MEDITATION - Existentialism and Kubrick's Psychopaths in the Films of Stanley Kubrick.


George Lucas, Star Wars, the Revenge of the Sith, and Psychopaths

MEDITATION ENERGY ENHANCEMENT AND Trauma, Pain, Relationships, Divorce, Piercings, Tattoos, BDSM, Sex, Sex Addiction, Tantra, Gambling, Homosexuality, Lesbianism, Drugs and Addiction, Bad backs, Heart Disease, and Cancer.



If you like these articles and others

you may well enjoy the Energy Enhancement Home Study Course,


75% are PSYCHOPATHS, - Thieves, Murderers, Torturers and their Accomplices!

"A man has blockages like a dog has fleas" Ancient saying.

To illustrate the point here are FIVE sections on this page.

PROLOGUE - The Energy Enhancement dissertation on Energy Blockages as the cause of Psychopathy. Energy Enhancement teaches the techniques to remove these blockages and solve a World Psychopathic Problem, thus creating ONE HARMONIOUS ENLIGHTENED WORLD.


1. MURDERERS - Total, 200 millions of people murdered, genocided, tortured, starved to death this 20th century WITH EXAMPLES PSYCHOPATHS STALIN, HITLER, AND MAO.

2. THIEVES, Psychopaths in charge of Multinational Companies. THIEVES, Snakes in suits Spot the true psychopath among the sharks in your office. HERE ARE SOME facts: Andrew Fastow, formerly of Enron, stands accused by an American court of taking $30 million in kickbacks from the company while its shareholders lost more than $70 billion. And more.....

3.  ACCOMPLICES, - The Compensated Psychopath. "I like following orders!" - Monty Pythons Life of Brian. Compensated psychopaths have played significant parts in society and in history. All the Nazi functionaries who administered the concentration camps and supervised the destruction of thousands and thousands of human beings; all of Stalin's subordinates who, during the time of the Soviet purges, directed the arrests, torture and deaths of 65 millions of individuals; all of Mao's minions who so efficiently effected the disappearance, torture and death of large portions, 35 millions of the Chinese population -certainly all of these people were compensated psychopaths, accomplices.

4. TORTURERS - it is estimated that 40,000 people "disappeared" or were tortured then Murdered in Argentina from 1975 to 1983 until General Galtieri and his psychopathic Army of Accomplices, who was in charge of that which happened below, was defeated in war by Margaret Thatcher. At this moment 128 countries, according to Amnesty International, use torture as a means of repression and control. This section details the practices... Don't read this if you have a weak stomach...

It is the considered opinion of Energy Enhancement that 75% and more of the general population are Psychopaths, - Thieves, Murderers, Torturers and their Accomplices! This is not only the one or two percent of real psychopaths, but also the accomplices, the vast majority of people who if ordered to help the guys in charge, DO IT!!  And these accomplices are the vast majority of all the people in varying degrees.

Scientifically and historically we can see the problem.

This is a world problem and is in need of solution.

It is not possible for revolution or war to change the above as it plays into the hands of the psychopaths in charge and historically has always made matters worse as the law falls into disarray.

"War always reinforces the central power at the expense of the people." Simone Weil

No, the solution to all this, what we need, is the removal of blockages through Energy Enhancement techniques particularly in the heart, above the head and then in the base PROCESSOR FUNCTION in order to solve the situation, otherwise this world is headed for more disaster.








REMOVE Traumas due to Pain from Anger, Depression,  Divorce, Bereavement, Addiction, Drugs, Impotence, Multisexual problems, Rape and Sex, Heart Disease and Cancer.


With the Energy Enhancement DVD or Online Meditation Course we can learn how to Transmute Aches and Pains, Traumatic Emotional Memories and Negative Thoughts.  With Energy Enhancement Ground Negative Energies and learn The Mastery of Relationships, Increase your Good Luck, Happiness and Purpose.









"Until we wise up" - from the movie, Magnolia.


Meditation Energy Enhancement Symbol



Many hundreds of years ago there was a Mother who had Four children. She was alone and needed help. She prayed for help and asked an enlightened Sufi Master for advice. He came and pronounced the work for all of the Children. One he said to become his servant. The other to join the army. The other to become a shopkeeper and the last to help all the others.

Over the years the boy who joined the army progressed, became heroic, won many battles and became a General under the King. The Boy who became a shopkeeper became very successful, bought many large shops and became very rich. He was supported by his brother who helped him manage the businesses and left him free to start many other businesses.

Everyone in the family was so happy with the Sufi master that they gave him a place in the family, gave him many gifts and consulted him regularly.

At last the boy who was the servant to the Sufi Master became Enlightened. He asked him how he knew which occupation to give to himself and his brothers.

The Master said it was easy. He looked into their past lives and saw that the one who joined the army had a predisposition to becoming a murderer. The one who became a businessman shopkeeper had a past life predisposition to being a thief. And the one who helped the Business brother had no soul, would only do what he was told and so for many lifetimes had been the other brothers Accomplice in their murdering and thievery. He liked following orders. Any other occupation and they would have been put in jail and executed.

The Sufi Master said that the boy who was the servant had the best chance of Enlightenment because he was an older soul, had much experience in the occupations of the others in past lifetimes and because of that had seen deeply that these occupations always failed. Always there were people competing for the same things. Ultimately the General was defeated and the Businessman became bankrupt. Ultimately, even if able to hold onto your gains, "You can't take it with you.",  Death came along and took everything. Life after Life!!!

For this reason the Servant of the MASTER was the only one who stood the chance of enlightenment. And even with that predisposition, with bad teaching he would never reach his goal. Unless humble and able to find a Master , normally he would become an unenlightened Priest and become One of the Blind, leading the Blind, another accomplice of the murderer and the thieves. That is why he needed the help of the Sufi Master and that is why he had kept him close, within his Buddhafield and removed many of his blockages.

The Blind, the Businessman, the General and the Accomplice

This story comes from a Sufi Tale many hundreds of years old. It tells the truth about you and humanity. It tells the truth about the Law of Manu and the caste System of India and the Four Castes

The Bhagavad Gita says this about the varnas:

The works of Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras are different, in harmony with the three powers of their born nature.

1. The works of a good Brahmin are enlightenment; peace, self-harmony, austerity, and purity; loving-forgiveness and righteousness; vision and wisdom and faith. A bad Brahmin, the person interested in Enlightenment which in this world has come to mean the Unenlightened Priest who are blind to the light of the soul and accomplices to the totalitarian state.

2. These are the works of a good Kshatriya:  protectors of the weak, a heroic mind, inner fire, constancy, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity and noble leadership. Kshatriya, the Warrior, charged with protecting the state. The King, the General, the Samurai. The bad Kshatriya, the General is usually the Totalitarian Murderer and the torturer.

3. Trade, Business, agriculture and the rearing of cattle is the work of a good Vaishya. The bad Vaishya, the  businessman is the Thief who uses the general and the accomplices to attain his monetary end.

4. And the work of the Shudra is service to all the above, the Laborer in this world. He likes following orders! The bad Shudra is the Accomplice helping the thief and the murderer.



75% are Thieves, Murderers, Torturers and their Accomplices!

Satchidananda with LionMy master, Swami Satchidananda knew all of this. They asked him about the Rulers of the World. "You are a famous man, you have shaken the hands of all these leaders and Prime Ministers. Just what do you think of them?"

First of all he said that it was very dangerous to speak of these people or even mention their names.

For this reason he said he would tell a story.

If you had an election for the leader of the council in a town and 75% of the people in this town were thieves, murderers and their accomplices, just what sort of a person would they elect?





Energy Enhancement says that the Ancient and successful techniques of Energy Enhancement, techniques which produced the Buddha, Jesus Christ and Mahomet, can remove the Energy Blockages which produce:-

Psychopaths or people blocked in the Heart and above the Crown PROCESSOR FUNCTION, blocking them from their souls. Only heartless and soulless people can do the things below. See Hitler, Stalin, Mao and Pol Pot below.

Manic Depressives whose multiple emotional personalities create negative emotions within their minds, see Napoleon and Hitler below.

Schizophrenics or multiple personalities whose many split intellectual parts (In computer speak, virtual machines) each take control of their minds (The Computer), including the inner child and strategies of the Violator and Poor Me, mirroring intellectually the emotional component of the Manic Depressive. See Stalin and Hitler below.


Because 200 Millions of people (See below) have been tortured, starved and murdered by these psychopathic leaders and accomplices this century. Because these psychopathic heartless and soulless people corrupt the business and legislature of every country in the world now....

Those people who want to be cured of their psychopathic Energy Blockages and thus become part of the solution should try out Energy Enhancement by Video or in person, now!!










 To my mind, few people have brought up the similarity between existentialists and Psychopaths. Existentialists admire most those traits which are psychopathic. Courage, lack of fear, lack of empathy, no conscience, a "fuck them' revengeful attitude.

The psychopathic sexual addict, Don Juan, has  found his defenders in our time. The Existentialist philosopher Camus finds in Don Juan something of an existentialist hero, a natural (or absurd) man: He says, "This life gratifies his every wish, and nothing is worse than losing it. This madman is a great wise man. . . . Why should he give himself a problem in morality?. . . How easy it is to understand why the men of God call down punishment on his head. He achieves a knowledge without illusions which negates everything they profess. Loving and possessing, conquering and consuming--that is his way of knowing."

An existentialist is a person cut off, blocked,  from their soul and from their heart, living in a flat, intellectual drab wasteland devoid of meaning. And it is only the heart and the soul which give life meaning and significance, not the intellect.

Because there is no meaning to anything for a person blocked in or above the crown PROCESSOR FUNCTION, Camus said, "The only thing we have to decide is how to commit suicide!"

They believe in enlightened self interest because this is a rule they can understand and follow, not because it is right.

