Hamilton, Canada. There, 
with the authorisation of Wildey, he submitted the 
rituals of Holbrook to this flourishing society and it 
was decided to graft a second and separate class of 
adepts, practising secret Satanism, on to the original 
body. But Wildey, becoming suddenly jealous, refused 
the use of his premises. " 


"Undiscouraged by obstacles placed in his way by 
Wildey, Longfellow returned to Charleston in 1857, 
where he had interviews with Pike and Mackey to 
whom he revealed his plan. The innovation of Long- 
fellow was declared to be marvellous, but Pike, who 
had himself already thought of introducing Lucife-i 
rianism into the inner shrines of Scottish Rites Freema- 
sonry, would not take a definite stand, so Longfellow 
addressed himself directly to the Grand Master John 
Honour. He seemed indifferent to the subject on the 
grounds that one could not introduce Satanism into the 
Supreme Council of Scottish Rites without the know- 
ledge of his lieutenant-commander, Charles Furman, 
who was opposed to changes of this kind. Finally 
Longfellow obtained from Wildey the authorisation 
secretly to use the Order of the Oddfellows for the 
initiations of the second class, which was to form an 
absolutely secret rite and to have its centre at Hamilton. 
The adepts of the second class Oddfellows, practising 
Satanism, then took the name of Re-Theurgist-Opti-i 
mates (used by the Palladists also) and Longfellow 
became the Grand Priest of the ' New Evocative 

As a consequence of the intrigues and manoeuvres 
of some members of the Masonic organization, the 

2. Gerard de Nerval, Les Illumines, p. 172. 

Translation : " Several philosophers of this period followed 
Quintus Aucler in this revival of the ideas of the school of 
Alexandria. It is towards the same period that Dupont {de 
Nemours) published his Philosophy of the Universe, founded on 
the same elements of adoration of planetary intelligences. 

Likewise, he established, between man and God, a chain of 
immortal spirits which he called " Optimates " and through 
whom any illumine can have communication. It is always the 
doctrine of the " ammoneans " gods, the " eons " or " eloims " 
of antiquity. 


office of Grand Master had become an elective position 
which was now destined to be filled by the particular 
member of the Fraternity selected by the conspirators. 
Among these was Gallatin Mackey, a Luciferian, who 
proposed Albert Pike, another Luciferian, for the post 
of Grand Master of the Supreme Council of Charleston 
to which he was duly elected on January 6th 1859, his 
candidacy being unopposed. 

Margiotta adds : 

" Once Grand Master, Pike reestablished the 
supremacy of his Supreme Council and succeeded grad- 
ually in becoming an important Masonic personage 
and the real chief of Scottish Rites ". 

In 1806, a jeweller, Joseph Cerneau, founded a rival 
rite in New York composed of the same 33 degrees of 
initiation as the order of which he himself was chief. 
This rite, which was later worked by F. Foulhouze, an 
American, excited the ire of the Sovereign Pontiff of 
Universal Freemasonry who waged a ceaseless warfare 
of excommunication against it. 

From letters scattered through different masonic 
archives, it is evident that Mazzini formed his great 
project after 1866. The grand patriarch of the sect in 
Europe, Lord Palmerston, had died. Convinced that the 
power he had wielded was purely the result of personal 
influence with the different chiefs and that, not being 
based on an efficient organization it was unlikely to 
endure, Mazzini set himself to study the problem of the 
international organization of Freemasonry, and in 1870 
reached an agreement with Pike for the creation of the 
Supreme Rite. 

The Franco-Prussian war, which, enabled the King 
of Piedmont, already called King of Italy, to take Rome, 
favoured the abolition of the temporal power of the 
Pope, and at this time the constitution of central high 


masonry was decreed and signed between Albert Pike 
and Giuseppe Mazzini. The act of creation is dated 
Sept. 20, 1870, the day upon which the army of inva- 
sion, commanded by the Freemason, General Cadorna, 
entered the Eternal City. 

The two founders divided their powers according to 
the following plan. To Pike was given dogmatic autho- 
rity and the title of Sovereign Pontiff of Universal 
Freemasonry, while Mazzini held the executive autho- 
rity with the title of Sovereign Chief of Political Action. 
Mazzini evinced great deference towards the views of 
the Patriarch of Charleston and begged him to draw 
up the statutes of the grades of the Supreme Secret Rite 
which would thus be the liturgic bonds of the members 
of centralized high masonry. 

Albert Pike, in honour of his Templar Baphomet, 
which was in the keeping of his first and historic Supreme 
Council, named the order the New and Reformed Palla- 
dian Rite or New and Reformed Palladium. 

" It was agreed ", continues Margiotta, " that the exis- 
tence of this rite would be kept strictly secret and that 
no mention of it would ever be made in the assemblies 
of the Lodges and Inner Shrines of other rites, even 
when by accident, the meeting might happen to be 
composed exclusively of brothers having the perfect 
initiation, for the secret of the new institution was 
only to be divulged with the greatest caution to a 

3. Iti his Cyclopaedia of Fraternities Stevens writes that the 
' Order of the Palladium' was founded in 1730 and soon 
afterwards introduced in Charleston where it remained inactive 
until 1886, It blossomed anew under the name of' Reformed 
Palladium ' and gave a new impulse to the traditions of High 
Masonry. Stevens adds that the Palladium is little known as 

the number of its members is strictly limited and the deepest 
secrecy surrounds all its deliberations. 


chosen few belonging to the ordinary high grades. * 
" To recruit adepts, they planned to use some members 
of the other rites, but in the beginning they meant to 
rely principally on those among the initiates of Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rites who were already addicted 
to occultism. 

" Everyone knows that in masonry from the degree 
of Master, a mason may, without being a member of a 
lodge, assist at sessions as a visitor, at Lodges not belong- 
ing to his own rite or even to his own national federa- 
tion, provided he is a regular active mason and presents 
himself at a lodge working at a degree equal to, or 
below the highest degree of which he is possessed. Thus 
a Rose Croix (18th degree Scottish Rites), travelling 
in any country, may, if he frequents assiduously his 
lodge and chapter, present himself at any lodge of a 
degree equal, to or inferior to his own and assist at a 
seance, but he cannot enter an areopagus of Knights 
Kadosch (30th degree), even one of his own rite. A 33rd 
would be well received everywhere, in any country, in 
any rite the existence of which is acknowledged. Thus 
it was particularly the initiates of the thirty-third 
degree Scottish Rites, who, owing to their extensive 
international ramifications, were privileged to recruit 
adepts for Palladism. That is why the supreme rite 
created its Triangles (the name given to Palladian 
Lodges) by degrees, but these were established on a 
firm base, the lowliest of its initiates being brothers long 
tested in ordinary masonry. 

" One will better understand these precautions 
knowing that Palladism is essentially a Luciferian 
rite. Its religion is Manichean neo-gnosticism, teaching 
that the divinity is dual and that Lucifer is the equal 

4. Margiotta, op. cit., p. 97 et seq. 


of Adonay, with Lucifer, the God of Light and Goodness 
struggling for humanity against Adonay the God of 
Darkness and Evil. In stating this principle of the secret 
cult of the triangles, Albert Pike had only specified and 
unveiled the dogmas of the high grades of all other 
masonries, for in no matter what rite, the Great Archi- 
tect of the Universe is not the God worshipped by the 

" For other reasons these precautions were still 
necessary, in order to render possible the exercise of a 
supreme central directing power, reaching all the rites 
through the personal influence of the Elects and Per- 
fect Initiates, these being invested with privileges, and 
giving the impulse, which emanated from the source 
of the highest universal authority. If Brothers, not fully 
initiated, had suspected the existence of this supreme 
organization, it is evident that, in the ordinary Lodges 
there would always have been a tendency to resist the 
motions of such privileged persons. 

" To insure the creation and good working of this 
formidable machine of Palladism, Mazzini had reserved 
for himself the office of Chief of Political Action nor had 
he hesitated in bowing to the will of the Patriarch of 
Charleston who, by his preponderance in Scottish Rites, 
could easily penetrate all countries of the globe with 
"the new institution. That is the reason for Mazzini 
giving supremacy to the dogmatic over the political 
authority in International Freemasonry. 

' The Holy See of the Dogma for the whole masonic 
world was set up at Charleston, the sacred city of the 
Palladium. Pike, the Sovereign Pontiff of Lucifer, was 
the president of the Supreme Dogmatic Directory, com- 
posed of ten brothers of the highest grades who formed 
his Supreme Grand College of Emeritus Masons. The 
Sovereign Executive Directory of High Masonry was 


established at Rome under Mazzini himself who, know- 
ing the rivalry between the different Supreme Councils 
in Italy, seldom appeared at the official meetings of the 
Grand Orient of Rome, and, so as not to awaken suspi- 
cion in the minds of ordinary high grade Italian Masons 
in whom he had not confided the secret of the new 
institution, pretended to be occupied with socialism 
only ". 

Rut was this interest, plan or pretence ? 

In the following paragraph on the International 
in World Revolution by N. Webster, page 179, we find a 
link, if not the link, between Mazzini and Karl Marx. 
Mazzini and his International Masons are already pre- 
paring the subversion of the Socialist Labour move- 

" At the meeting in St. Martin's Hall, on September 
28, 1864, when the ' International' was definitely founded, 
Marx played no part at all. ' I was present', he wrote 
Engels, ' only as a dumb personage on the platform'. 
Rut he was named nevertheless a member of the 
sub-committee, the other members being Mazzini's 
secretary — a Polish Jew named Wolff — Le Lubez, 
a French Freemason, Cremer, the secretary of the 
English Masons' Union, and Weston, the Owenite. At 
the first meeting of this committee, Wolff placed before 
it the statutes of Mazzini's Working-men's Association, 
proposing them as the basis of the new association; Le 
Lubez suggested amendments described by Marx as ' per- 
fectly childish '. ' I was firmly resolved ', he wrote, 'not 
to leave a single line if possible of all their balderdash'. 
In a few weeks he had succeeded in establishing his 
authority. ' My propositions were all accepted by the 
commission.' " 

As to whether Marx thus manoeuvred himself into 
a dominant position in the movement, or Mazzini's 


agents manoeuvred Marx into this position to suit their 
own ends, is left to our imagination, but the fact of 
someone, not an outstanding personality, being elected 
or nominated on a committee for no particular reason, 
generally means, to anyone versed in the technique 
of political tricks, that the nomination or election was 
something arranged " behind the scenes ". 

On page 46 in La Theologie Politique de Mazzini et 
I'Internationale, Bakounine, the celebrated Russian 
anarchist, refutes certain statements said to have been 
current in London about himself at the time, in the 
following terms : 

"But in 1864, while on my way through London, he 
(Karl Marx) came to see me, and assured me that he 
(Mazzini) had never taken any part direct or indirect 
in these calumnies against me which he himself had 
considered most infamous. 1 had to believe. " 

It is a fact that for a certain length of time Mazzini 
and Marx were closely associated. 

An eminent Mason, the atheist leader of the Italian 
Socialists, Alberto Mario, husband of Miss Jessie White, 
an ardent Mazzinian and the authoress of a history of her 
hero — Delia vita di Giuseppe Mazzini — was moreover 
a tool of Pike whom he generally consulted on all impor- 
tant matters. Thus, in order to divert the attention of 
the imperfect initiates, Mazzini organized a congress of 
working men in Rome, in October 1871. A close exami- 
nation of the work of this congress shows however that 
it was only pretence for nothing practical was attempted 
or accomplished. On the other hand, he busied himself 
with grouping all the political elements of the sect in 
which occult manoeuvre his agent, Adriano Lemmi, 
helped him more than anyone else. 

" When Pike sent him a copy of his Luciferian rituals, 
Mazzini was full of an enthusiastic praise for his col- 


league's work which he expressed in his articles in La 
Roma del Popolo. The public however failed to under- 
stand the sentiment that inspired him to proclaim the 
existence of a divinity and denounce materialism 
and atheism. One was puzzled to find this man a 
mystic. He showed himself extremely religious yet he 
declared himself the sworn enemy of the Church ! " 

Pike's literary achievements were numerous. These 
were, Ariel, Morals and Dogma, The Sacred Hymns, 
The Sephar H. Debarim, Book of the Word , Legenda 
MagisTralia, Rifiial of the New and Reformed Palladium 
(4 grades out of 5) The Book of Revelations, The Supreme 
Verb, The Ritual of Elect Magus, and The Book of 
Apadno, which latter contains the prophecies concern- 
ing the reign of the Anti-Christ from the Satanic 
point of view. 

The theological dogma of Albert Pike is explained 
in the ' Instructions ' issued by him, on July 14, 1889, 
to the 23 Supreme Councils of the world and have been 
recorded by A. C. De La Rive in La Femme el I'Enfant 
dans la Franc-Ma^onnerie Universelle (page 588) from 
which book we translate and quote as follows : 

" That which we must say to the crowd is — We 
worship a God, but it is the God that one adores 
without superstition. 

" To you. Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, we 
say this, that you may repeat it to the Brethren 
of the 32nd, 31st and 30th degrees — The Masonic 
religion should be, by all of us initiates of the high 
degrees, maintained in the purity of the Luciferian 

" If Lucifer were not God, would Adonay (The God 

5. Margiotta, op. cit., p. 100. 

6. Rosen, Magonnerie pratique, vol. I, p. 434. 


of the Christians) whose deeds prove his cruelty, 
perfidy, and hatred of man, barbarism and repulsion 
for science, would Adonay and his priests, calumniate 


" Yes, Lucifer is God, and unfortunately Adonay 
is also God. For the eternal law is that there is no light 
without shade, no beauty without ugliness, no white 
without black, for the absolute can only exist as two 
Gods : darkness being necessary to light to serve as its 
foil as the pedestal is necessary to the statue, and the 
brake to the locomotive. 

" In analogical and universal dynamics one can only 
lean on that which will resist. Thus the universe is 
balanced by two forces which maintain its equilibrium : 
the force of attraction and that of repulsion. These two 
forces exist in physics, philosophy and religion. And 
the scientific reality of the divine dualism is demon- 
strated by the phenomena of polarity and by the univer- 
sal law of sympathies and antipathies. That is why the 
intelligent disciples of Zoroaster, as well as, after them, 
the Gnostics, the Manicheans and the Templars have 
admitted, as the only logical metaphysical conception, 
the system of the two divine principles fighting eter- 
nally, and one cannot believe the one inferior in power 
to the other. 

" Thus, the doctrine of Satanism is a heresy ; and the 
true and pure philosophic religion is the belief in Luci- 
fer, the equal of Adonay ; but Lucifer, God of Light 
and God of Good, is struggling for humanity against 
Adonay, the God of Darkness and Evil. " 

One must not lose sight of the fact that Pike occupied 
simultaneously the positions of Grand Master of the 
Central Directory of Washington, that of Grand Com- 
mander of the Supreme Council of Charleston and that 
of Sovereign Pontiff of Universal Freemasonry. 


In 1880, a charter was granted himbythe Royal Order 
of Scotland for the foundation of Lodges in America 
appointing him Provincial Grand Master of the order 
of H. R. M. He was indeed a great organizer. 

Margiotta further writes: 

" The two secret chiefs. Pike and Mazzini, finally 
completed the organization of high masonry, establish- 
ing four Grand Central Directories for the world, 
functioning thenceforth to gather information for the 
benefit of their political policy and dogmatic propa- 
ganda. These were. The Grand Central Directories for 
North America at Washington, for South America at 
Montevideo, for Europe at Naples, and for Asia and 
Oceania at Calcutta. Later, a central Sub-Directory for 
Africa was founded at Port Louis, Island of Mauritius, and 
after the death of Mazzini, the supreme chief constituted 
a Universal Sovereign Administrative Directory at 
Berlin which ranked in the hierarchy after the Sove- 
reign Executive Directories and before the four Great 
Central Directories. " 

Gallatin Mackey, the confidant of Albert Pike, died 
in Charleston on June 20, 1881. He was the author 
of many works on masonry, namely The Lexicon of 
Freemasonry, published in New York in 1845, The 
History of Freemasonry in South Carolina, The Manual 
of the Lodge, The Masonic Ritualist, The Symbolism 
of Freemasonry and The Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, 
the authorship of which is generally now attributed to 
Albert George Mackey. 

According to the fundamental constitution of the 
Palladium, the nomination of the Chief of Political 
Action, the President of the Sovereign Executive Direc- 
tory, was not an elective office. Its incumbent was an 
appointee of the Sovereign Pontiff of Universal Free- 


When Mazzini felt himself to be dying, he designated 
Adriano Lemmi as his successor. He died on March 
11 1872, at Pisa, and Albert Pike, deferring to his 
wishes, named Adriano Lemmi as his successor. 

Pike was not only an organizer and a politician, he 
was also, in his religious capacity, as Cabalist and 
spiritist, a mystic on whose personality the following 
anecdote sheds a flood of light. 

" Speaking before the Supreme Council of Charles- 
ion, on October 20, 1884, he gave an account of his 
recent travels through the United States and some 
incidental experiences. One of these, he described as 
follows : — 'At Saint Louis, we operated the grand 
rites, and through Sister Ingersoll, who is a first class 
medium, received astonishing revelations during a 
solemn Palladian session at which I presided, assisted 
by Brother Friedman and Sister Warhnburn. Without 
putting Sister Ingersoll to sleep, we saturated her with 
the spirit of Ariel himself, but Ariel took possession of 
her with 329 more spirits of fire and the seance from 
then on was marvellous. Sister Ingersoll, lifted into 
space, floated over the assembly and her garments were 
suddenly devoured by a flame which enfolded, without 
burning her. We saw her thus in a state of nudity for 
over ten minutes. Flitting above our heads, as though 
borne by an invisible cloud, or upheld by beneficent 
spirits, she answered all questions put to her. We thus 
soon had the latest news of our very illustrious brother 
Adriano Lemmi. Then, Astaroth, in person, revealed 
himself, flying beside our medium and holding her hand. 
He breathed upon her and her clothes, returning from 
nowhere, clothed her again. Finally Astaroth vanished 
and our sister fell gently on to a chair where, with her 
head thrown back she gave up Ariel and the 329 spirits 
who had accompanied him. 


We counted 330 exhalations in all at the end of this 
most successful experiment. " 

A number of books of this period refer to what must 
have been a wireless telephone in the possession of the 
heads of the Masonic organization. A translation of the 
detailed description of this instrument, given in Ba- 
taille's book, is quoted herewith as being of interest 
in these days when magic sometimes becomes experi- 
mental science. At the date on which this description 
was first printed (1894) wireless was unknown. 

" In his house, Gallatin Mackey once showed me that 
Arcula Mystica (the Mystic Box), of which there are 
only seven examples in existence, at Charleston, Borne, 
Berlin, Washington, Monte Video, Naples and Calcutta. 

" The exterior of this small box resembles a liqueurs 
receptacle. A spring catch opens simultaneously its 
two doors and lid. Inside, in the middle, stands a tele- 
phone mouthpiece in silver, which, at first sight, one 
would take for a very small trumpet or hunting horn. At 
the left is a little rope made of twisted silver threads, 
one end of which is attached to the machine while the 
other extremity ends in a, kind of little bell which one 
holds to one's ear to hear the voice of the person with 
whom one is speaking, just like the telephone of today. 
At the right is a toad, -in silver, with its mouth open. 
Placed around the opening of the mouth-piece, stand 
seven statuettes in gold, each on a small separate silver 
pedestal representing symbolically the seven cardinal 
virtues of the Palladian Ladder. 

" Each of these seven statuettes designates one of 
the Directories. The statuette Ignis (sacred fire) divine 
endeavour, stands for the Supreme Dogmatic Direc- 

7. Bataille, Le Diable au XIX" siecle, p. 360 et seq. 

8. Ibid., p. 391. 


tory of Charleston ; Ratio (Reason, triumphant over 
superstition), the Sovereign Executive Directory of 
Rome ; Labor (Labour) the Sovereign Administrative 
Directory of Berlin ; Ubertas (fecundity), Caritas 
(Masonic Charity), Emancipatio (the emancipation of 
humanity shedding the yoke of all despotisms) and 
Felicitas (Happiness derived from virtuous practices) 
representing the four Grand Central Directories of 
Washington, Naples, Monte Video and Calcutta. 

" "When the Supreme Dogmatical chief wishes to 
communicate, for example, with the head of political 
action, he presses his finger on the Statuette Ignis and 
on the Statuette Ratio : these sink into their sockets 
and at the same instant, a strong whistling is heard 
in Rome, in the office where Lemmi keeps his Arcula 
Mystica ; Lemmi opens his box and sees the statuette 
of Ignis sunk, while tiny, harmless flames issue from 
the throat of the silver toad. Then he knows that the 
Sovereign Pontiff of Charleston wishes to speak to 
him. He presses down the statuette of Ratio in his 
box and from then on, the conversation between the 
two chiefs proceeds, each one speaking directly into 
the mouthpiece described above, while at the same 
time holding to his ear the small silver bell. 

" At the end of the conversation, each chief replaces 
the golden statuettes by pulling them up by the 

" Every Sovereign Grand Master of a Directory 
travels with his Arcula Mystica. This box is personally 
confided to him. That of the Administrative Directory 
of Berlin is kept by the Sovereign Finance Delegate... 
who is actually Bleichroeder (1893). 

" It is evidently necessary to detach the memory 
of Albert Pike from the great number of exaggerated 
legends which cling to his name, but with a man of 


this type one never knows just what to think. His. 
reputation as an Occultist had overstepped the doors 
of the lodges and inner shrines. Everyone knew from 
hearsay that he gave himself up to Luciferian prac- 
tices. " 

Owing to the discredit cast upon Bataille's writings, 
we now quote in corroboration of the existence of such 
rites as described above from the well known theo-i 
sophist Mrs. Alice A. Bailey's book. Initiation Human 
and Solar, (published 1922 by the Lucifer Publishing 
Co., New York), which has never been challenged : — 

Such quotations touch upon the following subjects : 

Description of the Deity. 
Description of Initiation and fire. 
Description, of Sex and fire. 
Description of the Seven Rays. 

1 . " The Lord of the World, the One Initiator,. He Who 
is called in the Bible ' The Ancient of Days ', and in 
the Hindu Scriptures the First Kumara, He, Sanat 
Kumara it is. Who from His throne at Shamballa in 
the Gobi desert, presides over the Lodge of Masters, 
and holds in His hands the reins of government in all 
the three departments. Called in some Scriptures ' the 
Great Sacrifice ', He has chosen to watch over the evolu- 
tion of men and devas until all have been occultly 
' saved '. He it is Who, four times a year, meets in 
conference with all the Chohans and Masters, and 
authorises what shall be done to further the ends of 
evolution.. " 

Call it Lucifer, Satan or the Devil, it is always the 
same old manifestation revamped now as Sanat Kumara 
and, while he may indeed seem to be a very good god, 

9. Bailey, Initiation Human and Solar, p. 106. 


his presence alone is our only concern at the moment. 

2. As to initiation, — " The Hierophant utters the 
word, and the force is literally thrown into the initiate's 
bodies and centres, passing down through the centres 
on the mental plane, via the astral centres, to the centres 
on etheric levels, which finally absorb it. This is the stu- 
pendous moment for the initiate, and brings to him a 
realisation of the literal absolute truth of the phrase 
that ' God is a consuming fire '. He knows past all 
gainsaying that fiery energy and electric force constitute 
the sum-total of all that is. He is literally bathed in the 
fires of purification ; he sees fire on all sides, pouring out 
through the Rod (of initiation) circulating around the 
Triangle, and passing through the bodies of the two spon- 
soring adepts. For a brief second, the entire Lodge of 
Masters and initiates, standing in their ceremonial places 
without the Triangle, are hidden from view by a wall of 
fire. The initiate sees no one, save the Hierophant, and 
is aware of nothing but a fiery blaze of pure, blue-white 
flame, which burns, but destroys not, which intensifies 
the activity of every atom in his body without disinte- 
grating, and which purifies his entire nature. The fire 
tries his work, of what sort it is, and he passes through 
the Flame. '° 

" At the fifth initiation the great secret which con- 
cerns the fire or spirit aspect is revealed to the wondering 
and amazed Master, and He realises in a sense incompre- 
hensible to man the fact that all is fire and fire is all. " 

3. " Let the disciple transfer the fire from the lower 
triangle to the higher, and preserve that which is created 
through the fire of the midway point.'" 

10. Bailey, op. cit.. p. 133. 
n. Ibid., p. 174. 
12. Ibid., p. 204. 


" This means, literally, the control by the initiate 
of the sex impulse, as usually understood, and the 
transference of the fire which now normally vitalises the 
generative organs to the throat centre, thus leading to 
creation upon the mental plane through the agency 
of mind... " 

4. As to the seven rays ; 

Groups of Egos are formed : 

1. According to their ray. 

2. According to their sub-ray. 

3. According to their rate of vibration. 

They are also grouped for purposes of classification : 

1. As Egos, according to the egoic ray. 

2. As personalities, according to the subray which 
is governing the personality. 

" All are graded and charted. The Masters have 
Their Halls of Records, with a system of tabulation 
incomprehensible to us owing to its magnitude and 
its necessary intricacies wherein these charts are kept. 
They are under the care of a Chohan of a Ray, each 
Ray having its own collection of charts... These Halls 
of Records are mostly on the lowest levels of the men- 
tal plane and the highest of the astral, as they can be 
there most fully utilised and are most easily accessible. " 

" While the ray business may be an excellent scien- 
tific, though little known, method of keeping in touch 
with the adepts it has one very serious disadvantage, 
namely, that whoever is attuned to a ray is, in case of 
revenge or evil intent on the part of a superior, (shall 
we say scientist ?) vulnerable on this ray! " 

One is almost astonished at the frankness displayed 
by Mrs. Bailey in her revelations concerning the secrets 
of Initiation, when one remembers the tragic fate of 

13. Bailey, op. cit., p. 68. 


William Morgan, the secret condemnation, kidnapping 
and sequestration, torture and final assassination of 
this New York Journalist who had published for the 
profane public the principal masonic rituals of the period. 
Carlile, in his Manual of Freemasonry, gives the 
following particulars : — " My exposure of Freema- 
sonry, in 1825, led to its exposure in the United States 
of America; and a Mason there, of the name of Wil- 
liam Morgan, having announced his intention of assis- 
ting in the work of exposure, was kidnapped, under 
pretended forms and warrants of law, by his brother 
Masons, removed from the State of New York to the 
borders of Canada, near the falls of Niagara, and there 
most barbarously murdered. This happened in 1826. 
The States have been for many years much excited 
upon the subject; a regular warfare has arisen between 
Masons and anti-Masons. Societies of anti-Masons have 
been formed, newspapers and magazines started, and 
many pamphlets and volumes, with much correspon- 
dence, published ; so that before the slavery question 
was passed amongst them, all parties had merged them- 
selves into Masons and anti-Masons. Several persons 
were punished for the abduction of Morgan : but the 
murderers were sheltered by Masonic Lodges, and 
rescued from justice. " 

" The story of the murder of William Morgan for 
the crime of violating Masonic secrecy has long been 
a well known historical fact ; but in August, 1875, the 
full particulars were brought to light by the publica- 
tion of two letters from the Venerable Thurlow Weed. 
The facts were as follows : ' 

" In the year 1826, Morgan, who had passed through 
all the degrees of Masonry and held a very high posi- 

14., Irish and English Freemasons, p. 73. 


tion in the Order, conceived the idea of publishing a 
boolc disclosing all the secrets of the sect. What his 
motive may have been is only conjectural. Mr. Weed 
was living at that time in the town of Rochester, New 
York, and Morgan requested him to publish the pro- 
jected book. Mr. Weed declined, and Morgan went to 
the adjoining town of Batavia, where he arranged with 
another person for the publication. 

" He had written a portion of the book, and was 
engaged in completing it when he was arrested on a 
false charge of larceny, on the 10th Sept., and convey- 
ed to the jail of Ontario county. The sheriff and officers 
of this prison were Masons. His house was searched, 
and his manuscripts were seized and destroyed. 

"On the evening ofthe 12th Sept, he was discharged 
by the interference of some of the conspirators, and, 
as he passed out of the door of the jail, was seized by 
them, taken a short distance, and then forcibly put 
into a carriage. He was carried, in the course of that 
night, on to the ridge-road about two miles beyond 
the village of Rochester. During the next day, he was 
taken to Lewiston, a distance of seventy or eighty 
miles, and from thence to Fort Niagara, at the mouth 
of the Niagara river. His benevolent captors had deci- 
ded on bringing him here in the hope that their brother 
Masons of Canada would aid them in disposing of him. 
His murder was not then contemplated ; but it was 
hoped that the Canadian Masons would take charge 
of him and send him to end his days among the Indian 
tribes, in the north-west of Canada. Placing their 
prisoner in Fort Niagara, his captors crossed the river 
into Canada to attend a meeting of a lodge there ; but 
the Canadian Masons, after much deliberation, refused 
to become parties to the business. The American Ma- 
sons returned to Fort Niagara, and in a few days 


afterwards a large number of men, high in the order, 
assembled a short distance off to open an Encampment 
of Knight Templars, the additional power of the ' sealed 
obligation ' being necessary for such a case. At night 
they dined together, and, after dinner, the chaplain 
gave a sentiment so significant that all thoughts were 
turned towards Fort Niagara. The ' sentiment' was, 
in fact, ' death to all traitors' and immediately after- 
wards one of the company. Colonel King, arose from 
the table and called four of the others to accompany 
him. These were Whitney, a stonemason ; Chubbuch, 
a farmer; Garside, a butcher; and Howard, a book- 
binder. ' They were all' says Mr. Weed, ' men of 
correct habits and good character, and all, I doubt 
not, were moved by an enthusiastic but most misguid- 
ed sense of duty '. King told them that he had an 
order from the Grand Master, the execution of which 
required their assistance, and they replied that they 
would obey it. The five murderers were then driven 
in a carriage to the fort where Morgan was confined. 
It was just midnight. They told the doomed man that 
his friends had completed their arrangements for his 
removal to Canada, where his life would be safe. He 
consented to go with them, and they walked to the 
wharf where a boat was waiting for them ; they embar- 
ked and rowed away into the darkness. When the boat 
reached the point where Niagara River empties itself 
into Lake Ontario, the murderers threw off all pre- 
tence, and with some horrible mummeries ordered Mor- 
gan to prepare for death. They wound a rope around 
him, attaching to each end of it a heavy weight, and 
threw him overboard. He sank like a stone, and the 
murderers returned to tell their comrades that the 
traitor had met a traitor's doom. One of the mur- 
derers, Whitney, told all these particulars to Mr. Weed 


a few months afterwards, but it is only now, when all 
the criminals are dead, that he makes the fact public. 
The body of Morgan was found a year afterwards, 
identified by his wife and friends, and buried ; and 
although the Masons tried to dispute the identification, 
their efforts were futile. None of the murderers was ever 
brought to justice. " 

So much for the oath of secrecy and brotherhood I 

Nowadays, greater precautions are observed in get- 
ting rid of the enemies of the sect. Some little study 
and the cooperation of a few culpable doctors, its 
auxiliaries and affiliates, enable the terrible sect to 
dispose easily of their enemies. The victim of their 
vengeance, swallowing some disease germ, meets a fate 
that none can prove to have been artificially con- 
trived. This is the secret of secrets, denied again 
and again ! And yet the charge remains ! For plague, 
cholera and all epidemics can be let loose on the world 
at a word from the Hidden Masters ! 

But to return to the organization of Freemasonry. 

It is necessary here to say that in many instances, 
where a masculine lodge has a feminine annex, its 
existence is frequently completely ignored by the majo- 
rity of the brothers. No mutual visiting is allowed among 
the female members of the lower masonic degrees, for 
a sister may enter lodges other than her own, only 
after she has herself attained the fifth degree. As well 

15. Blanchard, Scottish Rite Masonry Illustrated, p. 33. 
" In his address before his Council in 1 878, Albert Pike 
said : 

' I am often asked why we do not publish our old transac- 
tions, to which I am compelled to reply, that we have none 
to publish. We have no records of the transactions at Charles- 
ton from 1801 to I860. What records we had were destroyed... 
during the war. (American Civil War.)' " 


as masculine General Inspectors on permanent missions, 
in direct communication with Charleston, there are 
General Inspectresses, high grade women masons belong- 
ing to ordinary Masonry who, while not necessarily 
affihated to palladism, serve the purpose of its leaders, 
their good offices being much appreciated when they 
furnish useful information to headquarters. These 
women are privileged to enter the lodges and inner 
shrines of masonry only, but are not admitted to Palla-i 
dian triangles. As for men belonging to an adoptive 
lodge where brothers and sisters work together they 
must have at least attained the 32nd (Prince of the 
Royal Secret) or a corresponding grade in another rote 
before they can enter an Areopagus of Sublime Ecos-> 

As regards the position of women in Masonry, we 
think that this cannot be better explained than in the 
words of Albert Pike himself. In La Femme et I'Enfant 
dans la Franc-Magonnerie Universelle page 578, A. C. 
De La Rive states that on July 14, 1889, Albert Pike, 
Sovereign Pontiff of Universal Freemasonry, addres- 
sed to the 23 Supreme Confederated Councils of the 
world the following instructions, which we quote here- 
with in part. 

" To the science of Faust, the real Mason will join 
the impassibility of Job. He will eradicate superstition 
from his heart and cultivate decision of character. 
He will accept pleasure only when he wishes it and will 
wish it only when he should do so. 

" We earnestly recommend the creation of Lodges 
of Adoption. They are indispensable to the formation 
of Masons who are indeed Masters of themselves. The 
pnest tries to subdue his flesh by enforced celibacy... 
The real Mason, on the contrary, reaches perfection, 
that is to say achieves self mastery, by using his zeal 


in the Lodges of Adoption in submitting to all natural 
ordeals. Commerce with women, belonging to all breth- 
ren, forms for him an armour against those passions 
which lead hearts astray. He alone can really possess 
voluptuousness. To be able, at will, to use or to 
abstain, is a twofold power. Woman fetters thee by thy 
desires, we say to the adept, well, use women often 
and without passion; thou wilt thus become master 
of thy desires, and thou wilt enchain woman. From 
which it must perforce result that the real Mason will 
succeed in easily solving the problem of the flesh. 

" It is evidently not absolutely necessary that the 
man whom you are leading towards the high grades 
be immediately perfect and have understood our secret 
on his entrance into Masonry. That which we ask you 
is first to observe him with the greatest care during 
his apprenticeship and afterwards, when he enters 
the Lodge of Adoption as Companion to use that as 
your criterion, your instrument of infallible control. 

" The Lodge of Brothers which has failed to annex 
a Lodge of Sisters is incomplete and destined inevi- 
tably never to produce anything but Brethren, with 
whom politics are the chief concern, men who will 
be chiefly preoccupied with intrigue and rivalry, who 
will do bad work and whose politics will be incoherent. " 

Dr. Bataille elucidates this point in the following 
terms : 

" Concerning androgynous lodges. Masons gen- 
erally give the same answer. They either say 'Yes, 
once upon a time there were sister masons but there 
are none any longer ' or, if forced to make a conces- 
sion say, ' Lodges admitting women are irregular and 
function entirely outside of Masonry proper, unrecog- 
nized by Grand Orients and Supreme Councils '. " 

" Having referred to the great care exercised to 


hide the existence of the sister masons, it is now oppor- 
tune to expose the ruse employed in stifling further 
investigation. From time to time, one of the semi- 
initiates is urged to bring a resolution suggesting the 
establishment of feminine lodges, and a petition is 
drawn up and sent in to the Grand Orient or Supreme 
Council, whereupon the chiefs gravely insert a decree 
in the official bulletin rejecting the petition, and empha- 
sising the point that ' the constitution is opposed to 
the creation of regular female lodges '. Then, whenever 
the question of sister masons is raised in the profane 
press, — quick! The Grand Orients and Supreme 
Councils publish these famous decrees. " 

In certain cities where masonic secrecy is less care- 
fully guarded, a part of the masonic premises is avai- 
lable for the use of the profane public and daily lec- 
tures or instructions of the brother professors. In these 
rooms, every evening, accounting, stenography, foreign 
languages and other popular professional accomplish- 
ments are taught, a great activity is thus created 
around masonic headquarters and the entrance of a 
woman more or less attracts no attention. The sister 
masons, however, know to which room they must go 
and, once past the threshold of the building, it is not 
to the professorial lecture room that they wend their 

In connection with Eastern occultism and its orga- 
nization Dr. Bataiile made the following statement 
and curious deduction : " A number of Satanic monas- 
teries are concealed today under the guise of Musulman 
harems or annexes to Lama, or Brahmin monasteries, 
but it is possible that some day these institutions might 
take root in Europe where, under a deceptive exterior, 

• Bataiile, op. cit. pp. 475, 478. 


one of these communities might be established. When 
one Icnows the true mission of the ' Pink Serpents ' 
one wonders if Christianity will not presently assist 
at this crowning abomination — a convent of so called 
Christians practising luciferianism. 

" The ' Pink Serpents ' are sister masons. They are 
the luciferian missionaries and operate as individuals 
and under conditions of the greatest secrecy. No records 
of the money appropriated for these religious spies 
are shown. " 

But let us resume the subject of Palladism as ex- 
plained by Dr. Bataille. 

" This super-rite, which is masonic luciferian spiri- 
tism, must not be confused with the machinery of 
high masonry. Palladism is the cult of Satan in the 
inner shrines of a rite superposed to ail the rites. It is 
a cult, a religion. High masonry is a supreme adminis- 
tration involving an organization much more highly 
developed than Palladism whose secret leaders, some 
of whom are not luciferian, act in concert and accept 
a superior central authority in order that their work 
may be the more effective . 

" In founding the New and Reformed Palladian rite. 
General Pike did not create masonic occultism. Ander- 
son, Desaguliers, Weishaupt, Swedenborg, Lessing, 
Frederic II of Prussia, Mesmer, Pernety, Cagliostro, 
Martinez Pasqualis and his disciple Saint-Martin,. 
Francia (the dictator of Paraguay) Lord Palmerston, 
General Contreras, Mazzini, and many other distin- 
guished Freemasons practised occultism and worked 
at the Great Work of the Cabala, " but before the year 

17. Bataille, op. cit., vol. I, p. 346 et seq. 

18. Chacornac, Eliphas Levi, p. 191. 

" Importuned by his friends Ch. Fauvety and Caubet, 


1870, the inner shrines all operated without other direc- 
tion than that of the theurgic rituals of Swedenborg, 
Saint-Martin, Laffon, Landebat, and the Vicomte de 
ia Jonquiere, etc. and the Masonic initiates of Herme-i 
ticism were widely dispersed in different schools which 
were local and not international. 

" While Pike laid the foundation of Palladism at 
Charleston, Mazzini organized the centralization of 
Political action in Rome, and two years after the foun- 
ding of the Sovereign Executive and the Supreme 
Dogmatic Directories, a third, the Sovereign Adminis- 
trative Directory, was instituted in Berlin. This latter 
functioned by means of a constantly renewed com- 
mittee of seven taken from the Supreme Councils, Grand 
Encampments, Grand Orients, and Grand Lodges of 
the world. By means of an ingeniously contrived sys- 
tem of rotation, these representatives act by virtue 
of their mandate for three months only. Each of the 
existing rites, with the exception of the Palladian, 
send annually to Berlin two of its members of the 
Superior degrees, drawn from any country except 
Germany, which alone, of all those represented, is 

who both belonged to the Grand Orient, Eliphas Levi became 
a Mason on March 14, 1861, being initiated in the Lodge 
Rose du Paifait Silence of which Caubet was the Venerable. 
The ceremony was performed in the presence of many brothers. 
" In his reception speech, Eliphas Levi, to the great aston- 
ishment of his auditors, little inclined to paradoxes, made 
the following statement. 

I come to bring you your lost traditions, the exact know- 
ledge of your signs and emblems, and in consequence to show 
you the aim for the attainment of which your association has 
been constituted. ' 

He then tried to demonstrate to his coreligionists that 
Masonic symbolism is borrowed from the Cabala. It was time 
wasted. No one believed him." 


entitled to one permanent member whose quarterly- 
term of office expires at the end of the time allotted 
to the particular lodge of which he is a delegate... The 
members of the Sovereign Administrative Directory 
are always given 120 days notice of their appointments 
in order to enable them to plan what would appear 
to be a pleasure trip or a holiday, when, in fact, they 
are going on the business of the association. 

" Two special delegates are permanently attached 
to the Directory of Berlin, one for finance and one for 
propaganda. At the present date, (1894) Bleichroeder 
fills the first mentioned position and Findel, a non-i 
luciferian, the second. These officers are obliged to 
live in Germany and to be in a sufficiently independent 
position to be able to go to the seat of the Directory 
at a moment's notice. 

" The business of the Propaganda agent is to fur- 
nish information to the chiefs at Rome and Charles- 
ton... He receives monthly, by secret messenger from 
Berlin, the report of all measures formulated at the 
Sovereign Administrative Directory relating to means 
and methods judged useful in spreading the principles 
of the association. 

" After a meeting he examines, coordinates and 
frames a report of the decisions upon which, three 
months later, the seven members of the Berlin Direc- 
tory will vote. Of these seven members, thanks to the 
system of rotation explained above, there are always 
at least two who, having belonged to the Directory at 
the time of the submission of the resolution under 
consideration, are able to furnish commentaries and 
explanations to the new comers. Only resolutions having 
obtained a favourable vote of five or seven voices can 
be registered by the delegate recorder, and these can 
be finally adopted only on the second following month, 


if they pass unanimously. In the event of one or more 
persons opposing a measure, the matter is referred to 
the Chief at Rome after which, failing his approval, 
it is settled arbitrarily by the chief at Charleston from 
whose decision there is no appeal. 

" The business of the financial agent is not a matter 
of funds, it consists in drawing up a general balance 
sheet of all rites, in all countries with the brother 
accountant working under his orders as a sworn expert. 

" As above said, the Palladian rite has no share in 
the functioning of the Sovereign Administrative Direc- 
tory. This should again prove that Palladism is super- 
posed to all the other rites. It is the luciferian religion 
and only need concern itself with the triangles which 
have a separate budget. Being the real hidden power, 
known only to the perfect initiates, it need not unveil 
itself even to this permanent committee which cons- 
titutes the highest expression of the administrative 
power of the great international association. One must 
also not lose sight of the fact that among the masonic 
powers, there are several countries where the Sym- 
bolic Grand Lodges recognize only three grades of 
which that of Master is the third and highest degree. 
These lodges, like the others, are entitled to send two 
delegates from time to time to Berlin, and, as a conse- 
quence of having suppressed the high grades for their 
adepts, these Federations are necessarily kept in com- 
plete ignorance of the existence of Palladism. The 
Supreme chiefs of Charleston and Rome appear to 

19. Such a system, owing to its apparently democratic cha- 
racter would admirably serve the purposes of an autocracy. 
After five months it is obvious that none of the original mem- 
bers who proposed a resolution would be present and five 
months gives plenty of time for manipulation of nominees 
pledged to vote according to the dictates of invisible masters. 


them solely as earnest, active brothers who should be 
consulted because of their great personal experience — 
but that is all. " 

" Finally the Palladists have no need to be officially 
represented in Berlin, as most of the members of 
the Supreme Councils, Grand Encampments and Grand 
Orients are their men and any important proposition 
is immediately communicated to them. 

" Under the Sovereign Directory, the Executive at 
Rome and the Administrative at Berlin, come the Grand 
Central Directories which are bureaus of registration 
in the different parts of the world. These are located 
in North America, South America, Europe, Asia and 
Oceania. There is as well a sub-Directory for Africa. 
At their heads are the high grade trusted brothers by 
whom everything that emanates from the Supreme 
Councils, Grand Encampments, Grand Orients and 
Grand Lodges of their jurisdiction is centralized. Inde- 
pendent of the Sovereign Administrative Directory of 
Berlin, they operate directly under the chiefs of Rome 
and Charleston and it is by these central Directories 
that these two great intriguers are kept informed of 
the trend of world affairs. 

" As everything comes to the Grand Central Direc- 
tories so everything emanates from them. Five mes- 
sengers to Washington, Montevideo, Naples, Calcutta, 
and Port Louis will put in motion the formidable ma- 
chinery of Freemasonry the world over. " 

If the organization described in the foregoing pages 
which were written by Bataille forty years ago has 
progressed along the lines above indicated, one can 
easily conjecture the degree of perfection which has 
doubtless been attained to-day. 


The game of politics is the pursuit of power. In all 
democracies, there are two separate organizations 
playing the political game. The open and visible one, 
the members of which hold ofBce as members of a 
government, and the invisible one composed of indivi- 
duals who control this visible organization and in 
whom is vested the real power, the essence of which 
is finance, controlling the publicity which makes or 
unmakes its tools. 

This financial power may be used to promote truth 
or fallacies, good or evil, national prosperity or national 
ruin, but so long as human nature is what it is, so long 
as jealousy, greed, personal ambition and expediency 
can sway the lives of men, so long will the rule of the 
invisible power prevail by methods inimical to the 
best interests of a nation. The strength of a democracy 
thus lies at the mercy of invisible leaders who, being 
nationally irresponsible, cannot be called to account 
for the consequences of the acts of the governments they 
control. This at the same time constitutes the inherent 
weakness of any form of government, the apotheosis 
of which is the control of both parties in the state, 
right and left, radical and conservative, by the same 



forces. Then, only the puppets change while the rule 
of the individuals controlling the machine continues 
unhindered. Voters who wonder why their efforts have 
failed, wonder in vain. As the dupes of a controlled 
publicity their privilege of the vote is a farce. 

If all factions in a state can be controlled from one 
source, why should International Control be impractic- 
able? Italy, if one follows its history for the last hun- 
dred years, gives a sequence of good illustrations of 
such possibilities and affords us a chance to follow the 
progressive stages of masonic centralization and impo- 
sition of Internationalism upon nations, as conceived 
by Mazzini, Pike, Palmerston and Bismarck. 

International control was Mazzini's dream. His 
cynical remark " We aspire to corrupt in order to 
rule " leaves one little faith in the idealism of this 
Patriarch of International Freemasonry. That he applied 
his motto is shown by the use he made of Francesco 

As Palamenghi-Crispi writes : 

" Crispi became personally acquainted with Mazzini 
in London, in January, 1855, but they had correspond- 
ed since 1850, when, their golden dream of liberty 
and independence banished by the return of all the 
tyranny of the past, the bravest of the patriots had 
once more begun to conspire. 

" While pondering the idea of founding a National 
Committee in which the various regions of Italy should 
be represented, Mazzini also determined to form a 
fund for the carrying out of great enterprises. And 
' as it is impossible to obtain large sums secretly and 
from a few people ' he wrote, he worked out a plan for 

1. Thomas Palamenghi-Crispi, The Memoirs of Francesco 
Crispi, vol. I, p. 75. 


a National Loan, to be raised by the issue of bonds to 
be redeemed by a liberated Italy. 

" The first act of the National Committee was to 
authorise the issue of such bonds to the amount of ten 
million lire. " 

In his youth, Francesco Crispi made a mistake, and 
blackmail made him a ruler of men. As the tool of 
Mazzini, he ruled Italy for many years, and as the ruler 
of Italy, he wielded the secret power of International 
Masonry in accordance with the policy of his masters. 

According to Crispi 33° by D. Vaughan, " Crispi, 
in Palladism, Brother v Serafino-Chiocciola, was born 
at Ribera, in Sicily, on Oct. 4, 1819. His father, Tommaso 
Crispi, a lawyer, destined him to the church, but in 
1837, he married Felicita Valle, a pretty young girl 
with whom he was infatuated. In 1856, he abandoned 
her for Rosalia Montmasson, deserting the latter 
in 1878 to marry Lina Barbagallo, widow Capellani. 
At this period, he was openly accused of bigamy and 
though challenged to do so, he never produced the 
documents necessary to prove the death of his first 
wife, Felicita Valle. 

" After his marriage in 1837, he practised law and 
in 1838 joined one of the numerous secret societies 
which in those days infested Sicily. Presently he star- 
ted his career as a political intriguer and conspirator 
travelling over the world on his sinister business under 
different aliases and false passports provided for him 
by Mazzini, who, in view of his confidential position 
as friend of the King of Naples, had bought his services 
as a spy. " 

Domenico Margiotta states in Francesco Crispi, son 
(Euvre Nefaste, that he found among the papers of his 
grandfather — a member of Young Italy who had been 
condemned to death as the head of the conspiracy. 


which penalty he however successfully escaped — a 
telegram from Mazzini, instructing the organization 

to " give Crispi promptly thirty thousand ducats to 
begin with on the account of the Neapolitan Committee 
of Young Italy and let him get to work. " 

"While at Malta in 1855, he joined the masonic lodge, 
" Zetland", under English jurisdiction from which 
he was shortly expelled for the theft of 800 francs from 
one of its members. He went to London shortly after- 
wards. There, Lord Palmerston had returned to power. 
By becoming an ardent admirer and fanatical follower 
of Mazzini, Crispi simultaneously entered the good 
graces of Palmerston who was on the very best of terms 
with the Italian leader. 

In 1856, believing that Napoleon III, in cooperation 
with Cavour, was the secret arbiter of the destinies of 
Italy, and the greatest obstacle to the realization of 
his own republican schemes, Mazzini induced Crispi 
to go to Paris. 

While he was there, a number of attempts were made 
on the life of the Emperor, among others that of Orsini 
on Jan. 14, 1858, but, though strongly suspected of 
participation in these conspiracies by the police or 
Paris, no evidence for a direct charge of complicity 
against Crispi was ever obtained. However, it is known 
that he and Orsini had previously met in London 
where the latter had shown him how to make the famous 
bombs, the use and manufacture of which Crispi after- 
wards taught his followers in Sicily. 

By August 3, 1858, he was back in London, the 
Paris police having developed too great a zeal on his 
behalf during his sojourn in the French capital. 

At last by 1860, the various Italian conspiracies 
crystallized into one. Everything was ready for the 
fulfilment of Mazzini's dream of United Italy. Bertani, 


Bixio and Crispi decided to go to Turin themselves to 
see General Garibaldi and, after the British Minister, 
Sir James Hudson, had confirmed certain information 
on conditions in Palermo, which had been furnished 
by the Genoese deputies, the General seemed at last 
inclined to take action. He ordered Bixio to Genoa to 
charter a ship and Crispi to Milan to receive from Enrico 
Besana the arms and the money already subscribed. 
This subscription was begun by General Garibaldi 
himself and, in view of later developments, it is a signi- 
ficant fact that one of the contributions he received 
for the famous expedition of the One Thousand, was 
the sum of fifty thousand francs from the Jew, Corne- 
lius Herz. 

Twelve thousand guns were in the hands of Mas- 
simo d'Azeglio, then governor of Milan who, by order 
of the government, surrendered them to the rebels. 

Finally, General Garibaldi arrived in Genoa on April 
14. On the 16th, Crispi returned to Turin where he 
saw the Minister of the Interior, Farini, who, having 
by that time changed his mind concerning the Italian 
expedition, had ceased to be a dictator and had assu- 
med the attitude of a diplomatic satellite of Cavour. 
He proved quite intractable. Back in Genoa, Crispi 
found La Farina again, this time with orders to report 
all developments to Cavour. Cavour, warned not to 
interfere with Garibaldi, raised no obstacles to the 
progress of the plot. He only advised waiting for better 
news from the Island of Sicily, and promised to coope- 
rate with a million guns, as soon as the time for the 
expedition seemed propitious. 

Still Garibaldi hesitated. The Sicilian news was con- 
tradictory. On April 26, Crispi received from Niccola 
Fabrizzi a message from Malta reading " Failure in the 
provinces and in the town of Palermo. Many exiles 


arriving at Malta on English ships. " Luckily a few days 
later, a communication from Palermo, published by 
the Gazette of Turin, told of the great proportions assum- 
ed by the insurrection in Sicily, This communication 
had been invented and v^ritten at Genoa by Crispi for 
the purposes of overcoming the last scruples of Gari- 
baldi ! 

One day, the second of May, Crispi and Garibaldi 
were alone in a room looking seaward, in the Villa 
Spinola Quarti. They were talking about the expedition. 
Crispi as usual, was fighting the vacillations of Gari- 
baldi. Suddenly, the General interrupted him saying, 
" You are the only one to encourage me in this enter- 
prise, Everyone else tries to dissuade me. Why ?" 

"Because I am profoundly convinced that it will 
be helpful to the fatherland and that it will cover you 
with glory. I fear only one thing : The uncertainty of 
the sea. " 

" I answer for the sea " said Garibaldi. 

" And I answer for the land " said Crispi. 

Garibaldi was persuaded and the die was cast. 

After the victorious expedition of the One Thousand 
had placed the group of conspirators in power in Sicily, 
each was rewarded according to his merits, Crispi becom- 
ing Minister of Foreign Affairs. Cavour had died on 
June 6, 1861, poisoned, it is said, on May 28, by 
order of Mazzini. 

Until 1861, Crispi had cooperated whole heart-i 
ediy with the revolutionaries but, as time wore on, he 
began to think that it might be more to his personal 
advantage to serve the King than Mazzini. 

His plan was discovered by Mazzini's spies and in 
1862, the deputy of Castelvetrano found himself facing 
death for treason at the hands of his former friends 
and accomplices, under conditions that enslaved him 


body and soul forever after, to the International Sect. 

Early in April 1862, he attended a Freemasonic 
dinner of the Associations Emancipatrice at Turin. 
Suddenly he felt ill, very ill, fire seemed to be burning 
within him. He was in the throes of the most appalling 
agony. Instead of offering assistance, the other guests 
began to laugh, then, one of them rising, spoke to him 
severely in the following terms : 

" Francesco, you went to visit King Victor Emma- 
nuel, without telling us of your intention and you 
offered him your secret services. You let him know 
that you were ready to go over at the first opportu- 
nity. Till then your opinions had been republican. 
Well, that is treason. We have condemned you. You 
are poisoned. You are a dead man. " 

The poison had indeed been administered in the 
bread. Among the organizers of the banquet was the 
baker Dolfi, who had formerly contributed to the 
expulsion of the Grand Duke of Tuscany and who had 
become one of the members of the Radical Directing 
Committee. On this occasion, Dolfi had kneaded the 
bread himself, and each guest had found his place at 
the table marked by a small roll bearing his name, 
traced on its golden crust by a fillet of whitish dough. 
All the guests, agreeably surprised, had congratu- 
lated the baker for his delicate attention, but the piece 
of bread marked Crispi had been separately kneaded 
and contained the poison. 

Crispi realized full well that he was lost. He knew 
there was no escape and that all the exits to the ban- 
quet hall were closed, moreover, he was too weak to 
tight. Without recrimination and in the throes of acute 
pain, he dropped into a chair upon which, writhing 
in agony, he awaited a lingering death. 

The others surrounded him, watching him in silence 


with profound contempt. Suddenly, a door opened, a 
curtain was raised and a man appeared. He advanced 
slowly. It was Mazzini. 

" Poor wretch ! " said he to the dying man. " I pity 
you. " 

At these words, Crispi looked up. His dim eyes gleam- 
ed suddenly and he murmured feebly. 

" Yes, ambition made me betray... It is true ... I was 
going to sell myself... But I die... Do not insult my 
agony... Do not mock me... 1 suffer too much ! " 

" I do not speak to you in derision, " answered the 
grand master, " Francesco Crispi, I forgive you... Drink 
this and you are saved. You will be reborn... " 

So saying, he forced his teeth apart and pressing 
a small vial to the lips of the dying man poured the 
counter-poison down his parched throat. 

After his last words, Crispi had collapsed. Some time 
passed. Was he still alive ? He seemed a corpse. Little 
by little, sweat gathered on his face and hands then, 
slowly, his livid countenance regained some colour. 

For a long time he seemed inert. Then his eyelids 
opened and, looking around with a stunned expression 
of incomprehension, he asked. 

" Where am I ? " 

" You have returned from the realm of the dead " 
murmured Mazzini gravely. 

" Oh ! Yes, I remember now, Mercy ! Mercy ! " 
he added suddenly, recalling realities and clinging des- 
perately to life. " I live indeed. Master. Is it not a 
dream ? " 

"You live, yes, Francesco; but henceforth you are 
more completely enslaved than the last of the negroes 
for whose freedom they are fighting over there in Ame- 
rica... You live again and your ambition will be grati- 
fied... You will be minister, minister of the Monarchy ; 


You will hold in your hands the reins of government 
but, without betraying us, without selling yourself !... 
You will part from us, not privately but publicly... We 
will denounce you, and while denouncing you, we will 
push you to power. It is the monarchy that you will 
betray by executing our orders, when we shall have 
made you minister of the crown... And you will obey 
us in all things, even should the orders we give you 
seem contradictory, even should their execution cause 
you to pass for a madman in the eyes of Europe ! Yes, 
Francesco Crispi, from this day forward, you belong 
to us, for you must never forget that, should you place 
us in a position where it might be expedient to cut 
short your own existence a second time, no power 
in the world could save you from the death, the suffer- 
ings of which you have known today. Live then for 
Masonry. Fight Royalty and the Church. You will 
be the gravedigger of this house of Savoy. It is only 
an instrument for us and we have condemned it to 
disappear after it has served our purpose. " 

This plan of action was carried out. In 1864, Crispi, 
on orders from his master, became a Royalist and duly 
denounced Mazzini. That is the explanation of his 
often incoherent and erratic policies in after life. Maz-> 
zini's promise was fulfilled and Crispi became Minister 
of the Interior in 1878. 

In 1877, he had been on a tour to Paris, Berlin, London 
and Vienna. In Paris, he had seen Thiers, Jules Favre 
and Gambetta; in Germany, Prince Bismarck, with 
whom he already had an acquaintance of some years 
standing, and who shared his aversion for France and 
the Roman Catholic Church ; in England, Lord Derby 
and Mr. Gladstone ; but the true purpose of his mission 
in these lands is still unknown. As a consequence of his 
interview with Bismarck, at Salzbourg, Italy, fearing 


France, threw herself into the hands of the Iron 
Chancellor. Germany henceforth was to hold her as a 
dog ready to be set at either against Austria or France 
when it suited her purpose. The Triple Alliance was 
formed on May 20, 1882. 

Crispi's accession to the ministry was therefore a 
victory of prime importance to the sect. 

After the death of Mazzini, in 1872, Adriano Lemmi 
took over his masonic heritage and, along with the rest, 
his slave Francesco Crispi, who, with the Jew Baro- 
zilai, became his right hand man. 

King Victor Emmanuel died on Jan 9, 1878, and 
was succeeded by Humbert I. That same year saw the 
death of Pope Pius IX and the accession to the papacy 
of Leo XIII. 

In 1884, Humbert I was initiated into masonry as 
Knight Kadosch, under conditions of the greatest 
secrecy and a lodge, that of Savoia Illuminata, was 
founded in his honour. 

In spite of his exalted masonic position the mon- 
arch's political information was always strictly cen- 
sored by his masonic superiors. 

From 1887 to 1891, and again from 1893 to 1896, 
Crispi acted the part of Prime Minister. 

In order to enable him to curry favour with the com- 
mon people, Lemmi occasionally authorized him to 
execute political turnovers. The Grand Master Lemmi 
once said to Humbert " Fear not; The socialism of 
Crispi will not last; it will provoke no riots, it is sim- 
ply an electoral manoeuvre " and the king was much 
gratified at being so well informed. There at least, the 
33° King was not deceived. If now and again Crispi 
resumed his revolutionary complexion, it was only 
to obtain the votes of those whom he persecuted 
mercilessly once he had obtained power. To him, a 


change of opinion was as easy as a change of shirt. " 

In 1889, came the scandal of the Banca Romana, 
revealed as such through the efforts of Giovanni Gio-i 
litti and in 1892, that of Panama involving another, 
namely the Grand Cordon of Cornelius Herz, any one 
of which would have swamped the political career of 
any unprotected individual. Crispi, though seriously 
implicated, was supported through an impossible 
situation by the masonic brotherhood. 