A existentialist psychopath cannot understand words like the soul conscience and the heart sympathy, it is another paradigm because in Energy Enhancement terminology, in them the soul is cut off and the heart center is blocked. It is impossible for them to understand the soul and the heart. Like a psychopath they can only pretend and fake it.

Energy Enhancement teaches that human beings have seven PROCESSOR FUNCTIONS or energy centers in their bodies which act as processors in the human parallel processing super computer, and in that computer only one processor, the brow PROCESSOR FUNCTION is intellectual. Other processors handle courage, creativity, empathy and the conscience and if some of those PROCESSOR FUNCTIONS  are cut off or blocked, then psychopaths, schizophrenics and manic depressives are the result.

Don Juan likes many short term conquest relationships as if searching for yet never finding his mother or sexually addicted (second PROCESSOR FUNCTION blockages) has no fear (no blockages in the Base PROCESSOR FUNCTION), no empathy (Heart PROCESSOR FUNCTION blocked), no conscience (Crown PROCESSOR FUNCTION blocked). In him, some PROCESSOR FUNCTION computers are blocked and some, Intellect (Brow PROCESSOR FUNCTION unblocked), Courage (Solar Plexus PROCESSOR FUNCTION Unblocked) so we can admire his good points yet despise his bad points.

If you are blocked in the base PROCESSOR FUNCTION then you will have money problems, have poverty consciousness and will follow orders. If you are blocked in the Base PROCESSOR FUNCTION then you will have fear and thus will follow the law, yet if you have no conscience you will still be a potential psychopath.

Given permission by the army to kill in times of war you will kill. See Kubricks Movie, Full Metal Jacket about how "Normal" people are turned into killing machines by the army in the Vietnam war.

Fearful people follow the Law of Moses, graven in stone. When fear is gone and heart and conscience function, are unblocked, then we have the new law of Jesus Christ, The Law of Love, when people cannot hurt one another.

To make you less of a psychopath, Energy Enhancement gives advanced techniques for removing energy blockages in all the PROCESSOR FUNCTIONS including the heart and above the head, thus connecting you with your heart and your soul!!

"For those who believe in Enlightenment and understand the Urgency of the situation" Gautama Buddha on Energy Enhancement.












Each Chakra acts as a computer processor, has a function and only one PROCESSOR FUNCTION is intellectual.


All the PROCESSOR FUNCTIONS are needed to be truly human. PROCESSOR FUNCTIONS are blocked in most people.


The Crown PROCESSOR FUNCTION connects you with God and Conscience.

The Heart PROCESSOR FUNCTION connects you with empathy.






Below the Base PROCESSOR FUNCTION blocked, No Energy and Vitality, usually no money, a Slave, de-feeted, likes to follow orders and laws, the accomplice the Shudra. Unblocked, A good or evil Master


Base Blocked. Psychopathic Blockage. Fear, If with money then issues - a miser or will do anything including using banks and armies to get and hang onto money, resources and property. Lack of security, willingness to kill if threatened, impotence an issue. Fear of Death. unblocked. no fear, rich, secure, potent, generous - The Secret of Abundance.


Abdomen Blocked, always wanting a new conquest, addicted to relationships and sex, wanting attention, short term relationships, bad relationships  unblocked, good healthy long term relationships.


Solar plexus, Blocked  no power, courage and energy. Illness and disease. unblocked much power, courage and energy, healthy.


Heart,  Blocked  Psychopathic Blockage. no empathy, no external consideration which is a Gurdjieffian term which means, no ability to imagine yourself in another persons place. unblocked much empathy and compassion.


Throat,  Blocked  no creativity unblocked much creativity.


Brow, intellect Blocked  not intelligent unblocked powerful intellect and ability for good or evil depending on empathy and conscience.


Crown, Blocked Psychopathic Blockage. no conscience unblocked Conscience.


Above the Crown Blocked Psychopathic Blockage. lack of knowing and wisdom, controlled by psychopathic energies and inner children, schizophrenia. Unblocked They just Know right, wrong, everything,- Luck, Wisdom and Higher Path in Life however if base PROCESSOR FUNCTION blocked then these ascenders live in the imagination and have no ability to make it happen; in Gurdjieffian terms, no power of doing..


The PROCESSOR FUNCTIONS above the Crown PROCESSOR FUNCTION Exist lifetime after lifetime whilst the body dies and thus are in charge of Immortality. Soul. Intelligence in charge of  you if you are listening (for the still small voice). Repository many lifetimes of experience. Can have many bodies in existence at the same time. Monad. Intelligence in charge of a Group of Souls perhaps 50,000 people. Logos. Intelligence in charge of every living thing on this Planet. Sirius. Sacred Sun. Intelligence in charge of the evolution of this Planet and many others. Avatar of Synthesis. Intelligence in charge of the evolution of the Sacred Suns but with direct contact also on this Planet at the moment. After that is an infinity of levels consisting of Evolution and order itself.


Blockages above the Crown PROCESSOR FUNCTION Major Psychopathic Blockages. cut you off from conscience and can be implanted by others or purposefully put themselves in by those people afraid of death. The higher the blockage above the crown PROCESSOR FUNCTION then the more energy bodies and the more energy and the more power to do bad things, is available for use by the blocked person.


As above, so below. Blockages above are mirrored in the PROCESSOR FUNCTION below. Base to Head Initiation 3, Abdomen to Throat Initiation 2. Solar plexus to Heart Initiation 1 - see Energy Enhancement E-Book for more on the Three Initiations of Enlightenment.


Psychopathic Blockages are in the Crown PROCESSOR FUNCTION and Heart PROCESSOR FUNCTION. The more of these blockages you have, the more of a psychopath you are. In addition,


"A man has blockages like a dog has fleas", Ancient saying.











A cursory look in Google under "psychopath" the new name for demon, brought forth these gems.... I have divided the sections into Murderers, Thieves, Accomplices and Torturers.


Kurt Vonnegut, author of Mother Night and Cats Cradle

Interview with novelist Kurt Vonnegut, "In These Times," by its editor, Joel Bleifuss, Feb.4 2003:

Vonnegut fought in World War II.

He said ''our country.. has been taken over by the sleaziest, low-comedy, Keystone Cops-style. coup d'etat imaginable Those in charge now of the federal government are..most frighteningly, psychopathic personalities." (600) .

Illegitemi non carborundum
By Joel Bleifuss | 1.27.03
Kurt Vonnegut vs. the !&#*!@

In November, Kurt Vonnegut turned 80. He published his first novel, Player Piano, in 1952 at the age of 29. Since then he has written 13 others, including Slaughterhouse Five, which stands as one of the pre-eminent anti-war novels of the 20th century.

As war against Iraq looms, I asked Vonnegut, a reader and supporter of this magazine, to weigh in. Vonnegut is an American socialist in the tradition of Eugene Victor Debs, a fellow Hoosier whom he likes to quote: “As long as there is a lower class, I am in it. As long as there is a criminal element, I am of it. As long as there is a soul in prison, I am not free.”

—Joel Bleifuss

You have lived through World War II, Korea, Vietnam, the Reagan wars, Desert Storm, the Balkan wars and now this coming war in Iraq. What has changed, and what has remained the same?

One thing which has not changed is that none of us, no matter what continent or island or ice cap, asked to be born in the first place, and that even somebody as old as I am, which is 80, only just got here. There were already all these Genghis Khan and Banking games going on when I got here. … An apt motto for any polity anywhere, to put on its state seal or currency or whatever, might be this quotation from the late baseball manager Casey Stengel, who was addressing a team of losing professional athletes: “Can’t anybody here play this game?”

My daughter Lily, for an example close to home, who has just turned 20, finds herself—as does George W.  himself a kid—an heir to a shockingly recent history of human slavery, to an AIDS epidemic and to nuclear submarines slumbering on the floors of fjords in Iceland and elsewhere, crews prepared at a moment’s notice to turn industrial quantities of men, women and children into radioactive soot and bone meal by means of rockets and H-bomb warheads. And to the choice between liberalism or conservatism and on and on.

What is radically new in 2003 is that my daughter, along with our leader and other leaders and on and on, has inherited technologies whose byproducts, whether in war or peace, are rapidly destroying the whole planet as a breathable, drinkable system for supporting life of any kind. Human beings, past and present, have trashed the joint.

Based on what you’ve read and seen in the media, what is not being said in the mainstream press about leaders,  policies and the impending wars of scarcity.

That they are nonsense.

My feeling from talking to readers and friends is that many people are beginning to despair. Do you think that we’ve lost reason to hope?

I myself feel that our country, for whose Constitution I fought in a just war, might as well have been invaded by Martians and body snatchers. Sometimes I wish it had been. What has happened, though, is that it has been taken over by means of the sleaziest, low-comedy, Keystone Cops-style coup d’etat imaginable. And those now in charge of the federal government are upper-crust C-students who know no history or geography, plus not-so-closeted white supremacists, aka “Christians,” and plus, most frighteningly, psychopathic personalities, or “PPs.”

To say somebody is a PP is to make a perfectly respectable medical diagnosis, like saying he or she has appendicitis or athlete’s foot. The classic medical text on PPs is The Mask of Sanity by Dr. Hervey Cleckley. Read it! PPs are presentable, they know full well the suffering their actions may cause others, but they do not care. They cannot care because they are nuts. They have a screw loose!

And what syndrome better describes so many executives at Enron and WorldCom and on and on, who have enriched themselves while ruining their employees and investors and country, and who still feel as pure as the driven snow, no matter what anybody may say to or about them? And so many of these heartless PPs now hold big jobs in our federal government, as though they were leaders instead of sick.

What has allowed so many PPs to rise so high in corporations, and now in government, is that they are so decisive. Unlike normal people, they are never filled with doubts, for the simple reason that they cannot care what happens next. Simply can’t. Do this! Do that! Mobilize the reserves! Privatize the public schools! Attack Iraq! Cut health care! Tap everybody’s telephone! Cut taxes on the rich! Build a trillion-dollar missile shield! fuck habeas corpus and the Sierra Club and In These Times, and kiss my ass!

How have you gotten involved in the anti-war movement? And how would you compare the movement against a war in Iraq with the anti-war movement of the Vietnam era?

When it became obvious what a dumb and cruel and spiritually and financially and militarily ruinous mistake our war in Vietnam was, every artist worth a damn in this country, every serious writer, painter, stand-up comedian, musician, actor and actress, you name it, came out against the thing. We formed what might be described as a laser beam of protest, with everybody aimed in the same direction, focused and intense. This weapon proved to have the power of a banana-cream pie three feet in diameter when dropped from a stepladder five-feet high.

And so it is with anti-war protests in the present day. Then as now, TV did not like anti-war protesters, nor any other sort of protesters, unless they rioted. Now, as then, on account of TV, the right of citizens to peaceably assemble, and petition their government for a redress of grievances, “ain’t worth a pitcher of warm spit,” as the saying goes.

As a writer and artist, have you noticed any difference between how the cultural leaders of the past and the cultural leaders of today view their responsibility to society?

Responsibility to which society? To Nazi Germany? To the Stalinist Soviet Union?

What about responsibility to humanity in general?

And leaders in what particular cultural activity? I guess you mean the fine arts. I hope you mean the fine arts. ... Anybody practicing the fine art of composing music, no matter how cynical or greedy or scared, still can’t help serving all humanity. Music makes practically everybody fonder of life than he or she would be without it. Even military bands, although I am a pacifist, always cheer me up.

But that is the power of ear candy. The creation of such a universal confection for the eye, by means of printed poetry or fiction or history or essays or memoirs and so on, isn’t possible. Literature is by definition opinionated. It is bound to provoke the arguments in many quarters, not excluding the hometown or even the family of the author. Any ink-on-paper author can only hope at best to seem responsible to small groups or like-minded people somewhere. He or she might as well have given an interview to the editor of a small-circulation publication.

Maybe we can talk about the responsibilities to their societies of architects and sculptors and painters another time. And I will say this: TV drama, although not yet classified as fine art, has on occasion performed marvelous services for Americans who want us to be less paranoid, to be fairer and more merciful. M.A.S.H. and Law and Order, to name only two shows, have been stunning masterpieces in that regard.

That said, do you have any ideas for a really scary reality TV show?

“C students from Yale.” It would stand your hair on end.

What targets would you consider fair game for a satirist today?










MURDERERS Total, 200 millions of people murdered, genocided, tortured, starved this 20th century

"War always reinforces the central power at the expense of the people." Simone Weil

Slouching Towards Utopia?: The Economic History of the Twentieth Century -IV. Genocide-

J. Bradford DeLong, University of California at Berkeley and NBER, January 1997


Magnitude of Twentieth Century Genocide
Origins of Twentieth Century Genocide
Communism and Nazism
Economic Ideology and Political Murder


Deaths as a result of military operations in this century have been horrific enough: In the twentieth century governments and their soldiers have killed perhaps forty million people in war --either soldiers unlucky enough to have been drafted into the mass armies of the twentieth century, or civilians killed in the course of operations that generals could claim were directed at reducing the enemy's war-making potential.

But wars caused less than a third of the twentieth century’s violent death toll.

Governments and their police have killed perhaps eighty million, perhaps one hundred and sixty million more people in time of peace. Class enemies, race enemies, political enemies, economic enemies, imagined enemies have all been slaughtered. You name them, governments have killed them. And governments have killed them on a scale that could not previously have been imagined. If the twentieth century has seen the growth of material wealth on a previously-inconceivable scale, it has also seen human slaughter at a previously-unimaginable rate.

Total, 200 millions of people murdered, tortured, starved this 20th century


"They just don't care about us" M. Jackson

[Picture: left–Nuremberg rally, 1934; right–Tien an Men Square]

Call those political leaders whose followers and supporters have slaughtered more than ten million of their fellow humans "members of the Ten-Million Club." All pre-twentieth century history may (but may not) have seen two members of the Ten-Million Club: Genghis Khan, ruler of the twelfth century Mongols, launcher of bloody invasions of Central Asia and China, and founder of China's Yuan Dynasty; and Hong Xiuquan, the mid-nineteenth-century Chinese intellectual whose visions convinced him that he was Jesus Christ’s younger brother and who launched the Taiping Rebellion that turned south-central China into a slaughterhouse for decades in the middle of the nineteenth century. Other PSYCHOPATHS do not make the list. Napoleon does not make it, and neither does Alexander the Great or Julius Caesar.

By contrast the twentieth century has seen perhaps five people join the Ten Million Club: Adolf Hitler, Chiang Kaishek, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Mao Zedong. Hitler, Stalin, and Mao have credentials that may well make them the charter members of the Thirty Million Club as well–perhaps the Fifty Million Club. A regime whose hands are as bloody as those of the Suharto regime in Indonesia–with perhaps 450,000 communists, suspected communists, and others in the wrong place at the wrong time dead at its creation in 1965, and perhaps 150,000 inhabitants of East Timor dead since the Indonesian annexation in the mid-1970s–barely makes the twentieth century's top twenty list of civilian-massacring regimes.

Civilians Killed by Governments in the Twentieth Century: Top Twenty Regimes

Location (Regime) Deaths Era

Soviet Union (Communists, Stalin etc) 61,900,000 1917-1990
China (Communists, Mao etc) 35,200,000 1949-present
Germany (Nazi Third Reich, Hitler) 20,900,000 1933-1945
China (Kuomintang) 10,400,000 1928-1949
Japan (Imperial-Fascist) 6,000,000 1936-1945
China (Communist Guerrillas) 3,500,000 1923-1948
Cambodia (Communists) 2,000,000 1975-1979
Turkey ("Young Turks") 1,900,000 1909-1917
Vietnam (Communists) 1,700,000 1945-present
North Korea (Communists) 1,700,000 1948-present
Poland (Communists) 1,600,000 1945-1948
Pakistan (Yahya Khan) 1,500,000 1971
Mexico (Porfiriato) 1,400,000 1900-1920
Yugoslavia (Communists) 1,100,000 1944-1990
Russia (Czarist) 1,100,000 1900-1917
Turkey (Mustafa Kemal "Ataturk") 900,000 1918-1923
United Kingdom (Constitutional) 800,000 1900-present
Portugal (Fascist, Salazar) 700,000 1926-1975
Spain (Fascist, Franco) 1,000,000 1926-1965
Croatia (Fascists) 700,000 1941-1945
Indonesia (Suharto) 600,000 1965-present

But the top twenty regimes have killed--roughly--156,000,000 civilians in this century in peacetime. Wars have been less than a quarter of this century's violent death toll. Far from the battlefront and in time of peace, governments in this century have bloody hands: class enemies, race enemies, political enemies, economic enemies, imagined enemies--you name it, governments have slaughtered them on a previously unimagined scale.

This chapter carries a dark, grim message: the boost to human productive, technological, and organizational powers seen in the twentieth century was truly value-neutral. The century that has seen the fastest economic growth and the richest human societies ever has also seen the greatest--and multiple--genocides. The greatest crimes of human history have been committed, and the greatest criminals of all time have lived, in the past hundred years.

The table above presents a few estimates from R.J. Rummel's Death by Government--a book that undertakes the grim task of attempting to roughly count up the violent death toll of the twentieth century. Rummel excludes from his count of genocide the deaths of soldiers in time of war, and the "incidental" deaths of civilians in time of war (that is, deaths that occurred as a consequence of what could be classified as military operations directed against enemy armed forces or war-making power: military exercises like the British night bombing of German cities during World War II are counted as episodes of genocide). Rummel's estimates of genocide are only of the people whom governments, in time of peace or far from the battlefront, have killed.

Some of the estimates are solid; some are shaky; some are wild guesses. Some are barely estimates at all: we know next to nothing of what has gone on in North Korea over the past fifty years, and Rummel's guess--he doesn't label it an "estimate"--is based on the projection that North Korea has been no better and now worse than similar countries with similar ideologies and similar degrees of self-imposed isolation.

I think some estimates are too high, and some are too low (I suspect Communist China and Nazi Germany should be switched). But Rummel's estimates are not without evidence, and on average I have no reason to believe that they are biased in any systematic way.








Killing off millions has a different meaning for the socialist. The millions are “in the way”. But Franco, in some sense, was “doing god’s work”, he was sending the hundreds of thousands on, specifically the ones who oppose god. However, Hitler also convinced himself that murdering Jews was “god’s work”, just as Islamists now convince themselves that blowing themselves with as many infidels as they can find is “god’s work”, while the mass-murderer Sutcliffe convinced himself that in killing prostitutes, he was an instrument of god — all this is a psychopath’s response.

march to glory fire! Pow!
the beauty of a killing gun
kill for freedom kill for you
kill the lark and kill the sun
kill the wog and kill the jew
kill for freedom kill for now!

if it moves kill it kill the whale
kill it quick before its hale
power wins   kill some more
For safety killing everything
don’t take risks kill for war

death to traitors, death to spies
kill the foe   kill for peace
march on you bastards shine your eyes

stamp on life that you may spill
nature’s red in tooth and claw
kill some more. god goes on before
glory shines I want that hill
quickly now more more kill

these are men and men are proud
god is jealous kill this crowd
death to traitors death to cowards
kill for peace kill for lies
kill for life kill for truth
please please please kill for sighs

kill for love and kill for pence
kill for any bloody thing
                 but kill  








History's Terrible Troika

(Word to the wise: Be mindful of embracing Beethoven and Michelangelo and Lincoln and Churchill and others as kindred spirits lest you unwittingly include Napoleon and Hitler and Stalin in the same group hug.)

In 1994, D Jablow Hershman and Julian Lieb wrote an extremely controversial work, "A Brotherhood of Tyrants: Manic Depression and Absolute Power" (Prometheus), that examined this Terrible Troika in the context of their illness. The book is a companion to an earlier work on the lives of Newton, Beethoven, Dickens, and Van Gogh republished in 1999 as "Manic Depression and Creativity."