The Abyssinian War, itself the result of masonic 
intrigue, was the terrible manoeuvre calculated to ruin 
the House of Savoy in the eyes of the Italian people. 

It was known that, at the time of the disaster of 
Adowa, the succession of Adriano Lemmi to the Grand 
Mastership of the Grand Orient of Italy was open, and 
that competition for the position was keen. Some favou- 
red the candidacy of Bovio, others that of Nathan, 
later Mayor of Rome. But Crispi had promised General 
Baratieri, '' a masonic dignitary, that he should have 
the preference above all others, on condition that he 
win a victory over the Negus. Such an achievement 
would give Italy another Garibaldi, a popular hero, while 
simultaneously providing Crispi himself with a useful 
tool and the position of " top dog " which had never 
been his before. 

But the disastrous defeat of his candidate by Mene-i 
lek, at the Battle of Adowa on March 2, 1896, resulted 
in the fall of Crispi, not that of the king. 

The agent of Lemmi had played his part but the 
great game of the Federated Secret Societies had only 
suffered a temporary setback. 

2. Much of the above is recorded in : Le 33° Crispi, by 
D. Vaiighan. 

3. Giolitti, Memoirs of my Life, p. 99 et seq. 

4. Margiotta, Francesco Crispi, Son (Eiivre Nefaste. 


In 1900, King Humbert I was assassinated at Monza. 
Crispi died in 1901. 

The fate of Italy is the fate of all nations governed 
by political rings. Italy in the 19th century seems to 
have been the vortex of the intrigue directed against 
Christianity which today ravages the world, carrying 
in its wake a general disregard of all ideals, decency, 
duty and loyalty. 

Liberty is corrupted into licentiousness, marital fidel- 
ity into perversion, equality into equality of low 
standards and fraternity into a brotherhood based on 
mutual slavery under the yoke of International Finance. 

And the monster grows apace! Today it bestrides 
the world under the name of Bolshevism, but it is the 
same old monster, the heresy of the first centuries of 
the Christian era and the Middle Ages, namely — 


This Chapter is compiled largely of extracts, 
some transcribed verbatim and others elaborated to 
include information necessary to the reader, from : 

Adriano Lemmi 

by Domenico Margiotta 33° 

Adriano Lemmi was born of Roman Catholic parents, 
at Leghorn, Tuscany, on April 30, 1822. He was 
the son of Fortunato Lemmi and Teresa Merlino, his 
lawful wife. 

At an early age, he became the despair of his parents. 
He was dissolute, frequented evil haunts and formed 
undesirable friendships. 

Running away from home on December 29, 1843, 
he forged a letter stating, under the letterhead of Fal- 
conet and Co., that a credit for his account was to be 
opened on Pastre Bros., Bankers, at Marseilles, where, 
shortly after his arrival, he scraped acquaintance with 
Monsieur and Madame Grand Boubagne whom he was 
soon accused of having robbed of 300 francs. The evi- 
dence against him was overwhelming, and he was 
condemned to a year in prison for that and other minor 
offences, and also sentenced to five years on probation. 



He served his term and bolted to Constantinople, 
Arriving there early in April 1845, he eked out a 
precarious existence, first as a kitchen hand, then 
as the assistant in the shop of an old apothecary, 
whose preparations he peddled in the streets of 
Gal at a. 

His employer had a friend, a Polish rabbi who, 
having been condemned for conspiracy in Russia, had 
taken refuge in Constantinople. This man took a fancy 
to him and in an effort to curry favour with the Jews, 
Lemmi presently asked if he might be received into 
the religion of Moses. As a diplomatic move, the sug- 
gestion was a great success for the apothecary and the 
rabbi, proud and jubilant to have secured a neophyte, 
taught him the Talmud, while another rabbi, Abraham 
Maggioro, instructed him in the mysteries of the Cabala. 
Together, they initiated him into the secrets of magic, 
in which he proved an apt pupil and his lot was much 
improved, but the old apothecary died in 1847, and 
Lemmi found himself without employment. The Polish 
rabbi having left Constantinople, he stayed on a while 
under the protection of his friend Maggioro. 

In those days, the few Freemasons coming to Pera 
were English. Freemasonry had been introduced into 
Turkey in 1738, but until the Crimean war it suffered 
many vicissitudes. The English saw their lodges fade 
away for want of active members, for the government 
did not favour them. Adriano Lemmi was supposed to 
have been initiated into Freemasonry in 1848 by an 
English Mason, but this ceremony seems to have some- 
how been irregular as it had to be repeated at a later 

Finally, the era of his trials seemed to end. In 1849, 
some of his English masonic friends gave him a letter 
of introduction to the great Magyar, Kossuth, who 


had come to Constantinople, a fugitive from public 
opprobrium in his own country. 

To save him from starvation, Kossuth toolc him as 
his servant at low wages, but he gradually succeeded 
in ingratiating himself with his patron till finally 
he became his secretary on the recommendation of 
Mazzini with whom he was already in correspon- 

When Kossuth went to the United States in 1851, 
he was accompanied by Lemmi. They were forced to 
travel via Gibraltar and London as the French autho- 
rities refused Kossuth permission to land in France, 
and Lemmi, knowing that he was wanted by the 
French police, knew better than to try to do so. In 
Lodge No. 133 in Cincinnati, U. S. A., Kossuth received 
the masonic initiation. 

On the 2nd of December 1851, Prince Louis Napoleon, 
then President of the French Republic, announced to 
the people and the army his intention of submitting 
to a referendum the plan of a constitution founded on 
the system favoured by his uncle. It was a Coup d'Etat. 
At this news Lemmi left Kossuth in America and went 
to join Mazzini and Ledru Rollin in London. 

By this time, Mazzini had already established his 
reputation as an international intriguer. The " Youth 
Movement" of the day was already organized : — 

The societies composing it were : — 

Young Italy — founded by Mazzini. . 1831 

Young Poland — founded by Simon Konarski.... 1834 

Young England — founded by Benjamin Disraeli 1834 

Young Europe — founded by Mazzini .... 1834 

Young Switzerland — founded by Melegari (Emery).. 1835 
Young Ireland — founded by Smith O'Brien. . .1843 

Young Germany — founded by Hecker & Struve.... 1848 


The oath taker, by the members of Young Italy 
reads as follows : 

" In the name of God and of Italy — in the name of 
all the martyrs of the holy Italian cause, who have 
fallen beneath foreign and domestic tyranny — by the 
duties which bind me to the land wherein God has plac- 
ed me, and to the brothers whom God has given me — 
by the love, innate in all men, I bear to the country 
that gave my mother birth, and will be the home of 
my children — by the hatred, innate in all men, I bear 
to evil, injustice, usurpation, and arbitrary rule — by 
the blush that rises to my brow when I stand before 
the citizens of other lands, to know that I have no 
rights of citizenship, no country, and no national flag — 
by the aspiration that thrills my soul towards that 
liberty for which it was created, and is impotent to 
exert ; towards the good it was created to strive after, 
and is impotent to achieve in the silence and isolation 
of slavery — by the memory of our former greatness 
and the sense of our present degradation — by the 
tears of Italian mothers for their sons dead on the 
scaffold, in prison, or in exile — by the sufferings of 
the millions — 

"I , believing in the mission entrusted by God 

to Italy, and the duty of every Italian to strive to 
attempt its fulfilment — convinced that where God 
has ordained that a nation shall be, he has given the 
requisite power to create it; that the people are the 
depositaries of that power, and that in its right direc- 
tion, for the people, and by the people, lies the secret 
of victory — convinced that virtue consists in action 
and sacrifice, and strength in union and constancy of 

1 . Thomas Frost, The Secret Societies of The European 
Revolution (1776-1876), vol. 2, p. 147. 


purpose — I give my name to Young Italy, an associa- 
tion of men holding the same faith, and swear — 

" To dedicate myself wholly and for ever to the 
endeavour with them to constitute Italy one free, inde- 
pendent, Republican nation — to promote, by every 
means in my power, whether by written or spoken 
word, or by action, the education of my Italian bro- 
thers towards the aim of Young Italy ; towards asso- 
ciation, the sole means of its accomplishment; and to 
virtue, which alone can render the conquest lasting 
— to abstain from enrolling myself in any other asso- 
ciation from this time forth — to obey all the instruc- 
tions, in conformity with the spirit of Young Italy, 
given me by those who represent with me the union 
of my Italian brothers, and to keep the secret of these 
instructions, even at the cost of my life — to assist 
my brothers of the Association both by action and 
counsel — 


" This do I swear, invoking upon my head the wrath 
of God, the abhorrence of man, and the infamy of the 
perjurer, if I ever betray the whole or a part of this 
my oath. " 

The fusion of Young Italy and Carbonarism evi- 
dently did not take place till after April 8, 1839, for 
in a letter of that date, Mazzini writes to L. A. Melegari 
at Lausanne " It is a mixture of Young Italy and Car- 
bonarism. They have had me approached indirectly 
to know if I accept the fusion. " 

After 1851, Lemmi began playing an important part 
in all politico-masonic assassinations and in all the 
popular insurrections of which Italy was the scene. On 
behalf of Mazzini, he kept up relations with the revolu- 

1. Melegari, Letfres fntimes de Joseph Mazzini, p. 182. 


tionaries of Tuscany and it was he who inspired the 
attempt to assassinate the councillor of the Grand 
Duke's minister, Baldasseroni, in broad daylight, on 
Oct. 21, 1852. 

A letter from which we quote, written from Malta 
by Francesco Crispi to Mazzini, dated Nov. 13, 1853, " 
gives a most interesting sidelight on the relations then 
existing between the Great Italian Revolutionary, his 
ally Crispi and Adriano Lemmi whom Crispi already 
recognizes as the agent of an organization inimical to 
his ideals. 

" Brother, — the die is cast! At the present moment, 
an uprising in Sicily is imminent, if, indeed, it has not 
already taken place. God grant it may not prove a 
second sixth of February ! 

" Knowing that I was here you should have fore- 
warned me. Those to whom you have seen fit to entrust 
the initiative will not be able to exert any influence 
whatsoever in the provinces of Palermo and Messina ! 
their names, indeed, may even be greeted there with 
hostility, and bring about a reaction. Now without 
Palermo and Messina every attempt in Sicily will prove 
vain. But what is done is done, and our plain duty now 
is to work together in helping on the undertaking, and, 
as far as is possible, in warding off evil consequences. 
Let me know the plan of action and what orders you 
have issued to the leaders. Although I have little regard 
for them, I intend to do my duty, and this for the good 
of our country and party, upon whose already tarnished 
reputation another failure would bring utter ruin. 
You will remember that ever since 1850, I have been 
ready to hasten to Sicily. At that time we were working 

2. Thomas Palamenghi-Crispi, The Memoirs of Francesco 
Crispi. vol. 1, p. 80-81. 


to form the National Committee and raise the loan that 
should provide funds for any great emergency. Then 
the Sicilian Committee was formed and speedily dis- 
solved, vi'hile you worked to prepare an uprising in 
northern and central Italy, forgetting Sicily entirely. 
But not so my friends and I, who were convinced that 
the greatest possibility of success lav in this island. 
Nor was this all. After your misfortunes in Lombardy 
you forgot your old friends, and flung yourself into the 
arms of men who, up to that very moment, had held 
you and your theories up to ridicule, but who had 
been clever enough to deceive you through Signor 
Lemmi, to whom they had declared their intention 
to act. 

" 1 am no more their enemy than are any of the 
friends who belong to the party opposed to Calvi. " 

On February 6, 1853, an incipient insurrection 
broke out in Milan, then under Austrian dominion, 
as the result of a proclamation signed by Mazzini and 
Kossuth. That it was sent by Lemmi from Switzerland 
to the revolutionary Lombards is a fact well known 
in Italian masonry. 

Though implicated, the Swiss and Piedmontese 
governments tried to appear unconcerned. Numerous 
refugees from Northern Italy went to Switzerland or 
Piedmont following the instructions transmitted by 

Piedmont, assisted by England, (who was secretly 
helping Mazzini's masonry) tried to induce the Emperor 
of Austria to issue a decree confiscating the properties 
of the revolutionary refugees, but a bloody protest 
was made against the measure on the 18th of February 
when, by order of Kossuth and Mazzini a revolutionary 
fanatic made a,n attempt against the life of the Empe- 
ror. Lemmi was chosen to arm the assassin who was 


a Hungarian and a mutual friend of both Kossuth and 

Switzerland, under threat of severance of diplomatic 
relations, was then obliged to banish indiscriminately 
all political refugees. 

Then came the Crimean war, the real causes of 
which were known only to the chiefs of Freema- 

England and Piedmont worked up a quarrel with 
Russia about Turkey, over the respective spheres of 
influence of the Christian Greek and Catholic churches 
at Jerusalem. This rivalry was of little real consequence 
either to England or Piedmont but it served to turn 
France against Russia on the pretext of protecting 

The truth was that for a long time, long before the 
Hungarian insurrection of Kossuth, the secret chiefs 
of masonry, headed by Lord Palmerston, had made a 
plan according to which Prussia was to be exalted at the 
expense of Austria, German unity was to be achieved 
to the advantage of the Prussian monarchy, as well as 
that of Italy to the benefit of the house of Savoy, and 
a Polish Magyar state was to be created." 

Fearing that the Hungarian insurrection might spread 
to his Polish provinces, a community of monarchic 
interests had impelled the Tsar to reach an under- 
standing with the Austrian Emperor which had helped 
to hinder the success of the Magyar revolutionaries. 
Until this " Entente " could be broken up, the masonic 

3. It is a curious fact that the book from which the above 
is translated was written in 1894 and that these points were 
actually achieved in 1919 at the Treaty of Versailles. The 
machinery which the German monarchical power thought it 
was using for its own ends, was already, in reality, being 
guided by the unseen Jewish power controlling Freemasonry. 


chiefs knew that German and Italian Unity would 
remain a dream. 

Austria was the dupe in this war. As for France, she 
had to fight with the army of Piedmont so as to prepare 
public opinion in both countries for the next move 
against Austria. 

All this had been combined by Lord Palmerston who 
knew how to get his way with ail the other secret chiefs, 
not excepting Mazzini. Kossuth naturally favoured the 
masonic programme. He wished death to the Tsar for 
having caused him to lose his position in Hungary. 
It is also easy to understand how Napoleon III was 
drawn into the affair. The chiefs of the sect only had 
to remind him of his oath as Carbonaro and show him 
the laurels to be won. 

" Mazzini and Kossuth urged on the Crimean war, 
and English diplomacy prevented Austria from joining 
Russia. From then on, that power, being opposed by 
France, England, Piedmont and Turkey, faced inevitable 
defeat, which happened after a war lasting two years. 
Austria was separated for ever from Russia and was 
punished for her ingratitude, for, without even waiting 
for the end of hostilities, the Mason chiefs, who had 
used her so successfully, started the work of revolution 
on her territory. 

This war served a great purpose for Adriano Lemmi. 
It enabled him to get rich. 

Through his relations with Mazzini and Kossuth, 
he obtained contracts for Italian ambulances for the 
Crimea. These he sent from Geneva. Pocketing a large 
part of the money, he paid the rest with bad chequees 
and fled to Malta. This was his first big theft, but his 
flight did not prevent him and his two accomplices from 

4. Margiotta, Adriano Lemmi, p. 18. 


being condemned by default by the Swiss judge. 

" On Jan. 4, 1855, Mazzini, chief of the Central 

European Committee, — • the title Mazzini assumed 

as leader of ' Young Europe ' — called a meeting 

of his accomplices in London at which I' .'. Ft'lix. 
Pyat, the president of the branch group known as 
the Communist Revolutionaries, was present. These 
two committees were in correspondence with one in 
Brussels, one in Jersey and one in Geneva. At this 
meeting, the death of Charles III, Duke of Parma, 
was unanimously voted, and Mazzini sent Lemmi a 
passport in the name of ' Lewis Broom ' under the 
protection of which he immediately left Malta for the 
Duchy of Parma. During the one day he spent there, 
he organized a secret meeting at Castel-Guelfo for 
March 25, during which lots were drawn and a man 
called Antonio Carra was thus duly selected by fate to 
do the deed. Lessons in stabbing were then given on a 
dummy and Adriano, who presided at the assembly, 
adressing the assassin-elect said " This day is the feast 
of the Jesuits and nuns when they celebrate the appa- 
rition to their Madonna of an angel announcing the 
advent of the Messiah as her son. Brother, I announce 
to thee that thou wilt be the Messiah of the Revolution 
of Parma. I consecrate thee liberator of the oppressed, 
saviour of tyrannized men. Strike the despot! Let not 
thy hand falter. Our God, who is not the God of the 
priests, will protect thee ! " 

Two days later, Charles III fell under the attack of 
an alleged fanatic who made good his escape. The cir- 
cumstances of the plot are known because Lemmi often 
boasted of the part he played in it to Frapolli and others 
who repeated the story. 

Mazzini often acknowledged that his " little Jew " 
was worth ten good men, so clever was he at choosing 


the right men for important jobs, and so able at inspi- 
ring them with the energy necessary for doing their 


The Parma business greatly enhanced the value of 

Lemmi in the eyes of the principal chiefs. He remained 
incognito for several days at SantTlario, but the revo- 
lution did not come off, for the crime was received by 
the people with horror, and the widow of Charles III, 
the daughter of the Due de Berry, was proclaimed 
regent for her son Robert, a child of six. 

Still under the false name of Lewis Broom, Lemmi 
went to Reggio, then to Modena, returning to the 
duchy of Parma in the last days of June, where he pre- 
pared the abortive insurrection of July 22, which 
was quickly suppressed. 

In January, 1855, the Piedmontese government sup- 
pressed 334 religious institutions at the instigation of 
the revolutionary societies which, thanks to complicity 
under the guise of tolerance, were unhindered in the 
development of their criminal resources. 

Lemmi, who had at his disposal as many false papers 
as might be necessary for his secret missions, again 
changed his name. Armed with a Hungarian passport, 
belonging to one of the henchmen of Kossuth, he went 
to Rome under the name of " Ulrick Putsch ", profes- 
sional cook, and on June 12 there was an attempt to 
kill Cardinal Antonelli! He immediately reappeared 
at Genoa where, on the thirteenth of the month, a 
manifesto was published by Mazzini, inciting the people 
"to insurrection. This was spread by Lemmi in several 
towns, notably even in Rome where, by a curious coin- 
cidence, on July 9, the same day on which he returned 
to the city of the popes, an attempt was made on 
the life of Father Beckx, the General of the Jesuits. 

In all these movements, in all these crimes where 


Lemmi's hand is not visible, those of his associates 
always were. 

Lemmi and Orsini — the latter also an agent of 
Mazzini, had transmitted to the revolutionary com- 
mittee of Milan their chief's instructions in view of 
an imminent uprising. Having received their instruc- 
tions, Lemmi went to Switzerland with his Hungarian 
passport, and Orsini, under the name of George Her-i 
nash, went to Austria where an insurrection, timed to 
occur simultaneously with that in Lombardy, was to 
be fomented. Orsini was arrested at Hermanstadt, 
in Transsylvania, brought back to Vienna and trans- 
ferred to Mantua where he was judged and condemned 
to death for high treason on August 20, 1855. 

Locked up in the castle of San Giorgio, he succeeded 
in escaping on the night of March 29th, 1856. 

On November 13 of the same year, two other 
agents of Mazzini were taken at Rome. 

Under the pretext that the King of Naples was not 
observing strict neutrality towards Russia, Lord Pal- 
merston obtained the disgrace of Mazza, the Neapo- 
litan Director of Police. In this move, he was aided by 
Mazzini, who, having caused certain confidential papers 
to be stolen, knew some things that were none of his 
business. Mazza, devoted to the King, had been his 
protector against the machinations of the secret societies. 

Napoleon HI, too, allowed himself to be influenced by 
Palmerston who, as patriarch of European Freema- 
sonry, favoured one of his pet projects. This involved 
the appointment of Prince Murat, Grand Master of 
the Grand Orient of France, to the throne of Naples 
and the two Sicilies, and the elimination of the house 
of Bourbon. England and France presently threatened 
to send a squadron to Naples but owing to the protest 
of Russia, the threat was never carried out. 


In September, "1856, the European Committee decided 
that the King of Naples should be assassinated and that 
at the same time there should be an insurrection in 
Sicily. A man named Baron de Bentivegna, who had 
been introduced by an English high mason, Henri 
Misley, to Mazzini in London, was entrusted with the 
task of fomenting the trouble, while Lemmi took charge 
of the murder. According to the plan, Ferdinand II 
was to be blown up by a bomb thrown under his car- 
riage by some fanatic selected by Lemmi. 

Armed with two bombs, Lemmi went to Sicily. He 
now travelled under a French passport, provided for 
him by a friend through Ledru-Rollin, and made out 
under the name of " Jacques Lathuile ", merchant. 

Everything was ready both in Palermo and Naples. 
The dates of the assassination of the king and the 
outbreak of the revolution were fixed for November 
22, but the individual chosen to perform the deed, 
Filippo Carabi, suddenly lost interest in the project 
when he realized that the bomb destined for the king 
would also inevitably prove fatal to himself. 

Lemmi was angry over this unexpected check. It 
was then too late to recruit another executioner but 
the disobedient Sicilian was eventually punished, for, 
five years later he was murdered in a Neapolitan lodge 
where he had gone without apprehension. The archives 
of the Directory of Naples contain the details of the 
affair, the sequestration of Carabi in 1861, his accusation 
before a secret tribunal, the terrible tortures to which 
he was subjected and his last horrible agony, shrouded 
in mystery. 

Lemmi, now unable to have the assassination and 
the plot coincide, stayed on nevertheless in Naples, 
as he hoped to find a substitute for the defaulting 


On the appointed day, November 22, Bentivegna 
raised the banner of revolt at Cefalu, near Pa- 

" Jacques Lathuile ", finding himself obliged to 
substitute another for the bomb method of assassination, 
induced a soldier called Agesilas Milano to attempt 
the life of the king, so, vfhile Ferdinand II was review- 
ing his troops, Milano stepped forward and struck 
him twice in the chest with his bayonet. Luckily for 
the king, the instrument bent, failing even to wound 
him. Milano was arrested, judged and shot, but Mazzini, 
qualifying him as a martyr, had a commemoration 
medal struck in his honour. 

As for the insurrection in Sicily, it was suppressed, 
Bentivegna was captured and shot on December 20, 
but Lemmi-Lathuile left the country as soon as he 
realized that things were not going well. His identity 
was never revealed and can today only be definitely 
established by the records of the secret masonic trial 
of Filippo Carabi in the archives of the Directory of 

In 1857, a splendid farce was enacted by Piedmont. 
It has since been repeatedly proved that Cavour and 
Rattazzi were in agreement with the Mazzinians and 
the Garibaldians with regard to the scheme for a Uni- 
ted Italy, under the house of Savoy — that is to say, 
they favoured the dispossession of the legitimate sove- 
reigns of the duchies of Tuscany, Parma, Modena, the 
Papal States and the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, and 
the wresting of Lombardy and Venice from Austria. 
In the eyes of the European monarchs who were not 
in the secret. Piedmont wished to appear innocent of 
any connivance in the plot, and to have been forced 
only reluctantly to acquiesce. The secretary and 
faithful friend of Count Cavour was the Piedmontese 


Isaac Artom, ' while I'Olper, later rabbi of Turin 
and also the friend and counsellor of Mazzini, was 
one of the most open advocates of Italian Indepen- 

A few Freemasons in English, French and Prussian 
diplomacy alone knew what was being plotted, so the 
International Committee of London decreed an up- 
heaval in Tuscany for the year 1857 and, in order that 
Piedmont might not be suspected of complicity, it 
-was arranged that an insurrection should be staged 
in that kingdom at the same time as the one in Tus- 
cany. That was the comedy ! 

The insurrection occurred but failed in its object. 

In London, the same year, Mazzini hatched a plot 
against Napoleon III. It was not the first. 

As the French Emperor did not seem sufficiently 
active on behalf of Italian Unity, it was decided to 
stimulate him by terror. Mazzini, Kossuth and Ledru- 
Rollin were reinforced in the committee of London by 
Herzen, Bakunin, Turr and Klapka and, early in the 
year 1857, Paolo Tibaldi, Giuseppe Bartolotti and 
Paolo Grilli were chosen by Mazzini and Ledru-Rollin 
to kill Napoleon. Massarenti, another tool of Mazzini's, 
gave them fifty golden Napoleons when they left 
for Paris to perpetrate the crime and, addressing them 
before their departure, Mazzini said " You will study 
the habits of the Emperor and you will strike when you 
find the opportunity favorable. " Massarenti, Campa- 
nella, Tibaldi, Grilli and Bartolotti, the active tools of 
the plot, were all personal friends of Lemmi. To quote 
the words of the Imperial Attorney at the hearing of 
the Court of Assizes at Paris, August 7, 1857, when 
Grilli was sentenced to deportation, Mazzini and Ledru- 

5. Jewish Encyclopaedia, Art. " Italy ". 


Rollin were the chiefs of all plots the object of which 
was assassination. 

On January 14, 1858, at the door of the Opera 
House in Paris, another attempt was made on the hfe 
of the French Emperor. Three bombs killed eight and 
wounded 156 persons. Some of the guilty were arrested 
but others, among whom was our hero, Adriano Lemmi, 
now masquerading under the name of James Mac- 
Gregor, escaped. Lemmi had come to Paris ostensibly 
to visit Giuseppe Mazzoni, his Tuscan compatriot, 
then professor of languages in the French capital. 
Orsini, who had taken the pseudonym of Alsop on 
reaching Paris, Pierri, and Rudio the principal actors 
in the drama were caught and condemned to death. 
The first two were executed, Rudio's sentence being 
commuted to hard labour for life. Orsini was not un- 
known to Napoleon III. Together, they had belonged 
to the Lodge of Cesna as members of the Carbonari. 
In 1874 the Giornale di Firenze published the account 
of Napoleon's visit to his imprisoned assassin who 
warned him that, unless he showed a disposition to 
help the Unity of Italy, other bombs were reserved 
for him. Napoleon acquiesced, and one saw the famous 
will of Felice Orsini published by the Imperial official 
journal which enabled the French deputy Monsieur 
Keller to remark before the legislative body on March 
13, 1861, that "the Italian war was the execution of 
the will of Orsini. " 

We must here be permitted a somewhat lengthy 
digression unfolding the progress of political corrup- 
tion and its affinity with secret societies. 

As a result of the Orsini conspiracy, Palmerston 
sponsored " The Conspiracy to Murder " Bill, a mea- 
sure framed to hamper International Assassins in the 
free use of English territory for hatching plots against 


foreign potentates. The Bill passed its first reading 
in Parliament, Disraeli voting for it, but at the second 
reading, Milner Gibson, a Radical, moved an amend- 
ment which was in effect a vote of censure on Palmers- 
ton and a challenge to the French. " This was eventually 
carried by 19 votes, Disraeli's support being, of course, 
the decisive factor. An explanation of this change of 
front is afforded in Ashley's Life of Lord PalmersTon. 
Seated in the Peers' Gallery, Lord Derby listened to the 
debate, and watched the tide rising against the Prime 
Minister. Convinced that he could be overthrown, he 
" sent hasty word to his lieutenant that they should 
take it at the flood which led to office, " and thereupon 
Disraeli " plunged into the stream. " 

Lord Palmerston fell and was succeeded by Lord 

Where does Disraeli — Lord Beaconsfield — come 
into the scheme ? We know him as the author of many 
novels that, while not being evidential, serve to show 
the knowledge of their author on subjects of Inter- 
national significance: He knew how things were done 
and, like a naughty boy, told tales out of school. 

Young Italy, Young Ireland, lastly Young England 
with Disraeli as its founder. What do we really know of 
Young England beyond what the Primrose League 
would have us think ? 

We know that Disraeli was always in debt, always 
short of money and we know that people under such 
conditions are seldom their own masters. Who were 
his masters ? 

Disraeli's father, Isaac d'lsraeli, was offered the 
leadership of their sect by the Jews of London. He 
refused. Was it also offered to his son ? 

6. E. T. Raymond, The Alien Patriot, p. 214. 


Writing of Lord Beaconsfield, A. A. B. passes a 
casual remark in the (London) Evening Standard 
of Monday, October 29, 1928 — " The name of the 
heroine of Lothair, the work of his meridian, is that of 
his wife. Mary Anne ruled the underworld of secret 
societies. " Are we to search there for the invisible 
masters ? 

A further light is thrown upon this epoch of English 
history by no less an authority than the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, 9th Edition. In an article on Prince Metter-i 
nich it says : — Metternich " in one of his most earnest 
writings places side by side, as instances of evil sought 
for its own sake, the action of the secret societies in 
Germany, the Carbonaria of Italy and the attempts 
of the English to carry the Reform Bill! " 

We do know that the Reform Bill was one of Dis- 
raeli's victories ! 

Again one wonders at Metternich. That great reac- 
tionary might well have disliked the Reform Bill but 
this remark does not just indicate dislike — it is a 
positive indictment when read with the knowledge 
available to the historians of today. 

Therein lies a singular coincidence of facts. On the 
one hand, we have one of two statesmen, Metternich, 
decrying the English Reform Bill and on the other, 
Disraeli getting it passed in the English Parliament. 
Yet, both men, ever impecunious, were ruled by money 
coming from the same source, namely, the Rothschilds 
who, in Austria as well as in London, were actively 
becoming the masters of the national finances of both 

In 1862, the First International came into being and 
the part played in it by such Freemasons as Karl 

7. Count Corti, The Reign of the House of Rothschild. 


Marx, Tolain, Fribourg, Varlin, Camelinat, Beslay, 
Malon and Corbon is well known. 

But to return to the programme of Young Italy. 

The Piedmontese were not quite satisfied with the 
results of the hasty treaty of Villafranca (1859), but 
the revolutionaries had attained their object as far as 
Tuscany, the Duchies of Parma and Modena and the 
Pontifical States were concerned, though they did 
not dare to dispossess the Pope without some pre- 
liminary political manoeuvres. The revolution in the 
kingdom of the two Sicilies had failed again but it 
was soon to succeed. 

By way of retaliation, the International Committee 
of London began a propaganda in Lombardy among 
the students in the colleges as a result of which the 
University of Pavia was forced to close. This movement 
which started in December was the precursor of the 
coming war. Lord Palmerston's plan was in process 
of realization. 

To Francesco Crispi, a tool of Lemmi, was now as- 
signed the task in which he and Bentivegna had failed. 
He was in London when the news of the death by poison 
of Ferdinand II reached the International Masonic 
Committee. Mazzini's tool in the poison plot was 
Monsignor Caputo, a priest who had succeeded in 
winning the confidence of the king as his confessor. 
He was a Freemason, and a Sublime Maitre Parfait, 
belonging to one of the most evil branches of the sect. 
The poison was administered in a slice of melon and. 
the king died in agony, on May 22, 1857. 

Freemasonry had won, for Francis II, who now succee- 
ded his father, was too young and inexperienced to be 
able to cope with any serious political situation alone. 

At this period, the states of Tuscany, Parma and. 
Modena were trying to form a coalition but Dr. Farini, 


a Freemason, had become dictator, and dictated regard- 
less of popular sentiment. Lemmi was continually 
running back and forth from England with instructions 
from the London Committee to the local revolutionary 
chiefs and, in his secret capacity, was very active 
through the different assemblies where the votes of 
the sold or terrorized members went for annexation 
to Piedmont, regardless of the wishes of the majorities 
in their constituencies. 

Travelling under the assumed names of Emmanuel 
Pareda and Toby Glivan, Crispi spent much of his 
time during the next two years in Sicily as an agitator 
fomenting trouble. A great uprising was planned for 
Oct. 12, but, though Lemmi was there to help, their 
combined efforts on that date were futile. 

Still they persisted, and by propaganda and under- 
ground work, they prepared for the great event of 
1860. When Garibaldi, Grand Master ad vitam of 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites, at Palermo, 
landed at Marsala with his famous " thousand " on 
the 11th May, he found everything ready. His expe- 
dition would, however, have failed had it not been for 
the Piedmontese gold which bought the chief func- 
tionaries of the King of Naples, one of whose ministers, 
Liborio Romano, was chief of Sicilian Masonry and 
presided at the Scottish Consistory at Naples. Fran- 
cis' friend and confidant, General Nunziante, Due 
of Mignano, was bought by Cavour for four millions ! 

Organized at Genoa by Dr. Bertani, this suppo- 
sedly spontaneous act of the famous general which 
the government of Victor Emmanuel publicly disa- 
vowed, was organized by Cavour who furnished the 
money by drafts on Mr. Bombrini, director of the bank, 
as proved by a letter, written by the King himself 
to the American Commodore, William de Rohan. 


June 27th 1860. 
I enclose herewith Medici's [one of Garibaldi's generals] 
two letters which you will put into other envelopes and give 
to Cavour. 

I have already given three miUions to Bertani. 
Return immediately to Palermo to tell Garibaldi that I 
will send him Valerio instead of La Farina, and that he is 
to advance at once on Messina, as Francesco [the King of 
Naples] is on the point of giving the Neapolitans a consti- 

Your friend, 


This letter which was published in Rome, in 1881, 
by the son of Victor Emmanuel in the Fanfulla with 
an article by Commodore William de Rohan was never 
challenged. Margiotta then adds — " there is little 
more to be said concerning the connivance of Cavour 
and Garibaldi. Victor Emmanuel did nothing against 
his wish as the official newspapers allege, for every- 
thing that happened in 1860 was settled in advance. 
It was necessary to save appearances and to deceive 
Russian and Austrian diplomacy which was not in the 
secret, so that was Cavour's reason for allowing Gari- 
baldi to play the part of an undisciplined revolutionary, 
taking on himself alone the responsibility of his adven- 

The policies of the Grand Master Cavour and the 
Grand Master Mazzini, each representing two different 
Masonic currents emanating from different sources, 
met on the issue of the destruction of the Papacy which 
it was hoped to submerge through the unification of 

Cavour aimed at unity in the form of a constitutional 
monarchy under the house of Savoy and Mazzini, 


aiming at a republic, found himself forced into a com- 
promise which obliged him to accept, temporarily at 
least, a Piedmontese monarchy for United Italy. 

The captain of Freemasonry was Garibaldi, the too! 
of Palmerston, Cavour and Mazzini. 

While working thus together and helping one an- 
other, Mazzini and Cavour each followed an occult 
personal and distinct line of action, the secrets of 
which they did not share. Each in his mysterious work 
had his chief agent, the man he trusted. The chief 
agents of Cavour were his Jewish secretary Isaac Artom 
and Carletti and the chief agents of Mazzini were his 
Jewish secretaries, Wolf, Lemmi and L'Olper. 

After the flight of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
Lemmi went to Florence where, to better mask his 
play, he became a banker. His patrons Mazzini and 
Kossuth were never in want of money furnished either 
by England or Masonry. He made money, practising 
usury as a good Jew, charging it is said up to 200 and 
300 per cent, but, in politics, he continued as a valuable 
auxiliary to Mazzini. 

Garibaldi and Mazzini wished to push on to Rome 
but Victor Emmanuel thought it more prudent to 
leave well enough alone for the time being, and the 
Piedmontese government finally overruled the revo- 
lutionaries. Mazzini and Crispi were even asked to 
leave Naples by the authorities though Lemmi was 
not molested. 

Cavour knew him to be the secret agent of Mazzini 
and had him watched and his record investigated but, 
though he did not trouble himself much about him, 
he wanted to insure himself against all anti-monar- 
chist action on his part. 

During this inquiry, he came across the records of 
Lemmi's youthful exploits at Marseilles in 1844, so 


he asked the government of Napoleon III for an official 
copy of this document which lay in the archives of 
the Ministry of the Interior of the Italian government 
for 31 years and proved a powerful weapon in the hands 
of Victor Emmanuel, and Humbert I. Chafing under 
the menace of the existence of this document however, 
Lemmi induced Crispi in 1893 to arrange for its disap- 
pearance, but this move was forestalled by an implac- 
able enemy of Lemmi who succeeded in getting pos- 
session of the famous paper. 

In 1867, Lemmi entered into negotiations with the 
Freemason Graf von Bismarck and the first projects of 
alliance between Prussia and Italy date thenceforth. 
Lemmi hated France as much as did Mazzini, so it 
is not surprising to find them both intriguing with 
Bismarck to bring about a Franco-Italian estrangement. 

Napoleon III, by the convention of Sept. 15, 1864, 
had established Rome and its surrounding territory 
as distinct from the Kingdom of Italy, so that till 
1870, the church still retained this last fragment of 
its temporal possessions but, towards 1865, Mazzini 
organized an association for Italian Unity, the object 
of which was the Union of these States with the rest 
of Italy, with Rome for the capital, according to Gari- 
baldi's programme. Mazzini however was afraid to 
go to Rome without the consent of France, thinking 
that the destruction of the temporal power of the Pope, 
in the face of French opposition, could only be obtained 
by means of a revolution. 

No one is ignorant of the negotiations between 
France, Austria and Italy in 1867, fruitless, because 
of Napoleon's refusal to accede to the proposal of the 

8. The name of Diana Vaughan has been mentioned as that 
of the person who obtained the paper. 


Austrian minister de Beust to allow " United " Italy 
freedom to march on Rome. France, subsequently 
abandoned by Italy, met her fate at Sedan in 1870 
and Bismarck used Mazzini and Italian Freemasonry 
to break the Franco-Italian alliance and to force Victor 
Emmanuel to take Rome in spite of the wishes of the 
French people. 

When the Franco-Prussian war broke out in 1870, 
the time for revolution was ripe. In July, shortly after 
the declaration of hostilities, the Italian revolutionaries 
held a mass meeting in the theatre at Milan, organized 
by the most notorious and dreaded agitators in Italy. 
After this public meeting, there was a secret political 
one attended by 15 high masons. Those present, accor- 
ding to Oreste Cucchi, who was told of it by Fabrizi 
himself, were : Doctor Timoteo Riboli, Francesco 
Crispi, Colonel Cucchi, Asproni, Bertani, Fabrizi, Fra- 
polli, Cairoli, Rattazzi, Seismit Doda, Morelli, Sineo, 
Cosentini, Mancini and General Raffaelo Cadorna. The 
object of this conference was to determine the line of 
conduct to be adopted in the event of the defeat of 
Napoleon's army, and it was decided to send Cucchi 
to Bismarck to obtain from the Prussian government 
the necessary arms to go to Rome should Victor 
Emmanuel persist in his attitude of vacillation. Cucchi 
accomplished his mysterious mission, and Bismarck 
concluded a deal whereby Prussia was to furnish guns 
and money to the Italian revolutionaries, in return for 
which they were to keep up agitation to prevent an 
Italian alliance with the French nation. 

Everything was ready. Still, Victor Emmanuel hesi- 

Public opinion was rapidly being manufactured with 
the assistance of Bismarck's money, so the deputies of 
the Left who signed a petition for the occupation of 


Rome, on being asked what they would do if the minis- 
try refused their demand answered " We will make 
barricades and with the people we will go to Rome 
without you ! " 

The government then decided to act, and General 
Cadorna, who had already been selected by Free- 
masonry to lead a popular army should the govern- 
ment not wish to send him there in an official capacity, 
marched on Rome. 

The operations of war began on September 15, 
1870, and on September 20, at five o'clock in the 
morning, the cannon of Cadorna settled the Roman 
question. The Porta Pia was forced. The sacrifice was 
accomplished. Freemasonry had triumphed. 

But Freemasonry had won again when, according 
to Mr. George d'Heylii, writing in February 1871, 
" Mr. Gambetta, who was the arbitrary master of that 
country's (France) destiny during the three months 
that his dictatorship lasted, was able, without anyone 
daring to oppose his conduct, to misuse his power in 
order to unsettle the country and satisfy his own ambi- 
tions. He trampled the country's laws under foot, by 
slighting the most elementary rules of civilised society, 
by hunting from their benches magistrates immovib!es, 
and from the council chambers those who had been 
elected by suffrage, by taking the war into his own 
hands, by promoting and depriving officers of their 
rank, by suddenly changing , according to his own 
whims and fancies or those of his advisers, his opinions, 
schemes and plans. " 

Such indeed is the example given by all the dema- 
gogues who act in the name of " The People " ! 

In the discussion concerning the fate of the fomen- 

9. P. B. Gheusi, Gambetta, Life and Letters, pp. 11 and 302. 


ters of the Commune, Gambetta made one of his most 
eloquent speeches, the result of which was that a vote 
of amnesty was passed in their favour. 

In 1871, he further consolidated his power by issuing 
a decree declaring that the former servitors of the Empire 
would be ineligible to membership in the National 
Assembly which was convened to ratify the treaty 
with Prussia. 

By this time, Adriano Lemmi had attained prosperity 
and become the owner of vast estates near Florence. 

Mazzini died on March 11, 1872, and, at his request, 
Lemmi was appointed by Albert Pike to succeed him 
as chief of the Sovereign Executive Directory. 

In 1870, the Marquis of Ripon, who had succeeded 
the Earl of Zetland as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge 
of England, resigned his office and became a Roman 
Catholic. He was succeeded by the Prince of Wales, 
later to be Edward VII, King of England, received 
Knight Kadosch in 1882 on Jan. 28, and Affilie Supe- 
rieur. Grand Orient, in 1883. '° 

Adriano Lemmi, a Palladist, though not yet a member 
of the Supreme Council of Rome, soon concluded that 
the secret superior authority conferred on him could 
best be enhanced in Italy by smashing the various 
Supreme Councils for the benefit of one. Unity of Italian 
Masonry was then his aim. Success in this project 
depended on slow, deliberate manoeuvring, secrecy 
concerning his palladist affiliation, temporary restric- 
tion of the number of triangles in the peninsula and, 
above all, forbearance in dealing with the rival powers 
established in the ordinary rites. 

In 1875, the scene of Masonic intrigue had shifted 
to England. The Khedive of Egypt, being at the time 

10. Rosen, L'ennemi social, for oath taken by Edward VII. 


financially embarrassed offered his shares in the Suez 
Canal Co. for sale. 

" The Due Decazes, French Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, failed to inform the French authorities of the 
Khedive's predicament, while the Rothschilds ", (on 
the information of their Egyptian agent, Ambroise 
Cinadino) " secretly advanced to Disraeli, then Prime 
Minister of England, the necessary funds to deliver 
the controlling interest of the canal to Britain, thus 
striking an International Coup d'etat, the significance 
of which was only dimly appreciated when, in the 
following year, Disraeli had Queen Victoria proclaimed 
Empress of India. " 

Thus the controlling interest of the great waterway 
to the East was vested in England to have and to hold, 
till the British Empire, about to be created, should 
cease to serve the purpose of its makers. 

In June 1877, Adriano Lemmi " became an ordinary 
member of the Grand Orient of Italy at Rome, of 
which Giuseppe Mazzoni was Grand Master, keeping 
this affiliation secret till 1883, when he let it be known 
that he was joint Grand Master with Giuseppe Petroni. 

" At this date, the rivalry for supremacy in Scottish 
Rites had become acute, for the Roman Grand Orient 
wished to dominate over the Supreme Council of Italy 
at Turin, of which Timoteo Riboli was Grand Master. 
The Grand Commander of the Roman Supreme Council 
was Senator Colonel George Tamajo, though its real 
chief was Luigi Castellazzo. With the secret aid of the 
latter and the further assistance of Count Piancini, 
Tamajo was induced to abdicate his rights for 50,000 
francs, and on January 21, 1885, the Supreme Council 

11. E. T. Raymond, The Alien Patriot. 

12. Margiotta, Adriano Lemmi, op. cit., pp. 104-105. 


of Rome was absorbed by the Grand Orient of Italy. 

All Lemmi now required to complete his victory was 
to absorb the Supreme Council of Turin, but Riboli, 
the only real and legitimate representative of Italian 
Freemasonry, recognized by the Convention of Universal 
Scottish Rites at Lausanne, in 1875, and by all the 
Masonic powers of the world, had no wish to part with 
a source of revenue or to defer to the little Jew at Rome 
who was invested with no recognized superior autho- 

Lemmi, who well knew that his secret title of Palla- 
dist chief assured him eventual supremacy, addressed 
himself to the Sovereign Pontiff at Charleston, Albert 
Pike, to whom he explained the danger to Italian 
Masonry of such intense dissensions and the necessity 
for fusion in the great struggle against the Vatican, 
stating further that the authority of Rome, the capital 
of Italy since 1870, must be recognized by the foreign 
Masonic powers. 

His reasons appealed to the Sovereign Pontiff of 
Universal Freemasonry who, in November 1886, en- 
tirely disarmed Riboli by promising him an indemnity 
of 30,000 francs. Riboli acquiesced and the money was 
handed out from the central fund of the order. 

In the Supreme Administrative Directory of Berlin, 
the payment of this sum is recorded in the balance sheet 
of 1887 under the heading of exceptional expenses in 
the following terms : 

"Suppression of the Supr,', Cons.', of Italy sitting 
at Turin. Extraordinary indemnity allowed to F. ■- T. R' 
on the proposal of the F.", A. L. anii approved by the 
secret committee of Feb. 28th, 30,000 francs. 

Before pocketing his 30,000 francs, Riboli raised a 

13. Margiotta, op. cit., pp. 105 et seq. 


great row, abusing Lemmi and objecting to the fusion 
of the Supreme Council of Turin with that of Rome. 
Ignoring the fact that in 1885 Tamajo had received 
50 000 francs for the same reason, he sent protests 
broadcast in the shape of balustres demonstrating the 
legality of the supreme Council of Turin and the ille- 
gality of that of the Roman Centre. 

Many Freemasons rallied to his assistance. A great 
movement was started to do away with the despotism 
of Lemmi, and numerous Lodges were founded under 
the " obedience of Turin. " 

Lemmi however, being Chief of Political Action in 
high masonry, had a great advantage over his opponents, 
but he could not make good his title before the lodges, 
nine-tenths of whose members ignored the very exis- 
tence of Universal Central Masonry, the secret of which 
was to be kept under penalty of death. On the other 
hand, this was solely a matter concerning Scottish 
Rites for the protection of which the Supreme Council 
of Switzerland existed as the Executive power of the 
Scottish Confederation. This council is distinctly separ- 
ate from the secret executive of Central high masonry 
whose one concern is international politics, so no con- 
fusion was possible. 

During a nine months' campaign, Lemmi's opponents 
gained many adherents for Riboli, who, suddenly 
reversing his position, capitulated on the intervention 
of Albert Pike. Thirty thousand francs had done the trick. 

For the benefit of his dupes. Pike had deceitfully 
declared in the fundamental constitution of high masonry 
that the Constitution, Statutes and Regulations of 
each rite would always be respected by Charleston. 
In order to propitiate Lemmi, he tore up that rite of 
which Riboli believed him to be the Patriarch and 
President ! 


The Supreme Council of Lausanne was much embar- 
rassed inasmuch as, where Scottish Rites was concern- 
ed, it was obliged to admit that Lemmi's opponents 
were in the right, and that as a Scottish Rites Mason 
he, as Petroni's successor, the Chief of Political Action 
of secret high masonry, was a rebel. 

In an effort to beat the devil around the bush, Riboli 
and Tamajo, pretending to take Lemmi as their 
temporary delegate, accepted for themselves the empty 
honorary title of Sovereign Grand Commander ad 
vitam, while Lemmi became Sovereign Grand Command- 
er delegate invested with the real power. 

Italian Freemasonry was united. A meeting was 
convened at Florence in January 1887, by Tamajo and 
Riboli at which seven brothers from Rome and seven 
from Turin, under orders from Charleston, ratified this 

Lemmi misappropriated masonic funds and profited 
by his position to exploit everyone, during which 
period of frenzied finance, he pocketed over four hun- 
dred thousand francs. Many complaints of his conduct 
were sent to the Supreme Directory at Charleston but 
while passing through the hands of Phileas Walder 
who shared in the loot, anything to Lemmi's discredit 
was suppressed, never reaching Pike who trusted him 
till the end. 

It was in 1881 that Lemmi had embarked on his 
campaign for the dechristianization of Italy, giving, 
under his invisible direction, an organization to the 
scattered forces of anticlericalism. Mazzini had made 
no mistake for Lemmi persecuted the church with a 
savage hatred. 

During a Masonic congress held at Milan in 1881, the 
following resolutions were adopted : — 



Measures are to be taken to counteract the work of the 
institutions known as " (Euvres Pies " (Charitable Works) 
which were founded by Clericalism to corrupt the people 
under the misnomer of Charity. The morals of the country 
thus endangered need reforming as well as the laws. 

Women are henceforth to be eligible for Freemasonry and 
feminine lodges are to be founded as soon as possible. 

It is deemed necessary by the congress to establish work- 
men's lodges in the city as well as in the country. These 
lodges to be free, except for a nominal fee to cover unavoid- 
able expenses. 

It is decided to institute a corps of secret masonic mes- 
sengers whose mission is to transmit to all lodges the orders 
and instructions of the chief. These messengers are to be 
chosen from among Masons having no personal encumbrances 
and whose devotion to the order has been of long standing. 
They are to be registered at no particular lodge deriving 
their powers directly from the central authority of Italian 

A corps of brother propagandists, themselves unknown 
as Masons, is to be created. They are to travel from town 
to town as peddlers and merchants of all kinds, spreading 
everywhere, notably among the rural populations, opinions 
favourable to masonry. In the course of their peregrinations 
hey are to abstain from visiting local masonic lodgss and 
are to be known as " Travelling Brothers. " 


Should the order wish to initiate a personage of very high 
social rank or one who, in the opinion of the Grand Master 
should happen to be in a position demanding the strictest 
secrecy, his initiation need be known only to the Assistant 
Grand Master or the Grand Secretary and the Grand Trea- 

The congress declares the solution of the social questions 
and the winning for the legitimate workers of their rights 
to be its chief concern. The Lodges are authorized to hold 
debates on the most practical means of obtaining govern- 
mental support for all measures tending to abolish paupe- 
rism and the improvement of the lot of the working classes. 

This, the seventh resolution of the Congress, to be made 


The liberal forces of Italy are to be secretly organized and 
the lodges are to act in such a way as to gain for Freemasonry 
a majority of the national representation in Parliament. 

The Congress adopts for Italy the rule passed by the 
Grand Orient of France in 1848, under the title "Masonic 
rules to be followed with regard to elections. " 

The Congress declares the chief object of the efforts of 
Italian Freemasonry to be, for the present, to obtain from 
the government : — 

a — The regulation of the ecclesiastical patrimony, the 
property of which belongs to the state and the administra- 
tion of which belongs to the civil powers : 

b — The strenuous application of all existing laws 
guaranteeing to the civil society its independence with 
regard to clerical influence : 


c — The enforcement of existing laws by virtue of which 
religious congregations are to be suppressed, and the sugges- 
tion of measures calculated to prevent these laws from being 
evaded : 

d The promulgation of the law relating to the pro- 
perty of religious bodies (confiscation) : 

e The suppression of all religious instruction in the 

schools : 

j — . The creation of schools for young girls where the 
pupils can be protected from any kind of clerical influence. 


Finally the Congress decided to create by masonic initia- 
tive one great, politically non-partisan, anti-clerical party 
whose object would be to fight and destroy clericalism by 
any and all means. 

Adriano Lemmi promptly obeyed Pike's orders and 
the resolutions of the Congress which he himself had 
dictated, by establishing in Rome on July 13, 1881, 
ten anticlerical auxiliary lodges, the foundation 
expenses of which were paid by the Supreme Direc- 
tory of Rome. By his order, similar lodges were founded 
in almost every important town of the peninsula. 

Lemmi is a Satan ist and he organized the anti- 
clerical movement as a Satanist. ''' Besides his effort to 
destroy the church, he led a movement to spread " The 
Nature Cult " well knowing that the secret protection 
of this sect would always be afforded him in the event 
of that of the anti-catholic government of Italy being 
withdrawn. This sect does not as yet dare to reveal 
its supreme aim as, say the chiefs, " the world is not 
yet ready to receive enlightenment by the true light. " 

• The reader must remember that at the date when the 
above was written by Margiotta, Lemmi was still alive. 


So Lemmi first preached Lucifer and then fought 
Christianity by combating the idea of the supernatural! 

All his discourses and manifests were composed 
either by Ulisse Bacci, an atheist, or Umberto dal 
Medico, a Luciferian. 

His instructions to the Italian anticlericals were also 
put into operation by the Freemasons of other coun- 
tries, for the supreme object of the sect is the suppres- 
sion, by a terrible social upheaval, of the religion of 
God, and its substitution by that of Satan, known to 
the dupes of Masonry as " The Great Architect of the 
Universe. " 

On November 21, 1888, Lemmi wrote Pike a letter 
appealing for help in his fight against the Vatican. The 
letter closed with the following paragraph : — 

" Help us in our struggle against the Vatican, thou 
whose authority is supreme, and under thy impulse all 
the lodges of Europe and America will rally to our 
cause. " 

Pike needed little urging and immediately fell in 
with Lemmi's plans. 

On March 30th, 1889, the Mother Lodge Archimede 
took the initiative in an effort to shake off Lemmi's 
tyrannical yoke by announcing the formation of " The 
Masonic Federation of the Independent Lodges of 
Italy. " Lemmi was much perturbed by this effort at 
secession which he finally succeeded in crushing by the 
use of the power of gold. After the Federation had called 
a second congress, he sent one of his secret agents to 
Palermo with ten thousand francs to buy off the Sceisi 
brothers. Discord was thus sown in the ranks of the 
Federation. Soon, the disintegration was complete, 
the centre of Palermo vanished and opposition was 

Towards this period, Lemmi got control of the 


Italian tobacco monopoly through which he succeeded, 
by swindling methods, in acquiring several millions. 
The whole affair was aired in Parliament but the inti- 
midated deputies voted to save the reputation of the 
sect and in order to suppress the scandal, although 
Colonel Achille Bizzoni, Depute Matteo Renato, Impriani 
Poerio and several newspapers took up the matter and 
made a great row which ended in the usual way when 
the public gets tired of a subject. 

As a result of Lemmi's politics in the elections of 
1890, no decent honest and independent candidate 
for political position had a chance of being elected 
against one of his hand-picked nominees. Italian poli- 
tics became a Freemasonic monopoly and the people 
were mercilessly exploited by the dregs of society 
backed by Lemmi and his money, much of which was 
extorted from the Banca Romana. 

On April 2, 1891, Albert Pike died and was suc- 
ceeded in the supreme Grand College of Masons by 
Albert George Mackey, who held the post for two years 
and five months. There were great rivalries between 
the members of Pike's staff, and Albert George Mackey 
was chosen as a compromise candidate who was un- 
likely to interfere seriously with any of the others. 

With neither strength of character, energy nor 
activity, he was no match for Lemmi who aspired to 
the supreme Masonic power as well as to the handling 
of the Masonic central funds for the expenditure of a 
large part of which no account was required by the 
Supreme Directory at Berlin. 

The International organization was now a formidable 
machine composed of 77 triangular provinces, the 
archdiocese of high masonry and 33 Lotus Mother 
Lodges, the founder lodges and generators of Palladism. 

With Phileas Walder as accomplice, Lemmi lost 


no time in starting to undermine the power of Ciiar- 
leston, but to realize this project it was first necessary 
to create a movement in the triangular provinces. To 
this end, he employed his secret political agents of 
the Executive Directory of Rome, practically all of 
whom were Jews. These agents were registered in the 
central directory only by a number and a special 
Masonic name and were unknown even to the Grand 
Masters of the provincial lodges as well as to the 
brothers and sisters at the head of a Lotus Mother 

His particular agent in London in 1893 was supposed 
to be an old Piccadilly Jew called Daniel Mold. The 
came under which he was registered for this Triangular 
province, in the Grand Central Directory at Naples, 
was Adam-Kadzmoun, the magical value of the letters 
of which, when added, give the total of 244 exactly 
as do the letters of his real name. 

Lemmi was not forced to rely solely upon his special 
agents, for he also had the unanimous support of the 
powerful secret Jewish lodges. 

By the decree of Sept. 12, 1874, which confirmed 
a treaty signed by Armand Levi for the Jewish B'nai 
B'rith (brothers of the Alliance) of America, Germany 
and England and the supreme authority of Charleston, 
Albert Pike authorized the Jewish Freemasons to form 
a secret federation functioning side by side with the 
ordinary lodges. This secret society was to bear the 
title of Sovereign Patriarchal Council and its Universal 
centre was to be at Hamburg, Valentinskamp Strasse. 
In subscriptions alone, it collected one million four 
hundred thousand francs a year which were used for 
general Jewish propaganda. '' 

15. At that date the franc was at 5 to the dollar. 


Under the terms of this document (given in full on 
p. 225 of Adriano Lemmi by D. Margiotta), Jewish 
Masonry, unlike Gentile Masonry, was not to be graded, 
its members were exempt from belonging to any other 
official rite and " the secret of its existence " was to be 
most strictly kept by those members of High Masonry 
who had been informed by the Supreme Dogmatic 
Directory of its existence. 

The latter clause in the agreement is. undoubtedly 
responsible for the equivocal attitude of all High Masons 
with regard to the past and present, national and inter- 
national, secret political activities of the B'nai B'rith. 
In the interests of humanity, the conspiracy of secrecy 
should be revealed, for the control of the international 
balance of power and the possibilities of the interna- 
tional spy system thus established, are a menace to the 
welfare and peace of the peoples of the world. 

" A Jew of French descent, this Armand Levi, above 
referred to, had attached himself to the Napoleons 
at an early time and was employed by them in 
various ways... As a member of the " International " 
he represented the possibilities of an Imperial Socia- 
lism... and when the barricades were built, his name 
was in the Commune and his voice was raised for the 

16. De la Rive, Les Juifs dans la Franc -Magonnerie. Re 
treaty between the B'nai Br'ith and the supreme authority 
at Charleston. 

Translation. " ... Albert Pike and the Jew Armand Levy 
affixed their Palladian signatures to this document. Armatid 
Levy styled himself — 33 Lieutenant grand assistant and 
sovereign delegate of the Grand Central Directory of Naples, 
honorary member ad vitam of the Sublime Federal Consistory 
of the B'nai B'rith of Germany, acting as general agent for 
this Consistory as well as those of America and England, 
the various federations of the B'nai B'rith having given him 
full powers... " 


extremist counsels. He it was who rose in the Hotel de 
Ville, to ask that all the deputies of Paris should be 
summoned from Versailles, and if they would not come 
should be deposed, convicted, and condemned to 
death. " '^ 

It was indeed in the heart of the Jewish lodges that 
the plans to manufacture the public opinion necessary 
to the success of Lemmi's ambitious project were made, 
and what actually happened was the result of a plot 
of the Sovereign Patriarchal Council of Hamburg 
against the Supreme Dogmatic Directory of Charleston. 

Hamburg won in the end and the secret Jewish 
control of the powerful machine of International 
Masonry was assured. 

The Jewish Lodges were Lemmi's willing tools, and 
fifty thousand Masons, simultaneously Palladists and 
members of the Hamburg federation, under orders 
given by the Jewish agents in the pay of the Chief of 
Political action, made over a period of three months, 
in the triangles and secret Jewish lodges, a splendid 
propaganda calculated to induce discussion and approval 
of the transfer of the Supreme Dogmatic Directory of 
Charleston to Rome. Everywhere, by every means, the 
agents of Lemmi worked indefatigably to create a 
demand for the removal of the headquarters of the 
order from Charleston to Rome, on the pretext that the 
power of the Vatican could be better fought at close 
quarters. These reclamations of a noisy minority were 
then magnified for the benefit of the Grand Council 
of Masons at Charleston into a threat of imminent 
secession and, after much manoeuvring, Phileas Walder 
succeeded in inducing George Mackey and the American 

17. Onslow Yorke, Secret History of The International, pp. 52 
and 55-56. 


Masons to sign the decree convening the Sovereign 
Convention. Walder, having remarked that Lemmi was 
not to be a candidate for the Supreme Grand Mastership 
in case of the passage of a vote of transfer of which he 
maintained there was no danger, seeing that the majo- 
rity of the triangles favoured Charleston as the seat 
of High Masonry, the American Masons, over confident 
of the outcome of the convention, overlooked the 
importance of the choice of the town in which it was 
to meet. 

On May 20, 1893, after all the delegates had 
been elected, Lemmi suddenly launched his decree 
of chief organizer appointing Rome as the convention 

Had everything been straight, Charleston would 
have come out of the trial of the secret Convention 
with a majority of 52 votes, for only 25 provinces 
favoured the move to Rome, but to Lemmi, all ways, 
including bribery and crime, were good. 

On the eve of the opening of the Convention, four- 
teen of the delegates favouring Charleston were sud- 
denly taken ill, and elections for substitute delegates 
were held in five of the Grand Triangles but in the 
remaining nine, the provincial Grand Masters, owing 
to lack of time or some other reason, referred the 
matter by telegram to Charleston. George Mackey 
answered " Send Bovio proxy to provide a European 
substitute. " 

It was suicide. Bovio, Grand Master General of the 
Grand Central Directory of Naples, and his lieutenants 
were entirely devoted to Lemmi in whom George Mackey 
continued blindly to confide. The nine sudden illnesses 
of the American delegates (the only ones he knew of) 
had failed to open his eyes and he continued counting 
52 votes against the transfer ! 


Apart from two or three American delegates, all 
those who landed in England in August and were enter- 
tained by the Mother Lodge of the Lotus of England 
in the secret temple at 32, Oxford Street (Frascati's) 
were oblivious of the imminent crisis. 

When the Grand Central Directory of Naples received 
these proxies, nine Italian delegates were named to 
represent Cleveland, Memphis, Guatemala, Havana, 
Caracas, Lima, La Paz, Treinta-y-Tres and Port Louis, 
one of whom abstained from voting while the rest 
cynically voted against the wishes of the province 
they represented. 

The count of the ballots gave the following result 
out of 77 delegates : 

48 delegates for the transfer to Rome, 

25 delegates against the transfer to Rome, 
4 delegates not voting the transfer to Rome. 

After this essentially fraudulent transfer of the real 
masonic power from Charleston to Rome, the rest 
was easy. 

The ten Masons of Charleston retained their empty 
titles in an honorary capacity while Lemmi, now self- 
styled Sovereign Pontiff, named ten other active 
Masons, but owing to the difficulties attendant on the 
meetings of these widely dispersed magnates, he created 
a Supreme Triangle, with two assistants Carducci and 
Ferrari, the members of which were : — 

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Germany, Findel (Kether-368) 
at Leipzig. 

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, of India, Hobbs (Khokhma- 
926) at Calcutta. 

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Hungary, Antal de Berecz 
(Binah-721) at Budapest. 

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Australia, W. J. Clarke (Khe- 
sed^09) at Melbourne. 


Patriarch Emeritus Mason, England, David Sandeman 
(Din-476) at Lotidoti.'^ 

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, France, Floquet, (Tiphereth- 
1255) at Paris. 

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Egypt, Gerasimos Poggio 
(Netzakh-1 165) at Alexandria. 

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Spain, Miguel Morayta (Hod- 
816) at Madrid. 

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Chili, B. Alamos-Gonzales 
(Iesod-1152) at Valparaiso. 

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Belgium, Goblet d'Alviella 

International Masonry under Lemmi becomes Satanic 
and Jewish, 

International Jewry has much to explain ! 

Lemmi died In 1 896 and was succeeded by Ernesto 
Nathan, an English Jew, who, in view of the Intimacy 
which had existed between his mother, Sarah Nathan and 
Mazzlni, was said to have been the latter's natural son. 

Lemmi left a son called Silvano Lemmi. 

In 1 895, a schismatic masonic group calling itself 
the Grand Orient of Italy was founded. On March 5, 
1899, it held a meeting at which it adopted a consti- 
tution of its own after which Lemmi 's Grand Orient 
and the new one settled down to a state of secret civil 

Secrecy was imperative for, prior to 1895, the row 

18. According to " The Royal Blue Book " for January 1895, 
p. 1065, Mr. Hugh David Sandeman's London address was 
33, Golden Square. In Devil Worship in France, Mr. Walte 
refers to 33, Golden Square as the address of the Supreme 
Council of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. 

Until two years ago, this address was that of the Faculty 
of Arts, where lectures and concerts were given in a Masonic 


between the various Masonic factions had become so 
acute that the profane public had begun to get seriously 
interested in the Political Masonic affairs of the conten- 
ding factions. 

The outcome of this dispute was the exposures made 
in the following books : 

Memoires d'une Ex-Palladiste and Le 33° Crispi, by Diana 

Le Palladisme and Y a-t-il des femmes dans la franc- 
Magonnerie, by Leo Taxil. 

Adriano Lemmi, by Domenico Margiotta. 

Le Diabie an XIX' Siecle, by Dr. Bataille. 

La Femme et I'Enfant dans la Franc-Magonneiie and La 
Franc-Magonnerie Universelle, by A. de la Rive. 

L'Ennemie Sociale, by Paul Rosen. 

Satan et Cie, by Paul Rosen. 

To inaugurate a policy of suppression these revela- 
tions were shown to have been a hoax, a mystification. 
The manoeuvre was successful. On the 1 9th of April, 
1 897, the author, writing under the pseudonym of 
Diana Vaughan, mysteriously disappeared and Leo 
Taxil publicly repudiated his own allegations against 

Once again the public heard, believed and forgot. 

What happened to Palladism, the super rite ? '^. 

19. Domenico Margiotta, Le Palladisme, p. 32. Quotation 
from La Croix du Dauphine. May 18th 1895. 

... " Doctor Domenico Margiotta has given us the following 
details which complete the telegram which, thanks to him, 
we published two days ago, on the discovery of the Temple 
of Satan at Rome ; — 

" Naturally the agents of the Borghese family were admitted 
without hindrance to all the halls and rooms of the palace, 
with the exception of one which was closed, and which the 
Satanic keepers refused obstinately to open. Then the agents 


At the foot of page 76 of Mrs. Nesta Webster's 
Secret Societies, we find the following note : " Thus 
Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, omits 
all reference to Satanism before 1880 and observes : 

The evidence of the existence of either Satanists or 
Pailadists consists entirely of the writings of a group of 
men in Paris. ' 

" It then proceeds to devote five columns out of the six 
and a half which compose the article to describing the 
works of two notorious romancers, Leo Taxil and 
Bataille. There is not a word of real information to be 
found there. " 

Indeed we owe Mrs. Webster a debt of gratitude for 
thus drawing our attention to this curious effort in 
an otherwise presumably reliable work, to eliminate 
certain phases of religious history. Those phases are 
the personal histories of Albert Pike, the Great Free- 
mason and Giuseppe Mazzini, the Great Revolutionist. 

of the proprietor of the premises, (Prince Borghese) insisted 
on being allowed entrance to that room and threatened finally 
to have the door forced. 

" In the face of such a threat, the guards of Lemmi were 
compelled to give in and the representatives of the lessor 
entered the palladian temple. 

" Its lateral walls were hung with magnificent red and 
black damask draperies. At the further end was a great piece 
of tapestry upon which was the figure of Satan at whose feet 
"was an altar. Here and there were arranged triangles, squares 
and other symbolic signs of the sect as well as books and masonic 
rituals. All around stood gilt chairs. Each of these, in the mould- 
ing which capped its back, had a glass eye, the interior of 
which was lighted by electricity, while in the middle of the 
temple stood a curious throne, that of the Great Satanic 

Owing to the state of terror into which this unexpected 
sight plunged them, the visitors beat a hasty retreat without 
further examination of the premises. " 


The photostats and documents here appended show 
the re-organization of the super-rite under the general 
name of Illuminism, linked as we know with " Societas 
Rosicruciana in Anglia ". Patents of the Ancient Order 
of Oriental Templars, then in its embryonic stages 
(1902) are also shown. 

In 1917, this organization unobtrusively declared 
itself the super rite. 

The history of the Ancient Order of Oriental Tem- 
plars is given on a subsequent page. 


Freemasonry, as the average mason sees it, teaches 
brotherhood and many worthy and exalted principles. 
It is primarily a charity organization and only good 
men are eligible to its ranks. To them the G in the 
Pentagon means God, but needless to say, if its teaching 
were not of a noble idealistic character it would make 
few proselytes. 

Within the lodges, and among the members thereof, 
are members of other rites which the British Mason 
is deliberately taught contemptuously to refuse to 
acknowledge as Masonic. Many of these are the recrui- 
ting sergeants for the secret societies who make their 
selection at leisure, choosing only such initiates as 
seem to them likely to serve their ends. 

Once in the higher grades, a man who has, too late, 
been found to be intractable, can continue to the 
highest visible point of initiation along the track pre- 
pared by those who mean him to know nothing. All is 
beautiful, all is noble, he sees only the best, and for 
ever advertises the goodness of Freemasonry. 

Though in this capacity he may do nothing else, 
he becomes an important factor in recruiting. 

It is frequently alleged that no English Mason is 



permitted to attend a Lodge meeting of the Grand 
Orient or of any other so called irregular masonry. 

This is nonsense ! 

If such a statement is to be considered, how are we 
to reconcile the fact that Wm. Wynn Westcott, an 
English Mason, appointed Junior Grand Deacon to 
the Grand Lodge of England in 1902 and the head of 
the " Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia " and " Golden 
Dawn, " was also the Secretary of the Rite of Swe- 
denborg. Knight Kadosch in Ancient and Accepted 
Scottish Rites, Grand Standard Bearer, Royal Arch, 
Grand Lodge of England, and Regent of the Illuminati 
and on intimate terms with one of its founders, the 
German, Theodore Reuss 33° 90° 96°. 

Among his other titles, Theodore Reuss included 
the following : — Magus Supremus in Mundo of the 
Esoteric Rosicrucians, Era. Superior and Outer Head 
in Mundo of the Ancient Order of Oriental Templars 
(O. T. O.); Sovereign Grand Master General ad vitam 
of the Ancient Rites of Masonry, Memphis and Mizraim 
Rites of Masonry for the German Empire and its depen- 
dencies : "I'crniasimus Regens of the I.-. O/. ; ^^ 
I;\" 33°, etc, etc. 

To further emphasize the interlocking character 
of this organization, we print herewith a partial list 
of the Masonic offices held by John Yarker, quoted 
from an article published in The Equinox Volume X, 
1913 under the title : " In Memoriam ". 

May this end for ever the oft repeated fable of Bri- 
tish Masonic isolation ! 


Royal Grand Commander of the Rose Croix and Kadosch, 
1868 to 1874. 


Scottish Rite of 33" (and received certificate dating from 
1811), January 27th, 1871. 

Admitted 33" of Cerneau Rite and Honorary Member in 
New York, August 21st, 1871. 

Installed Grand Master, 96° of Ancient and Primitive 
Rite at Freemasons Hall, London, October 8th, 1872. 

Absolute Sovereign Grand Master, Rite of Mizraim, 90", 
from 1871 down to the present time. 

Received over twelve patents of 33" of the Supreme Council 
in various parts of the world. 

Past Senior Grand Warden of Greece by Patent, July 
1st, 1874. 

Hon. Member of Lodge 227, Dublin, 1872, and of various 
foreign bodies 1881-3. Among these he received the " Crown 
of Kether, " admitting to the 5" of the Grand Lamaistique 
Order of Light. 

In 1882-3 he acted as General Giuseppe Garibaldi's Grand 
Chancellor of the Confederated Rites, which he arranged 
throughout the world. 

Hon. Grand Master of the Sovereign Grand Council of 
Iberico, October 5, 1889. 

Rite of Swedenborg : In 1876 he was appointed Supreme 
Grand Master for the United Kingdom under the Charter 
of T. G. Harrington, P. G. Master of Craft Grand Lodge of 
Canada; Colonel W. Bury M'Leod Moore, Grand Master of 
Templars, 33°, and Geo. C. Longley. 33°. 

Elected Imperial Grand Hierophant, 97", in Ancient and 
Primitive Rite, November 11, 1902. 

Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Germany, 

Hon. Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Cuba (by patent), 
January 5, 1907. 

Hon. Grand Master ad vitam of the United Sup. Grand 
Council of Italy at Firenze, and of the Society Alchemica, 
etc., etc., 1910-12. 

He also was interested in many of the concordant orders, 
and held office in several. He was appointed President of 
Sat Bhai of Prag, and was co-sponsor from 1871 to 1912. 


Head of the Rite of Ishmael in England in succession to 
Dr. Mackenzie and Major F. G. Irwin. 

Chief of the Red Branch of Eri in succession to Major 
F. G. Irwin. 

High Priest of the 7th degree of Knight Templar priests, 
Manchester, revived from 1868 to 1875. 

More over from the correspondence of Theodore Reuss, 
we find that John Yarker was also the Delegate from 
the Supreme Conseil Martiniste de France. 

Again we find that this same Theodore Reuss, above 
mentioned, seems to become eligible in the eyes of Wm. 
Wynn Westcott and John Yarker to be the founder of 
the six Swedenborg Lodges in Germany, chiefly on the 
grounds that he was an English Mason! 

Presently, we find that Theodore Reuss, English 
Mason, is the Delegate of the A. and P. Rite of Mem- 
phis from Spain and Bulgaria to Germany, and from 
Germany to England. Later we find him on intimate 
terms with Papus, the head of the Martinist order in 

Turning to the photostat of a patent which we repro- 
duce we find a document which speaks for itself. It is 
signed Theodore Reuss 33° 90° 96°. John Yarker 33° 
90° 96° Franz Hartman 33° 90° 95° and Henry Klein 
33° 95°. 

In his testimonial as special War-correspondent, 
Theodore Reuss includes the following letter: — 

Kaiserlich Deutsches Konsulat fur Griechenland. 
Athenes, le 10/22 Avril 1897. 

Le Consulat Imperial d' Allemagne pour la Grece 
requiert par la presente toutes les autorites militaires 
et civiles de laisser passer librement le porteur Mon- 
sieur Theodore Reuss, correspondant du Bureau tele- 


graphique des Etats-Unis, et du Kleines Journal, qui, 
pourvu d'une letite de recommandation de Son Excel- 
lence le Ministre de la Guerre Mr. Metaxas a I'adresse 
de Son Altesse Royale le Prince Royal, se rendra a 
la frontiere lurco-grecque. 

Le Consul General d'Allemagne, 
(Signed) luders. 

While casually perusing the Masonic Year Book for 
1922 (English Grand Lodge), we find on page 522 under 
the following heading : — 

Foreign Grand Lodges. E. Hemisphere 


Grand Orient of Italy 

Grand Master — Gustavo Canti 

Deputy Grand Master — Carlo de Andreis 

Director of the Grand Secretary's office. 

Ulisse Bacci. 

Then, turning to page 286 of our book, we find 
that, many years ago, Ulisse Bacci was one of Adriano 
Lemmi's most efficient assistants ! 

All this belongs to the realm of history and research, 
but at least, let us base the future on knowledge of 
the past and not build the Temple of Solomon on the 
ruins of the British Empire ! 



(Founded 1520) 

The Illuminati, a Spanish sect called the Alom-i 
brados was founded about 1520. 

Ignatius Loyola, while a student at Salamanca (1527), 
was tried by an ecclesiastical commission for alleged 
sympathy with this sect but was acquitted with an 

See Enc. Brit, Ninth Edition, Art. lUuminism. 




(Founded 1541) 

We give the following quotations from the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, in spite of its marked anti-jesuit bias, 
solely to register certain historical facts, leaving their 
interpretation to the personal judgment of the reader. 

" The Company of the Jesuits was founded by Don 
Inigo de Loyola (Ignatius Loyola), a Spanish nobleman 
and soldier, on April 5, 1541, at the church of Saint 
Paul without the Walls, near Rome, under the sanction 
of the Pope, Paul III. 

" It has six grades. These are novices, scholastics, 
temporal, coadjutors, professed of the three vows, and 
professed of the four vows, the latter two grades being 
the only ones which confer a share in the government 
and eligibility for the offices of the society. Its head, 
virtually a commander-in-chief, is known as The 
General. He wields absolute power over the members 
who are pledged to blind obedience. The General 
claims his authority from The Pope. 

1. Enc. Brit, Ninth Edition, Art. Jesuits. 



The " fourth vow " is one of special allegiance to the 
Pope promising to go in obedience to him for mission- 
ary purposes whensoever and whithersoever he may 
order, — a pledge seriously qualified in practice, how- 
ever, by the power given to the general of alone sending 
out or recalling any missionary. 

" The question has long been hotly debated whether, 
in addition to these six avowed grades, there be not 
a seventh, answering in some degree to the Tertiaries 
of the Franciscan and Dominican orders, secretly 
affiliated to the society, and acting as its unsus- 
pected emissaries in various lay positions. This class is 
styled in France ' Jesuits of the short robe ', and some 
evidence in support of its actual existence was alleged 
during the lawsuits against the company under 
Louis XV. The Jesuits themselves deny the existence 
of any such body, and are able to adduce the negative 
disproof that no provision for it is to be found in their 
constitutions. On the other hand, there are clauses 
therein which make the creation of such a class perfectly 
feasible if thought expedient. One is the power given 
to the general to receive candidates secretly, and to 
conceal their admission, for which there is a remarkable 
precedent in the case of Francis Borgia, duke of Gandia, 
afterwards himself general of the society; the other is 
an even more singular clause, providing for the admis- 
sion of candidates to the company by persons who are 
not themselves members of it. ... The general, who 
should by the statutes of the society reside permanently 
at Rome, holds in his hands the right of appointment, 
not only to the office of provincial over each of the great 
districts into which the houses are mapped, but to the 
offices of each house in particular, no shadow of elec- 
toral right or even suggestion being recognized. 

" The superiors and rectors of all houses and Colleges 


in Europe must report weekly to their provincial on all 
matters concerning the members of the society and all 
outsiders with whom they may have had dealings of 
any sort. The provincial, for his part, must report 
monthly to the general, giving him a summary of ail 
details which have reached himself. But, as a check on 
him, all superiors of houses in his province are to make 
separate reports directly to the general once in three 
months, and further to communicate with him, without 
delay, every time any matter of importance occurs, 
irrespective of any information which the provincial 
may have forwarded. Nor is this all; an elaborate 
system of espionage and delation forms part of the 
recognized order of every house, and, in direct contrast 
to the ancient indictment and confession of faults 
in open conventual chapter, every inmate of a house 
is liable to secret accusation to its superior, while the 
superior himself may be similarly delated to the pro- 
vincial or the general. 

" Nor is the general himself exempt from control 
on the part of the society, lest by any possible error 
he be unfaithful to its interests. A consultative council 
is imposed on him by the general congregation, consis- 
ting of six persons, whom he may neither select nor 
remove, — namely, four assistants, each representing a 
nation, an admonisher or adviser (resembling the adla- 
tus of a military commander) to warn him of any faults 
or mistakes, and his confessor. One of these must be 
in constant attendance on him; and, while he is not 
at liberty to abdicate his office, nor to accept any 
dignity or office outside it without the assent of the 
society, he may yet be suspended or deposed by its 

" There would seem at first to be an effectual external 
check provided, however, in the fact that, while all the 


officers of the society, except the council aforesaid, hold 
of the general, he in turn holds of the Pope, and is his 
liegeman directly, as well as in virtue of the fourth 
vow, which he has taken in common with the other 
professed. But such is the extraordinary skill with 
which the relations of the society to the papacy were 
originally drafted by Loyola, and subsequently worked 
by his successors, that it has always remained organi- 
cally independent, and might very conceivably break 
with Rome without imperilling its own existence. The 
general has usually stood towards the Pope much as a 
powerful grand feudatory of the Middle Ages did 
towards a weak titular lord paramount, or perhaps as 
the captain of a splendid host of ' Free Companions ' 
did towards a potentate with whom he chose to take 
temporary and precarious service; and the shrewd 
Roman populace have long shown their recognition of 
this fact [by styling these two great personages seve- 
rally the ' White Pope ' and the ' Black Pope '. In truth 
the society has never, from the very first, obeyed the 
Pope, whenever its will and his happened to run counter 
to each other. 

" The merited odium which has overtaken the Inqui- 
sition, usually officered by Dominicans, has induced 
the Jesuits, whose own controversial methods had 
been different, to disclaim all connexion with that 
tribunal, and to represent their society as free from 
complicity in its acts. But, in truth, it was Ignatius 
Loyola himself who procured its erection in Portugal 
in 1545-6, and F. Nithard, one of the very few cardinals 
of the society, was inquisitor-general of that kingdom 
in 1655. 

" The first successes of the Indian mission were 
entirely amongst the lowest class ; but when Robert 
de'Nobili, to win the Brahmins, adopted their insignia 


and mode of life in 1605, a step sanctioned by Gregory 
XV, in 1623, the fathers who followed his example 
pushed the new caste-feeling so far as absolutely 
to refuse the ministrations and sacraments of religion 
to the pariahs, lest the Brahmin converts should 
take offence, • — an attempt which was reported to Rome 
by Norbert, a Capuchin, and by the bishop of Rosalia 
and was vainly censured in the pontifical briefs of 
Innocent X in 1645, Clement IX in 1669,Clement XII 
in 1734 and 1739, and Benedict XIV, in 1745. The 
' Chinese rites ', assailed with equal unsuccess by 9 
popes, were not finally put down until 1744, by a bull of 
Benedict XIV... By these rites the Jesuit missionaries 
had virtually assimilated Christianity to heathenism> 
and their practical reply in opposition to a papal decree 
in 1700 was to obtain an edict from the emperor of 
China declaring that there was nothing idolatrous or 
superstitious in the inculpated usages, while in 1710 they 
flung Cardinal Tournon, legate of Clement XI, into the 
prison of the Inquisition at Macao, where he perished. 
Finally, they disobeyed the brief of suppression issued 
by Clement XIV in 1773, which enjoined them to dis- 
perse at once, to send back all novices to their houses, 
and to receive no more members. It is thus clear that 
the society has always regarded itself as an independent 
power, ready indeed to co-operate with the papacy so 
long as their roads and interests are the same, and to 
avail itself to the uttermost of the many pontifical 
decrees in its own favour, but drawing the line far short 
of practical submission when their interests diverge. ' 
The Jesuit power, much weakened in England by the 
rise of the Jewish Power with the advent of Cromwell, 
persisted nevertheless in its efforts to recapture its 
former status in that land. During the reign of James II, 
it schemed and intrigued incessantly through its repre- 


sentatives Father St. Germain and his successor 
Father Columbiere. ^ After the enactment of the limi- 
tation of the English throne to Protestant succession 
the Jesuit diplomatists were hard put. 

To quote the Encyclopaedia further : 

" After many difficulties they had succeeded in 
getting a footing in France, through the help of Duprat, 
bishop of Clermont, who founded a college for them in 
1545 in the town of Billom, besides making over to them 
his house at Paris, the Hotel de Clermont, which became 
the nucleus of the afterwards famous college of Louis-le- 
Grand, while a formal legalization was granted to them 
by the states-general at Poissy in 1561. " 

From the Jesuit College at Ingolstadt is said to have 
issued the sect known as " The Illuminati of Bavaria " 
founded by Adam Weishaupt under the guidance of 
Nicolai, in 1776. Weishaupt, its nominal founder, how- 
ever, seems to have played a subordinate though con- 
spicuous role in the organization of this sect. (See 
page 370). 

On July 21, 1773, the Pope had abolished the order 
of Jesuits but Frederic II of Prussia encouraged and 
protected them with a view no doubt of using their 
political knowledge and skill against the Bourbons, the 
Hapsburgs and the Pope. 

The well-known authority on theocratic organizations, 
Heckethorn, writes the following concerning the Jesuits : 
' There is considerable analogy between Masonic 
and Jesuitic degrees ; and the Jesuits also tread down 
the shoe and bare the knee, because Ignatius Loyola 
thus presented himself at Rome and asked for the con- 
firmation of the order. 

2. Once regent of the Jesuit College of Clermont. 

3. D. Jones, The Secret History of White-Hall, 1697, p. 41. 


" Not satisfied with confession, preaching, and in- 
struction, whereby they had acquired unexampled 
influence, they formed in Italy and France, in 1563 
several ' Congregations ', i. e. clandestine meetings held 
in subterranean chapels and other secret places. The 
congregationists had a sectarian organization, with 
appropriate catechisms and manuals, which had to be 
given up before death, wherefore very few copies 

To show the further similarity of the Jesuit-Judaic- 

Masonic-Gnostic-Brahmin-Illuminati theology we now 

quote from a MS. in the library of the Rue Richelieu 

at Paris entitled Histoire des congregations et socialites 

jesuitiques depuis 1563 jusqu'au temps present (1709). 

" Initiation. — From this, as well as other works, 
we gather some of the ceremonies with which aspirants 
were initiated into the Order. Having in nearly all 
Roman Catholic countries succeeded in becoming the 
educators of the young, they were able to mould the 
youthful mind according to their secret aims. If then, 
after a number of years, they detected in the pupil 
a blind and fanatic faith, conjoined with exalted pietism 
and indomitable courage, they proceeded to initiate 
him; in the opposite case, they excluded him. The 
proofs lasted twenty-four hours, for which the candidate 
was prepared by long and severe fasting, which, by 
prostrating his bodily strength, inflamed his fancy, 
and, just before the trial, a powerful drink was admin- 
istered to him. Then the mystic scene began — diabol- 
ical apparitions, evocation of the dead, representations 
of the flames of hell, skeletons, moving skulls, artificial 

4. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries,. 
vol. II, p. 296. 

5. Schaff-Herzog, The Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge. 
Art. Jesuits. 


thunder and lightning, in fact, the whole parapher- 
nalia and apparatus of the ancient mysteries. If the 
neophyte, who was closely watched, showed fear or 
terror, he remained for ever in the inferior degree ; 
but if he bore the proof well, he was advanced to a 
higher grade. 

" At the initiation into the second degree (Scholas- 
tici) the same proofs, but on a grander scale, had to be 
undergone. The candidate, again prepared for them by 
long fastings, was led with his eyes bandaged into a large 
cavern, resounding with wild bowlings and roarings, 
which he had to traverse, reciting at the same time 
prayers specially appointed for that occasion. At the 
end of the cave he had to crawl through a narrow open- 
ing, and while doing this, the bandage was taken from 
his eyes by an unseen hand, and he found himself in & 
square dungeon, whose floor was covered with a mor- 
tuary cloth, on which stood three lamps, shedding a 
feeble light on the skulls and skeletons ranged around. 
This was the Cave of Evocation, the Black Chamber, so 
famous in the annals of the Fathers. Here, giving himself 
up to prayer, the neophyte passed some time, during 
which the priests could, without his being aware of 
it, watch his every movement and gesture. If his beha- 
viour was satisfactory, all at once two brethren, repre- 
senting archangels, presented themselves before him, 
without his being able to tell whence they had so sud- 
denly started up, — a good deal can be done with pro- 
perly fitted and oiled trap-doors, — and, observing per- 
fect silence, bound his forehead with a white band 
soaked with blood, and covered with hieroglyphics; 
they then hung a small crucifix round his neck, and a 
small satchel containing relics, or what did duty for 
them. Finally, they took off all his clothing, which they 
cast on a pyre in one corner of the cave, and marked 


his body with numerous crosses, drawn with blood. At 
this point, the hierophant with his assistants entered 
and, having bound a red cloth round the middle of the 
candidate's body, the brethren, clothed in bloodstained 
garments, placed themselves beside him, and drawing 
their daggers, formed the steel arch over his head. A car- 
pet being then spread on the floor, all knelt down and 
prayed for about an hour, after which the pyre was 
secretly set on fire ; the further wall of the cave opened, 
the air resounded with strains, now gay, now lugubrious, 
and a long procession of spectres, phantoms, angeis, 
and demons defiled past the neophyte like the ' supers ' 
in a pantomine. Whilst this farce was going on, the 
candidate took the following oath : — ' In the name of 
Christ crucified, I swear to burst the bonds that yet 
unite me to father, mother, brothers, sisters, relations, 
friends ; to the King, magistrates, and any other autho- 
rity, to which I may ever have sworn fealty, obedience, 
gratitude, or service. I renounce... the place of my birth, 
henceforth to exist in another sphere. I swear to reveal 
to my new superior, whom I desire to know, what I have 
done, thought, read, learnt, or discovered, and to observe 
and watch all that comes under my notice. I swear to 
yield myself up to my superior, as if I were a corpse, 
deprived of life and will. I finally swear to flee tempta- 
tion, and to reveal all I succeed in discovering, well 
aware that lightning is not more rapid and ready than 
the dagger to reach me wherever I may be. ' 

" The new member having taken this oath, was then 
introduced into a neighbouring cell, where he took a 
bath, and was clothed in garments of new and white 
linen. He finally repaired with the other brethren to a 
banquet, where he could with choice food and wine 
compensate himself for his long abstinence, and the 
horrors and fatigues he had passed through. " 


" In 1614, there was published at Cracow what pur- 
ported to be the Secret Instructions given to members 
of the Society of Jesus. It is said that Hieronymus 
Zahorowsici, who had recently severed his connection 
with the society, published the boolc with the co-opera- 
tion of Count George Zbaraski and other Polish enemies 
of the order but the repudiation of the worlc by the 
society is no conclusive evidence of its spuriousness as 
it has been its policy from the beginning to deny all 
discreditable reports and to take the chance of being 
proved unveracjous. 

It will suffice to give the headings of the chapters 
forming the Book of Secret Instructions of the Society 
of Jesus. " The Preface specially warns superiors not 
to allow it to fall into the hands of strangers, as it might 
give them a bad opinion of the Order. The Chapters are 
headed as follows : — I. How the Society is to proceed 
in founding a new establishment. — II. How the Breth- 
ren of the Society may acquire and preserve the friend- 
ship of Princes and other distinguished Personages. — 
HI. How the Society is to conduct itself towards those 
who possess great influence in a state ; and who, though 
they are not rich, may yet be of service to others. — 
IX. Hints to Preachers and Confessors of Kings and 
great personages. — V. What conduct to observe 
towards the clergy and other religious orders. — 
VI. How to win over rich widows. — VII. How to hold 
fast widows and dispose of their property. — VIII. How 
to induce the children of widows to adopt a life of reli- 
gious seclusion. — IX. Of the increase of College reve- 
nues. — X. Of the private rigour of discipline to be 
observed by the society. — XI. How ' Ours ' shall con- 

6. Schaff-Herzog, op. cit., Art. Jesuits. 

7. Heckethorn, op. cit., vol. II, p. 302. 


duct themselves towards those that have been dis- 
missed from the society. — XII. Whom to Iceep and 
make much of in the society. — XIII. How to select 
young people for admission into the society, and how 
to keep them there. — XIV. Of reserved cases, and 
reasons for dismissing from the society. — XV. How to 
behave towards nuns and devout women. — XVI. How 
to pretend contempt for riches. — XVII. General 
means for advancing the interests of the society. 

" The intermeddling of this society in the affairs, 
political, ecclesiastical and civil, of many countries, is 
related in numerous works, and repeatedly produced the 
suppression and expulsion of the order, though it con- 
stantly reappeared with new names. In 1716 the French 
army was infested with Jesuitical and anti-Jesuitical 
societies. The Parliament of Paris suppressed them in 

" They were abolished by papal bull in 1773 at the 
demand of France, Spain, Portugal, Parma, Naples and 
Austria. They are, however, still to be found every-< 
here, and they hold considerable property in England. 
A modern writer justly calls them the ' Black Inter- 
national. ' " 

Historically, the Jesuits are given credit for the 
Gunpowder Plot of 1605, fomenting the Thirty Years 
war, the encouragement of the aspiration of Mary 
Stuart which led to her execution, the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV, 1685, and numerous 
other great events of history. 

The Sanfedesti. was founded at the epoch of the sup- 
pression of the Jesuits for the defence of religion, the 
privileges and jurisdiction of Rome and the temporal 
power of the popes. Their successors were the Calderari, 
referred to in Chapter LXX. 

The Generals of the Jesuits have been as follows : 


1. Inigo de Loyola (Spaniard) . . 1541-1556 

2. Diego Laynez (Spaniard) 1558-1565 

3. Francisco Borgia (Spaniard) 1565-1572 

4. Eberhard Mercurian (Belgian Jew). 1573-1580 

5. Claudio Acquaviva (Neapolitan) .. 1581-1615 

6. Mutio Vitelleschi (Roman) . . .1615-1645 

7. Vincenzio Caraffa (Neapolitan) ... 1646-1649 

8. Francesco Piccolomini (Florentine). 1649-1651 

9. Alessandro Gottofredi (Roman) .. 1652 

10. Goswin Nickel (German) . 1652-1664 

11. Giovanni Paolo Oliva (Genoese) 
Vicar-general and Coadjutor, 1661 ; 
General 1664-1681 

12. Charles von Noyelle (Belgian) 1682-1686 

13. Tirso Gonzales (Spaniard) 1687-1705 

14. Michael Angelo Tamburini (Moda- 

nese) 1706-1730 

15. Franz Retz (Bohemian) 1730-1750 

16. Ignazio Visconti (Milanese) 1751-1755 

17. Alessandro Centurioni (Genoese) .. 1755-1757 

18. Lorenzo Ricci (Florentine) . . .1758-1775 


a. Stanislaus Czerniewicz (Pole).. 1782-1785 

b. Gabriel Lienkiewicz (Pole). . . .1785-1798 

c. Franciscus Xavier Kareu (Pole). 
(General in Russia, 7th Mar. 1801) 1799-1802 

d. Gabriel Gruber (German) 1802-1805 

19. Thaddaeus Brzozowski (Pole) . . . 1805-1820 

20. Aloysio Fortis (Veronese) . . 1820-1829 

21. Johannes Roothaan (Dutchman).. 1829-1853 

22. Peter Johannes Beckx (Belgian)... 1853-1887 

23. Antoine Marie Anderledv (Swiss).. 1887-1892 

24. Louis Martin (Spanish) 1892-1906 

25. Francis Xavier Warnz (German).. 1906-1914 

26. Vladimir Ledochowski (Pole) . . . 1915- 




(Founded 1562) 

This Irish Catholic organization, similar to that of 
the Spanish Guarduna, was founded in 1562 by Roger 
Moore behind whom were French and Spanish Jesuits. 

According to Captain Pollard, author of The Secret 
Societies of Ireland, " The nominal function of the 
Defenders was the protection of the fugitive priests 
during the period of proscription and the holding of the 
passes while Mass was celebrated in some mountain 
glen. The enemies of the faith being the Protestants, 
and the Protestants standing for the Constitutional 
authority of Britain, the Defenders soon became a 
criminal association of law-breakers and banditti. " ' 

In 1641 they rose and massacred many Protestants, 
but were duly crushed by Cromwell in 1649. 

This Irish Catholic element was already opposed by 
the Roman Catholic Archbishop Plunket, of whom 
Captain Pollard writes : " Archbishop Oliver Plunket, 
Roman Catholic Primate of Ireland, who had attempted 
to put down the criminal association of Defenders in 

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 2. et seq. 



the South of Ireland, was accused by the infamous Gates; 
and at his trial at Westminster certain of these Irish 
priests, who had been censured by him, gave false evi- 
dence against him. The Archbishop, though innocent, 
was, through the false evidence of these members of the 
secret society, sentenced and duly hanged at Tyburn. " 





(Founded I64I) 

In The Secret Societies of Ireland Captain Pollard 
writes that, founded in 1641, "The notorious modern 
society known as The Ancient Order of Hibernians is the 
direct successor of the original society of Defenders ; 
in common with its ancestor it attempts to enable 
the clerics to exercise control in politics. It claims in its 
own official history, published in 1910, to be the oldest 
secret society in Ireland. Independent researches 
show that the claim is sound and that the present 
A. 0. H. is the descendant of certain criminal organiza- 
tions of the past. The open admission of this chain of 
descent by its own historian is important. American 
sources trace the A. 0. H. to 1565 but the date 1641 
is that more commonly accepted. " " 

" The Jesuit influence in the development of the 
Defenders was reinforced, and their ceremonies and 
symbolism slowly changed to an elementary ritual 

1. Pollard, op. lit., p. 3. 

2. Ibid., p. n o . 



closely modelled on that of the ceremony of initiation 
to the Society of Jesus of the period. This ritual has 
descended with many accretions and modernisations to 
the present time ; and the American branch of the 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, misled by it, traces its 
origin back, not to 1641 and the Guarduiia, but to 1563 
and the foundation of the Society of Jesus. " 

" The A. 0. H. of America is powerfully organized 
and has over six thousand lodges, and it is said by 
Heckethorn to be divided into two degrees ; in the first 
no oath is exacted and no real secret communicated. 
The second or inner degree is confined to officials, who 
receive their passwords and signs from the Board of 
Erin in Ireland, who send an emissary every three 

In 1878, the American order split into two groups. 
Shortly afterwards the Irish followed suit. 

" In America the breach was later healed, but in Ireland 
it continued until 1902, when a conference was called and 
both parties agreed to work under a joint board of control 
representing both sections. This board was termed the A. 0. H. 
Board of Erin. " " 

Another split, occurring in 1905, lasted two years. 

" Ten years ago, the real A. 0. H. of Ireland repre- 
sented a powerful Nationalist weapon, hostile to the 
forces of extremism and devoted to the Irish Parlia- 
mentary party, but the Board of Erin A. 0. H. was 
revolutionary. " 

3. Pollard, op. cit., p. 8. 

4. Ibid., p. 115. 

5. Ibid., p. 113. 

6. Ibid, p. 115. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XXXVI. 



(Founded 1638) 

This was a peculiar form of Calvinism inaugurated 
by Cornelius Jansenius (1585-1638) from Louvain in 
the Netherlands. 

The doctrine of Jansenism is exposed in a work 
called Augustinus, written by Jansenius, and published 
after his death in 1640. 

According to Jansenius' theory of Predestination, 
man was either saved or damned according to God's 
own will, regardless of his merits or demerits. 

From the Low Countries, Jansenism penetrated into 
France and its chief centre was in the Port Royal abbey 
near Paris. It was Duvergier de Hauranne who had been 
a great friend of Jansenius during their student days 
who, as abbot of Saint Cyran, introduced Jansenism 
into Port Royal. 

Antoine Arnauld was the leader of the Jansenists 
and was followed by Pasquier Quesnel. Many great 
minds of the seventeenth century were Jansenists, 
among them Le Maitre de Sacy, Blaise Pascal, Lancelot, 
Nicole and Fontaine, Secretary of State of Louis XV. 

Jansenism, which had undergone severe treatment in 

France under Louis XIV, revived under the Regency 



in 1715, and found supporters among the learned and 
the high clergy against the policy of the Pope. 

It is during this period that among the Jansenist 
sectarians there arose the strange occurrences prac- 
tised by what is known as the Convulsionaries of St. 

The Jansenist party was very rich thanks to the 
boite a Perrette (Perrette's box). This was a special 
fund whence Jansenism took out all the money for its 
political and other needs. It had taken its name from 
the servant of Mr. Nicole, a leading Jansenist, who had 
started the fund and confided the care of it to his ser- 
vant. In 1778 it amounted already to 1100 livres and in 
1865 was still very substantial. 

Modern Jansenism, which, since the 18th century, 
had its chief seat in the Netherlands, principally 
Utrecht, joined in 1889 the German party of the Old 
Catholics founded in 1871 which, supported by Bismarck, 
had been one of the elements leading him to his KuH 
turkampf policy against the Catholic Church and insti- 

1. For the root of this movement see Chapter X. 

2. For the development of this movement see Chapter XLII. 


(Originating 1688) 

The Camisards were actually a survival of the WaH 
denses and the Pastoureaux. 

Calmeil, an authority on mental aberrations quoted by 
Madden in Phantasmata , thus describes the charac- 
teristics of the Camisard movement: — " The prophetic 
madness (of the Camisards) made its appearance in 
Dauphine and Vivarais in 1688 ; it very soon spread 
itself over a vast number of places, and continued with- 
out any interruption among the Calvinists for nearly 
twenty years. 

" It was especially in the course of the year 1689, 
that the phenomena of theomania excited the greatest 
astonishment and rose to the height of its violence. 
The theomaniacs could then be counted by hundreds ; 
men, women, girls, boys, young children, all of them 
believed they were inspired and imbued with the breath 
of the Holy Spirit. 

" The punishment of fire, the rack, the torture of 
the pendaison, even the massacres performed by armed 
troops, whose efforts were directed to the extermination 

1. Madden, Phantasmata, vol. II, p. 530 ; quoting De la 
Folie. by L. F. Calmeil (1845), vol. II, p- 304. 



of the pretended prophets, the military executions, all 
the torments that it was possible to invent, to 
repress the violence of this religious fanaticism, only 
augmented the force of the evil which they were em- 
ployed to abate or suppress. 

" When, towards the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, the Calvinists rose up in good earnest to con- 
stitute small bodies of troops, and to dispute inch by 
inch the soil which had given them birth, with the 
king's soldiery, by whom they were confronted, this 
war of extermination was preceded by the apparition 
of a sort of swarm of pretended prophets and prophe- 
tesses. Towards 1701, at one time two hundred of the 
inspired, who had fallen into the hands of their enemies, 
were sent to the galleys. 

" The madness of the theoma,niacs was less talked 
of during the years 1703 and 1704 than it had been 
previously; but it is certain that all the armed bands 
who contended with the royal troops for those two 
years, never took the field except at the instance of 
some inspired celebrities. And it is certain that the 
words of those prophets were listened to as if they had 
emanated from the mouth of the Holy Spirit; that the 
inspirations of these monomaniacs habitually decided 
either the life or death of the Catholics who fell into 
the power of the Protestants ; and there was often at 
that time to be seen the same person fulfilling among 
the Camisards the functions of a prophet, and the func- 
tions of a commander. 

" It was not till the year 1704 that the Marechal 
de Villars had the charge of the command in Langue-i 
doc; this Marechal saw, nevertheless, entire cities 
infested with theomania. " 

2. Madden, op, cit., vol. II, p. 532 et seq. 


" It was towards the latter end of 1706 that they 
(the Camisards) came to England, from the mountains 
of the Cevennes, where their countrymen had for a 
considerable time maintained a contest with the troops 
for the persecuting Louis XIV. As exiles for conscience ' 
sake, they were treated with respect and kindness ; but 
they soon forfeited all claim to respect by the folly or 
knavery of their conduct. Of this group Elias Marion 
was the prominent figure ; the others acting only subor- 
dinate parts. He loudly proclaimed that he was the 
messenger of Heaven, and was authorised to denounce 
judgments, and to look into futurity. All kinds of arts 
were employed by Marion and his associates to excite 
public attention — sudden droppings down as though 
death-struck; sighs and groans, and then shrieks and 
vociferations, on recovering; broken sentences, uttered 
in unearthly tones ; violent contortions ; and desperate 
strugglings with the spirit, followed by submission and 
repentance ; were all brought into play. The number of 
the believers in their power soon became considerable... 

" After a time the sect which they had formed 
died away, but its ruin was less to be attributed to 
the punishment of the prophets, or the recovery of 
reason by their votaries, than by a report which was 
spread that they were nothing more than the instru- 
ments of designing men, who wished to disseminate 
Socinianism, and destroy orthodoxy. " 

3. Ibid., quoting Sketches of Imposture, Deception and 
Credulity, Lond., 1836, p. 42. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XXIII, Waldenses. 
For development of this movement see Chapter XLII. 





Emmanuel Swedenborg was born on Jan. 29, 1688, 
at Stockholm. His father, Jasper Swedberg, was the 
son of Daniel Isaksson of Fahlun, Sweden. In 1719, 
Jasper Swedberg's family was ennobled by Queen 
Ulrika and his name was altered from Swedberg to 

Emmanuel Swedenborg was initiated at Lund in 
1706 and progressed to the higher degrees of the Temp- 
lars as practised in Sweden. 

In 1718, Colonel Baltzer Wedmar, in a Stockholm 
Lodge Lecture, said that Swedenborg was a Mason and 
that he had seen his signature at the Lodge at Lund. 
These assertions were confirmed by King Gustavus 111. 

Founded in 1721, " the Rite was first introduced 
into England by Chastanier, Springer (Swedish Consul), 
C. F. and August Nordenskjold and others who were 

1. U. S. E., Emmanuel Swedenborg, the Spiritiia! Columbus. 

2. Sedir, Histoire des Rose-Croix, p. 112. 



members of the first Swedenborgian Society in London 
known as the Theosophical Society of the New Jeru- 
salem, not to be confused with the Rite of French 

The rite was carried from London to the Americas 
by a Swedenborgian Minister, Brother Samuel Beswick. 
He lived at Strathroy, Canada, and was the author 
of a work upon the Swedenborgian Rite. This rite, 
called the Illuminati of Stockholm, was well known until 
the middle of the 18th century when it amalgamated 
with that of Zinnendorf. 

What is properly known as the rite of Swedenborg 
was another modification of the order of the Illuminati 
of Avignon effected by the Marquis de Thome, in 1783, 
wherein he endeavoured to restore the true meaning 
of the doctrine of the Swedish mystic. ^ 

L Mackey, Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 301. 

2. For root of this movement see Chapter XXII. 

3. For development ofthis movement see Chapter XCVI. 







Freemasonry was introduced in France in about 
1730, some say 1725. 

Its implantation bore a singular character. Due to 
the time of exile spent in France by Queen Henrietta, 
widow of Charles I (1649), English ways and customs 
had become fashionable among the members of the 
French aristocracy. The exiled English Royal Family 
and their adherents, warmly welcomed by the Jesuits 
of France, plotted in secret to regain the throne for 
Charles II. Later, when the Catholic King James II 
was also overthrown in 1688, he found refuge in France 
and his son, The Pretender, and later his grandson, 
Charles Edward, headed numerous plots fomented to 
enable them to regain their father's and grandfather's 
throne from William of Orange. 

Meanwhile Masonry had been instituted in England 
(1717) and introduced in France in 1730. The Jaco- 
bites, partisans of the Pretender, secretly plotting as 



they constantly were, found the newly created Masonic 
lodges a ground no less well adapted to serve their ends 
than the Jesuits' colleges whence all their schemes 

Lodges, having thus become fashionable resorts for 
French aristocrats, presented a double aspect, one 
which might almost be termed theatrical, inasmuch 
as the comedy of equality between the lord and his 
varlet was enacted in the Lodge, and the other far more 
serious was of a political character. This latter aspect 
of budding English symbolic Freemasonry in France 
was anxiously watched by the minister Cardinal de 
Fleury who ordered its suppression in 1737. Up to 
that time the French lodges that had been formed 
considered themselves as depending from the English 
Grand Lodge, had an English Grand Master and were 
confining their activities to the practice of the three 
grades of Blue Masonry. 

Then appeared the would-be reformers of Masonry. 
At their head, in France, was the Chevalier de Ramsay, 
and with their advent came the innovation of a fourth 
grade followed by others. This was the beginning of 
Scotch Masonry whose unavowed aim seems to have 
been to interpose itself between the existing Lodges 
and the governing Grand Lodge of France. 

De Ramsay, who was one of the foremost exponents of 
Scotch Rites and already dreamed of the Universal 
Masonry of Albert Pike, exposed some of his theories 
in his famous Discourse made in 1740. 

By that time, the Grand Lodge of France, known as 
the Grand English Lodge of France, was no longer 
headed by an English Grand Master, but by the Due 
d'Antin who was succeeded by Louis, Prince de Bour- 
bon, Comte de Clermont, who held the office of Grand 
Master from 1743 until 1771. During his Grand Master- 


ship, in 1754, the name Chapter of Clermont was given 
to what might be called an offshoot of the Primitive 
French Masonry on which, later, the Chevalier de Bon- 
neville grafted some additional degrees. This name 
" Chapter of Clermont " has been the cause of much 
confusion arising from the fact that a Jesuit college 
founded in Paris, in 1550, also bore the name of Cler- 
mont College and had been a centre for Jacobite secret 
plotting against the Protestant rulers of England.' 

This grafting of higher degrees on those of Symbolic 
or Blue Masonry gave Scotch Masonry its vitality and 
strength and a continual superposition and absorption 
of one rite, to and by another, took place. 

The period during the GrandmastershJp of the Comte 
de Clermont was eventful for the craft. A masonic 
writer, William H. Peckham, in his work on Scottish 
rites, gives a succinct but clear sequence of some of 
the changes undergone by Masonry in France men- 
tioning Thory, Le Blanc, de Marconnay, Ragon and 
Ciavel as his sources. Thus we learn that the English 
Grand Lodge of France became the " Grande Loge du 
Royaume " in 1756, and declared itself independent; 
further, that an inner body known as the Supreme 
Council of the Emperors of the East and West had 
been founded in 1754 by the Chevalier de Bonneville. 
It had its chamber in the Grand Lodge of France and, 
likewise, was under the authority of the Grand Master 

1. Rev. E. Cahill, S. J., Freemasonry and the Afiti-Christian 
Movement, p. 213, definitely refutes tlie story of certain Masonic 
authorities by wliom it has been alleged that The Chapter of 
Clermont was founded in the Jesuit College of that name. He 
states that it was " founded in 1754 and was named the 
Chapter of Clermont' manifestly borrowing its name from 
the title of the Masonic Grand Master who in fact became its 
head. " 


Comte de Clermont whose substitute ChaiUon de Join- 
ville was also that of the Council. 

The Supreme Council of the Emperors of the East 
and West practised twenty-five degrees. 

As to the disorders in the bosom of Masonry they 
are attributed to the negligence of the Comte de Cler- 
mont who, in 1744, had ceased to take much interest 
in the Lodges and delegated his authority to two 
appointees, one a banker named Baure and the other 
a dancing master by the name of Lacorne who sold 
charters and degrees. The latter caused a scission in 
the Grand Lodge whose members rejected him and 
he formed an independent Grand Lodge. Both these 
Grand Lodges, as also the Council of the Emperors of 
the East and West, constituted Lodges and granted 
charters throughout the kingdom, but in 1772, the 
Council united again with the primitive Grand Lodge 
as of yore, and becoming one body they practised the 
right of perfection of twenty-five degrees. At that 
time, the Grand Master was the Due de Chartres, later 
Philippe Egalite, Due d'Orleans, who had succeeded 
the Comte de Clermont in 1771. 

But ten years previously, on August 29, 1761, a Jew, 
Stephen Morin, had obtained a charter from the Council 
of the Emperors of the East and West and had gone 
to America as Grand Inspector General. There he foun- 
ded what is now known as Scottish Bites. Morin held 
his authority from the Comte de Clermont who, at 
the request of Lacorne, charged him with establishing 
Masonry in all parts of the world. His patent was 
signed by Chaillon de Joinville, Prince de Rohan, 
Lacorne, Savalette de Buckolay, Taupin, Brest De 
La Chaussee, Count de Choiseul, Chevalier de Lenon- 
court and D'Aubertin . 

2. Wm. Peckham, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. 


The early history of French Freemasonry is a maze 
of quarrels, but finally, in 1766, under the auspices 
of a new Grande Loge Nationale de France, afterwards 
called the Grand-Orient, a representative system was 
at last adopted but the quarrels continued, the Orient 
and the original Grand Lodge being each supported 
by a separate Rosicrucian organization besides its 
own proper lodges. 

In contradiction to other masonic authorities, Yarker 
makes the assertion that the primitive Scottish Rite 
of 33 degrees was established at Namur in 1770 by 
Marchot and in 1787 united with the Grand Orient. 

In he Cuke de la Nature dans la Franc-magonnerie 
Universelle (page 143) D. Margiotta states that Adam 
Weishaupt and his favorite. Baron von Knigge, intro- 
duced the organization of the Holy Vehm as well as 
certain legends of Illuminism into Masonry in 1783. 
The only persons exempted from the jurisdiction of 
this terrible court of " Justice ", the Holy Vehm, were 
the clergy, women and children, Jews and heathens 
and certain members of the higher nobility. 

The Revolution issued from the Masonic Lodges, 
said Lombard de Langes. France, in 1789, counted 
over 2,000 lodges affiliated to the Grand Orient : The 
adepts numbered over 100,000. The first events of 
1789 were but Masonry in action. All the Revolutio- 
naries of the Constituent Assembly were 3rd degree 

In the Viennese Freemasonic newspaper of Decem- 
ber 1927, the Freemason Arthur Singer of Budapest 
publishes the following interesting document which 
he claims to have taken from a book by Comte Vogt 

3. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Art. Freemasonry. 

4. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 479. 


d'Hunolsteiii, which appeared in 1864 under the title 
Unpublished letters of Marie-Antoinette. 

It is a letter from the unhappy queen to her sister 
Marie Christine. 


" I believe that as far as France is concerned, you 
worry too much about Freemasonry. Here, it is far 
from having the significance that it may have elsewhere 
in Europe ; here everything is open and one knows ail. 
Then, where could the danger be ? 

" One might well be worried if it were a question 
of a political secret society. But on the contrary the 
government lets it spread, and it is only that which 
it seems : an association, the objects of which are union 
and charity. One dines, one sings, one talks, which 
has given the king occasion to say that people who 
drink and sing are not suspect of organizing plots. Nor 
is it a society of atheists, for, we are told, God is on 
the lips of all. They are very charitable. They bring 
up the children of the poor and dead members, they 
endow their daughters. What harm is there in all that ? 

" A short time ago the Princess de Lamballe was 
named Grand Mistress of a Lodge. She told me all the 
charming things they said to her. Many glasses were 
emptied, many verses sung. Then two good young 
maidens were endowed. Admitted. One can do good 
without all that fuss : but one must let everyone act 
according to their wishes, the more so when good only 
only results. " 

The letter sounds as if it had been written yesterday 
by one of our good English Masons concerning English 

Masonry in France became dormant during the French 
Revolution, but in 1799, a national union was effected 


by Roettiers. No sooner, however, was this done, and 
the statutes, originally based on the English consti- 
tutions thoroughly revived, than French masonry 
again suffered from an invasion of mysticism, — first 
in the form of the Scottish Philosophic Rite (including 
such profundities as the luminous ring and the white 
and black Eagle), and secondly in the American Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rite of 33 degrees, which the 
charlatan De Grasse-Tilly expounded with great success 
but which in 1804 was amalgamated with the Grand 
Orient, the great Marshals Massena and Kellerman 
being then the leading members of the two bodies. The 
union did not last, as Napoleon disliked the constitu- 
tion of the Supreme Council which was largely influenced 
by the aristocracy. His brother, Joseph, assisted by 
Murat and Cambaceres, was allowed to take office 
in the older organization. During the reactionary 
Catholic policy of the Grand Master Murat the younger 
(1852-62), the liberties of the Orient were greatly inter- 
fered with and its funds almost exhausted. Since then 
it has slowly recovered. 

Murat was succeeded by General Magnan who had 
been appointed by Napoleon III to group all Masonic 
bodies into one. This he succeeded in doing in 1862 
with the exception of Scottish Rites, then under Jean 
Baptist Viennet, which still held aloof. 

In 1868, the Supreme Conseil (of Scottish Rites) and 
the Alliance Israelite Universelle became merged in 
the person of the Jew Adolphe Cremieux who was 
president of both. 

We must not omit to mention that Cremieux was 
also a member of the Rite of Mizraim which in 1862 
was absorbed by the Grand Orient of France. 

5. Enc. Brit., op. cit. 


On attaining the 18th degree, a Grand Orient Mason 
automatically becomes a member of the Alliance 
Israelite Universelle. 

The Grand Orient ceased to require behef in a per- 
sonal God as a test of membership in the year 1877. 

From the political movements, the origins of which 
can be traced to the influence of the Grand-Orient de 
France, one is forced to believe it to be a political orga- 

The following quotations from the speech made by 
Domenico Anghera, Grand Master of the Supreme 
Council of Scottish Rites when conferring on General 
Giuseppe Garibaldi the 33rd degree and administering 
his oath of allegiance, are here of interest in view of 
the connection of the two masonic powers in France. 

Translation : ' 

"... Our first step, as builders of the new temple 
to the felicity of human glory, must be destruction. 
To destroy the present social state, we have suppres- 
sed religious teaching and the individual rights of per- 
sons. As we have overthrown the temporal power of 
the Pope, our most terrible and infamous enemy, by 
means of France and Italy, we must now break France, 
the strongest prop of the spiritual power. That we must 
do with the help of our own power and that of Ger- 
many. " (This speech was made before the Franco- 
Prussian War of 1870). 

" Brother, thou hast finished thy instruction as 
chief of Freemasonry. Pronounce thy supreme oath. 

' I swear to recognize no fatherland but that of the 

6. Gould, Hist, of Freemasonry, vol. Ill, p. 179. 

7. Domenico Margiotta, Le Culte de la Nature dans la Franc- 
magonnerie Universelle, p. 45 et seq. 


world. I swear to work hard, everywhere and always, 
to destroy frontiers, borders, boundaries of all nations, 
of all industries, no less than of all families. I swear 
to dedicate my life to the triumph of progress and uni- 
versal unity and I declare to profess the negation of 
God and the negation of the soul'. 

" And now. Brother, that for thee, fatherland, reli- 
gion and family have disappeared for ever in the immen- 
sity of the work of Freemasonry, come to us, illustrious, 
most puissant and very dear Brother and share with 
us the boundless authority, the infinite power that we 
hold over humanity. 

" The only key of progress and happiness, the only 
rules of good, are thy appetites and instincts " (Compare 
with 0. T. 0. Chapter CX). 

(For the Esoteric explanation of the Masonic Motto 
" Deus Meumque Jus " and the Masonic three dots 
.". see LiiapU^r ou Syiiibolismj. 

On the 4th Sept. 1870, the Second Empire fell at 
the battle of Sedan. The International and Freema- 
sonry seized power, calling their government " The 
Government of National Defence ", and that same 
day the handpicked ministry of Freemasonry was 
constituted with Leon Gambetta as Minister of the 
Interior. Its eleven members, all deputies of Paris 
had, according to him, been acclaimed by the people. 
They were : — Emmanuel Arago, Cremieux, Jules 
Favre, Ferry, Gambetta, Garnier-Pages, Glais-Bizoin, 
Pelletan, Picard, Rochefort, Jules Simon. 

Nine of them at least were Freemasons, three were 
Jews — Cremieux, Glais-Bizoin and Gambetta. The 
Mayor of Paris, Etienne Arago, nominated twenty 
other mayors to provincial posts, twelve of whom were 
prominent Freemasons, the others being merely 


The fourth of September was the nominal procla- 
mation of the Republic, but that date marked the 
actual seizure of power in France by Freemasonry just 
as the 20th of September of the same year marked 
its seizure of power in Italy. 

Then came the " Commune ", famous through his- 
tory for its revival of the atrocities of the first French 
Revolution of 1793. 

Slaughter, ruin, torture, all again perpetrated in 
the name of the people who mutely suffered and died 
that the Men of Destiny might rule upon the earth I 

For root of this movement see Chapter XXVI. 

For development of this movement see Chapter LIII. 


(Founded 1731) 

St. Medard was the name of a cemetery in Paris 
wherein was the tomb of a famous Jansenist, the deacon 
Francois de Paris, and it was said that miracles of all 
descriptions took place there. 

The first recorded case of convulsions in the St. Me- 
dard cemetery occurred in August 1731. 

On this subject, Madden tells us the following : — 

" The tomb of the deacon Francois became the scene 
of wonderful cures, and some very remarkable con- 
versions, which were reputed miraculous. People who 
came there, especially afflicted with nervous disorders, 
appear to have been affected in a singular manner, 
some with cataleptic, others with hysteric and convul- 
sive symptoms. 

" The convulsionnaires exhibited not only occasion- 
ally, but frequently, all the phenomena which are 
ascribed by mesmerists to animal magnetism, som- 
nambulism, ecstasies, raptures, submission of the will 
and the senses to the power of the volition of another 
person, connected in some way with the dominant idea 

1. Madden, Phantasmata, vol. II, p. 541. 



which possessed their minds at the time of falling into 
the trance. Increased subtlety of thought, quickness 
of perception, heightened powers of imagination, a 
vivid energizing influence, fraught with enthusiasm and 
even eloquence ; claims to clairvoyance, to commu- 
nion with another world, to ' spirit life ' ; all these 
phenomena were to be found too, though not all in 
the same individual, in occasional instances in this 
epidemic of convulsive theomania... 