The "case files" on Napoleon and Hitler and Stalin read like a clinician’s worst nightmare: raging tempers, manic highs, grandiose and psychotic delusions, paranoia, extravagantly reckless behavior, gloomy depression, and contemptuous disregard for others - and this was when they were just kids. Had they been born into slightly different times and circumstances, they would have been bundled up and tossed into the darkest void and never heard from again, but to the great misfortune of humanity all three came of age in a time of top-to-bottom social upheaval. The lunatics had already taken over the asylum by the time these three arrived on the scene.

"Life has become a burden to me," Napoleon wrote as a young man, "for I no longer enjoy any pleasure and everything causes me pain." According to the authors, Napoleon’s depression immobilized him during his disastrous Russian campaign and later at Waterloo. But it was the grandiose delusions of his mania that were responsible for even thinking he could take on the Russians in the dead of winter and win, in the first place. Earlier in his career, he had lost an entire army in Egypt dreaming he could be an oriental potentate.

Hitler’s own personal physician diagnosed him as manic depressive. As a young man, he attempted suicide. In a manic moment, he made a premature bid for power (the Beer Hall Putsch of 1923), but depression incapacitated him at the crucial hour. His illness fed the delusion that he was Napoleon’s worthy heir, and like his idol he too lost an army in North Africa and committed the fatal error of waging a winter campaign in Russia. Unlike his idol, he was no military genius, and his units in the field paid in full measure.

Hitler’s adversary, Joseph Stalin, was equally incompetent and delusional, with both preferring to lose hundreds of thousands of troops in single campaigns to listening to their generals. The two dictators also shared a psychotic paranoia that resulted in the liquidation of tens of millions of innocents. Stalin's crimes against his own people as well as ethnic minorities equaled or surpassed Hitler's Holocaust. When war broke out, Stalin went into a prolonged depression that left the country leaderless as the armies of his German soul mate advanced almost unopposed to Moscow.

Our current understanding of mental illness has allowed us to probe the minds of the famous and notorious in ways that have previously eluded earlier biographers and historians. But the authors here tell only half the story by overlooking the obvious fact that each member of this Terrible Troika was a classic sociopath, OR PSYCHOPATH as well.

Human lives meant nothing to them as they lied and cheated and murdered their way to power. When tens of millions more were later lost in pursuit of their individual glory, they felt no more remorse than most people feel to squashing a cockroach. The authors constantly refer to this trait, but nowhere in the book do they mention the term sociopath or its DSM-IV designation as antisocial personality disorder.

The DSM-IV lists seven criteria for antisocial personality disorder:

Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure
Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults
Reckless disregard for safety of self or others
Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations
Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another

What's missing from their criteria is the quality and quantity, the SHEER BADNESS of the sort of depraved behavior typical of a psychopath, but the DSM dropped that term from its lexicon years ago, leaving us to lump into the same category Hitler, Stalin, Napoleon, Jack the Ripper, Ted Bundy, your petty con man, the top tier at Enron, and the individual who takes 30 items into the six-item check-out lane and waits until everything is rung up before fishing into her handbag for her checkbook.

Add to that the fact that antisocial personality disorder falls into the DSM's far more nebulous and subjective "Axis II" disorders as opposed to bipolar's universally recognized "Axis I" status and you may have the reason - albeit a woefully inadequate one - why they authors failed to delve into the sociopathic/psychopathic side of history's Terrible Troika.

So add three more names to your famous bipolar people list, with great reluctance if you must, but also bear in mind that an illness alone cannot account for all of our actions and achievements, whether painting the Sistine Chapel or invading Poland.









© 2001 WorldNetDaily.com

China expert Steven Mosher has a fascinating insight into the Beijing Communists.

In his book, entitled "Hegemon," he says that Chairman Mao was steeped in the classics of a particular Chinese school of thought called "Legalism," which was the first systematic totalitarian ideology on earth. According to Mosher, Chairman Mao saw Marxism as a means to reinvigorate and modernize an ancient Chinese system of oppression.

In 221 BC the armies of Qin (pronounced "Ch'in," as in China) overran the forces of Qi -- the last independent state remaining at the time. Zheng became the First Sovereign Qin Emperor of the Middle Kingdom, instituting the tightest regimentation of society in Chinese history up until then. See the current movie "Hero" a Chinese Movie which shows how history is rewritten by the victors and celebrates the totalitarian Zheng and his victory over individualism.

Zheng and his toadies were the living models for the Chinese Legalist School. No doubt, Zheng and his entourage make Machiavelli look like a Sunday School teacher by comparison. Their cynicism and brutality are almost unmatched in the annals of human tyranny. Historian Arthur Cotterell wrote that "the bureaucratic form of government developed under the Qin monarchy became the model for future Chinese political organization."

As one might expect, Zheng's totalitarian machine earned criticism from China's traditionalist scholars and intellectuals who followed the humanist tradition of Confucius. "If this slander is not stopped," said Zheng's chief adviser, Li Si, "the imperial authority will decline." Therefore China's literature itself should be burned and destroyed. "All persons possessing works of literature and discussions of the philosophers should destroy them," ordered Li Si. "Those who have not destroyed them within 30 days after the issuing of the order are to be branded and work as convicts."

The only books to be spared destruction in ancient China, were books on medicine, agriculture and divination. The Qin emperor complimented Li Si on his brilliant plan. This burning would serve to keep the Chinese people ignorant and subservient. It would also prevent the "use of the past to discredit the present." After the Qin dynasty it would be understood that the control of history was essential to the control of the present and future. As George Orwell explained in "1984," he who controls the present, controls the past; he who controls the past, controls the future.

Or as the Chinese like to say, "History is a maiden. You can dress her up any way you like."

History is bunk - Henry Ford

It is also noteworthy that after the Qin emperor, a tradition developed among Chinese emperors. Each emperor would denounce the one that went before him. This may seem odd, but there is a definite logic at work in such practices. Denunciation of the past helps to preserve the regime of the present. If people think the present emperor is bad, they should be reminded (or taught) that the previous emperor was much worse. Therefore, the misrule of the present is always masked by the illumination of the past (unless the past is actually superior, in which case you burn the evidence).

One finds this same pattern at work in the USSR after Stalin's death. Stalin was denounced by his successor, Khrushchev. Then later Khrushchev was denounced by Brezhnev. Then in the late 1980s Brezhnev was denounced by Gorbachev. Under Yeltsin, as everyone knows, Gorbachev was denounced; and if the pattern holds, Putin will one day denounce Yeltsin (the denunciation of whom is already implied by Putin's return to open Soviet methods and symbols).

The totalitarian pattern replicates itself from generation to generation within the body politic. It is like a disease for which there is hardly a cure. Countries remain ill with this disease for centuries. One shudders at the thought that America itself has a mild case of the totalitarian sniffles.

Much about China's earliest history was lost due to the book burnings of the Qin emperor. There is a great disconnect in Chinese history, a break in the intellectual continuum. It might be argued that the destruction of books is comparable to murder. The preservation of great insight and wisdom, once set down, is of inestimable value. That such a thing can be eradicated -- and has been eradicated -- shows how fragile human civilization really is.

The Qin dynasty did not last long, of course, collapsing in 206 BC. But the evils produced by Qin lived on in other dynasties. An idea, once started, has a life of its own. Like Marxism, Legalism had few followers. But the promise of absolute power is attractive to scheming psychopathic minds who often rise in rank and influence. In the late 18th century, when China's Four Libraries were constructed and the classics compiled, there were only eight Legalist volumes. Poison of this kind, however, never loses its potency. Mao Tse-tung, says Mosher, was attracted to these eight volumes.

China's ancient Legalists denounce moral platitudes as "vain talk." Legalism emphasizes results over talk. One recalls Lenin's dictum during the Russian Civil War, that one must keep shooting people until the machinery begins to move forward. This is what a Legalist would refer to as "good results versus moral sentimentality."

This same logic may one day be applied to the use of nuclear missiles. "Continue to nuke them until they submit," a future Legalist ruler might say. "Either obedience or extermination -- their choice!"

One cannot help sensing, at some level, that this is what animates China's manic development of nuclear weapons. There is the idea, somewhere in the Communist Chinese mind, that America can be gradually disarmed and neutered. Then a campaign of "straightening" the world might begin.

The Legalist School is extremely skeptical, even hostile, to human nature and morality. "I believe it is impossible to be sure of anything," wrote Han Fei Tzu, a Han prince who inspired the totalitarian ideas of the Qin dynasty in the third century BC. Han stated that there were three principles -- law, statecraft and power. No other values mattered. Han characterized conservatives and traditionalists as "stupid." He also noted, "The severe household has no fierce slaves, but it is the affectionate mother who has spoiled sons."

The wickedness of Chinese Legalism appears in its unrestrained desire to crush all human beings, since human beings are inherently wicked. According to Han, "A ruler makes use of the majority and neglects the minority, and so he does not devote himself to virtue but to law."

This is where the term "Legalism" comes from. Right and wrong do not matter. Only state power and its law matter. In keeping with this state power, people are twisted into the right shapes. Han wrote that "If we had to depend on an arrow being absolutely straight by nature, there would be no arrow in a hundred generations. If we had to depend on a piece of wood being perfectly round by nature, there would not be any wheel in a thousand generations."

The right way, the wrong way and the Army way.

According to Mosher, "Mao had steeped himself in Chinese historical classics, absorbing the frank and brutal legalist advice they offered to would-be hegemons."

Mao's real ambition was to found a new empire on naked force. "Marxism-Leninism was an enabler for the Hegemon," says Mosher. Marxism proposes the existence of a monopoly of power by an educated elite of bureaucrats. If the despotic emperors of China's past had been Confucianist on the outside, but Legalist on the inside, says Mosher, "Mao was effectively Communist on the outside, Legalist on the inside."