" Till the month of August, 1731 ", says Picart, 
" the wonders wrought at the burying place of the 
deacon Paris were not accompanied with any consider- 
able difference from those mentioned in Scripture or 
ecclesiastical history. Those who were afflicted with 
sickness, and begged the holy deacon's intercession, were 
laid upon or under his tomb-stone, which was raised 
from the ground, and were cured. But in August, 1731, 
God was pleased to work his miracles in a different 
manner ; violent pains, agitations of the body, extraor- 
dinary convulsions, were the means by which the sick 
were healed, not all at once, but gradually. This hap- 
pened to one Abbe Becheran, to Chevalier Follard, an 
ancient officer in the army, and to several others. The 
number of people afflicted with convulsions increased 
so fast, and consequences of the meetings at the tomb 
appeared, or were represented to the King, so dange- 
rous, that on the 27th of January, 1732, he issued an 
order to shut up the little churchyard belonging to 
St. Medard's parish, where M. de Paris was buried, 
and to open it only when necessary for burials. Some 
weeks afterwards, the Abbe Becheran was arrested and 
confined at St. Lazare, and set again at liberty about 
three months after in June. But the miracles and con- 
vulsions did not cease upon these oppositions ; on the 
contrary, they daily spread further, and gained ground. 


" Towards the end of the year 1732, those who were 
jn convulsions began to foretell what was to happen, 
to discover secrets, to make speeches, pathetic exhor- 
tations, sublime prayers; even those who at other 
times were wholly unable to perform any such things. 

" Montgeron informs us : ' There is nothing which 
the convulsionnaires did not undertake to mortify 
themselves, to break down and to enfeeble their bodies. 
The most of those from the time they had convulsions, 
hardly made use of a bed; they laid down with their 
clothes on, winter and summer, with only one covering, 
some lying on planks, and others on the bare ground, 
others on logs of wood, and some of them on bars of 
iron. ' 

" The fact is, not only the means used for effecting 
cures were evil in themselves, but many of the leading 
persons by whom the remedy of the Grand Secours 
was administered or superintended were persons of 
ill repute. 

" Montgeron reckons that four thousand enthusiasts 
were employed to kick, and to strike without cessation 
the infirm, and all those young girls who begged for 
the violence of their blows. ' They were not ashamed to 
maintain' says Calmeil ' that it was to be ignorant of 
pious and charitable duties, not to obey under these 
circumstances the desires of the convulsionnaires 
whilst the reasonable Jansenists repeated aloud, that 
it was only a frantic madness which could suggest 
to these young women to encounter such dangers, and 
make an excuse for the criminal barbarity of those who 
had the audacity to boast of the advantages of so 
scandalous a mode of mortification, or rather martyr 

2. Madden, op. ciT.. vol. II, p. 544. 

3. Ibid,, p. 573. 


dom, and the wickedness to consent to take on them 
the office of executioners'. 

" An observer has recounted that a young girl 
named Jeanne Mouler, had insisted upon their admi- 
nistering to her as many as a hundred blows with an 
andiron, on the stomach, and that a brother, who had 
one day given her sixty, had caused a breach in a wall 
at the twenty-fifth blow, and then went on repeating 
the same violence on her person which had been pre- 
viously inflicted upon her. Montgeron, acknowledging 
that he was the person designated ' the brother', 
who inflicted the blows, adds : ' The convulsionnaire 
continued to complain that the blows that 1 was giving 
her were so slight that they did not bring her any relief, 
and she forced me again to put the andiron into the 
hands of a large strong man... This person in no way 
spared her. Having seen, by the proof that I had already 
given, that he could not administer too violent blows, 
he bastinadoed her in so frightful a manner, always 
in the hollow of the stomach, that they shook the wall 
against which she was leaning. 

" The convulsionnaire made them immediately give 
her, with all their force, the hundred lashes that she 
had already asked for, counting as nothing, those sixty 
which I had already given her. ' 

" A physician, hearing an account of these things, 
maintained that they could not be true, as according 
to him it was physically impossible. He objected, 
amongst other things, that the flexibility and the soft- 
ness of the skin and flesh, and all the other fibrous parts 
of which the skin and the flesh are essentially composed, 
are incompatible with a force and resistance so extraor- 
dinary... They allowed him to make an anatomical 

4. Madden, op. cit.. vol. II, p. 579. 


demonstration, to set forth all his proofs, and in the 
end, for reply, they said to him — Come and verify the 
facts — He hastened to do so, and at the very sight 
he was struck with astonishment. Scarcely believing 
his eyes, he begs to administer himself the secours... 
They immediately put into his hands the iron instru- 
ments, the strongest and the fittest to beat effectually ; 
He spared nothing, he struck with the greatest violence, 
he thrust into the flesh the instrument with which he 
was armed, he made it penetrate beyond the surface... 
Notwithstanding which, the convulsionnaire laughed at 
all his vain efforts ; all the blows which he gave her 
only served to do her good, without leaving the slightest 
impression, the least trace, or any vestige whatever, 
not only in the flesh, but even on the skin itself ". 

Among other duly attested cases of torture to which 
the Convulsionnaires submitted the most astonishing 
are those of crucifixion and burning. ' 

Like the Fakirs of India, these people seemed to 
have achieved invulnerability and the power to defy 
nature ! Science, so far, has still to find a satisfactory 
explanation of this phase of phenomena. 

Hippolyte Blanc, another writer, records the follow- 
ing observations : — 

" The girl Sonet, nicknamed ' The Salamander', 
was seen to rest in the flames for 36 minutes on one 
occasion without sustaining any burns. 

" The mania of the convulsionnaires broke out at 
St. Medard, in the spring of 1731. The royal order, 
which caused the cemetery of St. Medard to be closed 
and the pretended miracles to cease, was issued in 
January, 1732. " 

5. Hippolyte Blanc, Le Meiveilleux, p. 118. 

6. Ibid., p. 114. 


In 1733, the Due d'Anjou, the infant son of Queen 
Marie Leckzinska and Louis XV, fell a victim to a 
Jansenist plot which caused his death. 

In Phantasmata, already quoted, we read further : . 

" From 1732 onward the delirium of theomania 
began to manifest itself more signally than it had 
hitherto done, by ecstatic phenomena, and cataleptic 
symptoms, by predictions, and pretensions to mira- 
culous operations, in the same way as the Calvinist 
convulsionnaires progressed in their fanaticism in the 
Cevennes, when they were interfered with by the civil 
authorities ; and many of their chiefs were imprisoned, 
as those of the Jansenists of St. Medard were immured 
in the Bastille, and the Bicetre. The plea or the pretext 
of persecution, and the consequent assemblage of the 
convulsionnaires of Paris in secret, concurred greatly 
and rapidly to augment the evils which it was intended 
to prevent by those governmental measures. And those 
evils were not effectually repressed during the following 
ten years. Nor were they totally then put a stop to. 
It was of no avail that, in the year 1762, the ' Grand 
Secours ' was forbidden by act of parliament. 

" The insanity of the convulsionnaires ", says Hecker, 
" lasted without interruption until the year 1790. " 

The convulsionnaires of St. Medard and the Cami- 
sards were only manifestations of Gnosticism such as 
have existed in the esoteric branches of various sects, 
religious and secret societies ever since the days of 

Among others can be mentioned : 
The Albigenses, The Moravian Brethren, 
The Anabaptists, the Baptists, the Quakers, 
The Waldenses, the Shakers, the Methodists etc. 
Their name is legion! 
Sects rise, sects fall or fade away, but God remains. 



(Founded 1750) 

The Royal Order of Scotland is composed of two 
degrees — HRDM and RYCS — or those of Heredom 
and Rosy Cross. 

The antiquity and origin of " Mother Kilwinning " 
is a favourite theme with Masonic authors according 
to whom the degree of Heredom of Kilwinning was 
founded in the reign of David 1, King of Scotland, and 
that of Rosy Cross by Robert Bruce in 1314. 

Robert Freke Gould, however, places the date of the 
foundation of the Royal Order of Scotland in " the 
middle of the last century ", and gives us the name of 
William Mitchell, a Scotsman who obtained his patent 
as its founder from the Provincial Grand Master of 
South Britain on July 22, 1750. ' 

1. Robert Freke Gould, The History of Freemasonix, Pub. 
1887, p. 75. 



(Founded 175 1-52) 

The following main facts concerning the Strict 
Observance are mostly gathered from the profusely 
documented work of R. Le Forestier who, having made 
a comprehensive study of the subject, took as one of 
his chief authorities Nettelbladt. 

The Templar rite of the Strict Observance was founded 
in 1751 by Charles Gotthelf, Baron de Hund (born 
1722) Chamberlain and Councillor of the Elector of 
Saxony, King of Poland, as well as Councillor of the 
Empress Maria Theresa. 

In 1764, the Anglo-Jewish adventurer Leucht, va- 
riously known as Johnson, de Martin, Robert de Leich- 
ten, Becher, Despocher, de Bousch, Somery, Scheel 
and Koenig, made an attempt to amalgamate the 
Templar System of Clermont, the control of which he 
had seized the previous year from Rosa, with that of 
von Hund, with the view of dominating the latter also. 
In this he failed. 

Rosa had been the Legate for Germany, Holland 
and the kingdoms of the north while, in Paris, the 
Comte de Clermont occupied a similar position with 
regard to France, Spain, Portugal and Italy. 



The legend of the Strict Observance is very much 
involved. Stating that the Stuarts were the unknown 
superiors of the Order it claimed descent from Pierre 
d'Aumont, Banneret d'Auvergne, at the time of the 
death of the Grand Master Jacques de Molay and the 
successor of Beaujeu, Molay's nephew who, with two 
Commanders and five Knights had escaped to the 
Island of Mull where they encountered George Harris, 
the Grand Commander of Hampton Court, likewise a 
refugee. They elected d'Aumont Grand Master and 
adopted the costume and customs of Masons in memory 
of d'Aumont and his companions who, for two years, 
had lived thus in disguise while exercising the trade 
to earn a livelihood. Not daring to recruit openly, the 
Templars were eventually permitted to marry to per- 
petuate the order. For over 250 years, admission to the 
degree of Scotch Master had been restricted to the sons 
of Templars and only within the last 150 years had the 
secrets of this order been available to Scotch Masters 
born of free parents. D'Aumont was succeeded as Grand 
Master by Harris. " 

According to Le Forestier, again quoting Nettel- 
bladt, the initiation ceremony ot the Strict Observance 
included the presentation to the postulant of a ribbon 
to which was appended a small cross which had been 
in contact with the Baphomet." 

At the Convent, sitting from June 4 to 24, 1772, at 
Kohio in the Basse Lusace, it was decided to refuse 
further obedience to the illusive " Invisible Superiors" 
continually referred to by Hund, and the Duke Fer- 
dinand of Brunswick (Luneburg) (1721-1792) was, with 

1. R. Le Forestier, Les Illumines de Baviere et la Franc- 
maconneiie Allemande. p. 162. 

2. Ibid., p. 172. 


the consent of the Banneret, elected Magnus Superior 
Ordinis per Germaniam Inferiorem and Grand Master 
of the United Lodges of Scottish Rites, the name of 
Strict Observance being abandoned as objectionable 
to Masons of other systems. From that time forward 
Hund's position in the order was purely an honorary 

3. R. Le Forestier, op. cit., p. 175. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII. 

For development of this movemetit see Chapter XLVI I. 


(Founded 1754) 

Martinez Paschalis first founded in Paris an order 
called the Eius Cohens or Priests, then in 1754 that 
of the Martinists. This order was reformed by Louis 
Claude de Saint Martin in 1775. It had ten degrees. 

St. Martin was on intimate terms with the Illumine 
Jean Willermoz who presided at two of the Great 
Masonic Conventions — that of Les Gaules in 1768 and 
that of Wilhelmsbad in 1782 at which was voted the 
death of the King of France. 

The Modern Martinist Order was established with 
three degrees in Paris in 1887 and was constituted in 
England in 1902. 

Its Grand Master, Marquis Stanislas de Guaita, 
died in 1897 and was succeeded by T. Ch. Barlet whose 
successor was Dr. Encausse, generally known as Papus, 
who became the occult adviser of the ill-fated Czar 
Nicholas II. 

Mr. A. E. Waite tells us that, while Papus was 
its Grand Master, a Martinist " Supreme Council " 
was founded with power for the formation of regular 

1 . Papus, Martines de Pasqually, p. 152. 



lodges, male and female members being admitted on equal 
terms. This was in 1894. By the year 1899, there were 
general and special delegations of the Order established 
in a number 'of European Countries — Great Britain 
included — in the United States, the Argentine and 
Guatemala and even in more than one Oriental land. 

As regards the Martinist relations with Masonry, 
Mr. Waite tells us on page 161, Vol. II, of his. New Ency- 
clopaedia of Freemasonry that Martinism " had of 
course shut its doors against Masons under authorized 
obediences. " Yet we are able to reproduce (see 
Appendix IV) a private letter, dated March 26, 1906, 
written by " Dorec " to Theodore Reuss 33° 90° 96°, 
English Mason, etc. in which the latter is incidentally 
informed " that John Yarker is our (' the Martinist') 
delegate in London. " 

Another private letter in which Papus refers to 
himself as the Delegate of John Yarker for the Swe- 
denborg Rite in France is also in existence. Such a 
correspondence with one of the most noteworthy Masons 
of their day does not look as if Mr. Waite's information 
concerning the alleged feud between Masonry and Mar- 
tinism can have been very reliable ! 

The Martinist sErti is :;: 

By 1920, Mr. Waite states tliat Martinism liad aban- 
doned tlie Rituals of 1887 and appeared to have become 
a clandestine organization! 

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII. 

For development of this movement see Chapter LI. 


(Founded 1760) 

The Illuminati of Avignon were founded in 1760 
by Antoine Joseph Pernety, an unfrocked Benedictine, 
a Cabalist and alchemist. Modified in 1766 by Chas- 
tanier, one of the founders of the English Rite of 
Swedenborg, this rite was introduced into Paris in 
the Lodge Socrates of Perfect Union under the name 
of Theosophical Illumines. In 1770, Pernety, founded 
La Grande Loge Ecossaise dii Comtat Venaissin. This 
Lodge was raided in 1774 and its papers confiscated 
by order of the Pope. It was revived in 1789 . 

Among its members were Cagliostro and his friend 
Baron de Corberon, Mesmer, Marquis de Thome and 
the Marquis de Puysegur, self-styled Professor of 
" Mesmerism ". 

In Les Illumines d' Avignon by Joanny Bricaud (page 
103) we read that " today, its members having become 
affiliated to Martinism, the society has ceased to exist ". 
This author also states that the degree of Knight of 

L Marc de Vissac, Dom Pernetx et les Illumines d' Avignon, 



the Sun, founded by Pernety, which is divided into 
two degrees, forms now the 27th and 28th grades of 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites. " 

2. Joanny Bricaud, Les Illumines d'Avignon, p. 103. 






(Founded 1761) 




The reader has already been made acquainted with 
the formation phase of this rite in Chapters XXVIII- 
XXX of this book. We are here therefore mainly con- 
cerned with the framework of the order. 

This rite, of Jewish origin, has 33 degrees. They are 
named as follows : — 

Symbolic or Blue Masonry : — the Craft Degrees. 
These are practically the same as in Lodges under the 
Grand Lodge of England, Scotland and Ireland. 

1. Entered Apprentice 

2. Fellow Craft 

3. Master Mason 

Red Masonry or Chapters : — these degrees are 
conferred in a Lodge of Perfection, the presiding officer 
must be of the 16th degree at least. 



^4. Secret Master 

^D. Perfect Master 

^ (). Intimate Secretary 

^7. Provost and Judge 

^H. Intendant of the Buildings 

■•"9. Elected Knight of Nine or Elect of Nine 

"•"lO. Illustrious Master Elect of Fifteen 

+ 11. Sublime Knight Elect 

^ 12. Grand Master Architect 

^15. Royal Arch of Enoch or Knight of the 9th Arch 

or Royal Arch of Solomon. 

"11, Scottish Knight of Perfection or Grand Scottish 
Knight of the Sacred Vault or Sublime Mason. 

A Council of Princes of Jerusalem confers the next 
two degrees : — 

^\3. Knight of the East or Knight of the Sword 
'^IG. Prince of Jerusalem 

A Chapter of Princes of Rose-Croix confers the next 
two degrees : — 

^17. Knight of the East and West 

^IS, Knight of the Eagle and Pelican, Sovereign Prince 
Rose Croix of H. R. D. M. 

Black Masonry, or Philosophical Lodges or Areopagi: 
these degrees are conferred in a Consistory of Princes 
of the Royal Secret. 

<^I9. Grand Pontiff or Sublime Scotch Mason 

<'20. Grand Master of all Symbolic Lodges 

+ 21. Patriarch Noachite or Prussian Knight 

22. Prince of Libanus or Knight of the Royal Axe 

xor Illuminatl Origin 
oOf Templar Origin 
+0( Jcwi&li Origin 


023. Chief of the Tabernacle 

024. Prince of the Tabernacle 

025. Knight of the Brazen Serpent 

o2@. Prince of Mercy or Scotch Trinitarian 
^27. Sovereign Commander of the Temple 
28, Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept 
o29. Grand Scottish Knight of St. Andrew 
*30. Grand Elected Knight Kadosch. 

Illustrious Knight of the Temple . 

Knight of the White and Black Eagle France 

Grand Elected Knight Kadosch ' 

"White Masonry is Administrative and consists of 
three degrees conferred by the Supreme Councils : — 

31. Grand Inquisitor Commander 

32. Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret 

33. Sovereign Grand Inspector General 

In A sketch of the Philosophy, Traditions, and records 
of the Masonic Order of the Red Cross of Constantine 
by the Editor, (see The Rosicrucian and Masonic Record, 
page 204) we read : — 

" The Premier Conclave of England, which has 
existed from time immemorial, gave rise, it is said, 
to the foundation of the Council of 'Emperors of the 
East and West ', a body which was established in 
Paris about the year 1758 and is considered as the parent 
of the Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite. (Compare 
with page 336). 

" The Scottish Rite ", according to Le Forestier, 
" issued from the Chapter of Clermont, as a develop- 
ment of the Ramsay Rite. Its foundation dates from 

1. Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry, The Speculative Mason, 
vol. 19, Jan. 1927. 


1748 at which period it was introduced into Germany 
by Count de Schmettau. " 

The Supreme Council is the arch-stone of this edifice 
of degrees. It is composed of a minimum of nine and a 
maximum of thirty-three members. Grand Inspectors 
General of 33°. Is that a secret 33 ?' 

In its present form, the Rite in France dates from 
1804. " At that date the pecuniary situation of the 
Grand Central Lodge was however not up to its pretentions. 
It was already in debt. Brother de Grasse had personal 
debts and Brother Abraham was a man of venal cha- 
racter. The Grand Orient paid the debts of the Grand 
Scottish Lodge and of Brother de Grasse, making a life 

2. R. Le Forestier, Les Illumines de Baviere et la Franc- 
magonnerie Allemande, p. 145. 

3. Blanchard, Scottish Rite Masonry Illustrated, 33°, vol. 11, 
p. 451. 

" But the one ' mission and object' (Mackey) of Masonry 
is kept steadily in view ; which is the worship of the god of 
this world, who is Satan, as the ' Grand Architect of the Uni- 
verse ; ' and to accomplish this by inventing ' a religion in 
which all mankind agree ; ' and this, by putting all earth's 
religions upon a level, and uniting them together in Masonic 
worship, which is boldly avowed in rituals, lexicons, and 
philosophical degrees. This is (in Revelation, XIII, 14) called 
the image of the beast, made by ' them, that dwell on the 
earth' that is, everybody ; every creed, and no creed ; all who 
join the secret lodges. But this world-religion must have some 
form, and shape, to hold together ; and be taxed ; hence, it 
takes the form, or image, of the beast. Lodge despotism is as 
absolute as Romish despotism and is the image of it... 

" Note now the profound craft, by which this is to be accom- 
plished, viz.. Masonry promises men salvation by ceremonies 
invented by men, administered by priests, and inhabited by 
devils. This is the sum and substance of all the false religions 
on earth, and will ultimately unite them against Christ. But 
the only opponent Masonry dreads is Christ, who refused to 
worship Satan, and his followers. " 


pension of 800 francs to Brother Abraham and pro- 
posing the annexation of the Grand Central Lodge to 
the Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite among those 
recognized by the Grand Orient. " 

In 1804, in France, a Supreme Council of Sovereign 
Grand Inspectors General of the 33rd degree of the 
Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite was duly consti- 
tuted. In the construction of this Council, Comte 
Alexandre F. A. de Grasse-Tilly, (the son of the Admi- 
ral) played a leading part. He had been initiated in 
Paris several years before he went to America where 
we find him a colonist of San Domingo. 

His successor was the Due Decazes. 

As regards the development of Scottish Rites in 
England, Stillson and Hughan state that : — 

" After the Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite had 
been established in England, the Templar body re- 
signed control over the degrees of the ' Rose-Croix ' 
and ' Kadosch, ' which then became incorporated with 
the rite, as the 18th and 30th ; it was therefore neces- 
sary to suppress the old ceremonies and relegate them 
to Templar history, but they were still retained in 
some of the older English encampments. 

A revised ritual was issued in 1851 consequent on 
the omission of the ' Rose-Croix ' and ' Kadosch '. " 

Another authority, Paul Rosen, makes the follow- 
ing comment : — 

" The philosophy of the degree of Kadosch (30°), 
the apotheosis and real aims of Masonic teaching, can 
be summed up in the following words : — I, I alone. 
All mine. All for me, by any and every means. 

4. Histoire du Grand Orient, p. 305, Rennes, 1865. 

5. Stillson and Hughan, History of Freemasonry and Con- 
cordant Orders, p. 774. 


There are seven different ways of carrying out this 
programme and consequently seven different grades 
of Knight Kadosch which are : — 

N° 1. The Jewish Kadosch 

N° 2. The Primitive Christian Kadosch 

N° 3. The Kadosch of the Crusades 

N° 4. The Kadosch of the Templars 

N° 5. The Kadosch of the Puritan 

N° 6. The Kadosch of the Jesuit 

N° 7. The Scottish Kadosch (alone true Freemasonry). 

Presidents of the United States are honoured by 
being made 33rd degree Masons, Scottish Rites. King 
Edward VII and countless other magnates were 33rd 
degree Masons. What does this prove ? — Unfortuna- 
tely nothing! 

This is the great deception. The success of the entire 
system depends on the solid integrity and political 
and social prominence of its affiliates whose virtues 
make them valuable as decoys. 

" Antient and Accepted Scottish Rites " runs its 
own Secret Service which cooperates with the national 
Secret Services of all countries thus serving the aims 
and purposes of Internationalism. 

Blanchard, himself a high Mason whose masonic 
studies were induced by a keen desire to fathom the 
truth and impart the result of his discoveries to those 
whom he feared might also be duped, thus sums up 
Scottish Rites : — 

" Let the authoritative teaching of Dr. Mackey be 
continually borne in mind, that : — 'the mission and 
object of Masonry is the worship of the Great Architect 
of the Universe '. It follows that the lodges must have 
something for their dupes to do, called worship. And 

6. Paul Rosen, Satan et C\ p. 142. 


what could wicked men and devils invent craftier or 
better suited to deceive the simple, than this very- 
scheme of ' the Ancient Scottish Rite ', which now 
rules the rites of the world. It seizes and appropriates 
all of religion but its holiness and justice ; and all of 
Christ but his truth and his atonement. It mixes things 
sacred with things profane, till the whole compound 
is profanity ; and quoting the Bible' as if it believed 
it true, which notoriously it does not, it has furnished 
a dark system, which angels flee from and which devils 
inhabit . Every Lodge is a Synagogue of Satan and 
its ritual is Sorcery. " 

Anyone interested inthe rituals etc. of this rite will find 
much that is interesting in D. Margiotta's Le Culte 
de la Nature dans la Franc-Ma^onnerie Universelle. 

Masonic philosophy is well summarised in the follow- 
ing expose made of it by a Jewish mason, Paul Rosen, 
in Satan et C'^ — 

Official ritual of the 33rd and last degree of Antient 
and Accepted Scottish Rites 

" For the Sovereign Grand Inspector General 
the 33rd is the last degree of the Rite. The Order is 
the Great Avenger of the assassinated Grand Master 
and the grand champion of humanity, for the innocent 
Grand Master is man, man who is Master, King of 
Nature, man who is born innocent and unconscious. 

" Our innocent Grand Master was born for happi- 
ness and for the enjoyment of all rights without excep- 

"But he has fallen under the blows of three assas- 
sins, three scoundrels have thwarted his happiness 
and rights and have annihilated him. 

7. Blaiichard, 33° op. cit.. p. 162. 

8. Ibid., p. 462. 


" The three infamous assassins are Law, Property 
and Religion. 

" Law, because it is not in harmony with the rights 
of the individual man and the duties of social man in 
society, rights which belong to all. Duties are but the 
immediate consequence of the right inherent in all, 
for the enjoyment of all rights. 

" Property, because the earth belongs to nobody 
and its fruits belong to all in proportion as they are 
required by each for the needs of his own well being. 

" Religion, because religions are but philosophies 
evolved by men of genius and adopted by the people 
in the belief that they would increase their well being. 

" Neither law, property nor religion can be imposed 
on man and as they annihilate him by depriving him 
of his most precious rights they are assassins on whom 
we have sworn to wreak vengeance, enemies against 
whom we have declared war to the death and without 

" Of these three infamous enemies it is on religion 
that we must concentrate our most deadly attacks, 
because no people has ever survived its religion. Once 
Religion is dead, Law and Property will fall to our mercy, 
and we shall be able to regenerate society by founding 
on the corpses of the assassins of man, Masonic 
Religion, Masonic Law, and Masonic Property ". ' 

Who will not see therein the dreaded theories of 
Marxism and Bolshevism and their results, as they are 
practised in Russia ? 

9. Esoteric explanation of the legend of Hiram. 

10. Paul Rosen, op. cit., p. 335. {Documents justificatifs). 
Also compare with The Theosophical Society Programme. 

For root of this movement see Chapters II, III, IV. 


(Founded 1763) 

Pope Clement XIV having excommunicated the 
Freemasons in 1763, many German Catholics, frigh- 
tened by the Papal Bull, definitely renounced the 

They formed however another association which, 
while restoring their former organization, should not 
expose them to the censure of the Vatican and, having 
found a protector in the person of one of the most 
august German Sovereigns of the day, they secured 
an influential German nobleman as Grand Master. Many 
distinguished persons joined the " new " order which, 
like the Freemasons, had laws, words, signs of recog- 
nition, reception ceremonies and appointed officers. 

One of the principal lodges was at Frankfort. 

Adherence to the Roman Catholic faith was de- 
clared a requisite of membership, but the rule was not 
enforced and as a protection from papal excommuni- 
cation a promise, instead of an oath of secrecy, was 
exacted from candidates. 

Women were eligible to any dignity in the order, 
excepting that of Grand Master, which position was 
held for life. There were two Lodge Masters or Grand 



Mopses ill each lodge, one of which was a man and one 
a woman, while the lodge was governed six months 
by a man and six months by a woman alternately. 

In Italy, the Mopses called themselves Xeropha- 

The following is quoted from an article in Freema- 
sonry Universal Vol. 2, part 4, Spring Equinox, 1927 : — 

" Mingled with points clearly stolen from the Masonic 
ritual, such as the use of the square and compasses, 
was the veneration of a sort of mascot which was a 
dog, known as the Mopse, and resembled a rather large 
pug dog with a curly tail. 

" During the ceremony the candidates were admitted 
blindfolded and were instructed to kiss something. This 
was nothing more nor less than a life sized model of a 
mopse, and on the bandage being removed the initiate 
found that he or she had kissed the tail end of the dog. 
Whether the ceremonies were merely boisterous fooling, 
or whether they had any esoteric significance it is 
difficult to say, as students differ on the point. 

" The Order was certainly at one time wide spread 
and popular, but seems to have entirely died out. 
Probably its death blow was given by the Revolution, 
which swept away so many of the aristocrats of France 
and brought secret societies into disrepute, owing ta 
the supposed share of the lUuminati in starting that 
tremendous upheaval. " 

The statement in the last paragraph can hardly be 
accurate as certain official papers are in existence 
bearing, as letter head, under the insignia of the double 
headed masonic eagle, the following words : — 

1. L'Ordre des Franc-Macons Trahi et le Secret des Mopses 
revile. Author unknown, Published Amsterdam, 1763. 

2. The Rosicrucian and Masonic Record, p. 87. 


" Antichi ed Ortodossi Sup.'. Cons.'. Dt'i.'. 33/. Federal! 
Jtaliani de Rit.-. Scoz.-. Ant.-, od Ace.', llelle Valli Scbt'to- 
ed Oreto e Delle Sorelle ^lopse. 

Gr.". Orienli D'ltalia Si^denti in Napoli e Palermo. 

Sup.-. Cotis.'. Gen.'. 

Thfise papers boar thu date 1902. 


(Founded 1 766) 

This rite was founded in 1766 by Zinnendorf, the 
chief surgeon of the general staff of Berlin and a Knight 
Commander in von Hund's Strict-Observance. Zinnen- 
dorf received the rituals and instructions for this order 
from a Swede named Cklack. 

On Dec. 27 1770, Zinnendorf formed a Grand Lodge 
in Berlin with the cooperation of twelve lodges which 
had adopted his opinions. On March 29 of the follow- 
ing year, he demanded a constitution from the Grand 
Lodge of London. This he finally obtained in 1773 
through the influence of Prince Louis George Charles 
of Hesse-Darmstadt, the Grand Master of the Lodges 
following his system. 

The Rite of Zinnendorf was absorbed at the Convent 
of Wolfenbuttel in 1778 into the Lodge of the Three 
Globes of Berlin. 

1. Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, Nov. 19, May 6, 
1928. p. 397. 




(Founded 1773) 

The Philaletes, an offshoot of the Martinists, was 
founded in Paris on April 28, 1773, within the Lodge 
of Les Amis Reunis, by Savalette de Langes, Keeper 
of the Royal Treasury, M. de St. James, Comte de 
Gebelin, Condorcet and others. 

This order was divided into 9 degrees, which were, 
Elu, Chevalier Ecossais, Chevalier d'Orient, Chevalier 
Rose-Croix, Chevalier du Temple, Philosophe Inconnu, 
Philosophe Sublime, Initie, Philalethe ou Maitre a tous 

Among its members were Frederic-Louis de Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Baron de Gleichen, Willermoz and I'Abbe 

I. Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, Nov. 19, May 6 
1928, p. 400. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XLV. 

For development of this movement see Chapter LIIL 



(Founded 1776) 

The sect of the Illuminati of Bavaria was founded 
on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, a professor at the 
University of Ingolstadt, educated by the Jesuits. 

It was composed of three classes of adepts, each of 
which was again subdivided into degrees, in the follow- 
ing manner : — 


Nursery Minerval 

Illuminatus Minor 

Symbohc Fellow Craft 

Master Mason 






Illuminatus Major, or Scotch 

Illuminatus Dirigens, or 

Scotch Knight 
Epopt, or Priest 
Prince, or Regent 

Magus, or Philosopher, 
Rex, King, Homme Roi, or 



This society seems to have borne a close resemblance 
to the Order of the Golden Cross which was reorga- 
nized in 1767. 

According to Le Forestier, Illuminism was just as 
much Masonry as the system of the Rose Croix, that of 
the Templars or the crowd of Masonic French degrees, 
and it is wrongfully accused of having taken in Bavaria 
the cloak of Masonry.' 

The intention of the Founder was to constitute a 
Protestant organization to fight Jesuitism, using Jesu- 
itical methods. He was ably assisted in his efforts by 
Adolph, Baron von Knigge, Massenhausen, Bode, 
Anacharsis Clootz, Fischer, Zwack, Merz, Hertai, the 
Marquis de Constanza, Count Saviola, Bassus, Baron 
de Montgelas and Nicolai. 

Behind Nicola'i was Moses Mendelssohn, and behind 
Mendelssohn the Jewish Kahal, the Jewish Interna- 
tional World Government. " 

" Nicola'i had established about the year 1765 at 
Berlin a literary review with the object of propagating 
the pernicious doctrines of a shallow Illuminism, and, 
in that, the infancy of German literature, when this 
periodical had scarcely a rival to encounter, the 
influence it exerted was more extensive than can at 
present be even conceived. Bahardt and Basedow, at 
the same time, in cheap and popular tracts, scattered 
among the lower classes the poison of infidelity ; and 
they, as well as Nicola'i, were in close communica- 
tion with Weishaupt, carrying on with the most 
reckless violence, and with the weapons of a most 
shameless ribaldry, the warfare against Christianity. 

1. Le Forestier, Les Illumines de Baviere et la Ftanc-Macon- 
nerie Allemande, p. 486. 

2. Samuels, Memoirs of Moses Mendelssohn, p. 159, appendix. 
Published by Longman & Co. 


The great critic Lessing, the founder of the modern 
German literature, lent his powerful support to the 
anti-Christian League. While librarian at Wolfenbuttel 
he edited a work, composed by Reimarus, consisting 
of various irreligious essays entitled Fragments of 
Wolfenbuttel, and which, from the tone of earnestness 
and dialectic acuteness wherein they were written, 
exerted a very prejudicial influence over public opi- 

As the organization of the Illuminati developed, so 
did its ambitions, which ended in a plot to subvert 
Freemasonry to its aim of world dominion by any and 
all means. 

Politically speaking, its tendencies were republican ; 
religiously, it was anti-christian. Its members were 
pledged to blind obedience to their superiors and this 
was insured by a strict system of secret confessions, and 
monthly reports checked by mutual espionage. Each 
individual used a pseudonym instead of his own name 
to help disguise his identity. 

But for the Freemason Baron Adolph von Knigge, 
a Templar, who succeeded in having it absorbed by 
Freemasonry, the order would have perished soon after 
its creation. 

After obtaining control of certain Masonic Lodges, 
Weishaupt and his associates recklessly vaunted their 
growing power. Their organization then, soon becoming 
permeated by the agents of their enemies, the Jesuits 
and Rose Croix Orders, they were denounced to the 
Elector of Bavaria, Charles Theodore, by the Duchess 
Marie-Anne of Bavaria (Princess Clementine), his 
cousin whose secretary, Joseph Utzschneider, had, 

3. J. A. Moehlen D. D., Symbolism, translated by James 
Robertson, pp. 34-36, introduction. 


as an Illuminatus, become acquainted with certain 
methods of the order. 

Constanza had ordered him to hand over certain 
letters written by Frederic II to the Duchess Marie- 
Anne and, suspecting blackmail, instead of complying 
with the request, he denounced the order. 

On March 2, 1785, the Elector wrote his second 
and final edict, suppressing the order of the Illuminati, 
but it was not until July 10, 1785 that incriminating 
evidence was obtained on the activities of the sect 
when one of its members, a priest, Jacob Lang, was 
struck dead by lightning while walking with Weishaupt 
at Ratisbon. His body was placed in the chapel of 
Saint-Emmeran and a Benedictine found some docu- 
ments and a list of the members of the Illuminati sewn 
in his clothes. These he handed over to the Councillor 
of the Government of Upper Bavaria. 

More papers were found when the authorities, who 
were watching Zwack's relations with a certain Jew, 
Mayer, the superintendent of Bassus' chateau of San- 
dersdorf, near Ingolstadt, decided to raid the place, 
and in 1787 the judge charged with the inventory of 
the succession of the valet of Baron Maendl, the Cham- 
berlain of the Elector, found among his effects an iron 
box full of papers concerning the Illuminati. 

This discovery, Maendl, himself an Illuminatus, was 
summoned to explain. Among the details of his evidence 
is the statement that the Lodge Bader had 97 degrees. 
The coincidence of this number becomes of interest 
when compared with the 97 degrees of Memphis sent 
to England in 1762 by the Grand Orient of France. 

When Weishaupt was banished from Bavaria by his 
sovereign, he was received at the court of the Duke 
Ernest-Louis de Saxe-Gotha who, besides a pension, 
gave him the title of Honorary Councillor. 


The Marquis of Constanza, his secretary, and Count 
Saviola, the Keeper of the Archives of the order, two 
Italian accomplices, were also banished with pensions 
of 400 and 800 florins respectively, and as Illumi- 
nism was already said to have found its way into 
Italy, there is no reason to suppose that these 
gentlemen failed in their administration of the sub- 

In 1788, after the suppression of Illuminism in Bava- 
ria, Bahrdt and Knigge attempted to revive it in the 
" German Union " but it was not til! 1810 that it really 
reappeared in Germany, this time under the name of 
The Tiigendbund. 

The introduction of Illuminism into Prance was 
effected by the Marquis de Mirabeau who, during his 
residence in Germany, was initiated by Mauvillon, a 
professor of the Caroline college at Brunswick. He rose 
high in the order, and, on his return to France in Sep- 
tember 1788, initiated the Due d'Orleans, who was 
Grand Master of the Freemasons of that country, and 
also Talleyrand. 

Frost, in Secret Societies of the European Revolution 
refers to Barruel as asserting " that the whole of the 
Masonic lodges comprised in the Grand Orient, 266 
in number, were ' illuminated ' by the end of March 
1789 and there is no doubt that, with the ground so 
well prepared by the works of Voltaire and Bousseau, 
d'Alembert and Diderot, and with the example and 
influence of the Duke of Orleans, and the exertions of 
men such as Mirabeau, Talleyrand, Sieyes, and Con- 
dorcet, the system spread with rapidity. " 

General La Fayette, Barnave, Brissot, La Boche- 

4. Thomas Frost, Secret Societies of the European Revolution, 
vol. I, p. 53. 


foucauld, Payne and Fau:het were also members of 
the sect for France. ' 

The following curious piece of information is fur- 
nished by Le Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIX^ 
Siecle by Larousse in the article on " Illuminisme " : — 

" The Illuminati did not disappear after the last 
century. They are still to be found in Germany, England 
and Russia where they have formed a queer sect in 
which castration is one of the features of initiation. 
The taste for the supernatural, the passion of the mar- 
vellous constantly urge these mentally unbalanced men 
in whom the imagination is fanaticised, to throw them- 
selves into the fantastic visions which constitute Illu- 
minism. " 

5. Le Foreslier, op. cit., p. 654. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII. 
For development of this movement see Chapters LI I, LV, 


(Founded 1786) 

The name of Tugendbund or Union of Virtue was 
first given to the association of men and women who 
met at the house of the Jewess Henrietta Herz whose 
husband, Marcus Herz, a Jewish Illuminatus, was the 
disciple, friend and successor of Moses Mendelssohn. 
Noted lUuminati were frequenters of this abode of 
licentiousness about which Graetz, the Jewish his- 
torian, wrote ; 

" The salon of the beautiful Henrietta Herz became 
a sort of Midianite tent. Here a number of young 
Jewish women assembled whose husbands were kept 
away by their business. The most prominent male 
member of this circle was Frederick von Gentz, the 
embodiment of selfishness, licentiousness, vice and 
depravity whose chief occupation was the betrayal of 

" A so-called Band of Virtue (Tugendbund) was 
formed of which Henrietta Herz, two daughters of 
Moses Mendelssohn " and other Jewesses together with 
Christian profligates were members. " 

1. H. Graelz, History of the Jews, vol. V, p. 422. 

2. Dorothea and Rebecca Mendelssohn. 



He also adds that " Mirabeau, in whose mind the 
storm-charged clouds of the Revolution were already 
forming, and to whom the Jews owed so much during 
his secret diplomatic embassy (1786) to Berlin, was 
more in the society of Henrietta Herz than in that 
of her husband. " 

Other frequenters of this salon were William von 
Humboldt, Jean Paul Richter, Schleiermacher, a fore- 
most Moravian brother, and his friend Frederick 

Later, in 1807, a second Tugendbund or Union of 
Virtue was formed, a purely political league of which 
Thomas Frost wrote : — 

" The nucleus of the Association devised by von 
Stein which received the name of the Tugendbund, 
or League of Virtue, was formed during the latter 
months of 1807. His colleagues, Hardenberg and 
Scharnhorst; Generals Wittgenstein and Blucher ; Jahn, 
a Professor of the Berlin Gymnasium, and Arndt, the 
popular author, were amongst the earliest members. 
The initiations multiplied rapidly, and the League soon 
numbered in its ranks most of the Councillors of State, 
many officers of the army, and a considerable number 
of the professors of literature and science. By the active 
and zealous exertions of Stein, Hardenberg and Jahn, 
its ramifications spread quickly from the Baltic to the 
Elbe, and all classes were drawn within its influence. 
A central directorate at Berlin, presided over by Stein, 
had the supreme control of the movement, and exer- 
cised, through provincial committees, an authority 
all the more potent from emanating from an unknown 
source, and which was obeyed as implicitly as the 
decrees of Emperor or King. " 

3. Thomas Frost, Secret Societies of the European Revolution, 
vol. I. p. 183. 


With Heckethorn, we follow the Tugendbund fur- 
ther, for he tells us that after its suppression by the 
police of Napoleon I, the Tugendbund continued 
" concealing itself however more strictly than before 
in the masonic brotherhood. " 

One of its first acts " was to send auxiliary corps to 
assist the Russians in the campaign of 1813. Prussia 
having, by the course of events, been compelled to 
abandon its temporizing policy, Gneisenau, Scharn- 
horst and Grollmann embraced the military plan of 
the Tugendbund. A levy en masse was ordered. The 
conduct of these patriots is matter of history. But, 
like other nations, they fought against Napoleon to 
impose on their country a more tyrannical government 
than that of the foreigner had ever been. They fought 
as men only fight for a great cause, and those who 
died fancied they saw the dawn of German freedom. 
But those who survived saw how much they were 
deceived. The Tugendbund, betrayed in its expecta- 
tions, was dissolved ; but its members increased the 
ranks of other societies already existing, or about to 
be formed " such as the ' Black Knights ' under Jahn, 
' The Knights of the Queen of Prussia ', ' The Concor- 
dists ' under Dr. Lang and the Deutscher Bund, foun- 
ded in 1810." 

The Tugendbund was revived in the Burschens- 
chaft, or associations of students of the universities, 
where they introduced gymnastics and martial exer- 
cises, but the organization was broken up and its 
objects frustrated, after the stabbing of Kotzebue by 
a student. It revived between 1830-33. It is said to 
have failed again. 

4. Heckethorn, op. cit, vol. 11, p. 187 et seq. 
For root of this movemerit see Chapter LI. 



(Founded 1786) 

The Bishop of Autun (Talleyrand), Mirabeau, and the 
Due d'Orleans, Grand Master of the Grand-Orient 
de France founded a Lodge in Paris in 1786 which 
was duly " illuminated " by Bode and Guillaume Baron 
de Busche. This was the Club Breton which afterwards 
became known as the Jacobin Club, a name of Templar 
origin, recalling that of Jacques de Molay. 

Le Forestier in Les Illumines de Baviere et la Franc- 
Magonnerie Allemande gives the substance of a book 
written by Girtaner, quoting the latter as to the funds 
available at that date for revolution. 

" In his Nouvelles Historiques et considerations poli- 
tiques sur la Revolution Fran^aise (1793) the Swiss 
Girtaner, an ex-freemason who had joined the ranks 
of the enemies of the sect, states that, from 1786, 
there had existed in Paris a Propaganda Club whose 
chiefs were then the Due de la Rochefoucauld, Grand 
Master of the Lodge in the rue Coq-Heron, Condorcet 
and Sieyes and that the aim of the organization was 
to further the triumph of dogmatic Atheism and create 
a great social upheaval. 



" The members charged with spreading the pro- 
ganda of the subversive principles of the club numbered 
50,000. In 1790, it had twenty thousand livres at its 
disposal, but by the end of 1791, these had increased 
to thirty millions. " 

The conspiracy formed by Philippe of Orleans (Due 
de Chartres, Masonic name, " Egalite ") to overthrow 
Louis XVI, was directed by Sillery and Mirabeau and, 
of the 605 elected members of the Tiers Etat, 477 
deputies were Freemasons. 

Revolutions cost money. " L'Or de Pitt" (Pitt's 
gold) had to go through some channel that would not 
compromise the English government and, in dealing 
with such a delicate matter as the fostering of revolution 
in a foreign country, it was good policy to organize a 
similar movement at home which however should 
remain abortive, being led by Lord Stanhope, Pitt's 

In this connection, the history and failure of Wolfe 
Tone's Bantry Bay expedition is interesting. 

The history of the Terror in the French Revolution of 
1793 is the history of lodges such as that of the Phila- 
letes, among whose members the following Jacobin 
leaders are known to us chiefly for their uncompro- 
mising bestiality. 

Among the members of the " Club de la Propagande " 

Condorcet, Due de la Rochefoucauld, Sieyes, de Beauhamais, 
Charles Theodore Lameth. 

Among the members of the Lodge " Les Amis Beunis " 
Babeuf, Ceruty, Marat, Hebert, Dupont. 

1. Le Forestier, Les Illumines de Bavieie et la Franc-Magon- 
nerie Allemande, p. 635. 

2. LoiiJ!) AiniabU', Lea Nfti/ SceuFs. La \\.\ L.'., 


Among the members of the Lodge " Les Neuf Soi^urs " ^ 

CoJidorcet, Jean Hylvain Baifly, JCitimaiiuel Joseph Sieves, 
Pom CitTie, Claude FsHchet, Jtaii I'iern' Brissol, Bt'iioit 
Camille Desmoulins, Cerulti, Danton, Nicolas de Bonno- 
ville, Rabaud Saint Etienne, I-alaiiti<>, Dm- dc la Ituche- 

Among the members of the " Amis des Noirs " 
(Founded 1787) 

Brissot, Sieyes, Condorcet, Mirabeau (the elder) Due de la 
Rochefoucauld, Pelletier de St. Fargeau, Lafayette, Gorsas, 
Valadi, Carra. 

Other prominent Jacobin Freemasons of the Revolution 
of 1793 were : 

Guiliotin. Dupui, Fouche, Robespierre, Collot-d'Herbois, 

According to Barruel (Histoire du Jacobinisme, vol. II, 
page 446 eT seq.) the last mentioned lodge of the " Amis 
des Noirs " appears to have been only the cover name 
behind which operated the Comite Regulateuf or 
Central Committee of the combined lodges and clubs. 
An international organization with foreign branches in 
America and Europe, the deliberations of this group of 
conspirators were sent to the Central Committee of the 
Grand Orient from where they were relayed to the 
provinces, addressed to the various Worshipful Masters 
or Presidents of the Lodges. This group according to 
Barruel, was the central guiding committee of the Revo- 
lution. The " Club Regulateur " is said to have num- 
bered at least 500,000 brothers. 

Lafayette (Loge de la Candeur), when he marched on 
Versailles at the head of 15,000 national guardsmen 
and brought the King back to Paris, was already, pre- 

• Louis Aimable, op. cil. 


sumably, fully informed of Dupont's plan of revolution 
which he himself and Mirabeau had approved at a 
session of the " Amis Reunis " early in June. 

While remarking that the vote for the death of the 
King of France, Louis XVI, was carried by a majority 
of one, Pignatel further states that, in consequence of 
certain irregularities in the balloting, some five votes 
for death were cast by unqualified persons while four 
others voted twice. 

After the storm of revolution had subsided, the power 
in France seems to have been vested in the Comite de 
Salut Public, but the 300 who controlled France and 
of whose power we read in Memoirs of the time " were 
the 300 masonic leaders. That they in turn were con- 
trolled by a small clique is obvious. Even the 300 
masonic leaders of the French Revolution of 1793 seem 
to have had their successors in modern history — 
Rathenau mentioned them in his works. 

One of the most interesting episodes of the French 
Revolution was that known as the Conspiracy of Babeuf. 
Babeuf formed the Society of the Pantheon which, 
according to Professor Laski, was operated by " a 
secret committee of direction. Among them were some 
extraordinary men, Darthe, Sylvain Marechal, Germain 
and Buonarroti, who was to survive them all and be 
their historian. " 

The particular brand of communism favoured by the 
conspirators was based on the theory that the poor 
could not help themselves or improve their position, that 
the rich must be suppressed and that the ideal state 

4. Fernaiid Pignatel, Batailles Magonniqites, p. 143. 

5. Autobiography of Wolfe Tone. 

6. Harold J. Laski, The Socialist Tradition in the French 


couid only be reached by class war, and a dictatorship 
of the proletariat led by the Babouvists. Prof. Lasky 
remarks that anyone who reads the voluminous lite- 
rature of this period " with attention and compares the 
habits it postulates with the operations of Bolshevism, 
cannot help being impressed by the resemblance. " 

The Babouvist movement though suppressed by the 
Directory in 1796 survives today having successfully 
penetrated an English Literary Society called the 
Fabians where its predatory principles pass for Socia- 

For root of this movement see Chapter LI. 
For development of this movement see Chapters LXV, 



(Founded prior to 1 790) 

In an address by Col. W. J. B. Macieod Moore, of 
the Grand Cross of the Temple Roya! Arch, Grand 
Prior of the Dominion of Canada, published in The 
Rosicrucian and Masonic Record, page 167, we find that, 
in America, Templarism is founded on the craft degrees 
of Masonry and that one is inseparable from the other. 

The earliest records in the United States of a Templar 
Lodge meeting are dated 1790. 









(Founded 179}) 

In 1791, the Society of The United Irishmen was 
founded by Theobald Wolfe Tone and Napper Tandy, 
both of whom were high in rank in the Masonic lodges. 
The organization sought to unite Catholics, Protestants 
and Dissenters in order to throw off the oppressive yoke 
of England or, to use the graphic language of Tone 
himself, " to subvert the tyranny of our execrable govern- 
ment, to break the connection with England, the never- 
faihng source of all our political evils, and to assert the 
independence of my country — these were my objects. 
To unite the whole people of Ireland. " ' 

The priesthood and the nobles however stood solidly 
behind the English power ; but the social conditions 
imposed by England on its Irish-Catholic subjects 
rendered that country a fertile soil for the sowing of 
the Revolutionary seed. These disabilities are described 
by Lecky in the following article which appeared in 
Macmillan's Magazine, January, 1873. 

" To sum up briefly their provisions, they (the Eng- 
lish) excluded the Catholics from the Parliament, 

1. The Autobiography of Wolfe Tone, p. 51. 



from the magistracy, from the corporations, from the 
university, from the bench and from the bar, from the 
right of voting at parliamentary elections or at vestries 
of acting as constables, as sheriffs, or as jurymen, of 
serving in the army or navy, of becoming solicitors 
or even holding the position of gamekeeper or watch- 
man. They prohibited them from becoming school- 
masters, ushers, or private tutors, or from sending 
their children abroad to receive the Catholic education 
they were refused at home. They offered an annuity 
to every priest who would forsake his creed, pronounced 
a sentence of exile against the whole hierarchy, and 
restricted the right of celebrating the mass to registered 
priests, whose number, according to the first intention 
of the Legislature, was not to be renewed. The Catholics 
could not buy land, or inherit or receive it as a gift 
from Protestants, or hold life annuities, or leases for 
more than thirty-one years, or any lease on such terms 
that the profits of the land exceeded one-third of the 
rent. A Catholic, except in the linen trade, could have 
no more than two apprentices. He could not have a 
horse of the value of more than £5, and any Protestant 
on giving him £5 might take his horse. He was compelled 
to pay double to the militia. In case of war with a 
Catholic Power, he was obliged to reimburse the damage 
done by the enemy's privateers. To convert a Protestant 
to Catholicism was a capital offence. No Catholic 
might marry a Protestant. Into his own family circle 
the elements of dissension were ingeniously introduced. 
A Catholic landowner might not bequeath his land as he 
pleased. It was divided equally among his children, 
unless the eldest son became a Protestant, in which 
case the parent became simply a life tenant, and lost all 
power either of selling or mortgaging it. If a Catholic s 
wife abandoned her husband's religion, she was immo- 


diately free from his control, and the Chancellor could 
assign her a certain proportion of her husband's pro- 
perty. If his child, however young, professed itself a 
Protestant, he was taken from his father's care, and the 
Chancellor could assign it a portion of its father's 
property. No Catholic could be guardian either to his 
own children or to those of another. " 

The investigations of R. C. Clifford detailed in his 
book The Application of Jacobinism to the Secret Societies 
of Ireland and Great Britain led this author to the con- 
clusion that The United Irishmen and The Illuminati 
bore one another a close resemblance and, in his Diary, 
Wolfe Tone himself refers frankly to having on " seve- 
ral occasions pressed his friends the Jacobins to try 
to extend their clubs through the North. " 

The history of the United Irishmen is largely the 
history of Theobald Wolfe Tone. 

In a note to page 77 of his Autobiography, we are 
given the following information concerning the origin 
of The United Irishmen. "Before Tone's arrival in 
Belfast a political club, composed of Volunteers, and 
directed by a Secret Committee, was in existence. 
Among the members of the club were Neilson, Russell, 
the Simses, Sinclair, McTier and Macabe after which 
Tone remarks " Mode of doing business by a Secret 
Committee, who are not known or suspected of co-ope- 
rating, but who, in fact, direct the movements of 
Belfast. " 

After also drawing attention to the above. Captain 
Pollard in The Secret Societies of Ireland, page 14, pro- 

2. The AitTobiography of Wolfe Tone, p. 51. 

3. Samuel Neilson (1761-1803), referred to in Tone's Auto- 
biography as " The Jacobin ". He was the founder of The 
Northern Star, the first organ of the society in the press. 


ceeds to make the following observation : — « The 
enormous influence of the French revolution had 
begun to make itself felt in the councils of the secret 
associations. Jacobin missionaries spread the doctrine 
of the revolution, and a new spirit of militant republi- 
canism was born. These emissaries from France aimed 
at bringing England low, and spreading the doctrine 
of world-revolution by means of an alliance between 
the Catholic malcontents of the south and the Republi- 
can Presbyterians of the north. " 

Suppressed in 1794, the order had reorganized in 1795 
as a secret republican revolutionary society with sub- 
ordinate societies and committees and had absorbed 
that of The Defenders. 

John Keogh was the leader of the Roman Catholic 
branch of the movement among the other supporters 
of which were Archibald Hamilton Rowan, Robert 
Emmett, Thomas Addis Emmett, Arthur O'Connor and 
Lord Edward Fitzgerald. 

In 1795, having become seriously implicated in the 
treasonable activities of the Rev. William Jackson, an 
emissary of the French Government to the Irish Revo- 
lutionaries, Tone went to America where he saw the 
French Minister Citizen Adet. With his approval and 
instructions, Wolfe Tone sailed for France on Jan. 
1, 1796 where he spent the remainder of his days 
planning the downfall of England. He held that " unless 
they can separate England from Ireland, England is 
invulnerable. " 

From the beginning of his French intrigues, he feared 
treason to his cause and, in his diary, we find the follow- 
ing entry dated March 21, 1796, quoting General 
Clark in a conversation he had just had with him : 

4. The Autobiography of Wolfe Tone, op. cit., p. 242. 


" Even in the iast war when the volunteers were in 
force " said the General " and a rupture between England 
and Ireland seemed likely, it was proposed in the 
French Council to offer assistance to Ireland, and 
overruled by the interest of Comte de Vergennes, then 
Prime Minister, who received for that service a con- 
siderable bribe from England, and that he (General Clark) 
was informed of this by a principal agent in paying 
the money. So, it seems, we had a narrow escape of 
obtaining our independence fifteen years ago. It is 
better as it is for then we were not united amongst 
ourselves, and I am not clear that the first use we 
should have made of our liberty would not have been 
to have begun cutting each other's throats : so out of 
evil comes good. I do not like this story of Vergennes, 
of the truth of which I do not doubt. How if the devil 
should put it into any one's head here to serve us so 
this time ! Pitt is as cunning as hell, and he has money 
enough, and we have nothing but assignats ; I do not 
like it at all... "^ 

Six months after his arrival in Paris, Tone received 
a commission in the French army, and with the assis- 
tance of the Directory, General Hoche and others 
organized the ill fated Bantry Bay expedition of 1796. 
Every effort to thwart their plans was made by the 
French navy till, as Tone tells us in an entry dated 
Nov. 14 to 18, " Villaret de Joyeuse, the Admiral, is 
cashiered, and we have got another in his place. Joyeuse 
was giving, underhand, all possible impediment to 
our expedition. " 

His successor, Rear-Admiral Bruix, however, seems 
to have shared the indifference of his predecessor 
in Irish matters, and the fact that it was " always in 

1. Ibid., p. 290. 


their (the navy's) power to make us miscarry " is men- 
tioned by Tone in his diary. 

On Dec. 15, the expedition finally started and on the 
17th, in a fog, the Fraternite with two of the Admirals 
and General Hoche aboard got separated from the rest 
of the fleet leaving Tone and General Grouchy with 
only about half of the original expeditionary force at 
their disposal. 

Tone's efforts to effect a landing at Bantry Bay were 
frustrated by Grouchy's dilatory tactics and on Dec. 
26 we find the following entry in Tone's Diary : 
" Last night, at half after six o'clock, in a heavy gale 
of wind still from the east, we were surprised by the 
Admiral's frigate running under our quarter, and hailing 
the Indomptable (Tone's ship) with orders to cut our 
cable and put to sea instantly ; the frigate then pursued 
her course, leaving us all in the utmost astonishment. " 

Did Wolfe Tone think of Vergennes then ? History 
fails to tell us ! 

The activities of The United Irishmen ended with the 
uprising of 1798 and another attempt by the French 
to land troops on Irish soil. This rebellion was however 
also crushed, and Wolfe Tone, who was taken prisoner 
and ordered to be hanged, cut his throat in his cell. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LIII. 
For development of this movement see Chapters LXIII, 



(Founded 1795) 

The Battle of the Diamond between the Peep-o'-Day 
Boys and the Defenders took place on Sept. 21, 1795. 

We cannot improve on Captain Pollard's documented 
information in The Secret Societies of Ireland from 
which we quote : 

" On the evening of the battle a number of the 
delegates of the Peep-o'-Day Boys met at the house of 
Thomas Wilson at Loughgall. There and then the name 
of the Society was changed to The Orange Society, 
and a grand lodge and subsidiary lodges initiated. 
The ritual was founded on Freemasonry (1° York Rite), 
and the legend was that of the Exodus of the Israelites. 

" The original Peep-o'-Day Society had been con- 
fined to the lower orders, but with the change in 
Orangeism the upper classes began to take place and 
rank in the organization which was secretly fostered by 
the Government as a counter-poise against the seditious 
United Irishmen. 

" Prom 1828, the Orange Society was under the 

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 20. 



Grand Mastership of the Duke of Cumberland, and 
in 1835 there were no less than 140,000 Orangemen in 
England, 40,000 being in London alone. These members 
were not Irish Orangemen, but purely English, and 
they were engaged in a plot which recalls the best 
traditions of the Palais Royal and Phiiippe-Egalite. 
The purpose of the plot was to establish the Duke of 
Cumberland as King of England, on the plea that 
William IV was still insane and the Princess Victoria 
a woman and a minor. " ' 

" The revolutionary mechanism staged by the 
Orangemen was in many ways similar to that of the 
Orleanist party of Philippe. Wild rumours were set 
about. Colonel William Blennerhasset Fairman, Deputy 
Grand Secretary of the Orange Society, was the ruling 
spirit of the organization, and he conspired to such end 
that 381 loyal lodges were established in Great Britain. 
Another thirty were in the army, and branches were in 
many of the colonies. 

" The conspiracy prospered from 1828 to 1835, 
when it was exposed by Mr. Hume, M. P., and a Com- 
mittee of Enquiry in the Commons was granted. As 
the conspiracy, however, implicated half the Tory 
peers, some of the Bishops and most of the Army, 
everything passed off quietly; important witnesses 
vanished, and the Duke of Cumberland as Grand 
Master decreed the dissolution of the Orange Society 
in England without recourse to violence. " 

" The Volunteer movement began in 1914 in Ulster 
as the direct consequence of an attempt on the part of 
the Liberal Government to force the Home Rule Bill 
on that province. This unfortunate measure had passed 
the Houses despite the most rigid Unionist opposition, 

2. Pollard, op. cit.. p. 41. 


but Ulster had no intention of surrendering to its provi- 
sions without a struggle. The situation portended Civil 
War. A ' Solemn League and Covenant ', to resist it, 
was drawn up, and Ulster, organizing largely through 
the Orange Lodges, recruited an Ulster Volunteer 
Force which was completely organized throughout the 
North. " 

" The Orange Lodges had been reorganized in 1885, 
when Gladstone introduced the threatening Home Rule 
Bill. Prior to this the Order had somewhat relapsed 
and had been little more than a convivial friendly 
society. The threat of Home Rule brought it once more 
to the fore as a powerful political organization, and the 
Ulster electorate, which had until then been predomi- 
nantly Liberal, became and remained solidly Unionist. 
The membership of the order expanded enormously, 
and the existing mechanism adapted itself to the new 
needs of the old motto, ' No surrender. ' 

" The Orange Lodges had been legally drilling since 
January 5, 1912, when application was made to the 
Belfast Justices for leave to drill on behalf of Colonel 
R. H. Wallace, C. B., Grand Master of the Belfast and 
Grand Secretary of the Provincial Grand Lodge of 
Ulster ; but, the skeleton organization had long been 
in existence, as was evident by the splendidly disci- 
plined marching of the Lodges at the great Craigavon 
meeting in Sept. 191 1 ." 

The Ulster Volunteers, under Sir Edward Carson, 
rejected all suggestions for partition and proclaimed 
their intention of smashing once and for all the whole 
Home Rule movement. 

The Irish Volunteers while claiming Home Rule 
refused to consent to the exclusion of Ulster on the 

3. Ibid., p. 125. 


ground that Ulster being Ireland it should remain 
Ireland, thus annulling all the efforts of Mr. Asquith, 
England's Prime Minister, to effect a compromise. 

Further quoting Pollard : " Affairs became more 
and more chaotic and at last John Redmond, the leader 
of the Home Rule party, realized in some measure what 
a menace the Irish Volunteer movement was becoming. 

" He decided to attempt to control them... He tried 
to raise funds for the advertised purpose of purchasing 
arms at some future date, but before this came about 
the members of the original committee purchased a 
stock of serviceable weapons with money supplied by 
the Irish Republican Brotherhood and succeeded in 
running the cargoes in at Kilcool and Howth. " 

Then came the declaration of war between Britain 
and Germany and the part played by Ireland during 
the World war is a matter of history. 

Interlocked with the history of the Irish Republican 
Brotherhood, The Clan-na-Gael and Sinn Fein, the 
activities of this society after 1914 can be followed 
in the articles on these other organizations. 

4. Ibid., p. 131. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LV. 
For development of this movement see Chapters LXXXVIII 
and CXVI. 




(Founded 1798) 

The Philadelphians, a Royalist Anti-Bonapartist 
Secret Society, was founded on masonic lines about 1798 
at Besan^on, France, by General Malet and organized 
by a Freemason, Lieutenant Colonel Oudet. 

Using England as a base of operations, it cooperated 
for a while with the " Chouans " whose chief, Pichegru, 
was eventually captured and executed by order of the 

After this event, the Philadelphians adopted the 
name of The Olympians. Most of them however, includ- 
ing Oudet, were shot from ambush the day after the 
battle of Wagram, the responsibility for their deaths 
being placed on Napoleon I. 

In 1812 General Malet formed a conspiracy to over- 
throw the Empire. Among those implicated were 
Generals Moreau, Talleyrand, Trochot, the Comte de 
Noailles, the Comte de Montmorency and Fouche, who 
was then under the cloud of Napoleon's displeasure. 
General Massena, Grand Master of the Grand Orient, 
who at that time was in disgrace, was to have been 
offered the command of the troops. This daring plot 



almost succeeded and Fouche says that Malet carried 
with him to the grave " the secret of one of the boldest 
conspiracies which the Grand Epoch of the Revolution 
has bequeathed to history. " 

General Moreau, who had gone to settle in America 
returned to France in 1813, the last of the leaders of the 
Olympians. He died Sept. 2 from a wound received 
some days earlier. 

A few moments after the death of Moreau, the Senate 
pronounced the deposition of Napoleon and carried out 
the programme of the Olympians. 

1. Thomas Frost, The Secret Societies of the European Revo- 
lution, vol. I, p. 175. 


(Founded 1799) 

Rev. E. Cahill, S. J., in his book Freemasonry and 
the Anii-Christian Movement, page 143, names The 
Scottish Philosophic Rite as one of the principal divisions 
of Freemasonry, and he writes : 

" The Scottish Philosophic Rite is practised by the 
Masons subject to the Lodge Alpina in Switzerland. 
This latter Grand Lodge, which is among those formally 
recognized by the Grand Lodges of the British Isles, 
is of special importance, as it is not unfrequently utilised 
as a kind of liaison body by the different rites and lodges 
of the several jurisdictions all over the world in their 
negotiations with each other. " 

For root of this movement see Chapter XLVI. 





(Founded 1804) 

In an address by Col. W. J. B. Macleod Moore, of 
the Grand Cross of the Temple Royal Arch, Grand 
Prior of the Dominion of Canada, printed in The Rosi- 
crucian and Masonic Record (page 165), we obtain the 
following salient points of English Templar history : 

" In 1791, we find the Templar Rite styled ' Grand 
Elect Knights Templar Kadosh, of St. John of Jerusa- 
lem, Palestine, Rhodes, and Malta', thus combining the 
modern and more ancient titles... In 1848 after the 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of 33° had been 
established in England, the Templar body resigned 
control over the Rose Croix and Kadosh, which had 
been incorporated into the Ancient and Accepted Rite 
as the 18th and 30th degrees. It was therefore necessary 
to suppress the old ceremonies and confine themselves 
to the Templar alone and to change the name into the 
degree of ' Masonic Knights Templar '. This title was 
not used in England before 1851, although the term 
Masonic appears in the warrants of Admiral Dunkerley 



between 1791 ' and 1796... Until 1853 the Order of the 
Temple and Malta remained combined. 

" In 1863 the Grand Conclave again formally re- 
vived the Maltese Order, with a considerable ritual, but 
as a separate degree instead of combined with the Tem- 
plars as it had been before 1853. " 

The following, borrowed from The History of Freema- 
sonry and Concordant Orders, a work by Stillson and 
Hughan, reputed authorities on Masonic matters, gives 
us the history of Modern English Templarism. 

" In 1867-68 a proposal was promulgated to unite 
the branches of the Order in England, Ireland and 
S('oU:jiu\. iiUiU-r ono lirad ; rmdlT.'. R.'. H.'. llu- i'riiu-e 
of Wales, who had been initiated into Masonry and the 
Templar degree in Sweden, consented, in 1869, to assume 
the Grand Mastership of the Templars of the United 
Khit^'dtm. Oil llu' 7tM Ai>ril, ],N7;!. IT.'. H.', I!.-. 
was installed Grand Master... This assumption by 
H.'. \\.\ II.'. tln' PriiifL' of Wall's, to Use Ihv words 
of the Arch-Chancellor of the Order, Sir Patrick Col- 
quhoun, ' effected a perfect reformation of the Order, 
and procured for it a status it had hitherto not enjoyed, 
even under the Duke of Kent, who must be practically 
regarded as its founder, with the additional advantage 
of H.-. I^.'. ir.-. Ix'in^ at once head of the Craft and 
Temple ; indeed, it may be said that as the Order was 
reformed in 1804-7 by the Duke of Kent, so it was 
again refounded under his grandson, the Prince of Wales, 
in 1873 '. At this date the Order assumed the name of 
United Religious and Military Order of the Temple and 
of St. John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta. " 

1. The close connection between Grand Lodge and English 
Templarism, prior to 1791, is established in an article by T. B. 
Whytehead, in The Rosicrucian and Masonic Record, pp. 317 
and 325. 


Macleod Moore informs us that in 1813 the Craft 
degrees, including the. Royal Arch, 'were alone recognized 
as pure and ancient Freemasonry and that the posses- 
sion of the Royal Arch degree in modern times has been, 
and is now, considered quite sufficient to preserve the 
link between the Temple Order and Freemasonry. 



(Founded 1804) 

Heckethorn in his well-known book Secret Societies 
of all Ages and Countries gives the following graphic 
description of the foundation of this order. 

" We read that several lords of the Court of 
Louis XIV, including the Duke de Gramont, the Mar- 
quis ofBiran, and Count Tallard, formed a secret society, 
whose object was pleasure. The society increased. 
Louis XIV, having been made acquainted with its 
statutes, banished the members of the Order, whose 
denomination was, ' A slight Resurrection of the Tem- 
plars. ' 

" In 1705, Philippe, Duke of Orleans, collected the 
remaining members of the society that had renounced 
its first scope to cultivate politics. A Jesuit father, 
Bonanni, a learned rogue, fabricated the famous list of 
supposititious Grand Masters of the Temple since Molay, 
beginning with his immediate successor, Larmenius. No 
imposture was ever sustained with greater sagacity. 
The document offered all the requisite characteristics 
of authenticity, and was calculated to deceive the most 

1. Later Regent of France during the minority of Louis XV. 



experienced palieologist. Its object was to connect the 
new institution with the ancient Templars. To render 
the deception more perfect, the volume containing the 
false list was filled with minutes of deliberations at 
fictitious meetings under false dates. Two members 
were even sent to Lisbon, to obtain if possible a docu- 
ment of legitimacy from the ' Knights of Christ ', an 
Order supposed to have been founded on the ruins of 
the Order of the Temple. But the deputies were un- 
masked and very badly received : one had to take refuge 
in England, the other was transported to Africa, where 
he died. 

" But the society was not discouraged; it grew, and 
was probably the same that concealed itself before the 
outbreak of the revolution under the vulgar name 
of the Society of the Bull's Head and whose mem- 
bers were dispersed in 1792. At that period the 
Duke of Cosse-Brissac was Grand Master. When on his 
way to Versailles with other prisoners, there to undergo 
their trial, he was massacred, and Ledru, his physician, 
obtained possession of the charter of Larmenius and the 
MS. statutes of 1705. These documents suggested to 
him the idea of reviving the order ; Fabre-Palaprat, a 
Freemason, was chosen grand master. Every effort 
was made to create a belief in the genuineness of the 
Order. The brothers Fabre, Arnal, and Leblond hunted 
up relics. The shops of antiquaries supplied the sword, 
mitre, and helmet of Molay, and the faithful were shown 
his bones, withdrawn from the funeral pyre on which 
he has been burned. " " 

This presumably is the particular Templar sect 
that furnished Isaac Long with all the Templar 

2, Heckelhorn. Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, 
vol. I, p. 302 et seq. 


bric-a-brac that found its way to Charleston in 1804 
" As in the Middle Ages, the society exacted that aspi- 
rants should be of noble birth ; such as were not were 
ennobled by it. Fourteen honest citizens of Troyes 
on one occasion received patents of nobility and convin- 
cing coats of arms. " 

The order founded its first Lodge on Dec. 23, 1805, 
deriving from the Grand Orient of France. 

From 1805 to 1815, the brother Francisco Alvaro da 
Silva, Knight of the Order of Christ, secret agent in 
Paris of John VI of Portugal, was a member of the order. 
He knew its secret history from its organizers, and in 
1812 became its Chief Secretary. 

In 1814, Fabre-Palaprat found a Greek manuscript of 
the I5th century, containing a chapter of St. John the 
Evangelist which conflicted on many points with the 
Gospel inserted in the canons of the Roman Church 
and preceded by a sort of introduction and commen- 
tary entitled Leviticon. He forthwith determined to 
appropriate this doctrine to his order, which was thus 
transformed from a perfectly orthodox association into 
a schismatic sect. The author of this work was a monk 
at Athens called Nicephorus. He was a member of the 
Sufi sect, one which professes the doctrines of the Ancient 
Lodge of Cairo. 

" Those knights that adopted its doctrines made 
them the basis of a new liturgy, which they rendered 
public in 1833 in a kind of Johannite church. " 

The Order of the Temple of Paris described by 
Heckethorn, as stated above, gives a list of the names 
of the successors of Jacques de Molay as follows. Other 
Templars, who do not admit the legality of the Grand 
Mastership of Larmenius, give different lists of Grand 
Masters : 


John Mark Larmenius 1314 

Thomas Theobald Alexandrinus 1324 

Arnold de Braque 1340 

John de Claremont 1349 

Bertrand du Guesclin 1357 

John Arniiniaeus . 1381 

Bertrand Arniiniaeus 1392 

John Arminiaeus, 1419 

John de Croy 1451 

Bernard Imbault 1472 

Robert Senoncourt 1478 

Galeatino de Salazar 1497 

Philip Chabot 1516 

Gaspard de Jaltiaco Tavanensis 1544 

Henry de Montmorency 1574 

Charles de Valois 1615 

James Ruxellius de Granceio. . . .1651 

Due de Duras 1681 

Philippe Due d'Orleans 1705 

Due de Maine 1724 

Louis Henry Bourbon 1737 

Louis Francis Bourbon 1741 

Due de CosseBrissac 1776 

Claude M. R. Chevillon 1792 

Bernard R. Fabre-Palaprat. 1804 

Admiral Sir Sidney Smith 1838 to 1840 

This list is quoted from a manuscript of A. G. Mackey 
in the possession of the writer. 



Stillson and Hughan, giving no date of foundation, 
state that : 

" The Swedish Templars assert that Templary was 
introduced there by a nephew of De Moiay, who was a 
member of the new Order of Christ in Portugal, and 
they now, with Denmark and other nationalities of 
Germany, practised the reformed system of the obsolete 
Templar rite of the ' Strict Observance '. " 

' Strict Observance ' was Templarism. 

1. Stillson and Hughan, History of Freemasonry and Concor- 
dant Orders, p. 790. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XLIV. 



(Founded 1805) 

This rite had 90 degrees. It was founded in 1805 
at Milan by Le Changeur, Clavel, Marc Bedarride and 
Joly, and was introduced into France in 1816. 

Its trials of initiation were long and difficult, and 
founded on what is recorded of the Egyptian and 
Eleusinian mysteries. 

Heckethorn states that this rite is essentially auto- 
cratic there being no obligation on the Grand Master 
to account for his actions. 

In the Rosicrucian for January 1871 we read the 
following notice (page 136). 

" We have great pleasure in announcing that this 
philosophic Masonic Rite (Ancient and Primitive Rite 
of Mizraim) has been recently established in England 
under authority derived from the Grand Council of 
Rites for France, and that the Conservators General 
held a meeting at Freemasons Tavern, on Wednesday, 
the 28th December. The principal chairs were filled 
by III. Bros. Wentworth Little 90° ; the Rt. Hon. 
The Earl of Limerick 90°; and S. Rosenthal 90°; 
by whom the ' Bective ' Sanctuary of Levites — the 
33rd of the Rite — was duly opened... 



It was then anounced that the following brethren had 
accepted office in the Rite : The Rt. Hon. the Earl of 
Bective, Sovereign Grand Master, etc., etc. " 

The Rite of Mizraim was amalgamated with that of 
Memphis in 1775, when John Yarker, as stated by 
Freke Gould " sanctioned the communication of the 
degrees of Mizraim to members of the Rite of Memphis, 
the former having no separate governing body in this 
country " (England). 

" According to an official statement, repeated in 
every number of the Kneph : " France (having) aban- 
doned the Rite, and the 111. Gd. Hierophant, J. E. 
Marconis, 33°, 97°, having died in 1868, Egypt took 
full possession. The Craft Gd. Lodge, our Antient and 
Primitive Rite, and the Antient and Accepted Rite, 
executed a tripartite Treaty to render mutual aid, and 
restored the Sov. Gd. Mystic Temple — Imp. Council 
Cen., 96°, presided over by a Gd. Hierophant, 97°, 
in 1775. " 

Essentially Jewish, the historical activities of this 
order to date are interesting. 

Some years ago, a document to which the reader 
must be referred. The Protocols of the Wise Men or 
Elders of Zion', was brought to light. Abstracted from 
a Jewish Lodge of Mizraim in Paris, in 1884, by Joseph 
Schorst, later murdered in Egypt, it embodied the pro- 
gramme of esoteric Judaism. Schorst was the son of 
a man who, in 1881, had been sentenced in London 
to ten years penal servitude for counterfeiting. 

Before studying these Protocols however, the reader 
should be made acquainted with a few facts. 

This document was first published in 1905 at Tsarskoe 

L Robert Freke Gould, The History of Freemasonry, vol. II, 
p. 135. 

2. L. Fry, Waters Flowing Eastward. 


Selo (Russia), embodied in a book called The Great 
Within the Small written by Sergius A. Nilus. 

In January 1917, a second edition, revised and 
documented, was ready, but before it could be put on 
the market for distribution and sale, the revolution 
had taken place (March 1917), and the Provisional 
Government had been replaced by that of Kerensky 
who himself gave the order to have the whole edition 
of S. A. Nilus's book destroyed. It was burnt. 

A few copies however had been distributed, one of 
them found its way to England, one to Germany and 
one again to the United States of America in 1919. 
In each of these three countries, a few people deter- 
mined to make a close study of the document with the 
result that it was soon published everywhere. 

In England, it was and still is published by an orga- 
nization called " The Britons ". 

In Germany, a remarkable work was done by Gott- 
fried zum Beck. 

In France, it was published by Mgr. Jouin of the 
Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes and by the 
fearless M. Urbain Gohier of Vieille France. 

In the United States, two anonymous editions were 
published, one by Small Maynard of Boston, and the 
other, later, by the Beckwith Company. 

Then editions appeared in Italian, Russian, Arabic 
and even Japanese. 

No sooner had the document been made public 
than loud protests were heard coming from all sections 
of dispersed Israel. Writers and lecturers were recruited 
to deny the assertion and shatter the growing belief 
of a Jewish conspiracy for the political, economic and 
legislative dominion of the world. 

The method of intimidation used to suppress discus- 
sion of The Protocols has always been the same. It 


consists in suggesting that the person guilty of interest 
in the subject is crazy or becoming so. As the average 
mortal prefers to be thought sane by his fellow men, 
the trick generally works. 

A short review of the affray must be made. First 
and foremost came a strong denial made by a Jew, 
Lucien Wolf, who wrote the pamphlet : The Jewish 
Bogey and the Forged Protocols of the Learned Elders 
of Zion, (1920). Israel Zangwill, another Jew, also 
wrote against the veracity of the Protocols. Then, in 
America, followed articles by William Hard, in the 
Metropolitan, ridiculing belief in the document. 

More serious was the painstaking campaign under- 
taken against the publication of the Protocols by the 
chiefs of the U. S. Kahal or Kehillah, who intimidated 
the editor, George H. Putnam, and. forced him to stop 
the publication of the book by threats to call his loans 
and thus ruin him financially. The Beckwith Co. was 
eventually induced by the Jewish Anti-Defamation 
League to enclose in every copy of the edition they 
published a small pamphlet containing the denial of the 
contents of the Protocols. 

Among the Gentiles found ready to deny the truth 
of the Protocols was a certain du Chayla, also a Mrs. Hurl- 
but and the notorious Princess Catherine Radziwill 
who had previously reached the pinnacle of self-adver- 
tisement by having had herself sentenced to a term of 
imprisonment in South Africa for forgery in 1902. 
It seemed as if all the denials against the Jewish author- 
ship of the Protocols had been made, when finally in 
1921 the London Times made the sensational discovery 
through one of its correspondents in Constantinople, 
a Mr. X. — of a French book which they called the 
Dialogues of Geneva, published anonymously at Brus- 
sels in 1865. It was this book, the Times affirmed, which 


had been plagiarized by the author of the Protocols. 

The publication of this discovery by the Times 
seemed to have closed all further discussion tending to 
prove the Jewish authenticity of the Protocols and 
very little has been heard since on the subject. 

Yet, to use the words of the Zionist, Max Nordau, 
during his violent quarrel with another Zionist, Asher 
Ginzberg : Audealur et altera pars. It is this other side 
of the story which the reader is now asked to hear. 

The book The Times called The Geneva Dialogues 
bears in reality the following title : Dialogues aiix 
Enfers entre Machiavelli et Montesquieu. It had been 
published anonymously in Brussels in 1864. The intro- 
duction ends thus : " Geneva, October 13, 1865 ". 

It was soon discovered by the police of Napoleon III 
that the author of the book was a certain lawyer, 
Maurice Joly, who was arrested, tried, and sentenced 
to two years' imprisonment (April 1865), as it was 
averred that he had written his book as an attack 
against the government of Napoleon III to which he 
had lent all the Machiavelian plans revealed in the 

A short sketch of the author's life is necessary in 
order to understand the spirit of his book. 

Maurice Joly (1831-1878), was born at Lons-le-Saul- 
nier. His mother, nee Florentine Corbara Courtois, was 
a Corsican of Italian origin and a Roman Catholic. Her 
father, Laurent Courtois, had been paymaster-general of 
Corsica. He had an inveterate hatred of Napoleon I. 

Joly's father was Philipe Lambert Joly, born at 
Dieppe, Normandy. He had a comfortable fortune and 
had been attorney general for the department of Jura 
for a period of 10 years under Louis Philippe. Maurice 

was educated at Dijon and began his law studies 
there, but in 1849 he left for Paris. 


There, thanks to his maternal grandfather's ma- 
sonic associations, he secured, just before the Coup 
d'Etat in 1851, a post in the Ministry of the Interior 
under M. Chevreau. In I860 only, he terminated his 
law studies, — he wrote several articles, showed a 
certain amount of talent and ended by founding a 
paper called Le Palais for lawyers and attorneys. The 
principal stockholders were Jules Favre, Desmaret, 
Leblond, Adolphe Cremieux, Arago, and Berryer. 

Joly was a Socialist. He wrote of himself; " Socialism 
seems to me one of the forms of a new life for the peoples 
emancipated from the traditions of the Old World. 
I accept a great many of the solutions offered by Socia- 
lism but I reject Communism either as a social factor 
or as a political institution. Communism is but a school 
of Socialism. In politics I understand extreme means 
to gain one's ends — in that, at least, I am a Jacobin. " 

Friend of Adolphe Cremieux, he shared in his hatred 
of Napoleon III. He hated absolutism as much as he 
hated Communism and as, under the influence of his 
Prime Minister Rouher, the French Emperor led a 
policy of reaction, Maurice Joly qualified it as Machia- 
velian and depicted it as such in his pamphlet. 

In one of his books he wrote of it : 

" Machiavelli represents the policy of Might compa- 
red to Montesquieu's, which represents the policy of 
Right — Machiavelli will be Napoleon III who will 
himself depict his abominable policy ". (From Maurice 
Joly — Son passe, son programme — by himself, 1870). 

And here comes the important point which the 
Times omitted to put before its readers when it made 
the sensational discovery about the Dialogues of Geneva 
in 1921! 

Maurice Joly, who hated Communism and, in 1864, 
ascribed the Machiavelian policy of Might over Right 


to the Imperialism of Napoleon III, was evidently 
ignorant of the fact that he himself was no innovator, 
for, long before he ever entered the journalistic or poli- 
tical world, the very theory which he had tried to expose 
and refute had been the guiding principle of a group 
of ardent revolutionists, promoters of Communism, 
and worthy followers of Illuminatis and Babouvists, 
the group of Karl Marx, Jacoby, etc. the agitators of 
the 1848 revolution. 

Long before Maurice Joly's book Dialogues aux Enfers 
entre Machiavelli et Montesquieu had made its appea- 
rance, another book bearing much the same title had 
been published in Berlin in 1850. It was called 

Machiavelli, Montesquieu, Rousseau 

by Jacob Venedy and was published by Franz Dun- 
nicker, Berlin. " 

Jacob Venedy, the author, was a Jew, born in Cologne, 
May 1805, died February 1871. Owing to his revolu- 
tionary activities, he was expelled from Germany and 
sought refuge in France. "While living in Paris, in 1835, 
he edited a paper of subversive character called he Pre- 
sent which caused the police to send him away from 
Paris. He then lived at Le Havre. Later, due to the 
intercession of Arago and Mignet, friends of Adolphe 
Cremieux, he was once more allowed to return to Paris. 
Meanwhile, he had published a book, Romanisme, 
Christianisme et Germanisme, which had won for 
him the praise of the French Academy. Venedy was a 
close friend and associate of Karl Marx. He had spent 
the years 1843-44 in England which at that time was 
the refuge and abode of all the master minds of the 1848 
revolution. In 1847 Venedy was in Brussels with Karl 

3.L. Fry, Waters Flowing Eastward. 


Marx who had founded there the secret organization 
called " The Communist League of Workers ", which 
was eventually brought out into the open under the 
name of " The International Society of Democracy " 
(SocieTe Internationale de la Democratic). 

In 1848, after the February Revolution, Venedy 
returned to Germany, still in the company of Karl 
Marx. He soon afterwards became one of the chiefs 
of the revolutionary Committee of Fifty, organized 
at Frankfort-on-Main in March 1848. Venedy was sent 
as " Commissar " into the Oberland to stand against 
Ecker. In Hesse-Homburg he was elected a member 
of the Left and took his place in the Committee of 
Fifty. It was at this time that in Berlin he published his 
book Machiavelli, Montesquieu and Rousseau, uphold- 
ing the ideas of Machiavelli and Rousseau for the 
slavery and demoralization of the people. 

When order was once more re-established in Germany, 
Venedy was expelled from Berlin and Breslau. 

He was an active member of the Masonic Order 
Bauhlitte which was affiliated to the Carbonari. (See 
Die Bauhliitte for Feb. 25, 1871). 

It is to be regretted that the Times, which had started 
an investigation to trace the authorship of The Protocols 
of the Wise Men of Zion, and lift it off the shoulders of 
Jewry upon which it rested, should have missed looking 
into the literary and revolutionary activities of Jacob 

Following the apparent contradiction between Jacob 
Venedy and Maurice Joly, one showing the Machiavelli 
and Rousseau policy as that of triumphant Commu- 
nism, whilst the other makes it the policy of Reaction 
and Imperialism, one is apt to overlook the link between 
the two. The student of the 1830-1848 period of history 
is here confronted by a remarkable fact. 


FoLild, the Rothschilds of Paris, London and Vienna, 
Montefiore, Disraeli, the Goldsmids, were not less Jews 
than Karl Marx, Moses Hess, Jacoby, Lassalle, Venedy, 
Riesser. The Liberal Conservatism of Disraeli, the 
reactionary Imperialism of Fould and the revolutionary 
Communism of Karl Marx all point towards the same 
aim, namely, the establishment of Jewish power, whether 
under a Constitutional Monarchy, an Empire, or a 
Republic. And although their respective activities seem 
to stand so far apart, yet they are all linked, all tending 
towards the same end. One of the most striking instances 
is the case of Adolphe Cremieux who played a prominent 
part in the period we are now concerned with, and 
who was connected with all parties and actually helped 
form the centre which united them all, viz. The alliance 
ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE, which was, in fact, the central 
Kahal for Universal Jewry. 

The life of Adolphe Cremieux and the activities of 
his Jewish contemporaries, belonging to widely diver- 
gent social spheres, illustrate forcibly the concerted 
plan of Judaism to reach its secret Messianic hope of 
world domination. 

Until about 1848, it seemed somewhat difficult to 
show conclusively the link between Judaism and 
Illuminism, Communism and Capitalism, but a close 
study of the life of Adolphe Cremieux, and that of 
his confidential agent, Leon Gambetta, throws full 
light on the subject. 

Whereas in Gentile life, there is an unbridgeable 
abyss between Conservatism and Anarchy, Religion 
and Atheism, there is no such chasm in the Jewish 
mentality. There, all currents, no matter in what 
direction they may seem to flow, are finally united and 
channelled in one unique direction. 

If it has been somewhat difficult for historians of 


the French Revolution to see the close link between 
Judaism and Iliuminism, we repeat that no such diffi- 
culty exists for the student of the 1848 revolutionary 
period, after he has followed the life of Adolphe Cre- 
mieux and the activities of his Jewish contemporaries. 
The main difference is that the term " Iliuminism " 
used in the 18th century is replaced by the wide term 
Freemasonry which embraces all the existent secret 

Adolphe Isaac Cremieux (1796-1880) came from a 
Jewish family of the South of France, that had mem- 
bers in Aix, Nimes and Marseilles. 

In his youth, Cremieux was an enthusiastic admirer 
of Napoleon I ; yet in 1831, he pronounces the funeral 
eulogy of the ill famed revolutionist of 1789, the Abbe 
Gregoire. He chose law as his profession and was admit- 
ted to the Bar at Nimes in 1817. 

Briefly, Cremieux's life may be viewed from three 
sides : 1st, his racial Jewish activities, 2nd, his Masonic 
activities, 3rd, his political influence. 

Cremieux's racial Jewish activities are exemplified 
by the part he took in the Damascus Affair with Moses 
Montefiore, a Jew of England, when Jewry successfully 
but unconvincingly silenced the accusation of ritual 
murder committed upon the Catholic priest. Father 
Thomas, at Damascus, in 1840. He had a prominent 
share in the foundation and development of the Alliance 
Israelite Universelle. Officially founded in 1860, this 
international union of disseminated Jewry had, as we 
know, existed for centuries, but after the Damascus 

4. Gaston Cremieux, another member of the same family 
(1836-1871) was an active Socialist and Revolutionary. He parti- 
cipated in the Paris Commune and was court-martialled and 
executed in 1871. 


affair, the Jewish leaders knew that they had attained 
sufficient power to feel enabled to show to the whole 
world that although the civil rights they enjoyed had 
been granted them by different countries, the real 
allegiance of each and every one of them was due to 
their Jewish nationality. 

The Masonic activities of Adolphe Cremieux were 
many and powerful. His connection with Louis Bona- 
parte and his brother, who both were affiliated to the 
Carbonari, would suggest that he was also connected 
with this secret society. But it is a fact that Cremieux 
belonged to the Lodge of Mizraim, the Scottish Rite, 
and also the Grand Orient. He was in the Supreme 
Council of the Order of Mizraim and, at the death of 
Viennet, in whose person the Grand Orient and the 
Scottish Rite had been united, Cremieux succeeded 
him as Grand Master. 

The political activities of Cremieux are also manifold 
and varied. In his youth, he had been an admirer of 
Napoleon I and later became an intimate friend as 
well as the legal adviser of the Bonaparte family and 
joined their party which was undermining the govern- 
ment of Louis Philippe, son of Philippe " Egalite " 

In 1848, he was one of the most ardent supporters of 
Louis Napoleon and took an active part in the overthrow 
of Louis Philippe. He had been one of the foremost 
speakers in the association known as the Campagne 
des Banquets which had done so much to promote the 
Revolution of Feb. 1848. 

He became a member of the provisional govern- 
ment and was appointed Minister of Justice. He strong- 
ly advocated the candidature of his friend, Louis Napo- 
leon, for the post of President of the French Republic. 
Cremieux had had hopes of being made Chief Executive 
under Louis Napoleon and thus play in France the 


same role which Disraeli played in England, that is 
ruling the country from behind the scenes. Both Dis- 
raeli and Cremieux had the same financial backing, 
namely the wealth of the Rothschilds and Montefiores 
who, in London, were friends of Disraeli and, in Paris, 
friends of Cremieux. Cremieux was therefore keenly 
disappointed when General Cavaignac was appointed 
Prime Minister in the Republican Government of Louis 
Napoleon, and as a revenge, he directed his activities 
against the Prince President, his former friend. He 
became so hostile to him, that in 1851, after the Coup 
d'Etat of December 2, by which Louis Napoleon re- 
created the Empire and assumed the title of Napoleon III, 
Cremieux was imprisoned at Vincennes and Mazas. 
After his release, he made himself the champion and 
defender of the Communist associates of Karl Marx, 
the revolutionaries Louis Blanc, Ledru Rollin, Pierre 
Leroux and others. 

His untiring efforts were directed against the Empire 
in general and Napoleon III in particular, and he con- 
sorted with all the Emperor's enemies, among them, 
Maurice Joly, the author of the Dialogue between Machia- 
velli and Montesquieu. After the overthrow of Napo- 
leon 111 and the defeat of France at the hands of Ger- 
many in 1871, and the establishment of the Republic, 
Cremieux once more took an open part in the political 
affairs of the country. 

He pushed to the front his former secretary Gam- 
betta and effectively directed him in his shady nego- 
tiations with Bismarck, the latter himself being guided 
by the Jew Bamberger (1852-1899), a former revolu- 
tionist of 1848, but who, having found refuge in France, 
had been for many years manager in Paris of the 
Jewish Bank Bischoffsheim and Goldschmidt. He was 
one of Cremieux's friends, and the war could not affect 


the ties linking the Jews united in the AlUance Israelite 

From 1871 until his death, it can be safely asserted 
that Cremieux as President of the Alliance Israelite 
Universelle and Grand Master of the Scottish Rile. 
exercised a tremendous influence upon the anti-reli- 
gious campaign which followed the Franco-Prussian 
War. In this as in all his lifelong activities, Cremieux 
was only obeying the teachings of the Talmud and 
trying to destroy every religion but that contained in 
Judaism. His favourite theme was that there should 
be only one cult — and that cult should be Jewish. 
At a general assembly of the Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle, on May 31 1864, Cremieux had said : " The Alliance 
is not limited to our cult, it voices its appeal to all 
cults and wants to penetrate in all the religions as it 
has penetrated into all countries. Let us endeavour 
boldly to bring about the union of all cults under one 
flag of Union and Progress. Such is the slogan of human- 
ky. - 

One cult, one flag ! Are the Protocols of the Wise 
Men of Zion or the speeches of Machiavelli in Joly's 
book anything but a lengthy exposition of the ideas 
briefly expressed by Cremieux ? His activities are one 
of the clearest examples of Jewish internationalism 
and Jewish efforts for the realization of the Messianic 

The Alliance Israelite Universelle issued from the 
Rite of Mizraim plus Universal Freemasonry, subsidized 
by International Finance, would spell the doom of 
Christian civilization, the destruction of nationalism, 
the death of nations upon whose ruin has been erected 

5. " Union and Progress " was ihe name given to several 
revolutionary associations and also to several Masonic Lodges. 


a new Temple of Solomon, containing the treasures and 
material wealth of the whole world, and over which is 
placed the six pointed star of Zionism. 

Leon Gambetta (1838-1882) an Italian Jew, obtained 
French naturalization on Oct. 29, 1859, and in 1862 
became the secretary of Cremieux. He was Depute in 
1869, Dictator of National Defence, head of the War 
Office and Minister of the Interior after the Commune 
of 1870 and Dictator again after the Coup d'Etat of the 
President of the Republic Marshal MacMahon in 1877. 

The following quotation from a letter which he wrote 
to his father on June 22, 1863 is interesting. 

" My chief, Maitre Cremieux, treats me as if I were 
his adopted son, and if within three years time he is 
elected a deputy (which is quite possible) my career 
will be settled once and for all. I must devote myself to 
law and politics, and then I may hope to triumph over 
all obstacles and finally to attain great honours. " 

6. The means for the attainment of Cremieux's ambition are 
set forth in a book entitled Paris, Capitale des Religions, by 
Jean Izoulet. 

7. P. B. Gheusi, Gambetta, Life atid Letters, p. 207. 



(Founded 1805) 

This society appeared about 1805-1807. 

We are again indebted to Captain Pollard for a sketch 
of its history ; " After the suppression of the United 
Irishmen the society, as such, disappeared, but within 
a year or two we find a renaissance of the old agrarian 
Catholic secret societies which had been absorbed into 
the Defenders and thence into the United Irishmen. 
The provisions of the Insurrection Act which forbade 
the possession of arms and enforced a curfew at night- 
fall were in operation until 1805, when with its relaxa- 
tion appears the Ribbon Society... In different counties 
local organizations of Ribbon men called themselves 
by different titles, such as the Threshers, the Carders, 
the Molly Maguires, Rockites, Caravats, Shanavests, 
Pauddeen Gar's men and the like. " 

The Ribbon Society " continued the system of 
organization used by the United Irishmen. A lodge was 
limited to forty members and they met as a rule in 
the fields by night, armed sentinels being posted to 

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 32. 



guard the spot. The lodge was under a Master or Body 
Master, who controlled three committee-men, each of 
whom was responsible for twelve members of the lodge. 
The Masters were represented on divisional commit- 
tees allocated on the basis of four or more divisions to 
a geographical county. The divisional committees were 
controlled by Parish Masters, who in turn were repre- 
sented on the County Council, which contributed two 
delegates to the National Board. 

" As Whiteboys they certainly were at political 
and practical war with the Orangemen, and throughout 
their activities appear to have been criminal and anti- 
social ; outrage, terrorism and murder being their only 
methods of political conversion. " 

2. Pollard, op. cit., p. 35. 

3. Ibid., p.265. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LV. 



(Founded 1808} 

The following article is quoted in part from an article 
specifically written by Josiah H. Drummond 33° in 
The History Of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders 
by Stillson and Hughan : 

" In 1806 Joseph Cerneau appeared in New York; 
he had been a member of Masonic bodies in the West 
Indies ; he had a patent from Mathieu Dupotet certi- 
fying that he had received the degrees of the Scottish 
Rite of Heredom, and authorizing him to confer the 
degrees up to the Twenty-fourth and organize bodies 
in the northern part of Cuba, and to confer the Twenty- 
fifth on one person in each year, the Twenty-fifth 
being then the highest degree of the Rite and the 
highest Cerneau had received, according to his patent. 
Cerneau had his patent from Dupotet, who had his 
from Germain Hacquet, who had his from Du Plessis, 
who had his from Prevost in 1790, who had his from 
Francken. " 

1. Page 812 et seq. 

2. Yarker traces Cerneau's patent to Henri Martin given 
by tlie Grand Lodge of France to supersede that of Morin in 

1766. See The Arcane Schools, p. 482. 

42 :s 


In 1808 he called a grand consistory of the Rite of 
Heredom having jurisdiction over 25 degrees. 

" But already a controversy had arisen with parties 
acting under, or deriving their powers from, the 
Supreme Council at Charleston. We may well believe 
that Cerneau and his associates soon recognized the 
impossibility of maintaining successfully a rite of twenty- 
fwe degrees against one of thirty-three degrees... The 
Thirty-third degree as now existing originated at 
Charleston in 1801 ; and no evidence has been found 
that Cerneau ever received it. " 

Cerneau seems however to have overlooked the 
obvious expedient of creating a 34th degree ! 

" The Charleston body did not recognize the Cer- 
neau Bodies even by silent acquiescence ; after inves- 
tigation by a special Deputy, it declared, early in 
1814, Cerneau to be an impostor, and his organizations 
illegal and clearly clandestine. " 

" Bitter controversies followed. " Lodges which soon 
died were opened at Charleston. Others at New Orleans 
eked out a precarious existence under James Foulhouze. 
" Foulhouze had received the Thirty-third degree from 
the Grand Orient of France, which expelled him, Feb. 4, 
1859, for a scurrilous publication which he issued in 
answer to one of its decrees. This Supreme Council 
became dormant; but, in 1867, it was revived with 
Eugene Chassaignac at its head ; in 1868 it was recog- 
nized by the Grand Orient of France, and unless it 
has recently gone out of existence, the Grand-Orient 
to-day recognizes a so-called Supreme Council in New 
Orleans as a lawful body, and its members as possessing 
the Thirty-third degree ! " 

In 1826 the Morgan murder occurred and Cerneau 
left for France. De Witt Clinton, Governor of New 
York, had been Deputy Grand Commander of the Sove- 


reign Consistory from 1811 to 1823 when he was elected 
Grand Commander. 

A number of sporadic revivals of this rite occurred 
during the ensuing 40 years. 

They were known as — 

The Hicks Rite, founded in 1832 by Comte de St. 

The First Atwood Body, founded about 1837 by 
Henry C. Atwood. 

The Cross Body, founded about 1851 by Jeremy 
L. Cross. 

The Second Atwood Body, founded about 1853. 

It was not till 1867 that peace was established 
between the three de facto Supreme Councils in the 
northern part of the United States. On that date they 
united and Josiah H. Drummond was elected Grand 

After five years of peace, however, Henry J. Seymour, 
who had been expelled by the council of which he was 
a member, organized what he called a Supreme Council 
of which he was made Grand Commander, " but, on a 
visit to Europe in 1862, in his eagerness to obtain recog- 
nition, he unwittingly held Masonic communication 
with the Grand Orient of France, which created such 
a storm that he resigned his office, and since but little 
has been heard of that Supreme Council, although it 
probably still exists. " 

" In 1881, Hopkins Thompson, an Emeritus member 
of the Supreme Council, assisted by a few Honorary 
members and by a Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret, 
who is believed by many to have been the mainspring 
of the movement, all of whom had taken the oath of 
fealty to the Supreme Council, formed an association, 
which they are pleased to call the Cerneau Supreme 
Council ' revived '. " 


" This body claims jurisdiction over the South, the 
claim to which was abandoned, before 1866, by 
unanimous vote, including Thompson's ! It denies 
the legality of the Southern Supreme Council, from 
which alone the Thirty-third degree came, and which 
Thompson by his vote recognized and whose recog- 
nition and fraternal support, he, with his associates, 
sought to obtain. " 

The visit to Europe of Henry J. Seymour referred 
to in the above quotation had serious consequences. 
We find that Seymour at that time was in communi- 
cation with John Yarker with whom he collaborated 
in founding the Ancient and Primitive Rite, the rami- 
fications of which reach to all the branches of occult 
illuminism such as Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, 
Memphis and Mizraim, Ancient Order of Oriental 
Templars, etc. 

3. Stillson and Hughan, op. cit, p. 828. 




(Alta Vendita [Lodge] Founded 1809} 

The Carbonari had existed internationally, it is said, 
under different names since the days of Francis I, 
King of France, but not till the year 1815 did we begin 
to hear of its individual historical achievements. 

The following is a translation of one of the secret 
official documents published in Italy by the highest 
authority of the order, for the guidance of the active 
head-centres of Masonry in 1818, under the title of : 
Permanent Instructions, or Practical Code of Rules; 
Guide for the Heads of the Highest Grades of Masonry . 
The original Italian document was given to Nubio, 
one of the Supreme Vendita (Alta Vendita) in 1824, 
when he was sent to Rome to carry it into effect, and 
it was to this instruction that he referred when he wrote 
from Forii to Signor Volpi : " As I have written to you 
before, I am appointed to demoralise the education of 
the youth of the Church". When these documents 

1. Gargano, Irish and English Freemasons and their Foreign 
Brothers, p. 62, published 1878. 



were lost, the Freemasons offered fabulous sums for 
their recovery. These secret Instructions, intended only 
for a chosen few Masons of heavy calibre, were written 
three years after what was called the " Restoration " 
of 1815, which was brought about by a number of 
veteran Freemasons, all born in the past century, who 
had preceded, made, planned, and passed through the 
French Revolution of 1789. They were rife with the 
republican notions of France and Italy. They had sur- 
vived their works, and had been in a great measure 
defeated, or at least modified, by Napoleon, in whose 
hands they were like a boat in the hands of new pilots, 
and, stunned by the many changes, were motionless 
for a time. In 1815, brought, as it were, in presence 
of a new world, they took breath and courage, and 
gathering up the broken threads of the tangled skein, 
determined to spend the rest of their lives in restoring, 
if possible, the web commenced in 1789 and 1783. The 
principal author was supposed to be a man of the name 
of Filippo Buonarotti, one of the great correspondents 
of Nubio. From his biography, given in the eighth 
volume of the Mondo Segreto di Castro, he would appear 
to have been an apt pupil and follower of Nubio's 
principle, Ama nesciri et pro nihilo computari. He was 
born at Pisa in 1761, was a friend of Robespierre, and 
an enemy of Napoleon, against whom he always con- 
spired. He was a centre in Paris for both French and 
Italian Carbonari. He had been one of the principals 
in 1821,"" and in 1830 founded the sect of the Apofe- 
simeni. In a published record, entitled Bologna of the 
New Secret Society, 1835, we find the name of a young 
man, Giuseppe Petroni, afterwards a celebrated Maz- 
zinian, and now (1878) Grand Master Aggunto of 

2. Carbonari conspiracy of Belforl and La Rochelle, p. 295. 


Roman Masonry of the Via della Valle, who was like- 
wise one of this noble band. My readers may now tho- 
roughly understand the character of the authors of 
this secret and curious document of the Instructions. 
It is a resume and summary, expressed in the clearest 
terms, of the aim of Freemasonry and the means by 
which it is attained ; Freemasonry antecedent to the 
French Revolution; Freemasonry during the French 
Revolution ; Freemasonry revived after the Restora- 
tion. Freemasonry, to-day, is one and the same, using 
the same means to work out the same end and object. 

" So these old conspirators of the past century 
wakened up in 1815 from their long sleep more energetic 
than ever, and as a first step towards reviving their 
secret society work, wrote the following Permanent 
Instructions, as a guide for the Higher initiated who were 
chosen to command the whole Masonic movement, 
especially in Italy : — 

" Now that we are constituted in an active body, and 
that our Order begins to reign as well in places most 
remote as in those that are nearest ov r centre, one 
great thought arises, a thought that has always greatly 
pre-occupied the men who aspire to the universal regen- 
eration of the world, that thought is, the Liberation 
of Italy, for from Italy shall one day issue the freedom 
of the entire world — a Republic of Fraternity, Har- 
mony, and Humanity. This great idea is not yet com- 
prehended by our brothers of France. They believe 
that revolutionary Italy can only plot in the shade, 
and accomplish the stabbing of a few spies, cr traitors, 
meantime bearing patiently the yoke of facts accom- 
plished elsewhere, for Italy, but without Italy. This 
error has been very fatal to us. It is useless to combat 
it with words which would only propagate more. It 
is necessary to annihilate it with facts. And in the midst 


of anxieties, which agitate the most vigorous spirits 
of our society, one there is that can never be forgotten. 
The Papacy ever exercises a decisive influence over the 
lot of Italy. With the arm, the voice, the pen, of its 
innumerable bishops, monks, nuns, and faithful of all 
latitudes, the Pope finds everywhere persons enthu- 
siastically prepared for sacrifice, and even for martyr- 
dom, friends who would die for him, or sacrifice all 
for his love. It is a mighty lever, the full power of which 
few Popes understood, and which has as yet been used 
but partially. The question of to-day is not the recon- 
struction of a momentarily weakened power. 

" Our final aim is that of Voltaire and of the French 
Revolution, — the complete annihilation of Catholicism, 
and ultimately of Christianity. Were Christianity to 
survive, even upon the ruins of Rome, it would, a little 
later on, revive and live. We must now consider how 
to reach our end, with certainty, not cheating ourselves 
with delusions, which would prolong indefinitely, and 
probably compromise, the ultimate success of our cause. 

" Hearken not to those boastful and vainglorious 
French, and thick headed Germans, and hypochondriac- 
al Englishmen, who seem to think it possible to end 
Catholicism, at one time by an obscene song, at another 
by an absurd sophism, and again by a contemptible 
sarcasm. Catholicism has a vitality which survives such 
attacks with ease. She has seen adversaries more implac- 
able and more terrible far, and sometimes has taken 
a malicious pleasure in baptising with holy water 
the most rabid amongst them. We may therefore allow 
our brethren in those countries to work off their frenzy 
of anti-catholic zeal, allow them to ridicule our Madon- 
nas and our apparent devotion. Under this cloak, we 
may conspire at our convenience, and arrive, little by 
little, at our ultimate aim. 


" Therefore, the Papacy has been for seventeen hun- 
dred years interwoven with the history of Italy. Italy 
can neither breathe nor move without the leave of 
the Supreme Pontiff. With him, she has the hundred 
arms of Briareus ; without him, she is condemned to a 
lamentable impotency, and to divisions and hostility, 
from the foot of the Alps to the last pass of the Appen- 
nines. Such a state of things must not remain. It is 
necessary to seek a remedy. Very well. The remedy is 
at hand. The Pope, whoever he may be, will never 
enter into a secret society. It then becomes the duty 
of the Secret Society to make the first advance to the 
Church and to the Pope, with the object of conquering 
both. The work for which we gird ourselves up, is not 
the work of a day, nor of a month, nor of a year. 

" It may last for many years, perhaps for a century; in 
our ranks the soldier dies, but the war is continued. We 
do not at present intend to gain the Pope to our cause, 
nor to make him a neophyte to our principles, or a pro- 
pagator of our ideas. Such would be an insane dream. 
Even should it happen that any Cardinal, or any Pre- 
late, of his own will, or by deception, should share in 
our secrets, such would not be a reason for desiring 
his exaltation to the Chair of Peter. Nay, his very 
exaltation would be our ruin; for this reason that, his 
apostasy being prompted by his ambition alone, that 
very ambition of power would necessarily impel him 
to sacrifice us. 

" Catholics ! what must we consider Freemasonry, 
when Freemasons themselves pronounce it an apostasy 
from Catholicity, and foresee that a power fully acquain- 
ted with them and their machinations would, as a con- 
sequence, seek to crush them. 

" That which we should seek, that which we should 
await, as the Jews await a Messiah, is a Pope according 


to our wants. An Alexander VI would not suit us, for 
he never erred in religious doctrine ; a Pope Borgia 
would not suit us, for he was excommunicated by all 
the thinking philosophers and unbelievers for the 
vigour with which he defended the Church. We require 
a Pope for ourselves, if such a Pope were possible. 
With such a one we should march more securely to 
the storming of the Church than with all the little 
books of our French and English brothers. 

" And why ? Because it were useless to seek with 
these alone to split the rock upon which God has built 
his Church. We should not want the vinegar of Hanni- 
bal, nor gunpowder, nor even our arms, if we had but 
the little finger of the successor of Peter engaged in the 
plot ; that little finger would avail us more for our 
crusade than all the Urbans II and St. Bernards for 
the crusade of Christianity. We trust that we may 
yet attain this supreme object of our efforts. 

" But when ? and how ? The unknown cannot 
yet be seen. Nevertheless, as' nothing should move 
us from our mapped-out plan, we must labour at 
our newly-commenced work as if tomorrow were to 
crown it with success. We wish, in this Instruction, 
which should be kept concealed from those simply 
initiated, to give advice to the rulers of the Supreme 
Vendita, which they, in turn, should inculcate in the 
brethren by means of Insegnamento, or Memorandum. 

" Little can be done with old Cardinals and with 
prelates of decided character. Such incorrigibles must 
be left to the school of Gonsalvi, and in our magazines 
of popularity and unpopularity, we must find the 
means to utilize, or ridicule, power in their hands. 
A well invented report must be spread with tact amongst 
good Christian families : such a Cardinal, for instance, 
is a miser : such a prelate is licentious ; such an official 


is a freethinker, an infidel, a Freemason, and so on in 
the same strain. These things will spread quickly to 
the cafes, thence to the squares, and one report is 
sometimes enough to ruin a man. 

" If a prelate, or bishop, arrive in a province from 
Rome, to celebrate or officiate at some public function, 
it is necessary at once to become acquainted with his 
character, his antecedents, his temperament, his defects 
— especially his defects. If he should be our enemy — 
an Albani, a Pallotta, a Bernetti, a Delia Genga, a Riva- 
rola — at once trap him, entangle him in all the nets 
and snares you can. Give him a character which must 
horrify the young people and the women ; describe 
him as cruel, heartless, and bloodthirsty ; relate some 
atrocious transaction which will easily cause a sensa- 
tion amongst the people. The foreign newspapers will 
learn and copy these facts, which they will know how 
to embellish and colour according to their usual style. 

" For respect due to truth show, or better still, quote 
from some respectable fool as having quoted the number 
of the journal which has given the names, acts and 
doings of these personages. As in England and in France, 
so also in Italy there will be no lack of writers who well 
know how to tell lies for the good cause, and have no 
difficuky in doing so. One newspaper publishing the 
name of a Monsignor Delegate, His Excellency, or 
Eminence, or Lord Justice, will be quite sufficient proof 
for the people ; they will require no other. The people 
here around us in Italy are in the infancy of Libera- 
lism. At present they believe in the Liberals, after a 
little they will believe in anything. " 

Modern Carbonarism was founded in 1815 by 
Maghella, a native of Genoa, who, at the time when 
Joachim Murat became King of the two Sicilies, was 
a subordinate of Saliceti, the Neapolitan Minister of 


Police. He was a Freemason, who exempted from initia- 
tion and probation all Freemasons who desired to 
become Carbonari. Any one who has read the statutes 
and ritual of Carbonarism will see that it is one and the 
same as that of Masonry. 

A sequence of events pertaining to Carbonarism can 
be traced by the perusal of several works from which 
we quote : 

At a meeting held on Oct. 13th 1820 by the Grand 
Secret Consistory, the Orient of Scotland was recog- 
nized. The two Consistories of Masonry in France and 
in Italy and that of the Sublime Carbonari were put 
into communication and their co-operation assured.^ 

The high ruling grades of the Carbonari appear to 
have been those of Sublime Maitre Parfait, above which 
was still another that of the Sublime Ehis. 

The Alta Vendita constituted the Supreme Direc- 
tory of the Carbonari and was led by a group of Italian 
noblemen, amongst whom a prince, " the profoundest 
of initiates, was charged as Inspector General of the 
Order. " 

Piccolo Tigre, a certain nondescript Jew, rushed 
about Europe obeying orders and presumably giving 
them, but what he actually did has remained a mys- 

Giuseppe Mazzini had been initiated Carbonaro in 

1827. ' Some time after, Carbonarism combined, or 

rather coalesced, with the Society known as Young 

Italy led by Mazzini whose aims were identical with 

those of the Carbonari. 

3. Michael di Gargano, op. cit. 

4. Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, Sept. 2nd 1928, 
p. 809. 

5. Ibid., p. 808. 

6. Arrigo Solmi, The Making of Modern ltaly,\ p. 25. 


Young Italy, Young Poland, Young England, Young 
Switzerland, Young Ireland — all together Young 
Europe — all international movements of the same 
character working towards the same end, viz. the 
supremacy of the Masters. 

The Guelphic Knights, whose object was the inde- 
pendence of Italy, to be effected by means of all the 
secret societies of the country under their leadership, 
found able helpers in the Carbonari. 

" The Chiefs of the Carbonari were also chiefs 
among the Guelphs ; but only those that had distinct 
offices among the Carbonari could be admitted among 
the Guelphs. There can be no doubt that the Carbonari 
when the sect had become very numerous, partly shel- 
tered themselves under the designation of Guelphs 
and Adelphi or Independents, by affiliating themselves 
to these societies. " 

At one time the support of the Carbonari was offered 
by Maghella to Murat with the advice to declare against 
Napoleon and to proclaim the independence of Italy 
but Murat's subsequent proscription of the sect induc- 
ed it to seek the support of England. The Bourbons 
and Lord William Bentinck favoured it while Murat 
ordered its extermination. Some of its leaders indeed 
perished but shortly afterwards the society was reor- 
ganized and a schismatic sect calling itself Calderari 
(Braziers) came into being. 

7. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, 
vol. II, p. 145. 

8. Ibid., pp. 110-111. 

For the root of this movement see Chapter LIII. 
For the development of this movement see Chapters LXX, 


(Founded 1810) 

We find the following in the article on Oddfellows, 
in Hastings' Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. 

" R. W. Moffrey (Century p. 18) fixes the year 1810 
as that in which the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows 
started, though it was not till 1814 that the minutes 
of its Grand Committees began to be printed... however 
Spry (Hist, of Oddfellow ship p. 16) gives minutes of a 
meeting of a ' lodge ' No. 9, of the Order of Oddfel- 
lows, dated 12th March 1748, from which it would 
seem that eight previous lodges had been established 
before that date. " 

For the connection of this order with Freemasonry 
see Chapter XXVHl. 

We also note the following : — 

" The position of Friendly Societies generally 
before the introduction of National Insurance is shown 
in the report of the Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies 
for the year ending 31st December 1906 (Parliamentary 
Papers of Session 1907, n° 49, xi pp. 16-18). " 

According to this report, we find that the order 



had 1,035,785 members and the income of the benefit 
funds was £1,703,674. 

The Oddfellows resisted any proposal of State control 
or State interference with the working of Friendly 

The English Order has four degrees. 




(Founded 1814) 

Hetairia was the Greek name for societies, organiza- 
tions or associations. In ancient Greece the name 
hetairia applied to companies in the army. In more 
modern times, it was used for societies of learning, or 
commercial purposes and also for political secret 

It is in connection with the latter that we are con- 
cerned. While Greece was under Turkish dominion, 
the national aspirations of its people could be vented 
in secret only. The breath of revolution which swept 
Europe during the latter part of the 18th century 
stirred some of the Greek patriots whose aims was the 
overthrow of the Turkish power. The main leader at 
that time was Constantin Rhygas (1754-1798). 

He formed the first secret societies of Hetairias which 
were mainly composed of Klephtes or bandits. Bound by 
oath, each member of the society was to use all means, 
assassination included, to free Greece. The execution 
of Rhygas drove the hetairias to seek cover but in 
1814, a chief lodge was re-formed in Odessa under 
the name of Hetairia phileke. Its avowed aim was 



the liberation of Greece, and its main seat was in 
Russia. Every candidate took an oath, as in all secret 
societies, and knew no one beyond his initiator and 
sponsor. Funds, collected and administered by a supe- 
rior council directing all the lodges, were kept in Russia. 

When a sufficient number of Hetairias were orga- 
nized and a chief needed to direct the movement 
against Turkey, Count Capo d'Istria, (John, 1776- 
1831) a Greek, minister in Russia under the Tzar 
Alexander I, and author of the text of the Holy Alliance 
was asked to take the lead but refused, and Alexander 
Ypsilanti was nominated. The insurrection broke out 
in 1821. 

Among the most prominent members of the Hetairia 
we find Alexander Mavrocordato (1791-1865) who 
was under the influence of England and was also the 
friend of Byron whom he had met in Missolonghi in 
1822. From him he received funds for the purchase of 
arms to the extent of one hundred thousand francs. 
It is related that Lord Byron died in his arms at Misso- 
longhi in 1824. Among the supporters of the London 
Branch of the Philhellenic Committee were Jeremy 
Bentham, Sir Francis Burdett, Lord Erskine, Lord 
Ebrington, Sir John Cam Hobhouse, (afterwards Lord 
Brougham) Joseph Hume, Sir James Mackintosh and 
Lord John Russell. These foreign committees provided 
arms, money and volunteers. 

The following details concerning the organization 
of the Hetairia of Greece are set forth in The Secret 
Societies of the European Revolution, by Thomas Frost 
(Vol. H, page 47 et seq.). 

" Less simple than that of the Carbonari, the system 
rather resembled that of the Hluminati in the number 
of grades and relation of the branch societies to each 
other. " 


There were five grades namely : — 

The Adelphoi (Brothers, who took an oath of secrecy 
but ignored the aims of the society). 

The Systemenoi (Bachelors, who Icnew that Greece 
was to be freed by revolution). 

The Priests of Eleusis, 

The Prelates (knowing all the secrets). 

The Grand Arch (The supreme directing control 
of 12 members). 

" Early in 1827 a motion was unanimously adopted by 
the Senate favouring the placing of Greece under the 
protection of Great Britain. " This followed a secret 
interview of Mavrocordato with Sir Stratford Canning, 
but Mavrocordato retired from public life " on the 
failure of his project for the establishment of a con- 
stitutional kingdom under British protection." 

" Hostilities in Greece were finally terminated, in 
the summer of 1828, by a convention concluded at 
Alexandria between Admiral Codrington and Mehemet 
Ali, by which the latter agreed to withdraw the Egyp- 
tian troops from the Morea. " 

The arbitrary government of Capo dTstria ended on 
October 24, 1831, when he was assassinated. 