Mosher tells us that if you examine Mao's "Selected Works," 24 percent derive from Stalin while 22 percent derive from traditional Chinese sources. In keeping with Stalinist and Legalist thought, in little more than a half century of existence, the People's Liberation Army has invaded the Korean peninsula; bombarded and assaulted islands belonging to Taiwan; attacked without provocation India, Tibet and Vietnam; and has supported guerrilla insurgencies in Laos and Malaysia, as well as a coup in Indonesia.

The only thing that kept China in check during the 1950s and 1960s, argues Mosher, was China's economic weakness. Taking a survey of the second half of the 20th century, Mosher notes that Communist China was more likely to resort to violence in a crisis than any other state. Since 1949 China has resorted to force in 76.9 percent of existing international crises. The next closest would be Muslim states which resort to force 53.5 percent of the time. (The U.S., by comparison, resorts to force 28.5 percent of the time.)

The chief supposition of Chinese Legalism is that power politics deserves primacy over everything. Mao's dictum that "political power flows out of the barrel of a gun" is still in vogue. Mosher tell us that Mao's views have not been repudiated in China. Deng Xiaoping only clashed with Mao over economics, not politics. According to Mosher, Deng's "much-vaunted openness to the West was merely a ploy to enlist foreigners to provide the means."

The Four Modernizations of Deng are paralleled by Four Absolutes, which hold true today. These absolutes are: 1) the dictatorship of the proletariat; 2) the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party; 3) Marxism-Leninism and Mao Tse-tung thought; 4) and the "socialist road."

In accordance with the Four Absolutes, the Communist butchers in Beijing murdered thousands of student protesters over a decade ago in the Tiananmen Square massacre. About this event Communism's No. 2 man in China, Li Peng, has said: "The actions in Tiananmen Square were a good thing. We do not regard them as a tragedy."

The power of the state, and its drive for greater and greater domination in Asia and the world, is the logic of modern China. In September 1994 Beijing issued a sweeping directive: "Patriotic education shall run through the whole education process from kindergarten to university ... and must penetrate classroom teaching of all related subjects."

What is taught?

Hatred for the evil foreigner and love of "Great China"; resentment for a hundred years of humiliation, etc. According to Mosher, "what this patriotic education comprises, in broad strokes, is a kind of Chinese Mein Kampf."

Imagine if Hitler had nuclear weapons and 1.3 billion people behind him.

Modern China has the full support of Russia in its quest for global hegemony. Today more than 10,000 Russian scientists and engineers are working to build up China's means of mass destruction against America.

China's current leaders are ruthless. Their credo was carefully explained by the founder of modern China, Mao Tse-tung, who bragged about his murderous achievements during the Second Plenum of the Eight Party Congress in 1958. "Emperor Qin Shihuang was not that outstanding," scoffed Mao. "He only buried alive 460 Confucian scholars. We buried 460 thousand Confucian scholars."

Mao did not like being compared with the Qin emperor. "Some have accused us of being Emperor Qin," complained Mao. "This is not true. We are a hundred times worse than Emperor Qin."

China is building nuclear bombs and long-range missiles at an accelerating rate. China has its fingers on the Panama Canal, and her agents have corrupted our political process in Washington so that we are momentarily paralyzed in our response to this new challenge.

It is time to stop and reconsider the overall strategic situation. If a 15-year-old boy can take a gun and go berserk in an American public school, killing and wounding his classmates, why can't a major power armed with nuclear weapons also go berserk?

The logic of the individual psychopath may be no different than the logic of a gang of psychopaths.









Snakes in suits
Spot the true psychopath among the sharks in your office

By Giles Whittell / The Times of London

HERE ARE SOME facts: Andrew Fastow, formerly of Enron, stands accused by an American court of taking $30 million in kickbacks from the company while its shareholders lost more than $70 billion. Bernie Ebbers, formerly of WorldCom, is said to have arranged for his telecommunications firm to lend him $408 million as it slid towards bankruptcy. John Rigas, founder of the Adelphia cable TV giant, built himself a $13 million private golf course and, it is claimed, "borrowed" more than $3 billion from company accounts for his family while his shareholders saw $60 billion wiped from their investments. And here is a perfectly sober conclusion: if guilty, they are all psychopaths. Not killers. Not rapists. Not necessarily even criminals. Just cold-blooded, remorseless, egomaniacal psychopaths.

It's a tricky word. Being a psychopath is not something that ordinary people aspire to, but neither does it have to involve face-eating cannibalism. The central qualification is to show no conscience; to fail to empathize.

Fastow, Rigas and the other stars of the great corporate meltdown showed little sign of conscience before - or since - being accused by the lumbering U.S. court system, and they share other symptoms of Psychopathy. They radiated charisma and authority, but hid much about themselves and their organizations. They reveled in risk, took no account of its potential cost to others or themselves, and rose to power during a time of chaos and upheaval.

When their worlds imploded, the markets staggered in disbelief. Hundreds of thousands of employees and investors lost pensions, savings and money they could ill afford to have gambled. The bosses expressed scant regret and most of them continue to insist that they have done nothing wrong. Meanwhile, regulators, FBI agents and forensic psychologists, not to mention the fleeced American middle class, continue to scratch their heads and wonder how these apparent shysters got to where they did.

A diffident-sounding Canadian academic with a trim grey beard has an answer; possibly the answer. He first voiced it publicly to an audience of Canadian police officers in Newfoundland in August.

At the end of a talk on organized crime, Dr. Robert Hare mentioned his belief that some of the year's worst accounting scandals could have been avoided if all chief executives were screened for psychopathic tendencies. He was quoted everywhere, not so much because of the sensational implication that some of America's best-known companies had been run for most of the 1990s by people with a major mental disorder, as because of who he is.

Hare defined Psychopathy for modern scientists with an exhaustive questionnaire, sold only to clinicians, called the Psychopathy Checklist, or PCL-R. It was introduced in 1980 and has become an internationally recognized instrument for identifying psychopaths. It means that when a subject scores 30 (out of a possible 40) in a prison in Dundee, an expert in Detroit will have a good idea of his proclivities.

That's the good news. The bad news is that the PCL-R revealed that psychopaths are everywhere. Most are non-violent, but all leave a trail of havoc through their families and work environments, using and abusing colleagues and loved ones, endlessly manipulating others, constantly reinventing themselves.

Hare puts the average North American incidence of Psychopathy at one per cent of the population, but the damage they inflict on society is out of all proportion to their numbers, not least because they gravitate to high-profile professions that offer the promise of control over others, such as law, politics,

By the Hare definition there are 300,000 in Canada alone.

Despite this, spotting psychopaths is hard, though it may be about to get easier. Next year Hare and a New York-based colleague, Paul Babiak, will publish a book called Snakes in Suits: When Psychopaths Go To Work, that will at least alert the average office worker to the possibility that her amusing but exasperating - and, frankly, narcissistic and untrustworthy - colleague may be clinically psychopathic. Hare and Babiak will also produce a new diagnostic tool based on the PCL-R but designed to help businesses to keep their recruits and senior management psychopath-free.

Enter the B-Scan. It won't be available to everyone, and it won't be free. Slightly jarringly, one is reminded that its authors are businessmen as well as academics. But they insist that it will do a better job of raising warning flags than traditional screening techniques such as CVs (routinely falsified and seldom checked) and interviews and role-playing ("Psychopaths love this stuff," Hare says. "It's like a game to them.").

If you are B-Scanned, it won't be you answering the questions. It will be your colleagues, grading your personal style, interpersonal relations, organizational maturity and antisocial tendencies according to 16 buzz words, none of them uplifting. They include the following: insincere, arrogant, insensitive, remorseless, shallow, impatient, erratic, unreliable, unfocused, parasitic, dramatic, unethical and bullying.

Yikes. Who isn't most of these things, at least some of the time?

I meet Hare in a London hotel and find him used to such anxieties.

"I know, I know," he says. "People read this stuff and suddenly everyone around them is a psychopath. They pick up on three or four of the characteristics and say, 'yeah, he's one.' But it's not like that. It's a medical syndrome. You've got to have the whole package."

And when you do, what does it look like? Hare gives an example, and not just any example. He first gave it to Nicole Kidman in a private meeting requested by her to help her prepare for her memorably chilly role in Malice.

"I gave her a scene," he says. "You're walking down the street and there's been an accident. A child has been hit by a car and is lying on the ground. There's a crowd around him. The mother's kneeling down there crying and emoting. You're curious but not appalled. You look at the child momentarily and then you look at the mother. You walk towards her, step in some blood and then study the mother's facial expressions for a minute or two. Then you walk back to your apartment or hotel room, walk into the bathroom and stand in front of the mirror practicing those expressions. I said, 'If you did that, people would see that you don't understand emotion, you have no idea at all, you're a color-blind person trying to explain color.' They didn't use the scene, but they could have."

In the workplace such a person might resemble Dave, a real individual studied by Babiak who cut a swath of disruption through a highly profitable American electronics company in the mid-1990s. Dave was good-looking, well spoken and impressive in the interview that led to his recruitment. He was also a skilled and shameless liar, rude to subordinates, scheming towards his boss and quickly friendly with the firm's top management. Already on his third marriage by his mid-thirties, he was short tempered, happy to ignore assignments that he felt were beneath him, and quick to change the subject if challenged on a lie or asked to produce some real evidence of work.

When his boss summoned the courage and evidence to make a complaint to the company boss, he found that Dave had got there first and secured for himself the status of "high-potential employee."

The boss ended up sidelined. Dave ended up promoted, swaggering and "in love with himself." He scored 19 on the PCL-R, lower than you would expect for a psychopathic murderer but much higher than your average working non-psychopath. He or she would score a five at most.

People such as Dave can be spotted early. Babiak recommends checking CVs exhaustively and auditing expenses - psychopaths like to indulge. It all seems obvious, but for the past 10 or 12 years, for most of corporate America, it hasn't been.