(Founded about 1815) 

This society has also been known as The Triad Society, 
The Ghee Hon, The Society of Heaven and Earth 
(T'in Tei Hui), Ts'ing-lin-Kiu, The San-ho-hoei and the 

After the Emperor Kang Hsi issued a Sacred Edict 
in 1662, ordering the suppression of Buddhism and 
Taoism in China, the Hung and the White Lotus, the 
latter a Taoist mystical society also known by the name 
" White Lily ", are said to have united to fight the 
Manchu Dynasty as their common enemy. 

They are supposed to have finally merged towards 
1815 as a secret political occult organization. 

In 1851 the Hung broke into open revolt against 
the Manchus. This is known as the Taiping Revolt and 
is often alluded to as " The Triad War ". It was led 
by a village schoolmaster called Hung who, after his 
defeat by Gordon in 1864, committed suicide. 

Since the Taiping revolt the Society has been less 
conspicuous but it is supposed nevertheless to have 
inspired the successful revolution which in 1911 over- 
threw the Manchu Dynasty and established the Repub- 



lie of which Dr. Sun Yat-Sen assumed the presidency 
on January 1, 1912. 

Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, nominally a Christian, was a 
member of the Hung Society, and his first official action 
as the first President of the Chinese Republic was to 
enable Yuan Shi-Kai to unite all parties under his 
presidency. He then accepted for himself the Presi- 
dency of Nanking. The people received his proclamation 
announcing these changes in front of the Ming tombs, 
and listened while he told the spirits of the Mings that 
the Manchu despotism, having faller, China was now 
a Republic. 

The Hung having been outlawed since 1890 in 
China as a terrorist organization, now, as a secret 
society, holds its meetings in the woods at night with 
the approaches well guarded. 

The English branch of this society is at Liverpool 
where it operates as a mutual benefit and charitable 

I, A history of the Hung is given in The Hung Society by 
J. S. Ward and W. G. Sterling. 

As the rights of citation from this book are withheld from 
the public we are unable to give quotations from it here, but 
we recommend the first twenty-two pages as of interest to 
historical students. 


(Founded 1815) 

This rite was founded in 1815 by Sam Honis (from 
Cairo), Gabriel Mathieu, Baron Dumas, Marquis de 
Laroque and Hippolite Labrunie. 

The Grand Lodge Osiris in Paris was founded in 
1839. Jacques Etienne Marconis was Grand Master. 

In his History of Freemasonry, Freke-Gould states 
that " J. E. Marconis, Grand Hierophant, inaugurated 
the Rite in person at New Yorlc in 1857, and after- 
wards in 1862 chartered it as a Sovereign Sanctuary 
— by which body a charter was granted on Jan. 3rd, 
1872, for another Sovereign Sanctuary in and for the 
British Islands whose officers were duly installed Oct. 
8th in the same year. " 

The order is now Icnown in England as " The Ancient 
and Primitive Rite. " 

On December 30, 1862, the rite of Memphis merged 
finally into the Grand Orient of France and in England, 
in 1875 under the name of Ancient and Primitive Rite, 
it amalgamated with that oi Mizraim which Gould 
informs us had no separate governing body in chat 

In 1865, the Grand Orient reduced the original 97 
degrees to 33. 



A. E. Waite in Devil Worship in France outlines tlie 
later history of the rite in the following sentence : 

" Garibaldi succeeded Jacques Etienne Marconis of 
Paris, becoming president of a confederation of the Rites 
which was brought about by Mr. John Yarker in the 
year 1881.1 

1. A. E. Waite, Devil Worship in France, p. 254. 



(Founded 1816) 

The Calderari del Contrapeso, an offshoot of the Car- 
bonari, came into prominence about 1816. 

Their first organizer. The Prince of Canosa, became 
Minister of Police under Ferdinand, King of Naples, 
in December, 1819. 

The Calderari were the sworn enemies of the Free- 
masons and Carbonari. 

They took the following oath : — 

" I, N. N., promise and swear upon the Trinity, as 
supreme director of the universe, upon this cross, and 
upon this steel, the avenging instrument of the per- 
jured — to live and die in the Roman Catholic and Apos- 
tolic faith, and to defend with my blood this religion, 
and the society of True Friendship, the Calderari, to 
which I am about to belong. I swear never to offend, 
in honour, hfe, or property, the children of True Friend- 
ship ; I promise and swear to all the Knights, true 
friends, all possible succour that shall depend on me. 
1 swear to initiate no person into the Society before 
I arrive at the 4th rank. 1 swear eternal hatred to all 
Masonry, and to its atrocious protectors ; as well as 
to all Jansenists, Materialists, Economists, and Illu- 



minati. I swear, as I value my life, never to admit any 
of them into the Society of Friendship. Lastly, I swear, 
that if, through wickedness or levity, I suffer myself 
to commit perjury, I submit to the loss of hfe as the 
punishment of my error, and then to be burnt: and may 
my ashes, scattered to the wind, serve as an example 
to the children of Friendship throughout the whole 
world. And so help me God, for the happiness of my 
soul, and the repose of my conscience. " 

1. Secret Societies of Italy, London, p. 71. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LXV. 

For development of this movement see Chapter CXXVL 


(Founded 1820) 

The Masonic Lodge Les Amis de la Verite was 
founded in 1820 by Buchez, Flotard, Hazard and Jou- 
bert, all Freemasons, for political purposes. On a riot 
incited by members of this lodge a young man was 
killed. As a consequence of his death this lodge went 
out of existence. 

One of its former members, Dugied, a Freemason, 
was initiated into the mysteries of Carbonarism while 
at Naples. 1 Having conceived the project of introducing 
this association into France he discussed the matter 
with another ex-member of the Ami's de la Verite, 
Flotard, and together they decided to put the idea 
into practice by taking as a nucleus of the new organ- 
ization the remains of Les Amis de la Verite. 

The society was organized as follows : — 

The one " Haute Vente ", central " Ventes " and 
individual " Ventes " (lodges). 

The "Haute Vente" was the committee of direction 
and action. Two members of the committee having 
found an adept, the adept would agree with them to 

1. Thomas Frost, The Secret Societies of the European Revo- 
lution, vol. II, p. 6. 



form a " Vente ". The adept would become President 
one of the others censor, the other deputy, the role 
of the last being to keep in touch with the committee 
while allowing the president to believe that this com- 
mittee was only a superior degree of the association; 
The censor's business was to inspect the work of the 
" Ventes ". These three chiefs were then required to 
annex 17 recruits, thus bringing the number of a lodge 
up to twenty. Thus constituted, this group was called 
a central " Vente ". Two of its m?mbers made below 
what had been made above them, forming an indivi- 
dual " Vente " of the first order, which, repeating the 
same process formed an ordinary individual " Vente " 
thus extending indefinitely the ramifications of the 

A similar organization, but under different names, 
was adapted to the army. There the Haute Vente was 
called the Legion, the central Ventes, the Cohortes, 
the individual Ventes of the first order the Centuries ; 
and the ordinary individual Ventes the Manipules. 

This double system was intended to puzzle the police, 
by making it believe that there was a separate asso- 
ciation in the army. A further measure of precaution 
forbade a Carbonaro, under penalty of death, being 
affiliated to another Vente. This precaution was intend- 
ed to prevent anyone entering different groups and 
thus possibly discovering and denouncing the secrets 
of the society. 

The direction of the Ventes was indeed centralized 
but this unity of control was to be ignored by most 
of the members. 

The Carbonari had no settled principles. It accepted 
all opinions provided these favoured the elimination 
of royal families. The imperialists and liberals formed 
important nuclei. The latter, the sons of middle-class 


parents, stirred against the government by patriotism, 
youth and class jealousy, dreamed only of grabbing 
the influence of the old families. As for what is called 
the people, it did not count in Carbonarism ; the illus- 
trious role attributed to it later had not yet been inven- 
ted ! 

To begin with, the Haute Yente counted only seven 
members : Dugied, Fiotard, Hazard, Buchez, Joubert, 
Carriol, Limperani. Among them we find again the four 
heads of the Amis de la Verite. 

The Carbonari having prospered, the Haute Vente 
found it advisable to annex some notable characters. 
Among others, the Freemason General Lafayette, who, 
even in old age, had a childish weakness for popularity, 
accepted the offer to join the conspiracy. 

Towards the end of 1820 the society had many 
branches, notably those of Bordeaux, Nantes, Toulouse, 
La Bochelle, Poitiers, Colmar, Belfort, etc. 

The subversive efforts of this society culminated in 
an abortive attempt at Bevoiution at La Bochelle, 
and the subsequent arrest of many of its principal 
members completed its nominal dissolution. 

After the debacle at La Rochelle the Amis de la 
Verite merged into the Amis du Peuple which in turn, 
in 1832, became the Droits de I'Homme. After its 
unsuccessful attempt to assassinate the king, (Louis 
Philippe) in 1835 the remains of the Droits de I'Homme 
reorganized as the Societe des Families with Blanqui 
and Barbes as leaders. According to Lucien de la 
Hodde,"" Carbonarism in France had ceased to exist 
by 1822, except for a few obstinates like Charles Teste, 
(a friend of Babeuf) and Buonarotti who remained 

2. Lucien de la Hodde, Histoire des Societes Secretes. 


faithful to the old organization. Lucien de la Hodde 
however, while following Carbonarism, lost sight of 
the Haute Vente which, working through Mazzini 
and the International Committee of London, directed 
its work of destruction in France through Ledru Rollin 
and Felix Pyat. After its collapse in 1836 the Societe 
des Families became that of the Saisons (seasons) 
and it was a branch of this society, the Societe dissi- 
dents, that served the purpose of the Haute Vente 
in 1848 by aiding in the terrorisation of Paris and the 
fall of the Monarchy. 

The self-appointed members of the provisional govern- 
ment of France after the abdication of the king 
were : — Dupont (de I'Eure) Member of the original 
Carbonari founded in 1820, Arago, Lamartine, Ledru 
Rollin, Garnier-Pages, Marie, Cremieux. 

Lucien de la Hodde was the agent of the French 
Secret Police, and for 8 years before the revolution of 
1848 occupied an exalted position in the ranks of the 

His conclusions are strangely at variance with the 
facts which he relates. On page 381, he tells how an 
indiscretion on the part of Caussidiere, one of his asso- 
ciates, placed the blame of a conspiracy upon Ledru 
Rollin and, because Ledru Rollin calmly denied know- 
ledge of the affair, de la Hodde accepts his statement 
without question. 

Though a bona-fide student of the subject, it is 
quite evident that de la Hodde had failed to grasp 
the principle upon which Revolutionary organizations 
operate, viz : that of a body of dupes whose particular 
job is genuinely to believe that their organization is 
the executive one. Into this one all persons of 
doubtful revolutionary integrity are steered, and, in 


this branch of the machine, conscientiously attend to 
their business, while the real agents do their savage 

For root of movement see Chapter LXV. 
For development of movement see Chapters LXXXV, 


(Founded 1822) 

Heckethorn tells us of a sect which arose in Poland 
in 1818 which he refers to as that of " National Free- 
masonry ", which borrowed the rites, degrees, and 
language of Freemasonry, but aimed at national inde- 
pendence. The society was open to persons of all classes, 
but sought chiefly to enlist soldiers and officials, so 
as to turn their technical knowledge to account in 
the day of the struggle. But though numerous, the 
society lasted only a few years : for disunion arose 
among the members, and it escaped total dissolution 
only by transformation. It altered its rites and cere- 
monies, and henceforth called itself the " Scythers ", 
in remembrance of the revolution of 1794, in which 
whole regiments, armed with scythes, had gone into 

They met in 1821 at Warsaw, and drew up a new 
revolutionary scheme, adopting at the same time the 
new denomination of " Patriotic Society". In the 

1. Heckethorn. Secret Societies of All Ages and Countries, 
vol. 11, p. 175. 



meanwhile, the students of the university of Wilna 
had formed themselves into a secret society which, 
however, was discovered by the Russian government 
and dissolved. In 1822, the Patriotic Society combined 
with the masonic rite of "Modern Templars", founded 
in Poland by Captain Maiewski; to the three rites 
of symbolical masonry was added a fourth, in which 
the initiated swore to do all in his power towards 
the liberation of his country. These combined societies 
brought about the insurrection of 1830. In 1834 was 
established the society of " Young Poland " by Simon 

Simon Konarski (1808-1839) was a young Polish 
patriot and poet, one of the most active members of 
the Young Poland movement founded by Joseph 
Mazzini in 1834. He travelled to France, England and 
Belgium and, in the latter country, namely in Brus- 
sels, was in constant touch with Lelewel who had been 
chosen by Mazzini to become the link between him- 
self and the Polish revolutionists. In Paris, the Young 
Poland movement was directed by Zwierkowsky. 

Simon Konarski was seized by the Russian autho- 
rities and executed in 1839 at Wilna. 


(Founded 1825) 

As regards this organization. Pollard writes " In 
1825 the name of the Ribbon men was changed officially 
to the St. Patrick's Fraternal Organization, otherwise 
known as ihe St. Patrick's Boys. This change was 
essential as, like their predecessors the White Boys, 
the eminently Catholic Association of Ribbon men had 
now been excommunicated by the Catholic Church. " ' 

1. Also known as Levellers. 

2. Pollard, Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 37. 



(Founded 1830) 

The Brahmo Somaj movement, also called Brah- 
moism or Brahmaism, was founded by Rajah Ram 
Mohun Roy (1774-1833), in 1830. 

Its main object was to fight idolatrous rites and 
practices, and, by many, it has been described as a 
" Hindu Unitarian Church. " 

The chief achievement of Ram Mohun Roy was the 
abolition by Lord William Bentinck of the practice 
of " suttee " (sacrifice of the widow on the funeral 
pyre of her husband). 

Ram Mohun Roy's principles were Theistic. He had 
also for several years studied Lamaism in the Hima- 
layas. Having come to England in 1830, he was receiv- 
ed with much honour by many sections of society 
and entertained by Louis Philippe. He was considered 
a great authority by all those who at that time were 
conducting spiritualist and psychic researches. He died 
at Bristol. 

A great impulse was given to the Brahmo Somaj 
by Debendra Nath Tagore (also written Devendranath 
Takur) who had joined it in 1842 and is considered 
as its second founder. 



Owing to his efforts, the institution became purely 
Theistic, giving up the authority of the Yedas and 
eliminating the Vedantic element from the Brahmic 
covenant. In 1856, Debendra Nath Tagore had also 
gone to the Himalayas where he spent three years 
as a disciple of the Tibetan Lamas. Later, he was 
joined in his work by his friend Keshub Chunder 
Sen who, however, in 1863, devoured by the ambition 
of becoming sole leader, attacked the Somaj, heading 
what one might call the revolt of the " Young Brah- 
maists " and with his followers seceded from the Mother 

The schism gave rise to the formation of another 
Somaj which was directed by Keshub Chunder Sen 
under the name Somaj of India, whereas the former 
organization, remaining under the leadership of Deben- 
dra Nath Tagore, was called Adi Samaj or Original 
Church. It was also named " Conservative ", in oppo- 
sition to the new institution termed " Progressive ". 

Keshub Chunder Sen retained power in his organ- 
ization ; the foundation stone of the Somaj of India 
Church was laid at Jhamapukur in Calcutta, in 1868. 
In 1870 he journeyed to England where he was enthu- 
siastically received by the spiritualist centres of the 
day, and succeeded in exciting much interest in the 
political, social and religious affairs of India. In 1878, 
his disregard for the rules of the Somaj regarding 
Hindu marriages which he infringed in the matter of 
the wedding of his own daughter to the young Maha- 
rajah of Kuch Behar, caused another split in the ranks 
of the Somaj of India. The dissidents then formed the 
Sadharan Brahmo Somaj. 

The career of Keshub Chunder Sen must be followed 
with interest by students of Theosophy. Therein will 
they find many of the odd principles and injunctions 


laid down by H. P. Blavatsky and Annie Besant. For 
instance, the theocratic system was that promoted 
by Keshub Chunder Sen in his efforts to found a univer- 
sal religion which would unite all creeds and symbols ; 
the Christian Cross, the Crescent, the Vedic Om, the 
Saiva's trident and the Vaishnava's Khunti. By means 
of imaginary pilgrimages, he led his adherents suc- 
cessively to the shrines of Moses, Buddha, to the Hima- 
layan heights and Lama teachers, to Jesus and to 

Similarly to Annie Besant's Khrishnamurti, he 
allowed himself to be worshipped as the Saviour of 
Sinners ; his theory was the reincarnation of Great 
Men of which he was one. Further, he complacently 
allowed his followers to raise him to the dignity of a 
deity. As the Kheshub Chunder Sen's worship increas- 
ed, there grew also the dogma of Divine Injunction. 
A salient feature of Keshub's teaching was the belief 
or blind faith in the revelations claimed to have been 
made to invisible teachers and spiritual guides and 
exaction of blind obedience to their commands. We 
are forcibly reminded of the claim made by H. P. Bla- 
vatsky to her followers to sign their blind acceptance 
of all orders presumably received from invisible mas- 
ters like her Koot Hoomi. 

Another feature which, later, distinguished Keshub 
Chunder Sen's devotees was the " Bhakti " side of their 
religion. Unlike " Yoga ", the old Hindu type of reli- 
gious meditation or contemplation, " Bhakti ", which 
has been chiefly developed by the followers of Chay- 
tania in India, is a manifestation of religious frenzy. 
It spurns the aspiration to approach God by concen- 
tration of thought and desire as well as silent commu- 
nion, which they deem unprofitable and vain. The 
philosophy of " Bhakti " is that the love of God must 


be strong to the point of being maddening. It therefore 
induces dancing, sobbing, swooning. The more frenzied 
the manifestations, the greater the religious per- 
fection. A great Bhalcta is one who, like the founder of 
the school, shows the greatest religious madness. 

Women devotees of Keshub Chunder Sen's following 
were formed into a sisterhood in 1881 and one hears 
of " ladies' journies to the Spirit land ". The readers 
of " Inquire Within " will remember the description 
of " journeys in the Astral " claimed to have been 
accomplished by women adepts of the Stella Matutina 
Order. Soon after, also in 1881, young men were like- 
wise formed into a brotherhood and were initiated into 
different holy orders. In both cases, the number of 
initiates was 11. The ceremony of initiation was called 
New Horn, Sacred Fire or Blazing Agni. Most of the 
rites are found in the different branches of Theosophy 
and Anthroposophy, all centred around this sacred 
fire also named Kundalini. 

In 1880, Keshub Chunder Sen had given his organiza- 
tion another name, that of " The New Dispensation ". 

It is in the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia that one 
must seek the amalgamation of Jewish Cabala magic 
and Hindu magic. The latter swept over Europe with 
the spread of Theosophy and flourished particularly 
in England. There it had found a ground in 1830 with 
the teachings given by Ram Mohun Roy to the spiri- 
tualists of that day with whom he had formed a Brahmo 
Somaj circle. 

1. " Inquire 'within ", Light bearers of Darkness. 
For root of this movement see Chapter XIV. 
For development of this movement see Chapters CX and 


(Founded 1830} 

Soon after the establishment of Mormonism its 
founder, Joseph Smith, conceived the idea of establish- 
ing a Masonic super rite. 

In M. R. Werner's book Brigham Young (page 62) 
the following remark makes this evident. 

" Masonry was always popular with the Mormons 
until Joseph Smith claimed that an angel of the Lord 
had brought him the lost key-words of several degrees, 
enabling him to progress further than the highest 
Masons. The charter of the Mormon lodge was then 
taken away by the Grand Lodge ". 

Joseph Smith, applying his powers of mediumship 
towards the realization of the ambitious project nur- 
tured by General Pepe, Mazzini and others for the 
establishment of a super rite, was not necessarily 
acceptable to the Masonic leaders of his time. 

Thus as a Mason he failed but as the founder of a 
Masonic sect he succeeded. 

So much has already been written about the sect of 
the Mormons that we confine ourselves here to a short 
sketch of opinion and descriptions given by various 
authors. The following is extracted from The Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, 9th Edition. 



" This is a religious non-Christian sect, founded by 
Joseph Smith at Manchester, New Yorlc, in 1830, now 
settled in Salt Lake City, Territory of Utah, United 
States... Smith was born Dec. 23rd, 1805, at Sharon, 
Windsor County, Vermont, from which place ten years 
later his parents, a poor, ignorant, thriftless, and not 
too honest couple, removed to New York, where they 
settled on a small farm near Palmyra, Wayne County 
(then Ontario). Four years later, in 1809, they removed 
to Manchester, some six miles off; and it was at the 
latter place when fifteen years old that Joseph began 
to have his alleged visions, in one of which on the night 
of 21st Sept., 1823, the angel Moroni appeared to him 
three times, and told him that the Bible of the Western 
Continent, the supplement to the New Testament, was 
buried in a certain spot near Manchester. Thither, four 
years later and after due disciplinary probation. Smith 
went, and had delivered into his charge by an angel of 
the Lord a stone box, in which was a volume, 
6 inches thick, made of thin gold plates 8 inches by 7, 
and fastened together by three gold rings. The plates 
were covered with small writing in the ' reformed 
Egyptian ' tongue, and were accompanied by a pair 
of supernatural spectacles, consisting of two crystals 
set in a silver bow, and called ' Urim and Thummim '; 
by aid of these, the mystic characters could be read. 
Being himself unable to read or write fluently. Smith 
employed as amanuensis one Oliver Cowdery, to whom 
from behind a curtain, he dictated a translation, which, 
with the aid of a farmer, Martin Harris, who had 
more money than wit, was printed and published in 
1830 under the title of The Book of Mormon and accom- 

1. Harris married as one of his many wives the widow of 
the murdered Mason, WilHam Morgan. 


panied by the sworn statement of Oliver Cowdery, 
David Whitmer, and Martin Harris, that an angel of 
God had shown them the plates of which the bock was a 
translation. This testimony all three, on renouncing 
Mormonism some years later, denounced as false ; but 
meanwhile it helped Smith to impose on the credulous, 
particularly in the absence of the gold plates themselves 
which suddenly and mysteriously disappeared. " 

Blanchard draws a parallel between this story of 
the gold plates and that of the legend of the 14th degree 
of Scottish Rites Masonry, that of Grand Elect Perfect 
and Sublime Mason, according to which " the real name 
o\ God was lost, till it was found by Masons, engraved 
on a three-cornered gold plate, in " the ruins of Enoch. '"■ 

In reality, this book " was written in 1812 as an 
historical romance by one Solomon Spalding, a crack- 
brained preacher; and the MS. falling into the hands 
of an unscrupulous compositor, Sidney Rigdon, was 
copied by him, and subsequently given to Joseph 
Smith. Armed with this book and with self-assumed 
divine authority, the latter soon began to attract 
followers. " ' 

Joseph Smith was a Mason. 

The Gold Plate trick, having worked so successfully 
once, was tried again in 1843 when six plates were 
found by Robert Wiley, a merchant of Kinderhook, 
Illinois. " The true story of the plates was disclosed " 
so Stuart Martin writes in The Mystery of Mormonism 
(page 69), in an affidavit made by W. Fulgate, of Mount 
Station, Brown County, III. on June 30th, 1879, when 
he swore before J. Brown, Justice of the Peace, that the 
" plates were humbug, gotten up by Robert Wiley, 

2. Blanchard, Scottish Rite Masonry, vol. I, p. 380. 

3. Enc. Brit., Art. Mormons. 


Bridge Whitton, and myself. Whitton, who was a 
blacksmith, cut the plates out of pieces of copper. 
Wiley and I made the hieroglyphics by making impres- 
sions of beeswax and filling them with acid. " He 
describes the burial and the finding of the plates, and 
states that among the spectators at the " discovery " 
were two Mormon Elders, Marsh and Sharp. 

Smith and his followers founded the city of Nauvoo 
and " such were the powers granted them by this 
charter as to render the city practically independent of 
the State Government, and to give Smith all but un- 
limited civil power. He organized a military body called 
the Nauvoo legion, of which he constituted himself 
commander with the title of lieutenant-general, while 
he was also president of the church and mayor of the 
city. On April 6th, 1841, the foundations of the new 
temple were laid, and the city continued to grow rapidly 
in prosperity and size. " 

Smith's career of treason, profligacy, dishonesty, 
polygamy, spiritism and humbug, came to an abrupt 
end when the gaol in which he was imprisoned by order 
of the Governor of the State was broken into by a mob 
who shot him and his fellow prisoner, his brother 

As head of the Mormons he was succeeded by 
Brigham Young (1801-1877). 

In 1846, the repeal by the legislature of the charter 
of Nauvoo resulted in the Mormons being driven from 
the city. 

In March 1849, they held a convention at Salt Lake 
City, and a State was organized under the name of 
" Deseret ". " A legislature was elected and a consti- 
tution framed, which was sent on to Washington. This, 
Congress refused to recognize, and by way of compro- 
mise for declining to admit the proposed new State 


into the Union, President Fillmore in 1850 organized 
the country occupied by the Mormons into the Terri- 
tory of Utah, with Brigham Young as governor. " 
Adopting Smith's policy of aggressive military action, 
Brigham Young, like his predecessor, defied the Fede- 
ral Government. He died on August 29, 1877, leaving 
17 wives and 56 children. 

The following description of a Mormon ceremony 
was printed in the Rosicrucian in an article entitled 
" Ancient and Modern Mysteries " by M. W. Frater 
Robert Wentworth Little (page 169). 

" The converts are then required to purchase 
white linen garments, which are furnished by the 
' high deacon '. They are then conducted to the temple, 
ushered into a private room, and commanded to undress 
for the inspection of the presiding elder '. This official, 
after a minute examination, clothes the neophytes in 
the linen robes or garments of endowment and conducts 
them into a large room which is divided by white 
screens into many small compartments. Each neophyte 
enters one of the compartments, and is ordered to take 
off the ' endowment robe ' and to step into a long coffin- 
shaped tin bath. The elder then pours water upon the 
naked victim — blessing each member of the body as 
the water touches it — ' the brain to be clear and 
strong — the eyes to be bright and sharp — the ears 
to be quick to hear ', and so on down to the feet — this 
ceremony being performed upon all, without distinc- 
tion of sex. A new name is then given to each convert 
by the elder, who commands them to ' arise and follow 
me '. A magnificent garden, full of exquisite fruit- 
trees, is the scene of the next ceremony. The candidates 
are still in a state of nudity, which represents primeval 

4. Enc. Brit., 9th Ed. Art. Mormonism. 


innocence, and the Temptation of our First Parents 
is the subject of the next drama. The women are direc- 
ted by an elder personating Satan to pluclc an apple 
from a certain tree, and after they have tasted, to hand 
it to the men. Brigham Young then appears, and drives 
them out of the garden with a flaming sword. They 
return to the temple, implore forgiveness on their knees 
for all trespasses and transgressions and the ceremony 
concludes with a benediction upon the new Saints, 
pronounced by the lips of this polygamous president. 

" Such is a brief outline of the ' Rite of Endowment' 
the details of the scene being, as may readily be conceiv- 
ed, of too obscene a character to be explained at greater 
length. " 

Brigham Young was succeeded by John Taylor, an 
Englishman and a Freemason. His apostolic successors 
were Wilford Woodruff, Lorenzo Snow, Joseph Fielding 
Smith {eldest son of the founder of the order) who died 
Nov. 19th, 1918, and Heber J. Grant. '^ 

About Mormonism and Masonry, Blanchard makes 
the following remark : " The two institutions are morally 
and legally the same. " 

The Mormon dogma is universality, materialism and 
pantheism. It blends Judaism and Christianity, aiming 
at a progressive universal religion while seeking to unite 
in itself all faiths and the cults of every people on 

The Mormon state is a theocratic community at the 
head of which is a grand priest-president assisted by 
two others and a travelling council of twelve. Its 
mysteries are those of spiritism and the seance room. 

5. Stuart Martin, The Mystery of Mormonism. 

6. Blanchard 33", op. cit.. vol. 11, p. 373. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XLVII. 


I. O. B. B. 
(Founded 1843) 

B'nai B'rith means " Sons of the Covenant ", the 
Covenant being that of circumcision practised according 
to the Mosaic law. Hence the Independent Order of the 
B'nai B'rith admits only Jews as members. 

This rite "was founded in New York in 1843 by a 
number of German Jews, headed by Henry Jones. " 

Its constitution, District Lodges, Grand Lodges, 
stamp it as a Jewish Masonic Society. 

Like most societies, it covers its political activities 
under the cloak of " benevolence and philanthropy. " 

From its inception until the present time, its main 
contact has been with Germany and its chief aim the 
establishment of the supremacy of the German Jews in all 
world affairs through the channel of " Internationalism". 

In 1882, the strength of the I. 0. B. B. in the United 
States warranted the opening of Lodges in Germany 
by Moritz Ettinger, and the growth of the order was 
s6 rapid there that in 1885, Julius Bien, President 
of the Order in New York, went over and inaugu- 

I. Jewish Encyclopaedia, Art B'nai B'rith. 



rated the first German Grand Lodge of the I. O. B. B. 

The political activities of the leaders of the order in 
Bumania, Austria and Hungary are a matter of record, 
although the chief centre of their power is in the United 
States where they have lately attained supremacy in 
the Jewish World by absorbing " national " Zionism 
and submitting it wholly to their own " international " 
policy when the Jewish World Agency was created 
in October, 1928. 

It will be well for the reader to bear in mind that, 
however united a front the Jews may present to the 
Gentiles, yet among themselves they are divided, and 
the fight for supremacy and the attainment of world 
power is not less bitter between their various camps 
than it is among the different sects of Freemasonry. 

Babbi Dr. Leo Bach was the president of the B'nai 
B'rith of Germany in 1928. 

The Grand Master for Bussia of the International 
Order of the B'nai B'rith at the time of the Bussian 
revolution of 1917 was Sliozberg. He was one of the 
inspirers of Kerensky, the leader of the first revolution 
of 1917. Alexander Kerensky, real name Aron Kirbiz, 
Kerensky having been the name of his stepfather, was 
a member of the Socialist revolutionary party and a 
32nd degree Scottish Bites Mason. 

There is but little doubt now that the B'nai B'rith 
seems to be the supreme body, shaping and directing, 
for the attainment of its own ends, the policies, what- 
ever they may be, of all Freemasonry beginning with the 
Grand Lodge of England, The Grand Orient and Scottish 
Bites, and ending in the O. T. O., which is Illuminism 
under another name. 

2. Les Cahievs de I'Oidre, November 1927. 

For root of Ihis movement see Chapter "VII. 

r'or development of this movement see Chapter CXXVII. 



(Founded 1843) 

Captain H. B. C. Pollard, in writing of the Young 
Ireland movement says " The leaders of the Young 
Ireland Party of 1848 were John Mitchell, an advanced 
Radical, deeply tinged with Jacobin ideas, and William 
Smith O'Brien, whose brother later became Lord 
Inchiquin. They obtained popular support by reason of 
the widespread misery caused by the Potato famine 
of ' Black Forty-seven. ' Gavan Duffy, Dillon, Doheny, 
O'Gorman and Stephens were all minor conspirators. 
Mitchell and O'Brien were transported to Van Diemens 
Land, but the younger men mostly made good their 
escape and lived in exile in Paris and America. " 

" The old traditional combination of an open 
movement within the law reinforced by a secret orga- 
nization of criminal habits was revived in 1850, when the 
Tenant Defence Society was founded with the object 
of enforcing, by agitation, legislation which was to 
accomplish by legal means that expropriation of 
property that the combined genius of Whitefeet, 
Rockites, Tenvalts, Molly Maguires and all other Irish 

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 10. 



terrorist societies had failed to achieve by violence. 

" The Archbishop of Dublin at that time was 
Archbishop Cullen, who was familiar with the evils 
resulting from the effective use of Secret Societies. He 
had been in Rome when the successful Carbonarists 
under Mazzini and Garibaldi drove out the Pope ; ' and 
the lesson had not been wasted. Cullen readily ascer- 
tained that the Tenants' Rights Party was merely a 
new disguise for the late ' Young Ireland ' movement, 
whose ideals were both Republican and, within limits, 

" There was no formal excommunication, but a quiet 
though firm ban was placed on the party. " 

The Young Ireland Movement was but a branch of 
the Young Europe Movement led by Mazzini, the main 
history of which will be found in Part I. 

2. Pollard, op. cit., p. 44. 

3. Pope Pius IX, on Nov. 15, 1848. 

4. Pollard, op. cit., p. 46. 

For root of this movement see Chapters LXIII, LXV. 
For development of this movement see Chapter LXXXII. 


(Founded] 844) 

" Inquire Within", in her book Light-bearers of 
Darkness, gives an excellent summary of the crigin and 
scope of this sect. From her work we quote the following : 

" This movement was founded in 1844 by a Persian, 
Mirza Ali Muhammad, who took the title of ' Bab ' 
(the Gate); he revolted against the Hierarchy, who, 
fearing his growing influence, had him shot at Tabriz, 

" It claims to be the fulfilment ' of that which was 
but partially revealed in previous dispensations ', and 
they look upon Buddha, Zoroaster, Jesus, Mohammed, 
and Confucius as merely preparing the world for the 
advent of the ' Most Great Peace ' and the ' Mighty 
World Educator ' Baha'u'llah (Glory of God), 1863-92, 
and later Abdul-Baha, 1892-1921. It further claims to 
be the unity of all religions, also older and modern 
movements, such as Theosophy, Freemasonry, Spiri- 
tualism, Socialism, etc. ; it aims at conferring illumina- 
tion upon humanity, and like all illuminated groups, it 
works for universal peace, religion, education, language 
(Esperanto), and universal everything leading to unity 
of humanity; therefore all prejudices must be abandoned, 



traditional, racial, patriotic, religious and political ; 
all religions must be in accordance with science and 
reason. " 

The Bahais have a temple in Chicago, the building 
of which was begun in 1903 which " Inquire Within " 
describes as being a perfect nonagon in form, all its 
dimensions being based on the number nine, " the 
cabalistic number of generation, which initiates and 
leads to unity with the universal astral light. " 

The same author further explains the organization 
of the sect most concisely in the following lines : 

" There is a Guardian of the Cause — Shogi-Effendi — 
with nine co-workers, and in each town there is a Spiritual 
Assembly of nine members, who must be consulted, abso- 
lutely obeyed, and submitted to. There are also National 
Spiritual Assemblies in all countries to which the cause has 
spread, and, finally, they are making elaborate plans to 
form an International Spiritual Assembly to be elected by 
all behevers — to enact ordinances and regulations not 
found in the explicit Holy Text. " 

We leave it to anyone interested to follow the sub- 
versive activities of this sect in either the political or 
religious realm. 

1. " Inquire Within ", Light bearers of Darkness, p. 194 e! seq. 
For root of this movement see Chapter IV. 



I. O. O. F. 

(Founded 1844) 

The following information is gathered from The 
Complete Manual of Oddfellows. 

" In 1819, Thomas Wildey established in Baltimore 
the first lodge of Oddfellows in the United States, and 
from 1825 till 1833, he was Grand Sire of the Grand 

" In 1843 Grand Sire Howell Hopkins of Pennsyl- 
vania was installed, and the United States Grand Lodge 
issued a dispensation for opening the Prince of Wales 
Lodge No. 1 at Montreal, Canada. 

" In 1844 The Grand Lodge (Oddfellows U. S. A.) 
appointed a Ritual Revision Committee and entirely 
changed all the working, rejecting the whole of the 
English work, and in point of fact creating an entirely 
new Order " based on the plans of Thomas Wildey. 
(See part I of this book). 

The woman's degree of " Rebeckah ", which was 

L The Complete Manual of Oddfellows, published 1 879, 
p. 66. 



formulated by Schuyler Colfax in 1851, was adopted 
by the Grand Lodge in September of that year. 

The American Oddfellows have five degrees. 

For the important and interesting connection of this 
order with Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites we 
would refer the reader to page 211 of this book. 

2. Op. cit., p. 153. 



(Founded 1848) 

Modern Spiritism, sometimes called Spiritualism, 
traces its descent from the mystifications of Catherine and 
Margaret Fox, the daughters of John Fox, who, in 1848, 
during the course of experiments conducted in a haunted 
house at Hydesville, New York, U. S. A. elaborated 
a system of communication by raps, with invisible enti- 
ties. Both sisters eventually confessed to having abused 
the credulity of the public in their spiritist seances but 
the universal interest aroused by the phenomena at 
Hydesville did not abate. 

Since then, there has been a regular epidemic of 
table turning, ouija boards, planchettes, automatic 
writings and similar modes, more or less effective, for 
achieving mediumship. 

The acquisition of this type of mediumship exposes 
the aspirant to the danger of an induced state of mental 
passivity during which the mind may register vibrations 
broadcast from some terrestrial centre such as that 
provided by the recently constituted " Polaire Society " 
and recognized by the H. B. of L. (See page 531). 

The cultivation of spiritism under all its different 
aspects either for amusement or pseudo-scientific inves- 



tigation leads to serious consequences when occult 
adepts rely upon such manifestations for spiritual and 
material guidance. One is appalled at the thought that 
even the destinies of nations may become subject to 
occult direction emanating from spiritistic seances. In 
connection herewith, the following clipping shows the 
opeiation of these methods on persons prominent in 
political life. As everyone knows, Mrs. Snowden, now 
Viscountess Snowden, is the wife of the then (1930) 
Chancellor oi the Exchequer, and a woman oi great 
personal influence. 

MR ^ *\NnWr>FN Rr reception rooms on the first floor 

'T'TTTh QPTRTTQ doorway between, so that he could 

Mrs. Philip Snowden, who pre- 

ij u c c A r- c n; rr i: M c n c sided, recalled an experience of her 

MhbiAOb WHhJM bHb o^,,|i ^vhen in 1906 she and Mr. 

GAME TO LONDON Snowden first came to London. 

" We got tired of hotel life, " said Mrs. 

Snowden, " and obtained rooms in 

SIR OLIVER LODGE IN Lambeih Palace-road. The following 

„„ _ __ morning a letter came to me at this 

DOWNING-STREET address which nobody in the world could 

have known. I opened this letter and 

Space "pulsating with life and it looked like nonsense. 

mind " was a picture of the «ni- ,, Scrutinising it carefully, I divided 

A u Q- rw r J the letters and they made sentences 

verse drawn by Sir OI ver Lodge the substance of whicli was that, I must 

in a lecture which he delivered last , |f j„,o frje„dlv relationship 

night at 11, Downing-slreet, Mr. with someone who had passed over— 

Snowden's official residence as into the ether — because that persons 

Chancellor of the Exchequer. work would not be effective if I did 

Sir Oliver was speaking on the not do it and my work here would not 

reality of the spiritual world, his be so good as it might be if I failed to do 

, , -^ . ■ A \- A ■ It. Ihere was an accompanying note 

ecture being delivered m connec- ^^-^^ ^^jj ^j^^, ^^-^ messLe wal deii- 

tion with the Industrial Law Bureau ^ered to me at a spiritualist meeting, 
of the Young Women s Christian [^ Lancaster, and the writer sent the 
Association. It was held in two message on. " 

The Daily Telegraph. October 29th 1930. 

The physical force of " Kundalini " expended by 
people in these " communications with the unseen 


drain their vital energy to such an extent that, when 
such practices are indulged in for an appreciable length 
of time, their nervous systems may be seriously impaired. 
A " Ouija " medium, after a week's consecutive sittings 
will feel a sense of heaviness and oppression about the 
solar plexus at certain hours. This sensation is shortly 
followed by serious physical weakness, manifest in sports- 
and athletics. Presently, the medium — now a potential 
medical patient — will be unable to sleep at night. 

Cracks, bangs, knocks, etc., will mark an approach- 
ing state of obsession. People whose psychic experi- 
ments have brought them to this degree of develop- 
ment, generally cut short further adventures in this 
field of science and theology. These have learned that 
there is indeed something beyond the obvious, and that 
after this stage of induced experimental mediumship 
has been achieved the way is open for such states of 
mind variously known to psychopathic doctors and 
priests as lunacy, possession, obsession, alternating 
personality and sadism. 

Mediumship does not imply power. A medium is a 
receiver and, as such, furthers the will of another. The 
fakirs of India are mediums. 

That these phenomena are real has been proved by 
such prominent scientists as Crooks, Richet and Flam- 
marion and the mediumistic exploits of such persons 
as D. I). Home are so well known and attested that we 
will give but one short extract here from page 171 of 
The Rosicrucian, quoting a speech by Lord Lindsay, 
Senior Grand Warden of England, for the benefit of 
persons who may happen to have no acquaintance 
with the subject. 

" I may mention that on another occasion I was 
sitting with Mr. Home and Lord Adare and a cousin 
of his. During the sitting Mr. Home went into a trance,. 


and in that state was carried out of the window in the 
room next to where we were, and was brought in at 
our window. The distance between the windows was 
about seven feet six inches and there was not the 
slightest foothold between them, nor was there more 
than a twelve inch projection to each window, which 
served as a ledge to put flowers on. " 

What are we to think when we read in John Drink- 
water's remarkable book on Charles James Fox that 
Sir Francis Dashwood was Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer under G?orge III ? 

Regarding the career of Sir Francis, we here read 
the following. The comment concerns John Wilkes 
whose " ambition to be admitted into the childish 
and blasphemous fraternity notorious as the Monks 
of Medmenham was frustrated by the claims of superior 
profligacy advanced by the fourth Lord Sandwich, with 
whom he competed for election. His resentment against 
that nobleman and Sir Francis Dashwood, the founder 
of the Society, was not appeased by the success of an 
exploit that diverted the town. Wilkes contrived to 
let a baboon loose upon one of the orgiastic rites at 
Medmenham that was being conducted in darkness, 
and had the satisfaction of throwing his victims into 
hysterics at the apparition of what their befuddled wits 
took to be the devil. " 

What indeed can be deduced from such an historical 
fact as that Lord Sandwich, " notable even in that age 
as a corrupter of morals ", was Secretary of State ? 

The obvious conclusion we can draw is that men either 
corrupt or easily bought are men easily blackmailed 
just as those who, being victims of their own greed, are 
amenable to bribery. 

1. John Drinkwater, Charles James Fox, p. 48. 


Spiritism is the fundamental mystery of most secret 
societies and the drug traffic is its chief commercial 

A clipping from the London Daily Telegraph of 
Nov. 29, 1930, which we reproduce, will give the reader 
an excellent idea of the problem of Modern Spiritism. 

CpjpT'T'TTAT T^X^ ANTO ''°" for the training of mediums and the 
^^-*^^^^ ^ "-^-^^^^^ ^ ^ /AJ.>liy furtherance of spiritualism generally is 

TTLTT7 T \\\l void, as being against public policy. By 

111J_, L/A.VV l^is ^^,j|| s,,. Arthur Conan Doyle left 

bequests to three spiritualistic insti- 
TEXT OF A BILL TO On this aspect of the matter it is 

GRANT RELIEF interesting to recall how, heretofore, the 

cult of spiritualism has been received in 

the High Court. It has figured, though 

TAflA/ITTMITV CD OAfl "o' iis a vital issue, in actions for libel 

liVllVlUlNlI I TKUiVl a„j slander. The typical cases of Arch- 

PROSECUTION '^^^fSn-j'^- PS"7,Tr on"- ^;i='^^^^'>'"^- 

in 1907, and Radcliffe Hall v. Lane Fox- 
Pitt, in 1920, will be remembered. 


RECALLED r, ,, , k ■ , , ■ 

It has also been a more intimate issue 
in a copyright case, Cummins v. Bond, 

The text was issued yesterday of lite which came before Mr. Justice Eve three 
SpirhuaUsm and Psychical Research or four years ago. The question for solu- 
itxemplion) Bill, a measure promoted by tion in that case was whether the copy- 
Mr. Kelly, M. P. for Rochdale, arid ten right in a communication said to have 
other members of the Socialist party. been made at a seance by the spirit of a 

It is designed to relieve spiritualists Glastonbury monk was vested in the 
and mediums from prosecution under the woman medium who received it, or in 
enactments relating to witchcraft and the enthusiastic sitter to whom she dic- 
vagrancy whilst they are " genuinely tated it and who wished to publish it. 
exercising their psychic powers whether jy>& si„e,. claimed that he owned the 
m religious practice or scientific invesli- copyright, as the author was a spirit 
gallon. gi^j bad only used the medium as an 

instrument of transmission. On the other 

Although the bill appears to hand, the medium claimed the copy- 
meditate only a change in the cri- right on the ground that she was not a 
minal law, it is obvious that if mere amanuensis, but was in communion 
placed on the Statute Book it must with the spirit of the deceased monk, 
to some extent affect the attitude and was therefore joint author of the 
towards spiritualism of judges who "isssage. ... 

administer the common law and With customary directness the judge 
, ■ ■ , c disregarded the pretension of both par- 

the principles of equity. ^.^^ f^^j ,1^^ communication had an 

If, for example, spiritualism, seances, ultra-terrestrial origin. He dealt with 

and mediums are to be recognised as no it as coming from a terrestrial author, 

longer inimical to the public well-being, it and held the medium to be the author 

difficult to see how the civil courts and therefore the holder of the copy- 
could hold, as they have done on several right. 

occasions, that a bequest loan institu- ^ong memories may also revive the 




ase of Lyon and Home, one of the most 
otable cases ever brought into a Chan- 
ery Court. 

A wealthy widow made a gift of 
:30,000 to Daniel Douglas Home, the 
lost celebrated of the mediums of his 
time(the 'Sixties), and gave him also a 
reversionary interest in another sum of 
similar amount. She did this believing 
that she was fulfilling the wish of 
er husband, whose spirit Home had 
invoked. Subsequently she rued her 
enerosity, and brought an action to 
ave the gifts set aside. 

Vice-Chancellor Giffard heard the case, 
and for nine days the court listened to 
talk about table rapping, knotted hand- 
erchiefs, and other phenomena. In 
setting aside the gifts Giffard charac- 
terised the manifestations which had 
influenced the lady as : 

" Mischievous nonsense, well calcu- 
lated on the one hand to delude the 
vain, the weak, the foolish, and the 
superstitious, and on the other hand 
to assist the projects of the needy 
and the adventurer. " 


There is no need to strain the memory 
severely for an instance of judicial 
iticism of the claims of spiritualists 
ade by Mr. Justice Darling. 
A theatrical agent sued theatrical 
oducers for damages for alleged 
failure to carry out an agreement to 
ace the Criterion Theatre at his dis- 
posal for a public seance. Merely men- 
tioning that the plaintiff won his case, 
and was awarded £200 damages, the 
comments of the judge may be quoted 
full, because reference was made 
the statute which it is now sought to 
fiend : 

" II is an open question whether the 
manifestations given by mediums are 
genuine or mere tricks by which people 
are able to represent that there is com- 
unication with the next world. I should 
myself come to the conclusion that there 
is no certain desire to deceive or impose, 
but that it is desired that people should 
be puzzled as to whether there is a 
genuine manifestation of spirits or 
w h e t h er it is trickery. 
" There are those who believe that 
the spirits can communicate in this 
world with those they have known. 

through some medium. Their time is so 
unoccupied in the next world, and it is 
such a dreary place, that thev are per- 
fectly ready to come to the" Criterion 
and attend matinees, and not to look 
on from the stage, but be on the stage 

"Before even they get on the stage 
they are counting the pennies in Mr. — 's 
overcoat or the buttons on it, and 
reading a jumble of German and English 

" On the other hand, there are those 
who are capable of supposing that this 
really is a kind of existence imposed 
for eternity upon those who have ceased 
to exist in life. If that is so, ' well may 
we weep for friends who die '. 

" All they (the plaintiffs) desired to do 
was to give an exhibition which would 
leave some people in doubt as to whether 
it was real divination by means of the 
dead or some trickery. No magistrate 
ought to convict them on this account 
under the statute of George IV. " 


In the bill now before Parliament 
it is proposed that spiritualists 
shall be given immunity from pro- 
secution, provided that there is 
no intention to defraud. The fol- 
lowing are specifically mentioned 
as coming within the scope of 
the bill : 

Promoter, chairman, or other official, 

Lecturer or speaker. 



For the purposes of the bill, 
" medium " and " clairvoyant " 
are defined as meaning a person 
" holding a certificate or licence 
of fitness to practise either as a 
medium or clairvoyant, or in both 
capacities, such certificate or 
licence to be issued by registered 
or properly constituted spiritua- 
listic or psychical societies, or a 
joint committee representing such 
societies, or such other certifying 
or licensing body as may be appro- 
ved by one of his Majesty's Prin- 
cipal Secretaries of State. " 


The Societies of Psychical Research, both in England 
and America, exist today as scientific centres for infor- 
mation and investigation of spirit phenomena. Persons 
interested in these " mysteries " would do well to avail 
themselves of their protection and the facilities they 
afford for serious work. The English Society was founded 
in 1882 by Henry Sidgwick, Edmund Gurney, Frede- 
rick Meyers, W. T. Barrett and others. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII. 

For development of this movement see Chapters CVIII, 

CIX, cx, cxv. 



(Founded 1850) 

This order has five degrees and was founded lor the 
wives and daughters of Masons in America by Robert 
Morris in 1850. It has also been worked in Scotland. 

Jephthah's Daughter . . Daughter's Degree 

Ruth. . ... .Widow's Degree 

Esther. .Wife's Degree 

Martha Sister's Degree 

Electa Benevolent Degree 

For root of this movement see Chapter XLVII. 



(I. R. B.) 


(Founded 1857-1858) 

Concerning this famous Secret Society, Captain 
Pollard writes : 

" From its earliest days to the present time the 
I. R. B. has existed as a militant revolutionary secret 
society, with the avowed object of separating Ireland 
from all connection with the British Empire and estab- 
lishing an independent Republican Government. 

" The founders of this movement were Colonel 
John O'Mahoney and a barrister, Michael Doheney, 
both of whom had fled from Ireland for their share in 
the rising of 1848. Both these men took refuge in France, 
at that time a hot-bed of secret Carbonarist societies, 
such as the Communistes RevoluUonnaires, the Con- 
stitutional Society with its ' Acting Company ', the 
Seasons and many others, and it was in Paris that these 
two fugitives lived with James Stephens, the real head 
and organizer of the Fenian movement, who was also a 
refugee. " 

" In 1857 a messenger was sent from New York 
to James Stephens, then in Dublin, asking him to get 

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 47. 



Up an organization in Ireland on resources provided 
from the States (U. S. A.) ; and it is clear that Stephens 
had already cut-and-dried plans in his mind as to how this 
was to be done. He stated his terms, which were agreed 
to, and on St. Patrick's Day 1858, the I. R. B. movement 
was initiated by Stephens and Luby in Dublin. " 

In 1859 the I. R. B. exacted the following oath ; 
" I, A. B., in the presence of Almighty God, do solemnly 
swear allegiance to the Irish Republic now virtually 
established ; and that I will do my utmost, at every 
risk, while life lasts, to defend its independence and 
integrity ; and finally that I will yield implicit obedience 
in all things, not contrary to the laws of God, to the 
commands of my superior officers. So help me God. 
Amen. " 

" The organization made rapid headway, but the 
weight of the Roman Catholic Hierarchy was surging 
against the movement, and in due course the Brother- 
hood was excommunicated ; in 1861 no Fenian could get 
absolution. " 

In reference to the founding of the Fenian society 
in America, Heckethorn fifty years ago had written the 
following : 

" In Nov. 1863, the Fenian organization assumed 
a new character. A grand national convention of 
delegates met at Chicago and avowed the object of 
the Brotherhood, namely, the separation of Ireland 
from England, and the establishment of an Irish repub- 
lic, the same changes being first to be effected in 
Canada. Another grand convention was held in 1864 
at Cincinnati, the delegates at which represented some 
250,000 members, each of which members was called 
upon for a contribution of five dollars, and this call, 
it is said, was promptly responded to.... About the same 
time a Fenian Sisterhood was established, and the 


ladies were not inactive ; for in two montlis from their 
associating they returned upwards of £200,000 sterling 
to the Fenian Exchequer for the purpose of purchasing 
arms and other war material. " "" 

To raise money the Fenians issued bonds redeemable 
90 days after the establishment of the future Irish 

Availing ourselves of the remarkable documentation 
furnished by Captain Pollard we gather the following 
facts : 

" The American Fenian Brotherhood was a separate 
organization, distinct from the Irish Fenian Brother- 
hood or I. R. B. having its own leaders ; but both 
organizations were on the same lines and had their 
officers, both civil and military oaths, emblems, and 
passwords, funds and stores of arms. " '' 

All was well till Sept. 14, 1865 when "the Dublin 
authorities, who were thoroughly well informed, raided 
the offices of The Irish People and arrested the staff. 

James Stephens was arrested with the rest but 
" escaped through the nominal complicity of a warder, 
John Breslin, who was also a member of the I. R. B. " 

" Stephens had received some twenty-five thousand 
pounds, little of which was spent in Ireland, and in later 
years it was a matter of common knowledge that 
Stephens, besides being Head Centre, had also an agree- 
ment with the British Government, which threw a 
peculiar light on his immunity from arrest and his later 
escape from prison and leisurely retreat to France. " 

On March 5, 1867, " Colonel " Kelly, heading a 
dissident group of Fenians, established a Directory 

2. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of All Ages and Countries, 
vol. II, p. 203. 

3. Pollard, op. cit., p. 58 et seq. 

4. Ibid., p. 60 et seq. 


separate from the original I. R. B. in London. 

" Kelly, it should be noted, was the inventor of 
the Committee of Safety, later known as the Assassina- 
tion Committee, whose function was to shoot people 
suspected of ' treason ' to the Brotherhood. " 

" In 1869 new influences in America and Paris suc- 
ceeded in reforming the I. R. B. Directorate in London, 
a nd the organization became not only a mainspring of 
revolutionary endeavour in Ireland, but a definite 
element in the complex machinery of world-revolution. " 

In March 1865, the Fenians joined the amalgamation 
of subversive Secret Societies under Karl Marx, known 
as the International Association of Working Men, foun- 
ded in London on September 28th. 

" It is, at all events, clear that Marx and the 
leaders of the I. R. B. were in close touch, and that 
Marx knew, even if the mass of Irish dupes did not, 
that the Irish revolutionary dream of the I. R. B. and 
Fenian leaders was no merely nationalist rebellion, but 
was to be a social revolution.' 

" The function of the Fenian ' General ' Cluseret 
and his relation to the International are not precisely 
clear, but he appears to have acted as a chief of the 
military rather than the civil side of the secret Lodges. 
During his stay in England on his Fenian mission he 
paid particular attention to the problem of how London 
might be captured, held and burnt.... After the sup- 
pression of the Paris branch of the Internationale it was 
Cluseret who organized the workers as a secret commu- 
nist revolutionary society. " 

The more recent activities of the I. R. B. should 
be followed in connection with The Clan-na-Gael. 

5, Pollard, op. cif, p. 67 ef seq. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXVH. 

For development of this movement see Chapter LXXXVIIL 


(Founded 1858) 

In our enumeration of subversive societies we must 
include the Phoenix Society of Skibbereen of which 
Captain Pollard writes the following in The Secret 
Societies of Ireland (page 46). 

" In 1858 a premature organization, contrived 
to revive the tenets of the Young Irishmen of ten years 
earlier, was founded at Skibbereen by Jeremiah O'Dono- 
van Rossa and James Stephens. Both these men were 
later to attain notoriety in criminal annals, but the 
Phoenix Society was abortive. Attacked by the priests 
it was suppressed. " 

This society is interesting to us on account of the 
subsequent career of James Stephens, one of its founders, 
who had previously been identified with the Fenian 

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXII. 





(Founded 1860) 

If, as it has been appropriately defined, Judaism 
is a sect, the creation of the Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle which took place in 1860 can be regarded as that 
of its exoteric centre. 

It was founded in 1860 by Aristide Astruc, Isidor 
Cahen, Jules Carvalho, Narcisse Leven, Eugene Manuel 
and Charles Netter. Its first president was Konigs- 
warter. Adolphe Cremieux was president from 1863- 
1867 and again from 1868-1880. 

In 1840, the world had been startled by the news 
of the fearful murder of Pere Thomas at Damascus. 
Serious investigations had resulted in the conviction 
of three Jews who had confessed to the commission of 
the abominable crime for Jewish ritual purposes of 
procuring human blood. 

The indignation of the whole world rising against 
Jewry made its prominent members realise the danger 
threatening their newly acquired emancipation in most 
countries, and they made a concerted effort to disprove 
Jewish guilt in the Damascus affair. Foremost among 
them had been Moses Monte fiore, Adolphe Cremieux 



and Solomon Munk. Yet, the real inspirer of the Alliance 
Israelite Universelle was Hirsch Kaiisher, Rabbi of 
Thorn (Russia) and its enthusiastic exponent, Moses 

The chief aim of the Alliance Israelite Universelle 
was political, and was clearly expressed in the report 
circulated after its foundation in which was stated : 
All important faiths are represented in the world by 
nations, that is to say, they are incarnated in governments 
especially interested in them and officially authorized 
to represent them and speak for them only. Our faith 
alone is without this important advantage; it is represented 
neither by a state nor by a society, nor does it occupy a 
clearly defined territory. 

The Alliance Israelite Universelle therefore was 
destined to be the governmental representative of all 
Jews from whatever country they lived in under 
the authority of their secret Kahal or community 

The first political manifestation of the Alliance Israe- 
lite Universelle took place at the Berlin Congress in 1878 
where it was represented by three of its delegates : 
Kann, Netter and Veneziani. 

The link between the Alliance Israelite Universelle 
and Freemasonry was for many years Adolphe Cre- 
mieux and Masonic writers have asserted that the 
18th degree, conferreo by the Grand Orient, makes the 
initiate, if not a member, at any rate a supporter of the 

The Alliance Israelite Universelle saw its dream of 
international Jewish Government shattered when Zio- 
nism emerged and came tc the fore in 1897. It is note- 
worthy that the " Prophet " of Zionism : Ahad Ha'am 
(Asher Ginsberg) was a member of the Alliance Israelite 
Universelle and a disciple of Charles Netter. The avowed 


aims of the A. I. U., namely a super-government of the 
world and a universal religion, both to be Judaic, are 

being steadily pursued by the " Jewish World Agency " 
functioning to-day. 




(Founded 1860) 

In his early days, Karl Marx, later to be the moving 
spirit of the First International, edited a paper in Paris, 
Annales Franco-Allemandes, the organ of a secret society. 
This paper had been founded by Arnold Riige, a dis- 
ciple of Mazzini. Marx met Riige through Henri Heine, 
the celebrated poet. 

Heckethorn, in his Secret Societies of All Ages and 
Countries gives an interesting synopsis of the early 
phases of this movement destined ultimately to form 
the keystone of subversion throughout the world. " 

" The first attempt at an international society was 
made by a small number of German workmen in London, 
who had been expelled from France in 1839 for taking 
part in the riots in Paris. Its members consisted of 
Germans, Hungarians, Poles, Danes and Swedes. Of 
the few English members Ernest Jones was one. The 
society was on friendly terms with the English Socia- 
lists, the Chartists, and the London French Democratic 

1. Revue Internationale des Societes Secrites, June 28, 193L 

2. Heckethorn, op. cil. vol. II, p. 224 et seq. 



Society. Out of that friendship sprang the Society of the 
Fraternal Democrats, who were in correspondence with 
a number of democratic societies in Belgium. In Novem- 
ber, 1847, a German Communist Conference was held 
in London, at which Dr. Karl Marx (real name Morde- 
chai) was present. In the manifesto then put forth it 
was declared that the aim of the Communists was the 
overthrow of the rule of the capitalists by the acquisi- 
tion of political power. The practical measures by 
which this was to be effected were the abolition of 
private property in land ; the centralization of credit 
in the hands of the State — the leading agitators of 
course to be the chiefs of the State — by means of a 
national bank ; the centralization of the means of trans- 
port in the hands of the State ; national workshops ; 
the reclamation and improvement of land ; and the 
gratuitous education of all the children. 