These have been tumultuous years in the world of business, with dot-coms booming and collapsing, older firms merging or shrinking to catch up, and hierarchies everywhere flattening faster than the boss can say: 'Hey, c'mon in, my door is always open.' In short, it has been a high old time for psychopaths.

"When you see what has happened with Enron and WorldCom and all these other big corporations, and you ask how the hell could this guy get in that position, well, there are answers," Hare says.

"When the structure's not there, when charisma is extremely important and style wins over substance, and one person ends up with three or four hundred million pounds in an offshore bank account, I start to get suspicious. And when the whole thing breaks and people are losing their pensions and livelihoods, these people give nothing back.

"Many of the high-level executives now being charged knew exactly what they were doing. They had no concern for anybody else, and you have to say they aren't warm, loving guys."

Likewise in politics. "Think what happened in the former Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia. The old rules went by the board. Structure vanished and all the ethnic tension that had been held in check by central government began to emerge. It was the perfect set-up for an opportunist, a thug or a psychopath to enter and take over."

That takeover usually has three stages. First, the psychopath identifies those who can help him and cultivates them with all his considerable charm. Then he pinpoints those who can harm him and outflanks them or stabs them in the back. Finally he makes a sycophantic but ultimately devastating beeline towards the source of power (one thinks of Hitler and Hindenburg, but also of the irrepressible Eve Harrington in All About Eve).

Psychopaths necessarily have victims, and Hare's drive to expose the "sub criminal" ones in our midst is at least partly personal. He speaks of an old college friend, now gravely ill, who lost $500,000 in a mortgage scam to a white-collar crook who got off with a $100,000 fine and a six-month trading ban. Society still labels such people rogues at worst. Hare calls them natural- born predators.

There is a difficulty approaching all this from outside academe: it can seem as if the experts are using jargon to force a thousand shades of grey - for there are surely at least that many degrees of Psychopathy - into convenient boxes for personnel managers, employment tribunals and courts.

Babiak certainly counsels caution. Being psychopathic is not a sin, let alone a ground on its own for dismissal. But underpinning the PCL-R is hard science, hard to ignore. Before he published it, Hare performed two now-famous studies which suggest that psychopaths really are different from the rest of us. In the first, subjects were told to watch a timer counting down to zero, at which point they felt a harmless but painful electric shock. Non-psychopaths showed mounting anxiety and fear. Psychopaths didn't even sweat.

In the second, the two groups had their brain activity and response time measured when asked to react to groups of letters, some forming words, some not. Words such as rape and cancer triggered mental jolts in nonpsychopaths. In psychopaths they triggered precisely nothing.

That research is decades old now. The man behind it, instead of retiring, tours the world helping to nail the psychopaths among us and trying to make sure that his instruments are not misused.

Part of his mission is to stay serious. He won't appear on Oprah, and he won't name names. Instead, when he sees someone in the news he thinks might be a psychopath, he says: "I'd sure as hell like to study this guy."









ASK ANY WESTERNER to name the most evil figure of the past century. Almost always, the same answer comes up. Hitler. Sustained brainwashing has done its job. Der Fuhrer still towers above all rivals as modem history's greatest demon. But increasingly, research proves that we have been persuaded to fixate on the wrong dictator. History's airbrush has worked overtime on the most criminal monster of them all: Josef Stalin.

Stalin's murderous ruthlessness was, by any standard, far more horrible than Hitler's. A psychopath who modeled himself on Ivan the Terrible, Stalin instituted a reign of terror without parallel, exterminating opponents or perceived opponents by the multi-million. How many died in his murderous stranglehold? Who knows?

Only in recent years have the Russians themselves learnt just how hideous their history is. Their first glimpse of the reality came in February, 1956, when Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalin's mass terror and unmasked the prison gulag system. That was met with widespread disbelief in the West. There can now be no doubt that Stalin, as a matter of policy, killed and killed and killed.

In 1989 the KGB set the death toll in Stalin's 26-year reign of terror (1927-53) at 36 million. But that figure included only the victims of Stalin's liquidation's of individuals and groups. Serious research began stepping up with Gorbachev's policy of glasnost. Norman Davis, in his celebrated History of Europe suggested a figure of 54 million. The University of Moscow, in association with the University of Madrid, put the figure at 57 million.

Those figures are ten to 15 times higher than the numbers allegedly killed the Fuhrer look like an amateur. Such imposed on countless millions simply freezes belief. It represents the most appalling terror ever inflicted, rivaled only by Mao's China and Pol Pot's Cambodia. Only under a regime which deliberately allowed the extermination of millions of its own citizens could such unimaginable figures be achieved.

On one day alone, December 8, 1938, Stalin signed 30 death lists, containing thousands of names. He then went to the Kremlin cinema to watch a comedy called Happy Guys. It is this viper's ghost that should worry us rather than Hitler's. Yet no Nuremberg trials have ever been conducted into Soviet barbarities. There have never been any Soviet war crimes trials. Yet in the sick and insane world we inhabit. Nazi war criminals are still being hunted down, though now most are 80 or 90 years old.

As for Stalin's victims, who is interested? They are so much dust blowing in the Siberian winds. No Spielberg conjures them to life. There are many reasons why Stalin's Great Terror remains the most underreported event of the 20th Century. First, Hitler lost, Stalin - ally of the West - won. Stalin knew he was a mass murderer but believed (correctly) that he could get away with it. As he told Mao Tse-tung when the Red Chinese leader, visited Moscow in 1949: "Victors are not judged" Perhaps the whole of modern history is summed up in those four words.

There are other factors. Unrelenting propaganda has built up the Holocaust as the pre-eminent human tragedy of modern times. Jewish groups insist we never forget the Holocaust. Counterclaims that might detract from their Holocaust are actively discouraged, as was demonstrated in the recent David Irving trial.

Many anti-Stalinists knew, and published, the truth: men such as Malcolm Muggeridge, George Orwell, Arthur Koestler. But their reports were overwhelmed from the start by the pro-Stalinists. Way back in the mid 1930s the father of all fellow travelers, George Bernard Shaw, dismissed reports of a Moscow-engineered famine killing millions as "pure invention." Shaw knew better, of course. Stalin had given him the details.

As he did to New York Times correspondent Walter Duranty, a prince of liars who gained the Pulitzer Prize for his fictional accounts of Stalin's "new civilization" and of "the great Soviet miracle". Duranty played a key role in perpetrating one of the greatest cover-ups in history.

Western illusions did not stop there. Bizarre as it now seems, many at the highest level, up to and including Franklin Delano Roosevelt, revered Stalin and were consciously partisan in their support of this thug. Further, in an astounding example of mankind's infinite capacity for self-deception, millions of Western intellectuals, academics, communists, socialists, liberals, fellow travelers, trade unionists, journalists and clergy forcefully rejected reports of mass atrocities in the old USSR and in China, just as they did later of events in Cuba and Cambodia.

The truth is that vast numbers in the West worshipped Stalin as almost a demigod, nursed an almost religious faith that the USSR represented the great new hope of all mankind. Stalin fondly referred to such useful idiots as his "maggots."

Above all, till quite recently we have had little real access to communist archives. Even today the most sensitive are still closed. So we still do not know the full answers: Was it one tenth or one-twentieth of the entire adult Soviet population who served time in Stalin's prison camps? Did 3 million die in the Gulag, or was the figure closer to ten? We may never know: but the effort to break through the Great Amnesia is picking up speed.

Till the late 1980s, hardly anyone but local villagers knew where the bones were buried. For the past 13 years the Russians have been slowly recovering their past, with new mass graves being uncovered at regular intervals. And, as soon as the existence of the first Stalinist mass graves were made known, people began to come. In one, Kolyma, the huge prison complex in the Russian Arctic, so many bones lay around that in the summer children used the skulls to gather blueberries. Now the memorials are being built.

The misery came early. In Russia, uniquely, there exists hardly any memory of the 1914-18 War, such a watershed for the rest of Europe. There exist no Soviet national monuments to WWI. The reason is simple. In the civil wars which followed the revolution of 1917 and brought the Bolsheviks to power, between nine and 14 million Russians died: starving, cold, racked with disease, or tortured and killed in bitter fighting.

Next came the Ukraine. Robert Conquest in his Harvest of Sorrow suggests that when, on Stalin's direct orders, the entire grain crop of the Ukraine was seized for export, the number of resulting deaths was probably about 1.5 million, equaling the total dead of WWl.

We will now turn to a brilliant but deeply disturbing new book by a young British historian, 'Night of Stone: Death & Memory in Russia' by Catherine Merridale, published by Granta. Dr Merridale is one of a growing army of scientists dedicated to uncovering the truth about Soviet-era crimes, the legacy of Josef Stalin and the society he created.

She spent two years in Russia and the Ukraine, researching documents from the Stalinist era only now coming to light: and talking to ordinary Russians about what it is like to live in a country haunted by the all-pervasive presence of death. Her book, an excellent work of scholarship, attempts to explain how the Russian people lived through some of the greatest horrors of a singularly bloody 20th century: and how, at long last, they are coming to terms with their shocking past and themselves.

Merridale does not attempt to put a precise figure on how many Russians lives were lost to violence between 1914 and Stalin's death in 1953, but suggests a total well in excess of 50 million. All of it planned.

Epidemics of flu and cholera, and the 1921-22 famines in grain-producing areas of southern Russia, killed many millions. People ate earth, grass, carrion and human flesh. In some districts, in the winter of 1921, local officials had to ban the sale of processed meat to stop the trade in human flesh.

Stalin's own signature is on thousands of death warrants. Millions more were denounced as enemies of the state for no other reason than they wished to think for themselves. Crematoria, with which the state had been experimenting since Lenin's time, were now running more efficiently. The bodies arrived in batches, accompanied by stamped forms in triplicate.

"They were such handsome men," one crematorium worker told Dr Merridale. "Some of them were still warm. Some of them were not even dead when we threw them into the furnace....."