" In 1860, a Trade Unionist, Manhood Suffrage, 
and Vote by Ballot Association was established, of 
which G. Odger, a shoemaker, was chairman. As if it 
had not enough of what might be called legitimate 
work to do, the association also undertook to agitate 
in favour of Poland, for which purpose it co-operated 
with the National League for the Independence of 
Poland. The London International Exhibition of 1862 
induced the French government to assist many French 
workmen with means to visit that exhibition... " and 
"... on the 5th August, all the delegates met at a 
dinner given to them by their English colleagues at 
Freemason's Hall, where an address was read which 
formed, as it were, the foundation-stone of the Inter- 
national. The Imperial Commission that had enabled 
the French workmen to visit the London Exhibition 
had no doubt furnished them with return tickets. But 
several of the artisans made no use of their second 


halves, since profitable employment in London was 
found for them by their English brethren, so that they 
might form connecting links between the workmen of 
the two countries. " 

The next year, another meeting was arranged and 
this was followed by others. At last one was held in 
London on Sept. 24, 1864, presided over by Professor 
Beesly, at which it was finally determined to establisli 
a permanent organization of the working people of the 
civilized world. The International Working Men's 
Association was thus founded. In The Jewish Encyclo- 
paedia, Article on Karl Marx, we read that Mazzini 
and Marx were entrusted with the task of preparing 
the address and the constitution. Then came the 
big public meeting held on September 28, 1864 at 
St. Martin's Hall, which " declared the International 
Working Men's Association to be established and con- 
gresses were appointed to be held at different times and 
places to decide on the measures to be taken to found 
the working men's Eldorado. Many societies at first 
were affiliated, but dissensions soon broke out among 
them, and many, such as the Italian Working Men's 
Society, withdrew again. " 

This withdrawal of the Italian section was doubtless 
influenced by its recognition of the subversion of the 
original scheme for the amelioration of industrial con- 
ditions by the Mazzinian revolutionary agents. 

" At a meeting held in London, in 1865, the 
' re-establishment of Poland entire and independent ' 
was again one of the questions discussed. The Paris 
delegates were for avoiding political questions; but 
Mr. Odger reminded them that Poland had furnished 
the occasion for the establishment of the association, 

3. Heckethorn, op. cit. 


and that the Conference must stand by the Polish 
cause. " 

In 1866, a meeting or congress was held at Geneva, 
where the abolition of standing armies, the destruction 
of the monopolies of great companies, and the transfer 
of railways and other means of locomotion to the people, 
were decided on. Another resolution favouring Polish 
Independence was passed and the report of Marx made 
in 1864 was adopted. 

To anyone unversed in the intricacies of International 
Politics at that date, the introduction and predominance 
of the meesures concerning Poland seem senseless. 
All the International societies which, at that time, 
were affiliated to that of Young Italy of which 
Mazzini, if not in every case the nominal founder, was 
in all cases the moving spirit, were controlled by a cen- 
tral committee of which the famous Italian Revo- 
lutionary was the presiding genius. In this com- 
mittee centered also the political power of Carbonarism 
plus that of Masonry as well as that of Judaism 
which, functioning through Mazzini, Levi and Lemmi, 
found, in the dawning International, an easy means of 
fostering revolutions on foreign territory and a centre 
of agitation towards extorting the extension of rights 
and privileges to their " Jewish brothers " in Poland, 
which, at that date had the largest Jewish population 
of any country in the world. Thus, the International, 
later to become its most powerful agent and the tyrant 
of a nation, began to serve the Jewish International 

We now obtain the further information to the effect 
that at the Congress of Bale, held in 1869, Bakou- 
nine and Armand Levi fought for the control of the 
organization. " Bakounine, the Russian Nihilist, spoke 
thus without reserve :,'By social liquidation I mean 


expropriation of all existing proprietors, by the aboli- 
tion of the political and legal state, which is the 
sanction and only guarantee of all property as now 
existing, and of all that is called legal right; and the 
expropriation, in fact, everywhere, and as much and as 
quickly as possible by the force of events and 

After such remarks, the International was evidently 
considered by its masters to have shown its mettle and 
to be deserving of better quarters. " A temple worthy 
of their cult was sought and found... near Geneva, 
where... a fine building, the Masonic Temple — Temple 
Unique... was procured. ... They put the name of 
Temple on their cards and bills. Their cult had gained 
a worthy shrine... " ^ 

The further aims of the movement are thus described 
by Heckethorn: 

"... At the time when the International was founded, 
the French Empire was as yet in all its strength and.... 
its ministers looked upon themselves as small Machia- 
vellis when they permitted the International (which 
claimed to be a social, non-political organization), to 
grow in order, some day, to use it against a mutinous 
bourgeoisie. The Emperor had an opportunity on 
September 2, at Sedan, and the Empress on Septem- 
ber 4, at Paris, to judge of the value of such policy. 
However, the scheme of the association having been 
settled in London in 1864, the organizers opened at 
Paris a bureau de correspondance, which was neither 
formally interdicted nor regularly authorized by the 
Prefect and the Minister. But the constantly growing 
power of the International shown by the strikes of 

4. Heckethorn, op. cit. p. 231. 

5. Onslow Yorke, Secret History of the International, p. 66. 


Roubaix, Amiens, Paris, Geneva, etc. after a time com- 
pelled the government either to direct or to destroy it. 
The Parisian manifesto read at Geneva was stopped at 
the French frontier ; but M. Rouher agreed to admit 
it into France, if the association would insert some 
passages thanking the Emperor for what he had done 
for the working classes — a suggestion which was receiv- 
ed with derision by the members. In the meantime the 
old revolutionary party, of which Mazzini, Garibaldi, 
Blanqui, and Ledru-Rollin were the oracles, looked 
with suspicion on the foundation of the International; 
for, as this last declared that it would not meddle with 
politics, the others called out. Treason ! and thus the 
two parties were soon in a condition of violent opposi- 
tion. In 1867, the Congress of Lausanne voted against 
war, but at the same moment the other fraction of the 
demagogues, assembled at Geneva, under pretence of 
forming a congress of peace, declared war on all tyrants 
and oppressors of the people. However, the two parties, 
the bourgeois demagogues and the workmen dema- 
gogues, eventually united ; and thus it came to pass 
that by virtue of this pact the International took part 
in two revolutionary manifestations which occurred 
about six weeks after — the one at the tomb of Manin 
in the cemetery of Montmartre, and the other on the 
following day on the Boulevard Montmartre, to protest 
against the French occupation of Rome. The Inter- 
national having thus been carried away to declare war 
against the government, the latter determined to pro- 
secute it. The association was declared to be dissolved, 
and fifteen of the leaders were each fined a hundred 
francs. The International taking no notice of the decree 
of dissolution, a second prosecution was instituted, and 
nine of the accused were condemned to imprisonment 
for three months. The International now hid itself 


amidst the multitude of working men's societies of all 
descriptions that were either authorized or at least 
tolerated, and made enormous progress so that its 
chiefs at last declared themselves able to do without 
any extraneous support. ' The International', said one 
of the speakers at the Bale Congress (1869), ' is and 
must be a state within states ; let these go on as suits 
them, until our state is the strongest. Then, on the 
ruins of these, we shall erect our own fully prepared, such 
as it exists in every section. ' 

" On September 3rd 1870, the disaster of Sedan 
became known at Paris. On the next day, Lyons, 
Marseilles, Toulouse, and Paris proclaimed the Repub- 
lic. This simultaneous movement was the result of an 
understanding existing between the leading members 
of the International in the various parts of France ; 
but that the 'Jules Favres and Gambettas, ' that 
vermine bourgeoise, as the Internationa! called them, 
should obtain any share of power, was very galling to 
the demagogues. At Lyons and Marseilles, however, 
the supreme power fell into the hands of the lowest 
wretches. The Commune installed at Lyons began its 
work by raising the red flag — that of the International. 
At Paris the association pretended at first to be 
most anxious to fight the Prussians. When the bat- 
talions were sent to the front, however, it was found 
that those comprising most Internationals were the 
most ready ' to fall back in good order, ' or even to 
fly in great disorder at the first alarm ; and General 
Clement Thomas pointed out this instructive fact to 
the readers of the Journal Ojficiel. But when a few 
Prussian regiments entered Paris, the Internationa , 
through its central committee, announced that the 
moment for action was come ; and so the members 
seized the cannons scattered in various parts of the city, 


and then began that series of excesses, for which the 
Commune will always enjoy an infamous notoriety. 
Its first sanguinary act was the assassination of Generals 
Lecomte and Clement Thomas. 

" One would have supposed that the International 
would disavow the Communists : but, on the contrary, 
it approved of their proceedings. Flames were still 
ascending from the Hotel de Ville when already nume- 
rous sections of the International throughout Europe 
expressed their admiration of the conduct of the Pari- 
sian outcasts. 

" At Zurich, at a meeting of the members of the 
International, it was declared that ' the struggle main- 
tained by the Commune of Paris was just and worthy, 
and that all thinking men ought to join in the con- 
test. ' " 

Thus they agreed with Armand Levi and Jewish 
Masonry ! 

In 1872, another Jew, Karl Marx, transferred " the 
seat of the General Council to New York, in care of his 
faithful follower F. A. Sorge ", his co-religionist. ' 
There the organization degenerated into a gang of 
Anarchist-revolutionaries. In 1876 it was dissolved. 

Numerous efforts to re-create the First International 
were made by Marx assisted by Jules Guesde and 
in 1889 they founded the Second International, 
the development of which was retarded by internal 
dissensions. In 1905 however a programme of unifica- 
tion, elaborated at Amsterdam, was accepted by the 
contending factions. 

6. Heckethorn, op. ciL, vol. II, p. 251 et seq. 

1 . Jewish Encyclopaedia, Article on Karl Marx. 

8. Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, June 28, 1931. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LIII. 

For development of this movement see Chapter CXXV. 



(Founded 1865) 

The Ku-Klux Klan was the name of an American 
secret association formed by the Whites of the Southern 
States for self protection after the Civil war. 

It was started at 1865 at Pulaski, Tennessee, as a 
club for young men. The period of organization of the 
K. K. K. lasted from 1865 to 1868. It absorbed other 
societies of similar aims such as the Knights of the 
White Camelia, the White Brotherhood, the White 
League, the Pale Faces, Black Cavalry, White Rose, etc. 

Apart from the protection of whites, one of its chief 
aims was opposition to a government based on negro 
suffrage such as the North wanted to impose on the 

The Klan denominated the entire South as the Invi- 
sible Empire under the rule of a Grand Wizard ; General 
N. B. Forrest. Each state was a Realm under a Grand 
Dragon; each county a Province under a Grand Giant, 

The avowed principles were the maintenance of 
peace and order, of the laws of God, of the political 
and social supremacy of the white race and also the 
prevention of the intermingling of the races. 



It showed strenuous opposition to the " scallawags " 
and " carpet-baggers " as they called the Northern 
Whites who incited the negroes to commit all kinds 
of depredations against the Whites of the South. 

In 1871 and 1872, the United States Congress enacted 
a series of " Force Laws " to break the K. K. K. By 
that time however the negro was once more subdued 
and the K. K. K.'s central organization was disbanded. 

Its spirit however survived and reasserted itself in 
1915 when it was revived. 

For development of this organization see Chapter CXXIII. 


(Founded 1866) 

For an historical sketch of the Societas Rosicruciana 
in Anglia, the cover name for modern Illuminism, we 
can do no better than turn to such an authority as its 
historian William Wynn Westcott, erstwhile Supreme 
Magus of the Society. 

The following items of information are gleaned 
from his History of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, 
published in 1910. The official statement of the aims 
of the Society reads as follows : — " The aim of the 
Society is to afford mutual aid and encouragement in 
working out the great problems of Life and in search- 
ing out the secrets of Nature ; to facilitate the study 
of the system of philosophy founded upon the Cabala 
and the doctrines of Hermes Trismegistus, which was 
inculcated by the original Fratres Rosae-Crucis of 
Germany, A. D. 1450 ; and to investigate the meaning 
and symbolism of all that now remains of the wisdom, 
art and literature of the ancient world. " 

1. Dr. Wynn Westcott, M. W. Supreme Magus, History of 

The Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, IX, privately printed, 

Dec. 30, 1900. Copyright- British Museum Press Mark 
0475 h54. 



" The Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia was founded 
in 1866 by Prater Robert Wentworth Little, an emi- 
nent Freemason with much literary talent, and of 
great personal popularity. He was Secretary of the 
Province of Middlesex, and Secretary of the Royal 
Masonic Institution for Girls. He became the first 
Supreme Magus and Master General of the College 
in 1867. His knowledge and authority emanated from 
two sources, and were supplemented by the learning 
and researches of several other prominent students of 
occult philosophy. Brother William Henry White, the 
Grand Secretary of England, preserved certain Rosi- 
crucian papers ' which had ccme into his possession 
on attaining office in 1810, at Freemason's Hall, and 
ot these he made no use ; Brother Little fouud these 
papers and used them. At the same time, and with the 
object of re-constituting a Rosicrucian College in Lon- 
don, he availed himself of certain knowledge and autho- 
rity which belonged to Brother Kenneth R. H. Mac- 
kenzie, who had, during a stay in Germany in earlier 
life, been in communication with German Adepts who 
claimed a descent from previous generations of Rosi- 
crucians. German Adepts had admitted him to some 
grades of their system, and had permitted him to 
attempt the formation of a group of Masonic students 
in England, who under the Rosicrucian name might 
form a partly esoteric society. With this license and 
with the manuscripts of ritual information, which 
Brother White had discovered in the vaults of Free- 
mason's Hall, Fratres R. W. Hughan, Woodman, 
O'Neal Haye, Irwin and some others, the present 
English rituals were adopted, and have been in use 

2. Part of these papers are presumed to be some of Nick 
Stone's rituals. 


with some modifications made by Dr. Woodman and 
his successor, ever since the first regular meeting of 
the Society. 

" The basic rule of the new Society stated that only 
Master Masons of good standing and repute should 
be admitted to membership, thus drawing a new dis- 
tinction, of which we have no previous record ; for 
earlier English Rosicrucian Colleges had no Masonic 
basis, and some fraternities abroad certainly admitted 
women on equal terms, of which fact there is extant 
literary proof. 

" See the curious document called ' The admission 
of Sigismund Bacstrom, dated September 12th 1794 '. 
This will be found reprinted in The Rosicrucian of 
October, 1876. The only literary extant evidence of 
the source of our Rosicrucian ritual from Brother 
W. H. White is contained in a letter in possession of 
the Society. The share of Kenneth Mackenzie in the 
origin of the Society depends at the present time on 
his letters to Dr. Woodman and Dr. Westcott, and on 
his personal conversations during the years 1876-1886 
with Dr. Westcott. 

" Fratres Hughan, Irwin, Hockley, Woodforde and 
Benjamin Cox have also contributed their personal 
knowledge on the subject. 

" The original MSS. which Little possessed never 
came into the possession of the S. M., the late Dr. Wood- 
man, and so were never received by the present Magus 
who has thus few proofs in writing of the historic basis, 
which he lays down in this sketch of the Society. The 
most natural conclusion is that Little returned these 
papers to some obscure portion of the records at Free- 
mason's Hall, and that they are there still, although the 
present officials have not traced them. This explanation 
is very probable, because in September 1871, a Brother 


Mathew Cooke raised a complaint in Grand Lodge 
against Masonic officials for discovering, using and 
removing old manuscripts from the record rooms of 
Freemason's Hall. These papers supplied the basis 
for the reconstitution of the Order of the Red Cross 
of Constantine, as well as of the Rosicrucian Society. 
They were both Christian bodies, and their records 
had been hidden away since the time of the Grand 
Mastership of the Duke of Sussex, in 1813, who, favour- 
ing the Unitarian doctrine, did all in his power to 
remove Christian grades from notice. 

" Our records include a letter from the Rev. T. F. 
Ravenshaw, Grand Chaplain of England, one of the 
earliest fratres of the Society, confirming much of the 
historic information which the author received from 
Dr. Woodman, Woodforde, Mackenzie and Irwin. 
This letter recites as follows : — (I) that the first 
S. M. Frater R. M. Little explained to him that the 
German Fraternity had an established regulation which 
permitted distinguished members to confer Rosicru- 
cian grades in due order on suitable persons. (II) That 
a certain Venetian Ambassador to England in the last 
century had conferred Rosicrucian grades and know- 
ledge on Students in England; these in their turn had 
handed on the rule and tradition to others, oi whom 
one of the last survivors was Frater William Henry 
White, Grand Secretary of English Freemasonry from 
1810 to 1857 ; he retired and lived until 1866. (HI) 
From the papers he possessed Frater White admitted 
Frater Robert Wentworth Little. (IV) These papers 
came into Little's possession at Freemason's Hall on 
Frater White's retirement from office. (V)The rituals are 
mentioned as being imperfect for ceremonial open use. " 

The above contains much useful information for 
any reader who might later undertake research work 


not only on the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia but 
also in its offshoots : Golden Dawn, Stella Matutina 
and Ordo Templi Orientis, etc. As to the organization 
of the Society, in order to enable the reader to under- 
stand the system on which it functions, we reprint here- 
with from The Rosicrucian, the Quarterly Record of 
the Society's transactions, edited by Frater Robert 
Wentworth Little (S. M.) Master General and Frater 
William Robert Woodman, M. D., Secretary General, 
some of the articles governing its organization. 

I. — That the meetings of the Society shall be held in 
London at such house as the majority of the members 
shall select, on the 2nd Thursdays in January, April, 
July and October in each year, at such time and 
place as the majority shall select. The first meeting in 
the year shall be considered as the obligatory meeting 
and any member unable to attend on that occasion or 
at the banquet meeting shall be required to send a 
written excuse to the Secretary-General. Each brother 
present at the banquet shall pay his quota towards the 
expenses thereof. 

III. — The Master-general and the Officers shall 
be elected annually at the obligatory meeting and shall 
be induced into their several offices on the same eve- 
ning. The Master-general shall then appoint the Assis- 
tant officers for the year. 

IV. — No brother shall be eligible for election to 
the office of Master-general or Deputy Master-general 
unless he shall have served one year as an Ancient, 
and have attained the third Order; and no brother 
shall be eligible for the offices of Treasurer-general, 
Secretary-general, or Ancient, unless he be a member 
of the second Order. 

3. No. 1 , July 1 868, British Museum Press Mark 4782-h22. 


V. — The Society shall, in conformity with ancient 
usage, be composed of nine classes or grades, and the 
number of brethren in each class shall be restricted 
as follows : — 

1 — or grade Zelator 33 

2 — or grade Theoricus 27 

3 — or grade Practicus 21 

4 — or grade Philosophus 18 

TOTAL ... .99 

The above shall form the First Order 

5 — or grade of Adeptus Junior 15 

6 — or grade of Adeptus Major 12 

7 — or grade of Adeptus Exemptus. 9 


These brethren shall form the Second Order 

8 — or grade of Magister Templi 6 

9 — or Magus 3 


These shall be considered as the Third (or highest) 
Order, and shall be entitled to seats in the Council 
of the Society. The senior member of the 9th grade 
shall be designated " Supreme Magus " and the two 
other members Senior and Junior Substitutes respec- 
tively. The grand total of membership shall thus be 
limited to 144, or the square of 12. The number of 
registered Novices or Aspirants shall not be restricted, 
but members only shall be permitted to be present at 
the ceremonial meetings of the Society. 

VI. — The distinction of Honorary Member may 
be conferred upon eminent brethren, provided that 
their election to such membership shall be unanimous 
and that their number be strictly limited to 16, or the 


square of 4. An Honorary President, who must be a 
nobleman, and three Vice-Presidents, shall be selected 
from the honorary members. A Grand-Patron may also 
be elected in like manner. 

VII. — No aspirant shall be admitted into the 
Society unless he be a Master Mason, and of good 
moral character, truthful, faithful and intelligent... 

VIII. — Every Novice on admission to the grade 
of Zelator shall adopt a Latin motto, to be appended 
to his signature in all communications relating to the 
Society. This motto cannot under any pretence be 
afterwards changed, and no two brethren shall be at 
liberty to adopt the same motto.... 

The other articles, 20 in all, can be read in The 

In 1877, the order of membership was rearranged 
to provide that in future, every College under the juris- 
diction of England would be restricted to 36 subscrib- 
ing members exclusive of members of the 9th grade : 
the only exception being the Metropolitan College 
which was to be permitted to enrol 72 members. 

In The Rosicrucian the Society defines its aims in 
the following terms : — 

" The object of the society being purely literary and 
antiquarian it is almost unnecessary to state that no 
interference with, or opposition to, any rite of Free- 
masonry is intended, or even tolerated : and it matters 
not to the members whether the aspirant be a disciple 
of pure and ancient Masonry, as interpreted by the 
Grand Lodge of England, or be enthusiastic follower 
of those rites which embrace the Hauts Grades, pro- 
vided he be of good standing and possess sufficient 
ability to take part in the peculiar objects of research 
to which the society restricts itself — mystic and 
Rosicrucian lore. 


" Thus the roll of the society displays names side by 
side, on the one hand ardent supporters of the high 
grades, and on the other their bitter opponents. " 

Those who have occupied the position of Supreme 
Magus in the order of their succession were : — 

R. Wentworth Little 1865-1878 

Dr. Robert Woodman 1878-1891 

Dr. Wilham Wynn Westcott 1891-1925 

Towards the close of the XIX Century, the mem- 
bership of Rosicruciana in Anglia included the follow- 
ing personages : — 

Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers (Junior Sub Magus) 
Thomas Bowman Whytehead IX 
John Yarker IX 
George Kenning 
A. E. Waite 
Eliphas Levi 

Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie IX 
Major Irwin IX 
WiUiam James Hughan IX 
etc. etc. 

The Annual Convocations were held in the Rosi- 
crucian Temple at the Frascati restaurant, Oxford 
Street, London, W. 

The foreign branches of this order were founded 
in — 

Canada — in 1877 by M. W. Prater Col. W. B. Macleod 

Moore with Fratres Thomas Douglas Harrington 
as S. S. M. and George Longley as J. S. M. Four meet- 
ings a year at Masonic Hall, Maitland, Ontario. 

The United States of America — in 1880 by M. W. Pra- 
ter Charles E. Mayer IX, Supreme Magus of United 


Germany — in 1902 by Theodore Reuss VIII 

(Initiated in tlie Pilgrim's Lodge 238, London). 
Scotland — in 1877. 

In connection with the statement made at the open- 
ing of this chapter that The Societas Rosicruciana 
in Anglia was modern Illuminism, the reader's atten- 
tion must be drawn to the similarity of the grades of 
the modern Rosicrucian Society with those of Weis- 
haupt's Bavarian Uluminism. 

Much has been said and written by various and 
numerous English authorities on the subject of English 
Grand Lodge being in no wise connected with any 
outside societies, whether exoteric or esoteric or with 
foreign or, as they call it, " Continental " masonry. 

We however submit the following suggestions as a 
logical deduction from a close study of the organiza- 
tion, activities and connections of the Societas Rosi- 
cruciana in Anglia. 

English Grand. Lodge is today what it was intended 
to be at the time of its creation, by disciples of avowed 
Rosicrucianism, namely a dragnet or nursery. Under 
the guise of philanthropy, humanitarianism, demo- 
cratic ideals, and the promise of material advancement, 
it attracts untold numbers of unsuspecting men. The 
sifting takes place from the time of their initiation. For 
those who are deemed useless to the further secret 
aims of Masonry and therefore unworthy of climbing 
from the Master's chair in Grand Lodge to The Royal 
Arch degree, English Masonry will always remain 
what it was represented to be when they became can- 
didates for initiation. They will be useful carriers of 
the legend that English Masonry believes in God and 
philanthropy. But, like Charity, English Grand Lodge 
covers a multitude of sins.... Above all, it covers Gnos- 
ticism under all its aspects ; it is in fact its screen. 


It is a common error to believe that the Enghsn 
Grand Lodge is an independent body which was formed 
in 1717. Logical deduction will show that, owing to 
its formation being the result of Rosicrucian effort, it 
always has been, and still must be, subject to the 
direction of its esoteric parent body, i. e. ROSICRUCIA- 
NISM or Manichean and Socinian Gnosticism. 

Childish as may be the claim of English Grand Lodge 
as to its autonomy and independence, yet it has been 
most successfully defended by scores of English writers 
who attacked Masonic Societies and their subversive 
activities against state and religion. According to them 
English Grand Lodge was always exempted from such 

It is time to put an end to this legend. English Grand 
Lodge, the body which claims to represent English 
Freemasonry, is as much the child of Rosicrucianism 
today as it was in 1717 and has no more power or wish 
today to rebel against, or deny its parent, than it had 
then. As to Esoteric Rosicrucianism, this Esoteric body, 
mainly Cabalistic in its direction, always has been 
and is in truth international. It has penetrated every 
association, society or organization just as did the 
Illuminati of Bavaria at the Wilhelmsbad convent of 

In the particular Gnostic Rosicruciana in Anglia, 
briefly sketched here, we see internationalism clearly 
depicted. At one time it was personified in Kenneth 
Mackenzie who, initiated and illuminized by the Ger- 
man Rosicrucian adepts, was later the connecting link 
between German, English and French Gnosticism, the 
latter represented at the time by Eliphas Levi (A. L. 

Nearer to our own time, William Wynn Westcott 
is the connecting link of this international Rosicru- 


cian-gnosticism. Prominent Grand Lodge and Royal 
Arch Mason, he was also Supreme Magus of Rosicru- 
ciana in Anglia and Knight Kadosch etc. 

His connections with John Yarker, as also with 
the French hermetist Papus and with the theosophist 
Blavatsky, were of an esoteric kind, but most 
important of all were his close relations with his 
brother Rosicrucian MacGregor Mathers and the 
German Theodore Reuss. For it is, we know, William 
Wynn Westcott, the respected English Grand Lodge 
and Royal Arch Mason, Supreme Magus of Rosicru- 
ciana in Anglia who, together with the Cabalist 
MacGregor Mathers, created the Rosicrucian branch 
known as the Order of the Golden Dawn. With Theo- 
dore Reuss he was closely associated with the founda- 
tion of the Ordo Templi Orientis which from Reuss 
and Karl Kellner's manuscripts is known to be 

How far the reciprocal conferring of degrees in their 
respective orders between John Yarker, W. W. West- 
cott, Theodore Reuss, Engel and Papus is a case of 
interpenetration remains to be determined. John Yarker 
was the head of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of the 
Rite of Swedenborg, etc., Wm. Wynn Westcott, the 
Supreme Magus of Rosicruciana in Anglia, Theodore 
Reuss and Engel, heads of the German Illuminati 
and Ordo Templi Orientis, and Papus, head of the 
Martinists. We are fully aware of the Gnostic practices 
of these different rites but the student bent on a cer- 
tain type of research will find interesting and instruc- 
tive the study of the political activities of the different 
bodies mentioned. The author of Light Bearers of 
Darkness has attempted to show part of the nefa- 

4. " Inquire Within ". 


rious political game played by adepts of the Stella 
Matutina and Golden Dawn Orders, two of the occult 
branches of Rosicruciana in Anglia. 

We reprint below two letters exchanged between 
William Wynn Westcott and the German Theodore 
Reuss which show the interlocking and international 
gnostic direction of those two late honoured members 
of English Grand Lodge Freemasonry. 

It remains for the student to follow every line of 
enquiry to the point of ccncentration where all threads 
are gathered and systematically manipulated for the 
eventual destruction of Christian civilization. 

It may lead to the B'nai B'rith, the Universal 
Israelite Alliance, India or Thibet, but in any case, a 
thorough and complete study of Rosicrucianism embrac- 
ing a minute one of Rosicruciana in Anglia and its 
various branches will be a great step taken in the direc- 
tion of uncovering much of the political and moral 
chaos of present day history of humanity. 

Feb 14, 1902 
Dear Bro. Reuss ; 

I have to acknowledge receipt of Illuminati papers and 
safely received and they shall be translated and considered 
and I will report upon what I can do — Best thanks. 

As to the Swed. Riie the Lodge Holy Grail No. 15 is all 
right and Bro. Yarker is entirely within his right to give 
you, a known Master Mason of England, a Warrant for a 
Lodge, but he hesitates to issue written authority for 6 Lod- 
ges which your Latomia says are not regular. I had got 
his permission to make a Prov. Gd. Lodge of Germania for 
you but now he hesitates, because he does not want to 
have half the German Masonic World condemning him — 

1. Latomia : One of the official periodicals of German Free- 


as well as half the English, who condemn him for the A. & 
P. Rite. 

Please write to him 

John Yarker, Esq. 
West Didsbury, 

near Manchester 
and get his authority to go on, at present my hands are tied. 
With best wishes. 
Believe me. 

Yours sincerely, 

W. W. Westcott. 

To Theodor Reuss 

Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia 

Dr. Wm. Wynn Westcott S. M. J. X. 

Memorandum from the High Council 
396, Camden Road, N. 

Aug 26, 1902 
Care F rater, 

I have duly reed, your card & letter & Report, for 
all which best thanks. I hope you are well again. I am sorry 
you missed seeing my Bro. Gardner. I note what you say 
about the Illuminati and hereby accept the position of 
Regent, and must find a good man to work it up. Do I under- 
stand that Engel is now out of the order ? I have not heard 
any more from him. 

Re Rosics. 

Your fratres must each choose a Latin motto ; Mine is 
" Quod scis, nescis. " — even what you know — you don't 
really know — is a free translation — I will read your Report 
on Second Thursday in October to the High Council and 
Met. Coll. 

There must be a lot of Rosic M. S. S. lying hid in your 
country, make every effort to find some. We have copies 


of two here. I will ask the H. C. about the use of Library. 
I propose to keep German contributions for buying further 
Books for it, and for that alone. You might look out to buy 
any German Rosic books for us. 

Yours sincerely, 

Wynn Westcott. 

Photographic reproductions of the above letters and 
of other documents interesting to the student of Occult 
Theocrasy will be found in Appendix IV. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII. 
For development of this movement see Chapters CIX, CX, 


(Founded J 869) 

In his oft quoted book. The Secret Societies of Ireland, 
Captain H. B. C. Pollard, late of the Staff of the Chief 
of Police, Ireland, gives much valuable information 
concerning the Clan-na-Gael (See page 69 et seq.). 

" In 1869 a new secret Irish-American organization 
was formed, known as the Clan-na-Gaei. It traces its 
origin back through a permanent secret society known 
as the Knights of the Inner Circle, which, in turn, des- 
cended from the Knights of St. Patrick, known as the 
Ancient Order of Hibernians to-day. It was originally 
a seceding circle (The Brian Boru) of the United Irish- 
men, an American society tracing back to 1789. " 

By 1873, the Clan had absorbed all independent 
Irish secret societies save that of " The Irish Confe- 
deration " of Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa with which 
it had reached an arrangement for mutual toleration. 

" The original organizer of the Clan had called it 
the United Brotherhood, and in all its work a simple 
letter cipher composed of the next letter in the alphabet 
after the one really meant, was utilised. The secret 
name of the Clan being the United Brotherhood, it 
was therefore designated and spoken of as the V. C. 



Ireland was known as ' Jsfmboe, ' and so on. To this 
day the Clan speaks and writes of the I. R. B. as the S. C. 

" Up to 1881 the Clan-na-Gael was governed by 
an executive body, the F. C, and had an annually elect- 
ed chairman. A Revolutionary Directory, the ' R. D. ' 
consisted of seven members ... Great secrecy shrouded 
the R. D. and the names of members were only known 
to the delegates and three ' Senior Guardians ' of 
each ' Camp ' of the Clan. 

" These Lodges or ' Camps ' were known in cipher 
as ' D's '; each had a number and an outward innocent 
name, such as the Emmett Literary Association. The 
essential precaution for the maintenance of secrecy 
was the rule that all documents, when read, had to be 
burnt before the Brotherhood, a rule also common to 
the 1. R. B. of today. " 

" An open Irish movement had been evolving 
in the States " and a great Irish Convention was held 
at Chicago in November, 1881, where all kinds of Irish 
associations were to be represented by delegates who 
would be addressed on the subject of the Land League. 
By a clever political manoeuvre the Clan secured the 
oifice of Chairman to one of its members, the Rev. 
George Betts, and as he had the right of appointment of 
ail members of committees, they were enabled to 
nominate a Clan-na-Gael majority and force the Clan 
views on the whole body of the Convention. 

" In 1882 the Clan, which had for long controlled 
the secret organization in America, now also controlled 
all the various open Irish societies and associations 
which had been represented at the Convention. The 
mechanism of control was simple — the whole influence 

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ii eland, p. 71 et seq. 

2. United States of America. 


of the Clan was exerted to secure to their members 
a preponderant representation as office-holders in 
these associations, and it soon became recognised that 
membership of the Clan was an indispensable pre- 
liminary to advancement in local Irish affairs. 

" The American Clan-na-Gael had concentrated 
all Irish organizations, however innocuous, in the body 
of the National League,^ and had, by controlling the 
Committee of the League by its own members, thereby 
possessed itself not only of a vast field from which to 
draw funds and recruits, but of the whole co-ordinated 
political power of the Irish organizations in America. 
The process developed by the I. R. B. in Ireland was 
analogous ; through its members they were represent- 
ed on the Committees and Councils of practically every 
organization which, in the opinion of its leaders, could 
be of use to it. The identity of the I. R. B. men was 
always a secret. 

" The secret power of the Brotherhood was brought 
to bear on all questions of appointment to positions 
and offices in various open associations, and it was 
its influence and corruption which achieved those 
mysterious appointments to position of persons sin- 
gularly devoid of merit, which were, and are, a marked 
feature of Irish life... 

" In so far as the activist military policy of the 
I. R. B. was concerned, the period from 1895 to 1912 
was practically negative. 

" The I. R. B. had always held that member- 
ship of any sectarian secret society, such as the A. 0. H., 
or the Orange Society was incompatible with mem- 
bership of the 1. R. B.' 

3. Pollard, op. cit., p. 90 et seq. 

4. Formed from The National Land League of America. 

5. Pollard, op. cit., p. 98 et seq. 


Howevei, the A. O. H. in America has for many 
years been under the direct control of the Clan-na- 
Gael which also influences through the A. 0. H. such 
American Catholic Associations as are not distinctly 
Irish, such as the Knights of Columbus, a Catholic 
Fraternal Society. " 

In the year 1912 "the action of the North in arming 
had its immediate repercussion in the South... On 
November 25th 1913 The Irish Volunteers, as distinct 
from the Ulster Volunteers, had been formally insti- 
tuted. " 

" The outbreak of war introduced a new element 
in the shape of an alliance between the I. R. B., the 
Clan-na-Gael, and Germany. " 

Casement, whose political activities were ruled by 
the two Germans, Albert Ballin of the Hamburg-Ame- 
rican line and Professor Kuno Meyer, " had been active 
in the councils of the Irish Volunteers and at the date 
of the outbreak of war was in the United States on 
business connected with the relationship between the 
I. R. B. and the Clan-na-Gael... On the 3rd Nov. 1914, 
he reached Berlin and laid before the German Foreign 
Office the suggestion of alliance between the Irish 
Republicans and Germany, and established a line of 
communication via the American Clan-na-Gael with 
revolutionary Ireland. From Berlin, he communicated 
with Judge Cohalan and John Devoy, the Clan Leaders 
in the States, who, in turn, maintained communication 
with the I. R. B. in Ireland through emissaries and an 
established letter-carrying service on craft crossing 
between Ireland and America. 

" The arrangements between the Clan-na-Gael as 
representing the I. R. B. and the German Government 

6. Pollard, op. cit., p. 134 el seq. 


are amply set forth in such documents as the British 
Government has yet disclosed, e. g. in the White Paper, 
Documents relative to the Sinn Fein movement, published 
by H. M. Stationery office in 1921. " 

The Wolf von Igel papers, taken by the United 
States Government at 60 Wall Street, New York, in 
April 1916, further prove the complicity of the Clan- 
na-Gael. Casement was captured when he landed 
from a German submarine on the coast of Kerry, 
April 21, 1916. 

The rebellion broke out in Dublin on Easter Monday, 
April 24, 1916 and on April 29 P. H. Pearse, the rebel 
leader. President of the Provisional government, sur- 
rendered to General Sir John Maxwell, and on the 
first of May the rebels surrendered. 

After the entry of the United States into the war 
in 1917, the Irish-German headquarters were trans- 
ferred to Spain, operating from there via South Ame- 
rica back to the Clan-na-Gael. 

" In 1921, on the 6th of December, the Irish repre- 
sentatives and the Cabinet signed a Peace Treaty 
which gave Ireland the status of a Dominion. " 

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXII. 

For development of this movement see Chapter CXVI. 



(Founded 1869) 

The Nihilists were founded in the spring of 1869 
by Netchaief who had adopted the views of social 
organization which have found expression in the works 
of Proudhon and Abbe Constant. 

As anarchists, they embraced the usual anarchist 
ideals some of which, such as " property is theft ", 
and " death to Tyrants ", could be useful to other 



(Founded in England 1871) 

Introduced into England in 1871 from America 
under the authority of the Grand Council of New York, 
the Grand Mastership was awarded by the Grand 
Council to the Rev. G. R. Portal, M. A., in 1873. 



(Founded 1872) 

According to John Yarker, who was president of 
the order, " this is a Hindu Society organized by the 
Pundit of an Anglo-Indian regiment, and brought 
into this country, about the year 1872 by Major 
J. H. Lawrence Archer. The name alludes to the bird 
Malacocercis grisis which always fly by sevens. It has 
seven descending degrees, each of seven disciples who 
constitute their seven and seven ascending degrees 
of Perfection Ekata or Unity. Its object is the study 
and development of Indian philosophy. Somehow, its 
raison d'etre ceased to be necessary when the Theoso- 
phical Society was established by the late H. P. Bla- 
vatsky, which at one time at least had its secret signs 
of Reception. " 

References are said tc have been made to its esoteric 
object in Rudyard Kipling's Kim which, according 
to Rene Guenon, can be accepted as a regular autobio- 
graphy. According to Guenon " that which is told 
therein concerning the rivalry of the Russians and 
the English in southern India is strictly historical. 

1. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 492. 



Among other things one finds curious details on the 
organization by the English, for this purpose, of a 
secret society called Sat Bhai ". ' 

2. Rene Guenon, Le Theosophisme, p. 293. 

For development of this movement see Chapters XCV, CI. 



(Founded J 872) 

John Yarker, in a pamphlet The Grand Mystic 
Temple, states that in 1872 " we (the English) took from 
them (the Americans) a Charter for its (The Ancient 
and Primitive Rite) degrees 33-95 in and for Great 
Britain and Ireland and in the Scottish Rite allied 
ourselves with the Supreme Grand Council 33, (Cerneau) 
for the United States of America, of which the writer 
(John Yarker) was made honorary 33°, Representative 
of Amity. We had thus for long the Scottish Rite 
allied with Mizraim, and now with Memphis. In the 
case of the former, we established Representatives 
with various Supreme Grand Councils and revised the 
Statutes of 1762, in preference to the forged Consti- 
tution of 1786 in the year 1884; in Mizraim with 
the old bodies of Naples and Paris ; and in Memphis 
with America, Egypt, Roumania and various other 
bodies working that Rite. We also, in these three 
Rites, accepted foreign Charters to confirm our origi- 
nal powers. " 

Yarker then makes the following apologia — 



" Whatever may be the value assigned to Craft 
Masonry in this country (England), a Master Mason 
is held in small esteem abroad . , , Our object in giving 
our time at our own cost to these degrees is to break 
with the unmasonic exclusiveness bred of sycophancy 
and to give every reputable Master Mason a chance of 
acquiring the high Masonic initiation at a reasonable 

Neophytes upon entering a Chapter received the 
18th degree of the Ancient and Accepted Rites (Rose 
Croix) and Ancient and Primitive Rites and 46th of 
Mizraim. Advanced in a Senate, these receive the 30th 
of the two Rites and the 66th of Mizraim. In the series 
of the Council they receive the higher and more import- 
ant occult grades of Mizraim and Memphis or Ancient 
and Primitive Masonry. 

" The governing body or ' Sovereign-Sanctuary 
Supreme Grand Council of Rites 33-95 has already 
issued Charters for Grand Mystic Temples, Council 
General (of Rites) 32-94, for England, Scotland, Ire- 
land, New Zealand and West Africa and each Charter 
covers a Grand Consistory 32-93, Ancient and Accept- 
ed Rite and Supreme Grand Council, 33rd. It has also 
established a Sovereign body with like powers for the 
German Empire. 

" The Constitution of the A. and P. Rite declares 
' that Great Britain and Ireland derives from the Sove- 
reign Sanctuary for the American Continent, which 
again derives its authority from the Sovereign Sanc- 
tuary of France, the College of Rites and the Grand 
Orient of France '. In America authority was vested 
in Harry J. Seymour by Letters Patent granted to 

1. John Yarker, The Grand Mystic Temple. 

2. Ibid. 


him by the Executive Chiefs of the Rite in Paris 
in 1862. Ten years later a Patent and Dispensation 
was granted by the 111. Sov. Gr. M. Gn., Harry J. Sey- 
mour, on February 23rd, 1872, to M. I. Bro. John 
Yarker, as Sov. Gr. M. Gn. to establish the Sovereign 
Sanctuary in and for Great Britain and Ireland; ' 
and he came over to England to inaugurate personally 
at Manchester and London the foundation of the Rite. " 

" Further on. The Constitution intimates that Egypt 
was the source of the knowledge deposited in this 
system. But it apparently arose in France and went 
to Egypt returning in 1815 with a wealth of esoteric 
lore, under the name of... Disciples of Memphis. " 

" None but Master Masons in good standing were 
and are admitted to the Rite which consequently begins 
after the three Craft Degrees. " 

On Nov. 11, 1912, John Yarker was elected Grand 
Imperial Hierophant 97. After his death on March 
20, 1913, a meeting was held at a Special Convocation 
of the Supreme Sanctuary of the Ancient and Primi- 
tive Rite of Masonry at 33 Avenue Studios, 76 Fulham 
Road, South Kensington, London S. W., on Monday 
June 30, 1913, at five o'clock, and Bro. Henry Meyer 
of 25 Longton Grove, Sydenham, Kent, was elected 
Sov. Grand Master General for Great Britain and 
Ireland. The minutes of the meeting were signed by. — 

Henry Meyer 33° 90° 96° 

Sovereign Grand Master General 
Edward Aleister Crowley 33° 90° 96° 

Patriarch Grand Administrator General 
Wm. Hy. Quilliam 33° 90° 96° 

Patriarch Grand Keeper General of the Golden 


3 Speculative Mason, July 1927, vol. 19. 


Leon Engers-Kennedy 33° 90° 95° 

Patriarch Grand Secretary General. 

Theodor Reuss 33° 90° 95° 

Sovereign Grand Master General ad Vitam for 
the German Empire and Grand Inspector General 

The women's branch of this rite and its interlocking 
possibilities is best shown by the reproduction of 
Madame Blavatsky's diploma, which was published in 
The Theosophist of March 1913 (M91) and is reproduced 
again on page 66 of Freemasonry Universal Vol. V, 
Part 2, Autumn Equinox, 1929. 

There it is stated that " we have declared and pro- 
claimed and by these presents do declare and proclaim 
our illustrious and enlightened Brother, H. P. Blavatsky, 
to be an Apprentice, Companion, Perfect Mistress, 
Sublime Elect Scotch Lady, Grand Elect Chevaliere 
de Rose Croix, Adonaite Mistress, Perfect Venerable 
Mistress, and a Crowned Princess of Rite of Adop- 
tion. " 

The diploma is signed 

John Yarker 33, Sovereign Grand Master 

M. Caspari 33, Grand Chancellor. 

A. D. Loewenstark 33, Grand Secretary. 

The organ of the order is Kneph. 

For root of this movement see Chapters XLYII, LXIV. 
For development of this movement see Chapter CX. 



(Founded 1872) 

Anarchists claim direct descent from Diderot and 
those factions which during the French Revolution 
of 1789 had formed the clubs of the Enrages and 
Hebertistes. Prudhon was their prototype. 

Chronologically speaking, however, the Anarchist 
party was formed on Sept. 29, 1872, when a split 
occurred in the ranks of the participants in the Hague 
Congress of the International Association of Workers, 
numbers siding with Bakunin whilst others rallied 
round Karl Marx. 

Bakunin's adherents formed the Anarchist party 
and organized in Switzerland the " Federation Juras- 
sienne " which soon extended its ramifications to Nor- 
thern Italy, Eastern France and Spain. The Federa- 
tion's tenets were plainly anarchistic, urging terrorism 
as the means of overthrowing all forms of existing 
governments. The attempt of Haedel on the life of 
the German Emperor Wilhelm in 1878, as well as the 
murder of the Tzar Alexander II of Russia, 1882, were 
engineered by anarchists. From Europe, their activities 
spread to the United States of America when Most, 
the German anarchist, founder of the Freiheit, went 



to New York and, with Julius Schwab, organized the 
Anarchist movement in America, founding the Socia- 
list and Revolutionary Club of New York in 1880 and 
such press organs as The Anarchists of Boston, later 
followed by Liberty. The methods of these societies 
are identical with those of the I. W. W., the " Industrial 
Workers of the World ". 

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXV. 

For development of this movement see Chapter CXXV. 



(Founded] 874) 

Founded by Bros. R. Wentworth Little, W. Hyde 
Pullen and Thomas Massa, in 1874, this order is res- 
tricted to members of the Masonic body only. 

Among its members have been W. R. Woodman, 
M. D., George Kenning, K. R. H. Mackenzie, E. H. 
Thiellay and S. Rosenthal. 

It claims to be a study society for Ancient and 
Modern Druidism. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXVII. 



(Founded 1875) 

The Theosophical Society, with nine degrees, was 
founded in 1875 by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831- 
1891) daughter of Colonel Peter Hahn and grand- 
daughter of General Alexis Hahn von Rottenstern 
Hahn, of Mecklenburg, Germany, settled in Russia. 
When very young, she married Niciphore Blavatsky, 
Councillor of State, from whom she separated after 
three months. 

As regards the founder of this order, Rene Guenon, 
who has made a close study of Theosophy, thus briefly 
sketches her career. 

" Mme. Blavatsky's extraordinary life of adventure 
started in 1848. During her travels in. Asia Minor with 
her friend Countess Kiseleff, she met a Copt (some say 
a Chaldean) called Paulos Metamon, who claimed to 
be a magician, and who seems to have been a fairly 
accomplished conjurer. She continued her travels with 
this personage with whom she went to Greece and 
Egypt till her funds gave out, when she returned to 

1. Rene Guenon, Le Theosophisme, p. 12. 



Having quarrelled with lier family, she was unable 
to go to Russia so she went to London where she fre- 
quented spiritistic and revolutionary circles. She was 
initiated into the Carbonari by Mazzini in 1856 and was 
also an initiate of the Order of the Druses, according 
to John Yarker. 

About this period, (1856) her Mahatma Morya 
is supposed first to have manifested. The Mahat- 
mas Morya and Koot Hoomi are said to be members 
of the highest degree of "The Great White Lodge ", 
that is to say of the occult Hierarchy which, according 
to the theosophists, secretly governs the world. 

Guenon thus continues : 

" Towards 1858, Madame Blavatsky decided to 
return to Russia; she became reconciled with her father, 
staying with him till 1863 when she went to the Cau- 
casus and met her husband. A fittle later she was in Italy 
whither she seemed to have been summoned by a Car- 
bonarist order; in 1866, she was with Garibaldi, whom 
she accompanied during his expeditions, she fought 
at Viterbo, then at Mentana, where she was seriously 
wounded and left on the field as dead ; she recovered 
however and went to Paris for her convalescence. There 
she remained some time under the influence of a cer- 
tain Victor Michal, a spiritist-magnetizer. This Michal, 
a journalist, was a Freemason as was also his friend 
Rivail (alias Allan Kardec) once founder, later direc- 
tor of the Folies-Marigny and the pioneer of French 
spiritism. It was Michal who developed the medium- 
istic faculties of Madame Blavatsky... Madame Bla- 
vatsky was, at that time, herself a believer in 
spiritism and claimed to belong to the school 
of Allan Kardec, from whom she preserved certain 

2. Rene Guenon, op. cit., p. 14. 


ideas, notably those concerning reincarnation. " 

In 1867, she succeeded after three previous attempts 
in entering Tibet. 

" Inquire Within ", who acknowledges Guenon as her 
source of information and who has also closely follow- 
ed the activities of Madame Blavatsky during this 
period of her life, refers to her visit to America in the 
following terms : 

" In 1875 Madame Blavatsky was sent from Paris 
to America where she met Henry Steel Olcott and where 
on October 20, 1875, a society, said to be for ' spiri- 
tualist investigations ', was founded in New York. 

" Olcott was President, Felt and Dr. Seth Pancoast 
vice-presidents, and Madame Blavatsky Secretary. 
Among other members were William Q. Judge, Charles 
Sothern, one of the high dignitaries of American 
Masonry, also for a short time General Albert Pike, 
Grand Master of the Scottish Rite for the Southern 
Jurisdiction U. S. A., who was said to be the author 
of the thirty-three degrees received from the Arabian 
member of the ' Great School. ' ". 

To anyone who has read Part I of this book the 
significance of this connection with Pike and Luci- 
ferianism at this period requires no further comment! 

Guenon, detailing this American visit of Madame 
Blavatsky, further explains how " George H. Felt, 
self-styled Professor of Mathematics and Egyptologist, 
had been introduced to Madame Blavatsky by a jour- 
nalist called Stevens. Felt was a member of a secret 
society generally called by the initials ' H. B. of L. ' 
(Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor). This society, which 
played a prominent part in the first stages of spiri- 
tistic phenomena in America, is definitely opposed 

3. " Inquire Within ", Light-bearers of Darkness, p. 26. 


to spiritistic theories, for it teaches that these pheno- 
mena are due, not to the spirits of the dead, but to 
certain forces directed by living men. " 

Madame Blavatsky and Olcott had both joined this 
society from which they were expelled before they left 

A letter from John Yarlcer quoted in Freemasonry 

Universal (Vol V, part 2 Autumn Equinox, 1929) is 

here relevant. It states that Madame Blavatsky's 

masonic certificate in the Ancient and Primitive Rite 

of Masonry was issued in the year 1877. 

Yarker writes " Both the Rites of Memphis and 
Mizraim, as well as the Grand Orient of France, pos- 
sessed a Branch of Adoptive Masonry, popular in 
France in the 18th century and of which, in later 
years, the Duchess of Bourbon held the Rank of 
Grand Mistress. 

" We accordingly sent H. P. B., on the 24/11/77, a 
Certificate of the highest rank, that of a Crowned 
Princess 12, said to have been instituted at Saxe in 
the last quarter of the 18th century. " 

" In November, 1878 ", according to ' Inquire 
Within', " Madame Blavatsky and Olcott left for 
India, and in 1882 founded the Theosophical centre in 
Adyar, near Madras ; there she initiated her ' esoteric 
section ', and contacted the so-called ' Mahatmas ', 
and her phantastic phenomena, precipitated letters, 
astral bells, materialisations, etc., were in time sus- 
pected and exposed. The matter was taken up by the 
' Society for Psychical Research ', which in December, 
1885, reported her as ' one of the most accomplished, 
most ingenious, and most interesting impostors. '' 

4. Rene Guenon, op. cit, p. 21. 

5. Inquire Within, op. cit., p. 26 et seq. 


" Mrs. Besaiit was presented to Madame B!a- 
vatsky in 1889 by the socialist Herbert Burrows, also 
member of the Stella Matutina, and she immediately 
succumbed to Madame Blavatsky's irresistible magnet- 
ism and formidable power of suggestion. Madame Bla- 
vatsky died in London May 8, 1891. Mrs. Besant was 
elected President in 1907. From 1910 to its consum- 
mation one of her chief works, assisted by Leadbeater, 
was to train Krishnamurti as Messiah, or as he preferred 
to be called, ' World Teacher '. On February 19, 1922, 
an alliance between Mrs. Besant's Co-masonry and the 
Grand Orient of France was celebrated at the Grand 
Temple of the Droit Hiimain in Paris. " 

The Society has over seven hundred affiliated sects 
at present. " Its objects are. The World Religion, The 
World University, and the World Government (by 
the Restoration of the Mysteries, i. e. by the recognition 
of their place as the World Government as they were 
recognized in ancient days, the place they have ever 
continued to occupy...). " 

The political status of this organization as a centra- 
lizing point for numerous secret and theocratic orders 
is evidenced by a letter dated July 1, 1926, from 171 
Palace Chambers, Westminster, London, according 
to which the Editors and Correspondents of the English 
Information Service, to which was given the name of 
" The Theosophical News Bureau ", were officially autho- 
rized to issue statements on behalf of : — 

The Theosophical Society 

The Theosophical Educational Trust 

The Theosophical World University ' 

6. The Theosophist. 

1 . Papus (Docteur Encausse), Traite elementaire de Science 
Occulte, p. 147. 
The following is a translation : 


The Order of the Star in the East (closed) 

The Liberal Catholic Church 

The Order of Universal Co-Freemasonry. 

In 1887, when Madame Blavatsky settled in Lon- 
don, she had started a Theosophical magazine called 
Lucifer the light-bringer and published her Secret Doc- 
trine. She is the authoress of another well known work 
Isis unveiled. 

In the year 1889, Mr. MacGregor Mathers, 8th degree 
Rosicruciana in Anglia, wrote a letter to the editor of 
Lucifer in which he stated that the Theosophical and 
Rosicrucian Societies entertained very friendly rela- 
tions and this idea of " friendly foreign relations " 
is further confirmed by Rene Guenon who writes : 
" There are persons who believe that the ' Esoteric 
Section ' exists no longer in the Theosophical Society, 
but that is not so ; the truth is that, to defeat curiosity, 
it has been made into a nominally separate organization 
but one nevertheless, under the same direction ". 

The religious principles of The Theosophical Society 
are gnostic and anti-christian and are the same as those 
of " The Hermetic Society ". 

Numerous were the dissensions and many were the 

" Each one of these adaptations being applicable to 
the physical or spiritual world, one understands how real 
' Illumines ' can draw towards the light of truth, towards 
this ' light which illuminates all men coming into this world ', 
towards the divine living voice, the profanes called to initia- 

But for that it was necessary that the fundamental and 
hermetic key of the degrees and their adaptation should be 
conserved by an occult university. Such was the role that the 
Rose-Croix and the judeo-christians had reserved to them- 
selves. " 

8. Sedir, Histoire des Rose-Croix, p. 124. 


offshoots of this association among which the best 

known are The Anthroposophical Society and The 

Theosophical Society of America. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXIV. 

For development of this movement see Chapters C, CXXI. 


(Founded 1876) 

Known as the Rite of Primitive and Original Phre- 
masons. The Supreme Grand Lodge and Temple of the 
Swedenborgian Rite received its charter on 1/10/1876 
from the Supreme Council of the Phremasons in Canada 
(founded by the Golden Square Body of London) which 
was composed of the following well-known Brethren : 

M. N. Brother Colonel W. J. B. McLeod Moore S. G. M., 

Grand Master of Templars and 33° 
R. W. Brother T. D. Harrington, S. G. S. W., Pt. G. M. of 

the Grand Lodge of Canada and 33° 
R. W. Brother George Canning Longley. 33° 

The officers of the Supreme Council for England then 
appointed were ; — 
M. W. Brother John Yarker. S. G. M. 
R. W. Brother Captain R. G. Irwin. S. G. S. W. 
R. W. Brother Captain Chas. Scott J. P., S. G. J. W. 
Supreme Grand Secretary Dr. K. R. H. Mackenzie. 

Upon the death of Scott and the retirement of Irwin, 
Dr. Wynn Westcott and Major G. Turner were appoint- 
ed respectively. 

All members of the rite of Swedenborg must be Master 


The rite has six degrees, the craft degrees and three 
others, namely, Enlightened Prince or Green Brother, 
Sublime Prince or Blue Brother, and Perfect Prince or 
Red Brother. 

The Rosicrucian and Grail grades form the apotheosis 
of the entire system. 

Bro. John Yarker tells us (see page 416 in The Equinox, 
March 1912) that Samuel Beswick informed him that 
in his book, the matter added by Chastanier had been 
rejected and " that what was left was the work of 
Swedenborg. Hence", continues Bro. Yarker, "Bro. 
Waite's description of two secret and unnamed degrees, 
are of interest at this point ". 

In 1902, Brother Yarker, Grand Master of the Rite, 
authorized Theodore Reuss to found six Holy Grail 
Lodges in Germany. The officers of this Provincial 
Grand Lodge of Germania were : 

R. W. Theodor<: Ri^uss PiOv. Grand. Master 

Leopold Eng;l Prov. Grand Senior Warden 

Erich Walter Prov, Grand Junior Warden 

August Wt'inholtz Prov. Deputy Grand Master 

Max Heilbronner Prov. Grand Treasurer 

Siegniund Miller Prov. Grand Secretary 

Franz Huld Prov. Grand Marshall 
Max Suppas J 
Pr. R. Gross ) 

Gt-orge GierlniT, Guardian 

The Secretary of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of Sweden- 
borg in. England at this date was Wm. Wynn Westcott. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XL. 

For development of this movement see Chapter CX. 


(Founded 1879) 

On Oct. 21,' 1879, this organization was established 
at Dublin, Ireland, with Charles Stewart Parnell as its 
President. It cooperated closely with the Clan-na-Gael. 
Among its members were Egan, the treasurer, Biggar, 
Dillon, J. J. O'Kelly, London and Harris. The league 
was responsible for many agrarian outrages and in 
October, Parnell, Sexton, Kelly, Wm. O'Brien and 
Michael Davitt were arrested and imprisoned. From 
jail they issued a manifesto advising all tenants to pay 
no rent. On Oct. 18, 1881 the Government suppressed 
the Land League. 

The American branch of the National Land League 
was founded in 1880. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXVIH. 





(Founded J 879) 

The International Bible Student Movement was 
founded by Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916) with the 
object chiefly of attracting the lower middle class intel- 
ligentsia of Christian communities such as certain clerical 
workers, teachers, servants and persons not accessible 
to direct forms of propaganda. In America the move- 
ment has had great influence among the negro element. 

In 1879 Russell founded The Watch Tower of which 
he was the sole editor. 

The Russellite teaching, drawing its own arbitrary 
conclusions and proclaiming them as final, professes to 
prove from Biblical sources that all Christian churches are 
evil and corrupt, that the time of the Gentiles ended 
in 1914, and that the Jews must henceforth reign supreme 
over the world. It also elaborates an occult dogma 
alleged to be based on biblical precedents. 

It condemns the Roman Catholic Church, referring 
to Rome in true esoteric Masonic style as Babylon and 
disposes of the Pope and his entire hierarchy as agents 
of the Antichrist who are doomed to extinction accor- 
ding to the familiar Masonic formulas of Albert Pike, 
Mazzini and Co. We are further told on biblical autho- 



rity, interpreting the following words in Rev. II. 24 " As 
they speak " that this means that " Satan is a name 
applicable to Rome as describing its characteristics. 

The Protestant Episcopal and other Christian churches 
which in Russell's graphic language are " the Harlot 
daughters of the Romish Church " and " have commit- 
ted fornication " which term he interprets as meaning 
the union of Church and State, so bitterly opposed by 
the Jews in all countries, fare no better at the pen of 
this prolific writer, who predicts that, under the visible 
rulership of the Ancient Worthies (The Jewish Sanhe- 
drin), those Gentiles who still believe in Christ will 
acknowledge his reign as an invisible one while sub- 
mitting as Christians to all the hardships these Jewish 
lords might choose to put upon them. 

Brother Russell gives us little hope for the time of 
tribulation which is upon us, for on page 122 of The 
Finished Mystery he wrecks any hopes we might still 
cherish with regard to benevolent brotherhoods in the 
following sentence — " As the trouble increases, men 
will seek, but in vain, for protection in the great rocks 
and fortresses of society (Freemasonry, Oddfellowship, 
and Trades Unions, Guilds, Trusts and all societies 
secular and ecclesiastical) and in the mountains (govern- 
ments) of the earth ". 