The death rate in the gulags peaked in 1942-3. Without doubt, the brutalization of millions of Russians over the previous quarter century contributed to the grim reputation of the Red Army in WW2. Soldiers were treated like livestock. At Stalingrad, there was no one left to dig the graves.

At last came victory in the Great Patriotic War, as it was known, the only occasion for real celebrations that many of those Merridale interviewed, had known in all their lives. After Stalin's death in 1953, the repression gradually eased. "A human being survives only by his ability to forget," wrote a survivor of the Kolyma Gulag In recent years; many of the anonymous Gulag death camps have quietly disappeared.

Stalin himself spelt it out. His Short Course Into The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union contains references to the liquidation of his political opponents. He wrote: "The Soviet Government had only to raise its little finger for them to vanish without trace." How true.

For an intelligent person today to be ignorant of the manner of Soviet rule can only be seen as an act of willful political bias. The whole record of the terrible era is one of naked human power and inhuman cruelty. It is a sad fact that many in South Africa's present ruling ANC/SACP glory in their self-designation as "Stalinists".

There is little danger of the world ever running out of imbeciles.



Thought for the Day:

"A single death is a tragedy. A million deaths are a statistic."

(Joseph Stalin)









The Compensated Psychopath

"I like following orders!" - Monty Pythons Life of Brian.

Individuals approaching the psychopathic extreme are not totally wanting in morality, but they do sense a weakness, an awareness that something is missing, which frightens them. They also suspect that their love is not all it could or should be. In order to adapt they begin to compensate for these deficiencies by becoming morally rigid.

Since compensated psychopaths cannot depend upon Eros, their egos work out a moral system which is fool-proof in any and every situation. The result, as paradoxical as it may seem, is usually a well-developed morality with an emphasis upon the ego's role but woefully lacking in love.

Compensated psychopaths have played significant parts in society and in history. The more psychopathic compensated psychopaths are - in other words the more they have to compensate - the more sinister they are. All the Nazi functionaries who administered the concentration camps and supervised the destruction of thousands and thousands of human beings; all of Stalin's subordinates who, during the time of the Soviet purges, directed the arrests and deaths of innumerable individuals; all of Mao's minions who so efficiently effected the disappearance of large portions of the Chinese population -certainly all of these people were compensated psychopaths.

I am reminded of Adolf Eichmann (the German Nazi official who as head of the Gestapo's Jewish section was chiefly responsible as the organizer of the "Final Solution"), a man who was relatively conscientious and dependable. Not a devilish monster, he was rather a classic example of a compensated psychopath whose conscientiousness was greater than that of most individuals. He loyally and admirably carried out the "duty," of exterminating his fellow humans, but his very dedication to "duty," expressing his own alienation in this world, vented so heinously his hate towards all human beings who were not like him.

The commandant of a concentration camp wrote in his diary at the close of the war: "It is very sad that I can no longer fill my daily quotas in the gas chambers. I have neither enough staff nor enough supplies. Every night I go to bed with a nagging conscience, because I have been unable to do my duty." We can see how conscientious this man was. A classic, compensated psychopath, he had a strong, rigid, "moral" system but not the slightest sense of Eros. The morality which sought to replace the missing Eros turned into a farce becoming a caricature.

Compensated psychopaths are probably the most reliable supporters of a dictatorial regime, the emphasis being upon "compensated." A dictator would not function surrounded only with "pure" psychopaths -his regime would achieve nothing, eventually collapsing in utter chaos. A dictator's subordinates have to be conscientious and obedient -in a word, compensated psychopaths.

Excerpts from the book The Emptied Soul.




"Oh, that was easy, we just got 10 people from the army every week and gave them easy torturing tasks. Those who did badly we sent back. Those who did well we promoted."








What has allowed so many PPs to rise so high in corporations, and now in government, is that they are so decisive. Unlike normal people, they are never filled with doubts, for the simple reason that they cannot care what happens next. Simply can’t.

this is a closet idea that I don't trot out much because most people just dismiss you as crackpot the minute you say it. but there is some evidence for it, isn't there, if you care to examine the history of republican executives (or powerful persons in general)? it ties into my rantings on leadership yesterday, imo.

I think most people assume it almost impossible that psychopaths can get elected and rise to high station. this comes largely from the popular image of psychopaths: usually they're holding a severed head or at least a big knife, right? but I rather consider it a norm. seriously. most natural leaders are conveniently not equipped or encumbered with remorse.

for example, would anyone contend that our leader isn't a dysfunctional psychopath? with his history of severe drug and alcohol abuse, extraordinary clarity of purpose, lack of interest in the details and nuances of his decisions (his disinterest in policy meetings is well documented), ambivalence to historical hindsight or context, willingness to describe opponents or victims of his nation's policies in stark terms like "coward" or "evil"? on inspection, he seems to have some textbook 'pp' qualities.

and, on a lesser scale, our previous leader was a 'pp' as well, wasn't he? he consistently disregarded the effects of his personal behavior on others -- and can anyone believe he ever felt real remorse about any of it? the political effects of it were much less pronounced, however, it seems to me, simply because he was a pragmatist and a centrist -- which our leader is plainly not.

rather, dobby -- or, probably just as or more importantly, Chaney -- is of a more dangerous sort of 'pp': an ideological psychopath. when surrounded by obsequious yes-men and weak personalities, you get a very dangerous chemistry that can wreak havoc.

Vonnegut, like any artist, has some 8-ball ideas. but this is one that, while widely disbelieved, has certain precedent.

Psychopath? PP. I don't know that I'd extend as much seriousness into it as you. The values/actions in the definition are the same value/actions espoused across the nation - the ones we strive for. they know full well the suffering their actions may cause others, but they do not care Heck, that's the secret to success! Get ahead at all costs. You get yours, I'll get mine. Lie, steal, cheat - those all have negative consequences on someone, yet we use them to our advantage frequently.

I'm sure there is a real PP syndrome out there. But I won't fling it around carelessly - I think many of the qualities are taught from birth. Maybe we're all at least half PPs.








Atlanta Medical Psychology
The clinical practice of Dr. David B. Adams is located in The Medical Quarters in the north side of Atlanta at the junction of Scottish Rite, North side and Saint Joseph's Hospitals. Dr. Adams consults to occupational medicine, surgeons, nurse case managers, insurers and employers regarding the psychological impact of work-related injury and the role of psychological factors in short- and long-term disability.



Sociopath, anti-social personality, psychopath. Everyone should be wary of an individual who has glib charm, a soothing voice, a penetrating gaze, dramatic gestures, and engages in meaningless flattery and vague/inconsistent responses to personal questions. When a psychopath complains of how others treat him, it should be remembered who the real victims are likely to be.


Callous, deceitful, reckless, guiltless, often intimidating and sometimes violent is the standard description of psychopaths, whose maladaptive patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving impair their daily functioning and disrupt the lives of those around them. Sociopathy in males has more serious implications than in females, and this disorder is found three times more often in men than in women.

The psychopath understands the wishes and concerns of others; he simply does not care. He believes that he has the right to do what he wants and to take what he can. He manipulates others by deception and/or intimidation, has an inflated opinion of himself and seeks out, then uses, the weaknesses he finds in others. There is no fair mindedness, no self doubt, no compassion or true affection.


The psychopath believes that rules and morals are for other, weaker people who obey because they fear punishment. He feels indifference and contempt for these others, who “have it coming.”

No matter how bright, and a psychopath is often very bright, he rarely maintains a regular job, pays his debts or serves the role of a responsible parent. He repeatedly abuses, abandons, or betrays sexual partners and any children he produces. It is estimated that 15-20% of prisoners carry this diagnosis. Conning and manipulating others is a way of life. For the woman in his life, he may have an ingratiating manner and superficial charm, be persuasive, poised and self-assured because he lacks the (self)conscious feelings that others would have.

Lying, evasiveness, feigned forgetfulness, vague and inconsistent answers about his past...his goal is partially to confuse and manipulate, but he also is indifferent to the truth. And he will lie simply for the fun of it, so much so that he eventually becomes caught. Yet even when cornered and confessing, he will offer flimsy excuses or insincere apologies and then go back to lying again.


The sociopath or psychopath is incapable of loyalty, shame or guilt. He has no lasting close relationships. Although quick to anger and often irritable, he rarely feels sustained hatred since people mean so little to him.

What he refers to as love is, in fact, sexual attraction, a desire for flattery, physical comfort or material support. Quick to rage, he is often shallow and holds grievances toward anyone whom he perceives to be in his way. He refers to his own crimes as harmless pranks. He will often watch others for a clue of what emotion a situation demands. When he calls sadness is the failure of his most recent manipulative attempts.

The range of the antisocial personality is narcissism (self love) on one side and paranoia/sadism on the other. The narcissistic psychopath is less likely to be violent than the paranoid/sadistic. Hotheaded and coldhearted, he is provoked by perceived challenges to his inflated opinion of himself, is more likely to attack male strangers and more likely to respond to trivial or even non-existent provocations.

There may be two groups of psychopathic individuals: a. one who knows how to be glib, selfish, callous and deceitful and b. another group who is thrill-seeking, irresponsible, self-defeating, impulsive and lawbreaking. Due to short patience and impulsivity, the second group has recurrent problems with the law. The first group, however, can be more intelligent than individuals around him and achieve social success while doing appreciable damage in his public and private life.

Such individuals are more troublesome than troubled. They do not suffer the consequences of their own actions. They may be bored, tense, irritable and have physical complaints as well as inconvenient rages, but they do not emotionally pay for their own mistakes.

Anti-social individuals not only rely upon alcohol and illicit drugs from very early in life (and represent a very difficult group to treat); they are also among those most likely to traffic in drugs.