The publications of The International Bible Students 
Association are interesting samples of political propa- 
ganda and seem well calculated to suppress possible 
instincts of revolt among such members of the Christian 
community as might object to the role allotted to them 
under the Jewish Super State. 

The present head of this movement is John Rutherford. 

1. The International Bible Students Association, The 
Finished Mystery, p. 43, pub. 1918. 

For the root of this movement see Chapter LXXVI. 



(Founded 1881) 

In his historical sketch of " The Invincibles ", Captain 
Pollard thus records their foundation and activities : 
"The Executive of the Irish Invincibles was joined 
by members of the I. R. B. but the two organizations 
were kept distinct. " 

" The Invincibles conceived the idea of assassinating 
all British officials in Ireland, and held themselves to be 
guerilla soldiers. " Their chief was P. J. Tynan always 
alluded to as Number 1. 

The assassination of Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief 
Secretary, and Mr. Burke, known as the " Phoenix 
Park murders " were perpetrated by this association. 

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 82. 
For root of this movement see Chapter XCIV. 





(Founded 1882) 

The secret society called La Societe Theosophique 
d'Orient et d'Occident was a spiritist organization founded 
by the Duchesse de Pomar (Lady Caithness) in 1882. 

The Duchess was personally in close touch with 
Eliphas Levi, Mme. Blavatsky, Colonel Olcott, Mrs. 
Besant, Dr. Encausse, and other well known occultists 
of the period. 

For the root of this movement see Chapter XCV. 




(Founded 1882) 

This order, Fratres Lucis, was founded in 1882. 
by an English Jew called Maurice Vidal Portman, an 
orientalist and a politician who in 1876 was in close 
contact with Lord Lytton, then Viceroy of India, the 
author of the well known occult novel Zanoni. 

As regards this order, John Yarker, recipient of The 
Crown of Kether, gives us the following information : 

" The Altar is that of Maha Deva and had a ritual 
of three degrees — Novice, Aspirant, Viator. The writer 
(John Yarker) arranged with Bro. Portman to amalga- 
mate it with the Sat Bhai, Rite of Perfection, but it 
seems to be continued separately at Bradford, Yorkshire, 
as the ' Oriental Order of Light '. Its early certificate 
adopted the forms of the Cabala, with which the Theo- 
sophy of India has some affinity. In the East, ceremonial 
degrees are not valued, the object being the develop- 
ment of practical occultism, which was the purpose 
of the establishment of the Order of Light, governed 
by a Grand Master of the Sacred Crown or Kether of 

1. Rene Guenon, Le Theosophisme, p. 297. 



the Cabala. The writer (John Yarker) has a letter from 
Bro. Portman in which he says ; 'the Sat Bhai rituals 
are without exception the finest and best suited to an 
occult order of anything I have ever read ' and he 
leaves all arrangements in the writer's hands. " 

If, as John Yarker says, the Altar is indeed that of 
Maha Deva, we refer the reader to that part of this 
book where the Indian cult of Siva (The Destroyer, 
Maha Deva) is outlined. 

The present headquarters of the order are still at 
Bradford, Yorkshire. 

2. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 429. 



(Founded 1882) 

The ahmadiyyah sect is described in an article by Fr. 

Lawrence as having been founded in 1882 at Quadiam, 
Punjab, by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who died in 1908. 
It resembles in many ways Bahaism and attempts to 
conciliate the oriental and occidental religions while 
its dogma, based on the shi'a (unorthodox Mahometan) 
foundation of free thought, embraces the buddhist belief, 
rites and metempsychosis as well as the idea of the 
occult Messiah. 

In accordance with the Ismali theory of the advent 
of the reincarnated mahdi at the opening of each 
century, this sect proclaims their founder to have been 
the reincarnation of Christ for the XIV Century (XX of 
our era) and the harbinger of the future Messiah. 

An Indian branch of the sect endorses a legend accord- 
ing to which Christ, having escaped the Pharisees, 
died at Srinagar, Kashmir. At this place is the tomb of 
an obscure buddhist saint Yus-asaf. 

The propaganda of the sect is worked from two centres, 
one at Lahore, India, and the other at Woking, England, 
the latter being chiefly political in character adhering 
to the kemalist and panturanic programme. 



At Lahore resides the esoteric Indian chief of the sect, 
Muham-mab-Ali. In London is the other head, Kemal- 

The chief publications of the order are 

The Islamic Review London 

The Sun of Islam Lahore 

The Light. Lahore 

Moslem Sunrise. . Chicago 

Moslemische Review Berhn 

Revue Islamique Island of Mauritius 

The Durang mosque is attended by English converts 
as well as Indians. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XVII". 






(Founded 1892) 

We quote the following from a pamphlet issued 
under the sanction of the Deputy of the Supreme 
Council of Universal Co-Masonry for Great Britain 
and its Dependencies by the Grand Secretary of the 
said Jurisdiction. 

" In the system of the Grand Orient of France the 
Craft lodges are under the control of the Supreme Coun- 
cil of the highest degree of the rite. The first attempt 
to found mixed lodges in France was made in 1774. 
These adoptive lodges spread to other countries, but 
the modern Co-Masonic Order or, L'Ordre Ma^onnique 
Mixte International Was founded in 1882. It consisted 
of a group of Lodges which united under the name of 
La Grande Loge Syinbolique Ecossaise de France, 
received immediate recognition from the Grand Orient 
of France. 

" In 1872 the Lodge Le Droit Humain was founded 
by Mademoiselle Maria Deraismes in the presence of 
Dr. Georges Martin, a prominent mason. 



" In 1900 the new Grande Loge Symbolique amended 
its policy so as to enable it to extend its ramifications 
to otlier countries and to worlc the higher degrees. 
Aided by Brethren in possession of the 33rd degree, 
the body was then raised from a Craft Grand Lodge 
to a Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted 
Scottish Rites. Madame Marie Martin, the close friend 
and collaborator of Mademoiselle Deraismes, suc- 
ceeded upon the death of the latter to the leadership 
of the movement, (Dr. Georges Martin holding the 
Office of Grand Orateur) and held it till her death in 

" There are Co-Masonic lodges in France, Belgium, 
England, Scotland, India, Australia, South Africa, 
America, Holland, Java, Switzerland and Norway. 

" The first English Co-Masonic Lodge was conse- 
crated in London on Sept. 26th 1902 by the Grand 
Officers of the Supreme Council under the title of 
Human Duty, No. 6, and Mrs. Annie Besant was created 
Vice-President Grand Master of the Supreme Council 
and Deputy for Great Britain and its Dependencies. 

" The Grand Lodge of England does not recognize 
this particular body of Masonry (1927) but Universal 
Co-Masonry recognises and admits to its lodges Masons 
of all regularly constituted Masonic orders. Its laws 
and regulations are based on the principles adopted by 
the Universal Assembly of Supreme Councils gathered 
together at Lausanne on Sept. 22nd, 1875. " 

Much of the real information bearing upon the posi- 
tion of woman in Masonry has been omitted by Maso- 
nic writers and the reader would be well advised to 
refer for it to Vol I. 

In The Hidden Life in Freemasonry (p. 191) C. W. 
Leadbeater 33° gives us the following cryptic descrip- 
tion of the preparation of the Candidate for Initiation 


into the degree of Apprentice in the Co-masonic order : 
"Before his admission he is divested of all m...s and 
V...S, is h...d, and has his r... a..., ]... b... and I... k... 
b..., and his r... h... s...d. " 

" In plain English the foregoing would read : Before 
his admission he is divested of all metals and valuables, 
is hoodwinked and has his right arm, left breast and 
left knee bared and his right heel slip shod. " 

The candidate thus prepared is saturated with mag- 
netic energy during the ensuing ceremony from which 
consequently he or she issues already under hypnotic 

These hypnotic bonds are further strengthened during 
the ensuing ceremonies of Apprentice and Master 
Mason which however, in this order, according to 
Mr. Leadbeater's description of elementals, undines 
and other sprites, seem to emulate very closely the 
phenomena of the Spiritualist's seance room. 

After attainment by the Candidate to the third 
degree the Kundalini is supposed to be fully developed. 


{Founded 1882} 

The Knights of Columbus is the name of a Roman 
Catholic organization founded in 1882, in the United 
States of America, by a Roman Catholic priest. Father 
P. McGivney of New Haven, Connecticut. 

From the Roman Catholic paper. La Croix, of Paris, 
in the number dated December 20, 1913, we gather 
that, at that date, the Knights of Columbus wielded an 
immense power with which public authorities had to 
reckon. Their number then was acknowledged to be 
more than three hundred thousand. The Order had four 
degrees and was headed by a Grand Master, six pro- 
Grand Masters and a General Secretary. The territory 
of the United States was divided into six provinces, 
each province administered by one of the six pro-Grand 
Masters. Each province was in turn subdivided in dis- 
tricts administered by a Master of the 4th degree and 
appointed by the Grand Masters for a period of two 
years. Districts were subdivided in councils or chapters. 

The Verite of Quebec, a Canadian paper, in August 
1913, put the number of the councils at 1630. At that 
time, the Supreme Council of the Knights of Columbus 
was composed of James O'Flaherty, Martin H. Carmody, 



William J. McGinley, Daniel J. Callahan and Joseph C. 

The order of the Knights of Columbus was the cause 
of much perturbation in the Roman Catholic Church. 

Under cover of being an association for mutual help, 
it had recruited a considerable number of members whc 
believed that the Order was fully approved by the 
Church authorities. When however its activities took 
on the appearance of a Masonic society with initiation 
rituals, symbolism and secret oaths, many among the 
Catholic Clergy became alarmed. Their fears were not 
allayed when it was known that the leaders of the 
Knights of Columbus were having fraternal exchanges 
of all kinds with the Oddfellows, Templars and other 
Masonic bodies. The climax was reached when it was 
rumoured that in Rome, the Knights of Columbus had 
petitioned the Pope to allow their members to become, 
at least in the United States, regular Masons. 

The Knights of Columbus, like the Oddfellows, formed 
lodges of adoption in 1913, women being enrolled under 
the caption of " Daughters of Isabella ". Women lodges 
were called " courts ". In 1913, the number of " courts " 
was over 200 and the membership of " Daughters of 
Isabella " over two hundred thousand. 

Like the society of Oddfellows and similarly to the 
O. T. O. of the Rosicrucians the Knights of Columbus 
hold much power over the property and various inte- 
rests of their members. 

Due to their efforts in the direction of establishing 
a universal religion and inter-confessionalism, the 
Knights of Columbus have been considered by a large 
section of the Roman Catholic clergy as an element 
having departed from the teachings of the Church of 
Rome and whose secret aim is to bore from within and 
disintegrate the Roman Catholic power. 


Although the Knights of Columbus and the Daughters 
of Isabella have extended their ramifications into the 
United Kingdom, it is in the United States that their 
strength mainly resides. This is easily understood when 
one studies the activities of Roman Catholics in America 
and realises that, there, they are far more a political 
entity with subversive tendencies than a religious body. 



(Founded 1883) 

Christian Science was founded in 1883. 

Mary Baker Eddy, the founder, was born in 1821 
at Bow, New Hampshire, U. S. A. and died in 1910. 

Having suffered greatly all her life from neurasthenia 
and hysteria she developed mediumship at an early 
age. Spiritistic sessions further revealed her psychic 
gifts but it is more than likely that her early years of 
experimental psychic research exposed her, in after 
years, to the horrors of what she later described as 
" Malicious Animal Magnetism ", familiarly referred 
to by her students as M. A. M. 

At the age of 22, she married George Washington 
Glover, a Freemason and Oddfellow, who took her to 
live at Charleston, South Carolina, six months later. 
However he contracted yellow fever while at Wilming- 
ton where he died in June 1844. 

In 1853, she married Daniel Patterson, a medical 
practitioner, from whom she was later separated. 

In October 1862 she applied for medical assistance to 
Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (d. 1866) a healer, who had 
many marvellous cures to his credit. His medical system 
was based on an understanding of the scientific laws 



governing the use of hypnotism, mesmerism and sugges- 
tion. It is claimed that she derived her system from him. 

Her boolc Science and Health was first published in 

In 1877 she married Asa Gilbert Eddy who left her 
a widow in 1882. 

In 1881, she founded the Massachusetts Metaphysical 
College in Boston and two years later, when the move- 
ment was well established, started publishing the Chris- 
tian Science Journal. 

On June 13, 1888, the National Christian Science 
Association held its second annual meeting at Central 
Music Hall, Chicago. This had been organized as well 
as advertised by George B. Day, Pastor of the First 
Church of Christ Scientists, Chicago, and the speech 
delivered by Mrs. Eddy on the second day of this 
session was acclaimed by her 4,000 listeners as an in- 
spired oration. In view of the extraordinary pitch of 
enthusiasm attained by her audience and knowing the 
practice of " charging" public rooms or halls one 
is led to ask oneself the question as to whether the 
assembly hall had been specially "charged" for that 
particular meeting. Whether Mrs. Eddy herself, like 
the Sybils of ancient times, was also " inspired" 
by outside hypnotic influence is another hypothesis to 
conjure with. 

From then on, Mrs. Eddy's religious future was 
assured. Under her leadership suggestion became indeed 
the foundation of a religion, a religion in which psychic 
force, operating under suggestion, accomplishes definite 
physical results. 

Mrs. Eddy's acquaintance with Mrs. Augusta Stetson, 
another Christian Science leader, had already taken 
place for, according to E. F. Dakin, author of Mrs. Eddy 
{page 178) " i t was at a meeting in a fashionable home on 


Monument Hill in Charleston that she first met Augusta 
Stetson, in 1884... She (Mrs. Stetson) had been born 
of old Puritan stock in Waldoboro, Maine, about 1842. 
In after life she shrouded her past in mystery, refused 
-to tell her age, and the town records were eventually 
burned. She grew up as one of five children in a house 
which her father, Peabody Simmons, carpenter, built 
with his own hands. When the family moved to another 
Maine town, Damariscotta, Augusta was organist there 
in the Methodist church and a singer in the choir. 
At 24 she married a ship-builder, Frederick Stetson, 
who was partially an invalid as a result of imprison- 
ment in Libby Prison during the Civil War. As his wife, 
she went to England where he secured employment 
with a British shipbuilding firm. Later, he was sent to 
Bombay, and here she had an opportunity to delve into 
a subject in which she had an instinctive interest — 
the oriental philosophies. In these philosophies affirma- 
tion and denial play an important role, and a pantheistic 
God is postulated — a God who is the Universe, whose 
mind is All, and of whose mind matter, like force, is but 
one manifestation or expression in the midst of many. " 

Mrs. Stetson started healing and teaching Mrs. Eddy's 
system in New York in 1886, later resigning her 
connection with the Christian Science church in 1909. 

One can almost describe this system as emerging 
clearly out of the realm of occultism, a kind of sugges- 
tion or auto-suggestion, whereby practical beneficial 
results may be induced in a patient by the application of 
certain occult laws to their personal medical require- 

Mrs. Eddy's dogma is summed up by Hudson in the 
following words : 

" Matter has no existence. Our bodies are composed 
of matter, therefore our bodies have no existence. 


" It follows of course that disease cannot exist in a 
non-existent body. " 

However, regardless of this paradox and the various 
opinions hitherto expressed about Christian Science, we 
recognize, while admitting the efficacy of Mrs. Eddy's 
use of the force of beneficent animal magnetism, that 
her personal fear of the action of Malicious Animal 
Magnetism, so derided by her theological adversaries, 
is logical and founded. 

These forces operate on sound scientific lines and 
those who can use the power of suggestion to gain ascen- 
dency over a sick person may use it again later for other 
motives. The danger of such misapplication is not one 
to be disregarded in calling in a healer, whatever 
Mrs. Eddy's detractors may say ! That danger is real 
and every student of the occult knows it. 

The movement has become popular and has a follow- 
ing among people of wealth who seem to become the 
easy prey of occultists and charlatans. 

The following extract from the Daily Telegraph of 
Deer. 18, 1930, illustrates this ; 

HARMFUL DEMONSTRATIONS sity, and, in the case of many sen- 
sitive people, to give rise to ner- 

A warning against the dangers of vous and psychological trouble, 

hypnotism in public has been issued Another grave criticism is that they 

by the Academy of Medicine as the may lead young people to believe 

result of an investigation by a that the exercise of hypnotism 

special committee. This was set may enable them to influence the 

up at the request of the Council of will and actions of those with 

the Meuse Department, which sug- whom they come into contact — 

gested that public experiments in " which, " asserts the report, " is 

hypnotism should be stopped. contrary to the truth. " 

The academy declares that such A resolution passed by the acade- 

demon St rations are bound to have my recommends the forbidding of 

a harmful influence. They are such displays throughout the 

likely to excite undesirable curio- country. 

\. Hudson, The Law of Psychic Phenomena, p. 157. 


(Founded 1883} 

The nominal founder of The Fabian Society was 
Thomas Davidson, an idealist who, in the hope of better- 
ing the lot of humanity, organized a debating club the 
original aim of which was, according to Mr. Pease, 
author of The History of the Fabian Society, " the recon- 
struction of society on a non-competitive basis with the 
object of remedying the evils of poverty. " 

This non-competitive basis meant maintenance for 
all by the community as a right, regardless of merit. 

The club met fortnightly in the drawing rooms of 
its various members and in 1884 adopted the name 
"The Fabian Society". 

Among those prominent in the movement in its early 
days were : Frank Podmore, a spiritualist, Percival 
Chubb, a clerk on the Local Government Board, Edward 
Pease, Hubert Bland, J. Ramsay Macdonald, later 
Prime Minister of England, R. B. Haldane, afterwards 
Lord Haldane, George Bernard Shaw, Sidney Webb, 
afterwards Lord Passfield, Graham Wallas, William 
Clarke, a former disciple of Mazzini, Mrs. Annie Besant, 
then a radical with an oifice at 63, Fleet Street, who 

1 . See page 37 et seq. 



controlled The Freethought Publishing Co., Dr. Pank- 
hurst, husband of the later leader of the Women's 
Social and Political Union and Mrs. Charlotte M. Wilson 
who, while retaining her membership in the Fabian 
Society " devoted herself ", so we are told by Mr. Pease, 
to the Anarchist movement led by Prince Kropotkin 
and for some years edited the anarchist paper Freedom. 
On page 68 of The History of the Fabian Society by 
Edward R. Pease we read : 

" In order to avoid a breach with Mrs. Wilson and her 
Fabian sympathisers, it was resolved to form a Fabian Par- 
liamentary League, which Fabians could join or not as they 
pleased ; its constitution, dated February, 1887, is given in 
full in Tract No. 41 ; here it is only necessary to quote one 
passage which describes the policy of the League and of the 
Society, a policy of deliberate possibilism : — 

" The League will take active part in all general and local 
elections. Until a fitting opportunity arises for putting for- 
ward Socialist candidates to form the nucleus of a Socialist 
party in Parliament, it will confine itself to supporting those 
candidates who will go furthest in the direction of Socia- 
lism. It will not ally itself absolutely with any political 
party; it Will jealously avoid being made use of for party 
purposes ; and it will be guided in its action by the charac- 
ter, record and pledges of the candidates before the consti- 
tuencies. In Municipal, School Board, Vestry, and other 
local elections, the League will, as it finds itself strong enough, 
run candidates of its own, and by placing trustworthy Socia- 
lists on local representative bodies it will endeavour to- 
secure the recognition of the Socialist principle in all the 
details of local government. "... 

" The League first faded into a Political Committee of the 
Society, and then merged silently and painlessly into the 
general body. " 

The foregoing is interesting : first, — as showing the 
original Anarchist connection with Fabian Socialism 


as we now know it, secondly, — as an example of one 
of the most usual methods of subverting an existing 

An offshoot of the existing organization was here 
formed, pledged to a policy or policies which might 
have been repudiated by the parent body. This offshoot 
being destined to eventual reabsorption into the parent 
body could thus assure the successful " boring from 
within " of the old organization. 

We are further told by Mr. Pease that in 1888, " a 
Universities Committee, with Frank Podmore as Secre- 
tary for Oxford and G. W. Johnson for Cambridge, had 
begun the ' permeation ' of the Universities, which has 
always been an important part of the propaganda of the 
Society ". 

By 1890, the support of a splendidly organized intel- 
ligentsia was assured to the socialist cause with the 
Fabian Society as its propaganda centre and a number 
of local Fabian societies were formed. They were succeed- 
ed by and merged into branches of the Independent 
Labour Party. 

On page 209 of Mr. Pease's book, we glean some more 
enlightening information which definitely connects the 
Fabians with the Jew-captured organization of the old 

" The International Socialist and Trade Union Congresses, 
held at intervals of three or four years since 1889, were at 
first no more than isolated Congresses, arranged by local 
organizations constituted for the purpose in the preceding 
year. Each nation voted as one, or at most, as two units, 
and therefore no limit was placed on the number of dele- 
gates ; the one delegate fi'om Argentina or Japan conse- 
quently held equal voting power to the scores or even hun- 
dreds from France or Germany. But gradually the organi- 
zation was tightened up, and in 1907 a scheme was adopted 


which gave twenty votes each to the leading nations, and 
proportionately fewer to the others. Moreover a permanent 
Bureau was established at Brussels, with Emile Vandervelde, 
the distinguished leader of the Belgian Socialists, later well 
known in England as the Ministerial representative of the 
Belgian Government during the war, as Chairman. In England, 
where the Socialist and Trade Union forces were divided, 
it was necessary to constitute a special joint committee in 
order to raise the British quota of the cost of the Bureau, 
and to elect and instruct the British delegates. It was deci- 
ded by the Brussels Bureau that the 20 British votes should 
be allotted ; 10 to the Labour Party, 4 to the I. L. P. (Inde- 
pendent Labour Party) 4 to the British Socialist Party, 
into which the old S. D. F. (Socialist Democratic Federa- 
tion) had merged, and 2 to the Fabian Society, and the 
British Section of the International Socialist Bureau was, 
and still remains, constituted financially and electorally 
on that basis. " 

In the same chapter of his history, Mr. Pease explains 
that " half of two-thirds of the Fabians belonged also to 
the I. L. P. and nearly all the I. L. P. leaders were or 
had been members of the Fabian Society ". The I. L. P. 
was founded in January 1893 by Keir Hardie and Fried- 
rich Engeis, the disciple of Karl Marx. 

This Independent Labour Party virtually took over 
the active political work of the Fabian Society, leaving 
to the parent body its literary and propaganda status. 

At a conference at Leeds in 1899 it was resolved to 
form a Local Government Information Bureau, to be 
jointly managed by the I. L. P. and the Fabian 

In 1904, Sidney Webb became chairman of the Tech- 
nical Education Board which up to that date directed 
all higher education for England. This event, and the 
concerted working of a group of Fabians within the 
London County Council, considerably enhanced the 


opportunities for further socialistic expansion of the 

It should be borne in mind that Anarchists and Socia- 
lists, while seeming to differ in their social Utopian 
policies, agree on the first step necessary to provoke an 
economic condition which would enable them to reor- 
ganize the world to their liking. 

This first step is the destruction of present day civili- 
sation, the good with the bad. 

Their aim of Destruction is the same, only the method 
whereby it is to be effected differs. This effort at destruc- 
tion accounts for the community of action of Socialists 
and Anarchists throughout history. 

According to the Anarchists : All must be destroyed 
in order that all may be rebuilt, but, according to the 
Socialists, the present system will fall of itself by the 
passage of certain measures into law. These laws, while 
framed to appeal to popular fancy, once introduced, 
can be administered in such a way as to operate the 
International Destruction which is the primary aim 
of both parties. 

Writing of Babeuf and Buonarotti and their abor- 
tive conspiracy of 1796, Professor H. J. Laski in The 
Socialist Tradition in the French Revolution states that 
" the strategy they (the Babouvists) invented has pro- 
vided ever since the methodology of revolutionary 
socialism at least in its large outline ". 

The Fabians form numerous detached societies, 
committees, study clubs, associations, leagues, schools 
and what not, in order to gain the support of non- 
socialists for such sections of the Socialist programme 
which might fail to receive public approbation if the 
connection with the World Socialist-Communist 
scheme was revealed. Thus the " sucker lists " of 
capitalistic supporters of socialism are made available 


for England. The system is the same in America. 

Among the societies which owe their origin to Fabian 
initiative may be mentioned : 

The London School of Economics, founded 1895. 

The Fabian Research, founded 1912, later known 
as the Labour Research Bureau. 

The Pan-Fabian Organization, founded 1907. 

The University Socialist Federation, founded 1912, 
later known as University Labour Clubs. 

The Labour Representation Committee, founded 1900, 
known after 1906 as The Labour Party. 

Among the members of the Fabian Association during 
the last 30 years we find the following names : Bertrand 
Russell (now Earl Russell), Professor H. J. Laski, 
Mrs. Sidney Webb (now Lady Passfield), H. G. Wells 
(resigned), F. W. Pethick-Lawrence, George Lansbury, 
Philip Snowden (ex-Chancellor of the Exchequer and 
Lord Privy Seal) and Mrs Snowden (now Viscount and 
Viscountess Snowden), Will Crooks, Sir Sidney Olivier 
(ex-Secretary of State for India, now Lord Olivier), 
the late Brig. -Gen. C. B. Thomson (subsequently Lord 
Thomson, late Secretary of State for Air), Arthur 
Henderson (ex-Home Secretary) and Noel Buxton. 

It is rather interesting to note how many Fabians 
have found their way to the House of Lords. 

Mr. Pease remarks further that after the Labour 
Party came into offjce in 1923, "about half the remain- 
ing Fabians in Parliament became either Under- 
Secretaries or Parliamentary Private Secretaries to 
Ministers, all positions of greater or less influence with 
the Government". 

The following extract from the Evening Standard, 
London, May 28, 1931, shows the accuracy of Mr. 
Pease's statement and will serve to further enlighten 
our readers as to the full significance of present events. 




— ■* — "- 






From Our Political Correspondent. 

The GovcrnmRnf is (o be presen- 
ted with a braml new policy. Cer- 
tain ministers are to take part in 
its prtparatlon. 

It is caUed a " long rtin " policy, 
and is planmci "for ten years 
ahead. " 

To-morrow evening a group of 
Socialists and Trade Unionists will 
begin fa&Iiionlng \lu: new plan at 
a meeting to be held at Transport 
House. The prime moViers are Major 
C. R. Attlee (Postmaster-General), 
and Mr, G. D. H. Cole. 

Sir Statlord Crjpps flhe Solici- 
tor-General), Mr. Ernest Bevin, and 
Mr. Noel Baker, M. P. (Mr. Arthur 
Henderson's Parliamentary pri- 
vate Secretary) are among those 
expected to accept the invitation 
of Major Attlee and Mr. Cole at to- 
morrow's meeting. 


The new policy — or the plan for 

a new polit-y — had its origin in a 
series of house parties held last 
year at Easton Lodge (the Labour 
Chequers), when Socialist politi- 
cians, economists and trades unio- 
nists foregathered at week -ends. 
Out of these meelings grew the 
new I-^abian Research Bureau (of 
which Major Aflloe is chairman and 
Mr, r.ole secretary), which recei- 
ved the ofHcial blessing of the 
Labour movement two months ago 
and is now established in premises 
in Abingdon street. 

One of the chief ideals of this Society is the extinction 
of the poor as evidenced by the following extract from 
The Sunday Express (London) of May 17, 1931. 



Mr. Bernard Shaw, speaking at 
Letchworth yesterday, advised the 
extinction of the poor. 

" Never give onythinp to the paot, " 
he said. " They are useless, dangerous, 
and might tg b« abolished, and until 
this country l:>econies determlEietl that 
It ahall never af^in have a poor man 
01 woman or child in it, it will nol be 
a Country worth llvJnfi; hi. " 

The best known and cleverest Destructionist laws 
now on the statute books are those of the Income Tax 


and the Inheritance Tax. This form of taxation is 
calculated eventually to precipitate Municipalisation 
and Nationalisation which also are part of the Fabian 
scheme for world peifection. This ideal is to be achieved 
by the gradual expropriation and pauperisation of all 
classes by systematic, economic pressure, each class to 
be separately ruined according to the best means avail- 
able for ruining it. Municipalisation and Nationalisa- 
tion means control by government, or, in other words, 
domination by one great trust. 

Is this Socialism ? 

There is nothing new or extraordinary in this plan for 
World control by a centralized, Super-Capitalist power. 

It is the plan so minutely explained in The Protocols 
of the Wise Men of Zion. 

It is the plan of modern Judeo-Masonic Russian 
Soviet Communism. 

It is the plan of Weishaupt's Illuminati and that of 
International Freemasonry symbolized by the three 
points of Albert Pike — Destruction, Materialism, 

One is all and all is one. 

It should here be noted that the tax question is 
handled no differently by Conservative Governments, 
when in power, than by Labour or Liberal Governments 
and it is well known that any Conservative daring to 
question the Fabian policy of confiscatory taxation 
would commit immediate political suicide. 

The stranglehold of Fabian Babouvism on England 
may however eventually be mitigated by an interna- 
tional organization of taxpayers combining as a counter 
revolutionary body. Who knows ? 

For root of this movement see Chapters LXXXV, XCIII. 
For development of this movement see Chapter CXXV. 



(Founded 1884) 

Founded by Parnell, Michael Cusack and Michael 
Davitt in 1884. It was related to the Irish movement. 



(Founded 1884) 

This spiritistic Society was founded in London on 
May 9, 1884, by Anna Kingsford and Edward Maitland, 
both members of the Theosophical Society. 

According to R. Guenon, it advocates a Gnostic 
mixture of Christianity and Buddhism. 

For Anna Kingsford, as for Mme Blavatsky, the 
Christs are beings who have succeeded in developing 
in themselves certain superior powers latent in all men. 
This is presumably the " Serpent Power " or Kundalini, 
the Sex Force. Jesus is not the historical personage 
Jesus Christ. Jesus is only an initiate, one of " the 
Christs " incarnating through the ages in different 
bodies, other incarnations of the " Christ force " having 
been in the persons of Maitreya Bouddha, Krishna and 
the various prophets of the other religions. 

As a foundation for a Universal World Religion, the 
idea is a clever one but its consequences are that anyone 
who makes enough fuss about himself can become a god, 
thus reducing the idea ad absurdum. 

This is the principle which when further elaborated 
leads to the usual Gnostic belief that " Man is God ". 

Man being God is thus infallible therefore, as God 



can " do what he will ". This convenient principle 
leads in turn to an equally convenient code of morals 
which, unfortunately, eventually leads to the abyss. 

Anna Kingsford and her society were in close contact 
with MacGregor Mathers the head of " Golden Dawn ". 

The Hermetic Society eventually became known as 
" The Esoteric Christian Union ". 

1. Edward Maitland, Life of Anna Kingsford, Vol. II, p. 430. 
For root of this movement see Chapters LXXXVII, XCV. 


(Founded 1888} 

This society was founded in England in 1888. It 
admits men and women. 

As a branch of Occult Masonry, its esoteric teaching 
is a blend of modern Tibetan magic and Theosophy. 
(See Chapters on Lamaism and Theosophy). 

In his History of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia 
M. W. Supreme Magus Dr. William Wynn Westcott 
IX, P. M. P. Z., 30°, informs us that " in associa- 
tion with himself and Dr. Woodman ", R. W. Frater 
MacGregor Mathers J. S. M. IX " founded the Isis- 
Urania Temple of the Hermetic Students of the G. D. 
(Golden Dawn) and that he (Mathers) was then (in 
1900) the Chief Adept of the entirely Esoteric Order 
of the R. R. and A. C. in France, Great Britain and 
other countries. " 

Thus the story basing its foundation on the finding, 
by A. F. A. Woodford, of a German manuscript at a 
bookstair is shown to have been a fabrication calcu- 

1. Presented to the British Museum Library 5/11 /05, Lon- 
don. Privately printed Dec. 30th 1900, see p. 13. 

2. Nesta Webster, Secret Societies, p. 311. 



lated presumably to hide the direct connection with 
the " Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia. " 

William Wynn Westcott in the above mentioned 
book gives the following epitome of the Masonic career 
of Mathers. 

" R. W. Prater MacGregor Mathers (Comte Mac- 
Gregor de Glenstrae), the present Junior Substitute 
Magus, was admitted to Freemasonry in the Hengist 
Lodge at Bournemouth and was an early member of 
the Correspondence Circle of the Quatuor Coronati 
Lodge at which he was a frequent speaker before he 
settled in Paris. He is a very famous occult student, 
and has contributed several learned lectures to the 
Metropolitan College. He is the author of the Kabalah 
Unveiled, the Tarot Cards, The Key of Solomon 
the King and The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra- 
Melin the Mage. " 

Mrs. MacGregor Mathers, the sister of Henri Berg- 
son, the Jewish-French philosopher, received clair- 
voyantly most of the early teaching still used in the 
order from the " Hidden Secret Chiefs of the Third 
Order. " ^ 

A. E. Waite was an early member of the " Golden 
Dawn ", but at a meeting held at Dr. Felkin's residence 
in 1903, according to Dr. Felkin's history, " a split 
occurred, as Waite and his followers denied the exis- 
tence of the Third Order, refused to have examinations 
in the inner, objected to all occult work, and said they 
must work upon purely mystic lines. " 

In consequence of the split, the old organization of 
Golden Dawn changed its name to Stella Matutina 
with Aleister Crowley and William Wynn Westcott at 
its head while the schismatic order, under A. E. Waite 

3. " Inquire Within ", Light-beareis of Darkness, p. SG. 


and MacGregor Mathers, the latter a friend of Rudolph 
Steiner, retained the old name of Golden Dawn. 
In 1912, Golden Dawn merged with Stella Matutina. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXVII. 
For development of this movement see Chapter CXV. 


Exoteric names 

Esoteric name 
(Founded J 895) 

Modern Illuminism, as we know it, was founded by 
Karl Kellner in 1895. He died in 1905 and was 
succeeded by Theodore Reuss, the agent of John Yarker. 

In 1902, Reuss named William Wynn Westcott as 
Regent of the Illuminati in England thus establishing 
the interlocking directorate between Soc. Rosicru- 
ciana in Anglia and German Illuminism. This con- 
nection is further explained in the article on Societas 
Rosicruciana in Anglia in Chapter LXXXVII. 

According to The Equinox'^ Vol III No. 1, J919, tliu 
ofTicia! organ of both the A/. A.'. (Atlanttan Adepts) 

1. In an Appendix to this book, 33 pages are transcribed 
from the eleventh book of The Equinox, an organ of the sect. 
This eleventh volume having been withdrawn from circula- 
tion is little known. It was published in Detroit, U. S. A., in 
1919. There is no copy of it in the British Museum but copies 
of all books published in the United States of America are 
kept in the Library of Congress at Washington, D. C. 



and the 0. T. 0. initiates are taught that this latter 
order is " a body of initiates in whose hands are con- 
centrated the wisdom and knowledge of the following 
bodies : — 

1. The Gnostic Catholic Church. 

2. The Order of the Knights of the Holy Ghost. 

3. The Order of the Illuminati. 

4. The Order of the Temple (Knights Templar). 

5. The Order of the Knights of St. John. 

6. The Order of the Knights of Malta. 

7. The Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre. 

8. The Hidden Church of the Holy Grail. 

9. The Hermetic Brotherhood of Light. 

10. The Holy Order of Rose Croix of Heredom. 

11. The Order of the Holy Royal Arch of Enoch. 

12. The Antient and Primitive Rite of Masonry (33 de- 


13. The Rite of Memphis (97 degrees). 

14. The Rite of Mizraim (90 degrees). 

15. The Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Masonry 

(33 degrees). 

16. The Swedenborgian Rite of Masonry. 

17. The Order of the Martinists. 

18. The Order of the Sat Bhai, and many other orders of 

equal merit, if of less fame. 

II dfx's nnl imludo ili-,'.\/. A.*, with wliicli august 
body it is, however, in close alliance. " 

This publication also states that " the dispersion 
of the original secret wisdom having led to confusion, 
it was determined by the Chiefs of all these Orders to 
recombine and centralize their activities, even as white 
light, divided in a prism, may be recomposed. " 

" Secret wisdom " in the case of masonic societies 
of any kind is invariably synonymous with " occult 
knowledge. " 


In the case of the 0. T. 0. the practice of the " secret 
wisdom " begins with the understanding of the very 
name of the order. 

The book referred to above contains the following 
information on page 200 : " The letters O. T. O. repre- 
sent the words Ordo Templi Orientis (Order of the 
Temple of the Orient, or Oriental Templars); but They 
have also a secret meaning for initiates. " 

Were we to make a guess at the secret meaning ot 
the O. T. O., we would borrow the words of Godfrey 
Higgins, the author of Anacalypsis and, with him, 
" penetrate into the Sanctum Sanctorum of the ancient 
philosophers of India, Egypt, Syria and Greece. " 
There shall we discover the secret meaning of the Order 
of To Ov, Greek term for the emanation of fluid or 
invisible fire. It is the To Ov of neo-platonism of which 
Godfrey Higgins writes : " I am convinced that the 
emanation of the To Ov was believed to be this fire. " 

The To Ov was supposed to be duplicate, then from 
that to triplicate. From him proceeded the male 
Logos, and the female Aura or Anima or Holy Ghost 
in ancient times always female. The To Ov was supposed 
in himself to possess the two principles of Generation. 

The reader who already knows the meaning of this 
" fire " otherwise known as Kundalini, sex-force, astral 
light, etc. will easily understand the phallic hidden 
meaning of the O. T. O. However, it would hardly be 
fair to leave such a statement under the classification 
of either suggestion or assumption. Proof might be 
demanded and proof therefore is appended. 

The Equinox states that " it was Karl Kellner who 
revived the esoteric organization of the 0. T. 0. and 
initiated the plan now happily complete of bringing 
all occult bodies again under one governance. " 

In the " Gnostic Mass " printed in the same volume. 


mention is made, in one of the orisons, of the saints 
among which are named Karl Kellner and Theodore 

From notes written by Theodore Reuss himself 
and from correspondence between him and Karl Kell- 
ner, the basic principles of the 0. T. 0. have become 
known and bear out the statement that this organi- 
zation was formed for the express purpose of substi- 
tuting the phallic religion for Christianity. 

The conception of the O. T. O. was far from being 
original but it was undoubtedly reformed by the two 
Germans above named. ' It was no vain boast on the 
part of the writer in The Equinox to name all the orders 
as concentrated in the O. T. O., for proof has been obtain- 
ed that both Karl Kellner and Theodore Reuss were, 
among a host of others, in close masonic relationship 
with John Yarker, William Wynn Westcott, Supreme 
Magus of Soc. Rosicruciana in Anglia, a Warden of 
the Grand Lodge of England, Papus of the Martinists, 

Apparently all concurred in the formation of the 
esoteric doctrine of the Order of Oriental Templars. 

In the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris is filed a 
document, dated 1917, containing the constitution and 
certain information concerning the O. T. O. It states 
that " The Ancient Order of Oriental Templars ", 
an organization formerly known as The Hermetic 
Brotherhood of Light, has been re-organized and 

As evidenced by the Reuss papers, one may gather 
that the O. T. O. has existed since 1902. Prior to 
1917, the official date of its foundation, it was 
presumably a secret organization, operating under 

2. The German Organ of the Sect was The Oriflamme. 


Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites, acting, as 
these papers indicate, as the link between this 
organization and the various unofficial International 
occult groups. 

The prominent persons connected with this orga- 
nization at its start were : John Yarker, William Wynn 
Westcott, Papus, Karl Kellner, Theodore Reuss, Mac- 
Gregor Mathers, Franz Hartmann and Aleister Crowley. 

Apart from its secret phallic doctrine the 0. T. 0. 
seeks to unite with a revival of Gnosticism, the study 
of the Jewish Cabala, Esoteric Lamaism and Indian 
Yogism. It seeks to extract from their combined doc- 
trines the practical application of Eastern Sorcery and 
Western Witchcraft, wherein medicine and hypno- 
tism occupy a place of prime importance, serving solely 
materialistic ends. 

The reader can always be referred to the press for 
descriptions of the practices of the present Chief of 
the Order who was obliged to leave Italy following an 
investigation into his magic practices at Cefalu near 
Palermo in Sicily. 

Calling himself " The Master Therion", Aleister 
Crowley is also known under the name of Frater Per- 
durabo and, from his own extravagant writings, we 
know that he looks upon himself as a reincarnation of 
Eiiphas Levi etc. etc. 

To give the reader a feeble idea of the perversion of 
the O. T. O. we quote the following : — " The blood 
is the life. This simple statement is explained by the 
Hindus by saying that the blood is the principal vehicle 

3. Article IV, Section 3, of the constitution of the O. T. O. 
provides that " The person (male or female) filling this oifice 
(head) shall serve for life or until his or her resignation " and 
Article IV, Section 4, provides that " The person filhng this 
office shall appoint his or her successor. " 


of vital Prana. There is some ground for the belief that 
there is a definite substance, not isolated as yet, whose 
presence makes all the difference between live and dead 

" It would be unwise to condemn as irrational the 
practice of those savages who tear the heart and liver 
from an adversary, and devour them while yet warm. 
In any case it was the theory of the ancient Magicians, 
that any living being is a storehouse of energy varying 
in quantity according to the size and health of the 
animal, and in quality according to its mental and moral 
character. At the death of the animal this energy is 
liberated suddenly. 

" The animal should therefore be killed within the 
Circle, or the Triangle, as the case may be, so that its 
energy cannot escape. An animal should be selected 
whose nature accords with that of the ceremony, — 
thus, by sacrificing a female lamb one would not obtain 
any appreciate quantity of the fierce energy useful 
to a Magician who was invoking Mars. In such a case 
a ram would be more suitable. And this ram should 
be virgin — the whole potential of its original total 
energy should not have been diminished in any way. 
For the highest spiritual working one must accordingly 
choose that victim which contains the greatest and 
purest force. A male child of perfect innocence and high 
intelligence is the most satisfactory and suitable victim. 

" For evocations it would be more convenient to 
place the blood of the victim in the Triangle, the idea 
being that the spirit might obtain from the blood this 
subtle but physical substance which was the quin- 
tessence of its hfe in such a manner as to enable it 
to take on a visible and tangible shape. 

4. The Master Therion, Magick, published 1930, p. 93. 


" Those magicians wlio object to the use of blood 
have endeavoured to replace it with incense. For such 
a purpose the incense of Abramelin may be burnt in 
large quantities. 

" But the bloody sacrifice, though more dangerous, 
is more efficacious ; and for nearly all purposes human 
sacrifice is the best. The truly great Magician will be 
able to use his own blood, or possibly that of a disciple, 
and that without sacrificing the physical hfe irrevo- 
cably. " 

To such persons as have read in L'Elue du Dragon 
page 43, the description of the first impressions of 
Clotilde Bersone (Comtesse de Coutanceau) afterwards 
the Inspiree (Seeress) cf the Grande Loge des Illumines 
de Paris, the following note by " The Master Therion " 
will be of interest. — 

" It is here desirable to warn the reader against 
the numerous false orders which have impudently 
assumed the name of Rosicrucian. The Masonic Societas 
Rosicruciana is honest and harmless ; and makes no 
false pretences ; if its members happen as a rule to be 
pompous busybodies, enlarging the borders of their 
phylacteries, and scrupulous about cleaning the out- 
side of the cup and the platter ; if the masks of the 
Officers in their Mysteries suggest the Owl, the Cat, 
the Parrot, and the Cuckoo, while the Robe of their 
Chief Magus is a Lion's Skin, that is their affair. " 

Animal masks referred to above as being used in 
the mysteries of the Rosicrucian Order are indeed also 
described by Clotilde Bersone in L'Elue du Dragon. 

They were a distinctive feature of the Masonic 

5. Abbe Paul Boulain, Publisher, Les Etincelles, 26, rue de 
Bassano, Paris, 1929. 

6. The Master Therion, op. cit., p. 97, Note. 


gathering in tlie Grand Lodge of the Illumines d'Orienl 
at Constantinople at which she claims to have been 

It is even suggested by Miss Murray in The WitchculT 
in Western Europe that most of the legends of transfor- 
mations of witches into cats, horses and other animals 
arose from references by other witches to craft adepts 
by the costumes and masks these had worn during the 
witchcraft ceremonies. 

Thus again, the witchcraft of the Middle Ages is 
reflected in the occultism of today. 

The philosophical teachings of the 0. T. 0. seem to 
be adequately summarized by its leader in the follow- 
ing sentence : " This is in fact the formula of our 
Magick; we insist that all acts must be equal ; that 
existence asserts the right to exist ; that unless evil 
is a mere term expressing some relation of haphazard 
hostility between forces equally self-justified, the 
universe is as inexplicable and impossible as uncom- 
pensated action ; that the orgies of Bacchus and Pan 
are no less sacramental than the Masses of Jesus ; 
that the scars of syphilis are sacred and worthy of 
honour as such. " 

Eliphas Levi, quoting from the Oupnek'hat, the stan- 
dard Indian book on Magic (Histoire de la Magie, 
p. 76) outlines the same moral code ; 

" It is permissible to lie in order to facilitate marriage 
and in order to exalt the virtues of a brahmin or the 
qualities of a cow. 

" God is truth and in him light and darkness are one. 
He who knows that never lies, for, if he wishes to lie 
his lie becomes a truth. 

" Whatever sin he commits, whatever evil work he 

7. The Master Therion, op. cit., p. 338. 


does, he is never guilty. Even should he be twice parri- 
cide, even though he should have killed a brahmin 
initiated into the mysteries of the Vedas, whatever 
he may do, his light is never less, for, says God, ' I am 
the universal soul, in me are good and evil to correct 
one another. ' He who knows that is never a sinner ; 
he is universal as I am myself. " 

Is this not the ever recurring dogma of Manichean 
Dualism ? 

Every effort is made to attract wealthy people, mostly 
women, to the " Profess Houses " of the Order of 
O. T. O. In these centres, where the " Nudity cult " 
and other eccentricities are cultivated, the victims 
become quickly amenable to the insinuating sugges- 
tions of such as covet their wordly goods. 

To enhance its attractiveness to the public, the sys- 
tem is represented as embodying the secret knowledge 
which leads to all material success. Playing on the 
egoistical instincts of humanity, the O. T. O. attracts 
within its orbit all those who, with inordinate ambition 
and limited capacity, hope in some nebulous way, 
through the Glorification of self, to save humanity. 

There seems no doubt that the head of the O. T. O. 
is justified in saying that this order reigns above all 
others as, everything, from political espionage to 
blackmail may emanate from it. 

Like numerous organizations such as Mazdaznans 
and Rudolf Steiner's Anthroposophism, it lays great 
stress upon physical culture and rhythmic movements. 
Pretences of producing renewed youth and vigour 
attracts many adepts. Moreover, it promises its initiates 
the attainment of their ambition and desires. The 

8. Oupnek'hat, instruction 108, pages 85 and 92 of the first 
volume of the translation by Anquetil. 


" Do what thou wilt " applies to this in an ambiguous 
manner. The inmates of " Fontaiuebleau ", under the 
hypnotic power of a certain Oriental, said by some to 
be an Armenian and by others a Jew, have offered the 
spectacle of automata performing movements, dances 
etc., under the will of their master. It was even said 
that under the AviB o! this new Svengali, voiceless people 
sang beautifully and inartistic personalities worked 
as well as renowned artists and sculptors. 

Advertising the accomplishment of such feats attrac- 
ted many people to Fontainebleau. What actually 
took place there has several times been revealed before 
the French law courts and in articles written by erst- 
while inmates of this institution. 

As to the American house of the same type, the scan- 
dalous happenings taking place within its precincts 
have sometimes been reported in the Press. Yet to 
the amazement of a great many, such places as the 
" Abode of Love " in England, the " House of Rest " 
at Nyack in America and Gourgiefs establishment in 
Fontainebleau remain undisturbed. 

On entering the O. T. O., aspirants must acquiesce 
in the complete subordination of their " will " to that 
of " Unknown Superiors ". This provision places them 
entirely in the power of the " Order " and its secret 

Under occult dominion Art, Music and Politics all 
tend to the same end : confusion, a calculated and induc- 
ed confusion : for minds that are confused will obey 
and bow to the hidden masters ! 

The rule of the Triangle and Ellipse, together with a 
crude Geometry in modern art, is the rule of Masonry 
in aesthetics. 

Standing before a meaningless Cubist canvas at an 
art exhibition one day, a puzzled amateur asked " But 


what does it mean ? " To which the painter replied. 
" It's not a question of what it means, it's a question 
of what is its effect on the observer. " 

Consciously or unconsciously the artist spoke the 
truth. Psychiatrists tell us that this school of insidious 
humbug is simply an elaboration of the policy of the 
interruption of ideas leading to total incoherence and 
madness. " Cubist " art is an effort to produce certain 
psychic effects obtainable by optical illusion. Beauty 
has nothing to do with it. The cubist school is not in 
the realm of art at all. It belongs to that of medicine 
and psychic science. Those who forget that this devas- 
tating fad of " The Interrupted Idea " can be extended 
to music, literature and every other phase of human 
effort, do so at their peril. 

A mind that is positive cannot be controlled. For 
the purposes of occult dominion minds must therefore 
be rendered passive and negative in order that control 
can be achieved. Minds consciously working to a defi- 
nite end are a power, and power can oppose power for 
good or for evil. The scheme for world dominion might 
be doomed by the recognition of this principle alone, 
but, as it is unfortunately unrecognized, it remains 

Destruction, Materialism, Imposition. These are 
the three points of Albert Pike and they seem to be 
ruling the world today. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII. 



In November 1894 William Q. Judge rebelled against 
Mrs. Besant's domination of The Theosophical Society. 

On April 27th, 1895, he and his followers seceded 
from the Adyar Society and constituted an indepen- 
dent organization under the name " Theosophical 
Society of America ". This organization, which still 
exists, has its headquarters at Point-Loma, California, 
It was first presided over by Ernest Hargrove and 
later by Katherine A. Tingley. It has branches in 
Sweden and Holland. 

Katherine A. Tingley, known to her followers as " The 
Purple Mother ", was in touch with Bro. Theodore 
Reuss, Magus Supremus in Mundo of the Esoteric 

This sect it appears, practises Raja Yoga. 

Parents desirous of having their children brought 
up under its aegis must forfeit all their natural rights 
of inquiry concerning their children's welfare, this 
prohibition extending even to their right to assist at 

Pupils whose education has been entrusted to the 



sect are taught to observe absolute secrecy towards 
their parents as regards matters concerning the school. 
Notwithstanding such subversive rules the school 
is well attended. 

For root of this movement see Chapter XCV. 


(Founded 1896) 

This society was founded by James Conolly in 1896 
and through him became linked with the anarchist 
terrorist organization known as the Industrial Workers 
of the World in America. (I. W. W.). 




(Founded 1900) 

Not till 1900, when the Grand Orient virtually took 
over the Young Turk Party which was composed 
chiefly of Jews, Greeks and Armenians, did this move- 
ment assume a serious aspect. 

Vicomte Leon de Poncins in The Secret Powers behind 
the Revolution (page 66) giving the history and origin of 
the Young Turk Movement adds the following informa- 
tion taken from the Masonic organ of the Grand Orient, 
The Acacia (October 1908). 

" A secret Young Turk council was formed and the 
whole movement was directed from Salonica. 

Salonica, the most Jewish town in Europe — 
70,000 Jews out of a population of 100,000 — was 
specially suitable for the purpose. It already contained 
several Lodges in which the revolutionaries could work 
without being disturbed. These Lodges are under the 
protection of European diplomacy and as the Sultan was 
without weapons against them his fall was inevitable. " 

He further adds : — 

" The Young Turks entered these lodges and met 



there in order to organize and prepare the revolution. 
Moreover a great number of the members of the lodges 
strengthened the secret Young Turk ' Committee of 
Union and Progress '... On the 1st May, 1909, the 
representatives of 45 Turkish lodges met in Constan- 
tinople and founded the ' Grand Orient Ottoman '. 
Mahmoud Orphi Pasha was nominated Grand Master... 
A short time after a Supreme Council of the Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rites was also founded and 
recognized by the French and Italian authorities. " 
To complete this information, we may add that 
two ofthe Salonica lodges, those of Macedonia and Labor 
and Lux were connected with the Grand Orient of 
Italy and that of Veritas was under the Grand Orient 
of France. 

For root of this movement see Chapters XLI and LIII. 


(Founded 1901) 

The Internationa! Federation of Trade Unions, not 
to be confused with The Second International, was 
founded at Copenhagen in 1901. 

It ceased to function during the War, but was re- 
established as The Amsterdam International in 1919. 

Its objects include the following : 

To unite the international working class. 

To promote the interests and activities of the trade 
union movement. 

The development of international social legislation. 

To avert war and combat reaction. 

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXV. 



(Founded 1903) 

The foundation of Stella Matutina, with Aleisler 
Crowley and Wm. Wynn Westcott at its head, was 
the result of a split and consequent reorganization of 
the old Golden Dawn in the Outer which occurred in 1903. 
It admits men and women. 

Dr. Felkin, who had been elected one of the three 
members of the Council governing the Society in 1902 
was appointed head of Stella Matutina by Rudolph 
Steiner in 1912 at which date A. E. Waite's temple. 
Golden Dawn, received the order to join with it. 

Dr. Felkin held this office until 1919. 

We are told by " Inquire Within ", author of Light- 
bearers of Darkness (page 152) at one time Ruling Chief 
of the Mother Temple and of the Stella Matutina and 
R. R. & A. C. that after the oath of Initiation into 
Stella Matutina has been taken the candidate is terro- 
rised by the following threat... " If thou shalt fail of 
this thy oath of secrecy, thy blood may be poured out 
and thy body broken, for heavy is the penalty exacted 
by the Guardians of the Hidden Knowledge from those 
who wilfully betray their trust. " 

Its occult teaching is identical with that of Golden 



Dawn from which it issued and, for some of its shameful 
practices, the reader must be referred to Light-bearers 
of Darkness by « Inquire Within. " It is regrettable that 
this expose does not take the reader baclc to the early 
stages of initiation. 

For root of this movement see Chapters LXXXVII, CIX. 



(Founded 1905) 

Sinn Fein, an Irish patriotic organization advoca- 
ting boycott and passive resistance against England 
was founded by Arthur Griffiths in 1905. He was suc- 
ceeded as president in 1917 by Eamon de Valera. By 
that time the Society was controlled and subsidized 
by the Clan-na-Gael and Germany. 

After the start of the World War in 1914, it asserted 
itself as the open foe of England. 

Richard Dawson in Red Terror and Green, page 176, 
publishes a despatch sent to Count von Bernstorff, 
the German Ambassador in the United States at that 
date. The document was marked " very secret " and 
dated April 18, 1916. It reads as follows : 

" Judge Cohalan (of New York, U. S. A.) requests 
the transmission of the following remarks : The revo- 
lution in Ireland can only be successful with the sup- 
port of Germany : otherwise England will be able to 
suppress it, even though it be only after a hard struggle. 
Therefore helpis necessary. This should consist prin- 
cipally of aerial attacks on England and a diversion 
of the fleet simultaneously with the Irish revolution. 
Then if possible a landing of arms and ammunition in 



Ireland and possibly some officers from Zeppelins. This 
would enable the Irish ports to be closed against 
England. The services of the revolution, therefore, may 
decide the war. " 

The part played by the Irish-Roman Catholic church 
in Irish National and International politics is gathered 
from the following telegram from Count von Berns- 
torff to the German Foreign Office. 

" The Bishop of Cork having died, there is a sharp 
contest over the succession. The present Assistant 
Bishop, Daniel Cohalan, is the choice of the local 
clergy ; but England is using unusual efforts to have — 
appointed. — is strongly anti-German, although Ger- 
many, at our request, released him shortly after the 
outbreak of war. Assistant-Bishop Cohalan is cousin 
of Judge Cohalan, and strongly Nationalist and pro- 
German. He was the intermediary between the insur- 
gent Cork Volunteers and the British military autho- 
rities, and publicly exposed the gross breach of faith 
of the English with the surrendered men. Hence the 
effort to defeat him through the English Envoy at 
the Vatican. It would have a great moral effect in Rome 
if Cohalan were chosen. If Germany can exert any 
influence to bring about this result it would defeat the 
English intrigue against her interests. " ' 

Dr. Daniel Cohalan was chosen. 

Let us repeat that by a close study of the Ancient 
Order of Hibernians and the Knights of Columbus, 
one cannot fail to see the control that Freemasonry 
exercises over the Irish-Roman Catholic church. This, 
unfortunately, is a phase of the international situation 
which is generally overlooked. 

1. Richard Dawson, Red Ten or and Green, p. 176. 

2. Ibid., p. 185. 


In an effort to dissociate politics from religion, 
writers on these subjects have lost sight of the fact 
that they are viewing a fight between two theocrasies, 
Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry. 

For root of Ihis movement see Chapters LXXXII, 





This order, which began its existence as an organi- 
zation in 1908, thanks to the efforts of the Rev. Geikie 
Cobb, admitting both men and women on equal terms, 
no longer accepts men as candidates, deeming their 
proper place to be in Lodges working under the juris- 
diction of the United Grand Lodge of England. It 
seeks to supplement the work of Grand Lodge. 

In 1920, it presented a petition to The Grand Lodge 
of England for examination with a view to recognition. 
To have acceded to the request would have been poor 
policy and, in any case, unnecessary, so Grand Lodge 
gave the usual answer and the matter ceased to be 
further discussed. 

By 1927, there were 12 Lodges of this order in Great 
Britain. We know it is the policy of the official body 
to deny the existence of "real female masonry" and 
we also know that many English Masons of high rank 
as well as members of other rites continue to believe 
that there are no " real " women's lodges. 

These lodges, supposed to have no connection with 



the Co-masonic lodges under the Grand Orient of 
France are however an offshoot of this body working 
the first three masonic degrees only. 

Mrs. Reginald Halsey, Grand Mistress, died on 
December 27, 1927. 



(Founded 1908) 

The " Federal Council of the Churches of Christ 
in America " was founded in 1908. Until then it had 
been the " National Federation of Churches and Chris- 
tian Workers ", founded in 1901. 

Its constituent bodies are — 

" Baptist Churches North, National Baptist Convention, 
Free Baptist Churches Christian Church, Churches of God 
in N. A. (general eldership), Congregational Churches, Dis- 
ciples of Christ, Friends, Evangelical Synod of N. A., Evan: 
gelical Church, Methodist Protestant Church, Methodist 
Episcopal Church, Methodist Episcopal Church South, 
African M. E. Church, African M. E. Zion Church, Coloured 
M. E. Church, Moravian Church, Presbyterian Church in 
the United States of America, Presbyterian Church in the 
United States (South) Primitive Methodist Church, National 
Council of Protestant Episcopal Church, Reformed Church 
in America, Reformed Church in the United States, Re- 
formed Episcopal Church, Seventh Day Baptist Churches, 
United Brethren Church, United Presbyterian Church, 
United Lutheran Church (consultative body). " 



Further data from Twenty Years of Church Federation 
by the Federal Council 1929 informs us that the officials 
of the organization are as follows — 

Officials (in part); President, Bishop Francis J. McCon- 
nell, Methodist Episcopal; vice president Dr. Ernest H. Cher- 
rington, Methodist Episcopal. Executive Committee (in 
part); Dr. Ernest H. Cherrington, ' Methodist Episcopal; 
Rev. S. Parkes Cad man. Congregational; Rev. F. Scott 
McBride, ' United Presbyterian ; Bishop James Cannon 
jr. ' Methodist Episcopal South ; Bishop Thomas Nicholson,' 
Methodist Episcopal; Bishop Francis J. McConnell, Metho- 
dist Episcopal. 

Administrative Committee (in part) ; Rev. S. Parkes 
Cadman, Congregational; Bishop James Cannon jr. ' Metho- 
dist Episcopal South ; Bishop Francis J. McConnell, Metho- 
dist Episcopal. 

Members of Federal Council (in part) ; Hon. George 
W. Wickersham, Protestant Episcopal;