There are theories that hold that psychopaths conceal their anxiety because they cannot handle it in themselves or others. They deny depression to the extent that they cannot experience it. Such theorists hold that what these individuals really have in common is the fascination with fear, dislike and distrust that they inspire in others. Whatever the developmental nature of the antisocial personality disorder, the diagnosis is not applied to an individual under the age of fifteen to insure that there is a differentiation between a true psychopath and a merely rebellious adolescent. However, within the years following mid-adolescence, the existence of a psychopathic personality becomes increasingly clear. Adolescent gang members are not often psychopathic. They have strong loyalties and strict codes within their peer group. A true psychopath has adopted no cultural values, and all actions are for self-servicing strategic purposes, not to adopt the values of a peer group. He truly has no peer group.


There are physical findings among sociopathic individuals which suggest a biological difference between them and others. They appear to have a weak startle response, low heart rate, low tendency (galvanic skin response) to perspire in stressful situations, and low anticipatory anxiety...they do not worry. This imperviousness to anxiety may explain why they fail to learn, since much of our learning is based upon the need to avoid future anxiety for ourselves and others.

There is some evidence that anti-social personalities begin to burn out in their 40’s with regard to impulsive aggression and crime. Most do not wind up in treatment; they wind up in trouble. And for their doctors, they represent treatment dilemmas since the pain they inflict upon their victims and society as a whole makes it difficult to imagine wanting to help them. It is also clear that good outcome to treatment does not appear to be related to IQ, family history or imprisonment. Bad outcome does appear to be related to alcohol and other substance abuse.

Whether tending toward the narcissistic or tending toward the sadistic, the antisocial personality represents a consistent legal and moral dilemma.


Management rather than treatment is likely the most appropriate term. Since these individuals will inflict rather than experience suffering, it is exceedingly rare that they seek treatment except to access prescription drugs. Clearly, early identification and attempts to contain their victimization of others and misuse of resources becomes the primary goal. Since true remorse does not occur, motivation for change is absent.

Montague Ullman, M, D.

In psychiatry there is a diagnostic entity variously known as psychopath, sociopath and antisocial personality disorder. The central feature of this disorder is the failure to develop any ethical standards of social behavior, The concept of "do unto others as you would have them do unto you" is foreign to the psychopath. That remarkable advice is replaced by "do unto others as it pleases you regardless of consequences." We do not know for sure the cause of such behavior, whether it is genetic in origin, the result of early developmental trauma, or a combination of the two. The outstanding feature is that the psychopath has a natural talent for using and exploiting others and does so with such skill that true motives remain concealed by ingratiating ways and apparent normality. At some point the bubble bursts and the victim awakens to the reality that they have been taken.

In a democratic society government is supposed to serve the needs of every member of that society. There are two models for such societies, Both involve capitalism. The social democratic societies, such as in Scandinavia, temper the profit motive so as to restrict the massive inequities and ensure that health, education, security and opportunity is available to all. They do this by a system of taxation that succeeds in narrowing the gap between the haves and the have-nots so that a significant proportion of the population is not in trouble.

In the United States where capitalism is given a much freer rein there is the possibility of the profit motive getting so out of hand that those on top are enriched at the expense of those left behind, That is "wild capitalism". The recent run of failures of formerly very profitable corporations are a prime example of that, and how painful it is for those who are ultimately victimized by it. Victimhood is the characteristic feature of Psychopathy.

A corporation has been endowed with personhood by the Supreme Court. It is not a person but it is run by persons. If the ethical standards of those at the top fail to maintain a certain level of social responsibility, the result is the insidious onset of corporate psychopathic behavior. A few get very rich and the others wake up one day to find themselves abandoned by the institution they trusted. We now have to take into account the corporation as a psychopathic entity outfitting all prior attempts on the part of governmental regulating agencies to control its behavior. A reactionary government succumbing to corporate power colludes in this happening by weakening regulatory controls, In his book "The Corporation", Joel Bakan offers a thorough account of corporate Psychopathy,

The damage in human terms resulting from psychopathic behavior, individual or corporate, leaves a destructive trail behind. The individual psychopath contaminates whatever circle he moves in. Corporate Psychopathy contaminates the government which is responsible for setting certain ethical limits to corporate behavior. Excessive lobbying and financial largesse influences those who make the laws and those who have the responsibility for executing the laws.

The title of Hervey Cleckley's classic volume, "The Mask of Sanity," says it all. The psychopath is someone who seems comfortable with himself and his surroundings, often of superior intelligence, capable of turning on the charm said generally creating a positive impression. The problem is it's all fake. There is no genuine empathy, no sense of responsibility or concern for anyone but himself. We are no witnessing large scale corporate and political corruption being unmasked. Money churned out by corporate Psychopathy has influenced legislative and executive functions to the point where the former has surrendered its unique power to declare war and the latter to begin a war based on falsehoods fed to the American public.

The analogy between the individual psychopath and the corporation behaving as a psychopathic entity is limited but frighteningly meaningful. I will discuss the analogy to the extent to which it conforms to the current diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association as noted in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, 1994). The term Psychopathy has been replaced by Antisocial Personality Disorder. The criteria will be noted in their relevance to the notion of corporate Psychopathy.

The listing of the criteria is preceded by the following statement.

There is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since the age of 15 years as indicated by three or more of the following: (criteria)

Comment: This, of course, does not literally apply to a corporation. Corporations do have a beginning with the incorporation followed by a growth period which then leads to a successful or unsuccessful maturity. The temptation to skirt the law may occur at any time. Early indications involve looking for loopholes in the law, setting up phony offshore subsidiaries and courting political power to ease regulatory restrictions.

The Diagnostic Criteria

1. failure to conform to social norms with regard to lawful behavior as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.

Comment: This is true for some psychopaths but not all. Many of them manage to live a long and parasitic life, never see a day in prison and die quietly of old age. Corrupt corporations reach positions of great power and they do this by going beyond social norms. They seek out loopholes in the law, incorporate offshore, curry favor with politicians, manipulate stock shares and engage in illegal accounting practices. In their drive for power and profit they pursue a path where when caught, those at the top still walk away with fabulous sums while the workers and the shareholders are left holding a very empty bag.

2. deceitfulness as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.

Comment : Conning others speaks to the heart of Psychopathy. Lying consciously or unconsciously is the instrument by means of which a psychopath establishes a beachhead with his prey. It comes packaged in various ways - charm, wit, good looks and cunning. His individual goal is money, love or power. Corrupt corporations are out for money and power and maneuver the agencies of government in pursuit of their goals. Love is an irrelevant emotion as this plays out.

3. impulsivity or failure to plan ahead

Comment: The Iraq War is a case in point when corporate Psychopathy influences the political structure.

4. irritability and aggressiveness as indicated in repeated physical fights or assaults

Comment: This is characteristic of psychopaths who pursue a career in crime. There is aggression and fighting in the world of corporate Psychopathy but this is acted out in the court to save or expand one's own turf.

5. reckless disregard for safety of self or others

Comment: Again the relevance of corporate Psychopathy to the political structure has played a role in the Iraq war, a war that has resulted in the loss of thousands of lives.

6. reckless disregard for safety of self or others consistent with irresponsibility as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations

Comment: When the word safety is used here in a more general sense, e.g. financial security, it is relevant to corporate Psychopathy. Once greed takes over honesty goes out the window. Accounting becomes cover-up. Stock maneuvering enriches the executives at the expense of the workers and shareholders. When corrupt companies fail, workers lose.

7. lack of remorse as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated or stolen from another

Comment: The lack of genuine remorse is another basic feature of Psychopathy. The corporation as an entity cannot feel remorse but the people who run it can, at least to some extent, in their personal lives and on rare occasions when the law catches up with them and confronts them with the tragic consequences of their actions. The fact that a corporation may have taken a psychopathic course does not mean that the individuals responsible are psychopaths, although there may be an occasional one among them. They are, however, in an emotionally compromising and awkward place. On the one hand, they have participated in the creation of a psychopathic entity that wreaks havoc on people and the environment. On the other hand, at home in their private lives they are no different than the rest of us except for their high lifestyle. The only residue of Psychopathy in their personal lives is their enjoyment of ill-gotten gains. A more stark example of this is the emotional compartmentalization of the concentration camp guard who is very much the psychopath at his job and the family man at his home.

I have briefly sketched the extent to which the concept of corporate Psychopathy fits into the current diagnostic criteria of anti-social personality. The diagnosis rests on meeting at least three of the criteria. I have developed the correspondence based on meeting six of the seven (1,2,3,5,6,7). The concept of corporate Psychopathy fits snugly into these six.

The criteria as noted in the manual do not go far enough in capturing the essence of Psychopathy, As R.D. Hare and others have pointed out, they are attuned to a certain segment of the criminal population and do not sufficiently emphasize the personality traits of the psychopath, traits which enable them to pursue a psychopathic way of` life quite well within the accepted bounds of society.

It is often the case that psychopaths are gifted with a natural talent for ingratiating themselves. They walk among us wearing "the Mask of Sanity". Impervious to genuine feeling, lacking in empathy they manage to get what they want from others and tragically on occasion manipulate an entire nation.

They are to be found at every level of the social strata including the professions, the business world and most unfortunately the political world as well, Corporate Psychopathy is a plague that wreaks havoc on people, on the environment and on the moral status of the nation that tolerates it. Unlike genuine infectious disorders, a chronic phase precedes the acute one. It extends over the period when the corporation reaps extravagantly large profits. The acute phase is ushered in when the financial maneuverings can no longer keep the corporation afloat. It ends up in a trip to the morgue leaving precious little to salvage.

Corrupt corporations feed on money and power, The former comes in part from the U.S. Treasury and ultimately from the general public. To maintain this flow they seek power. The government is where the power is. Individual psychopaths rely on their personality and manipulativeness to get what they need from another person. Psychopathic corporations face a more complex task. They have to influence all three branches of our government, the legislative, the judiciary and the executive, to go along with survival tactics motivated by greed rather than the welfare of the public. Corporations have been in business a long time and have succeeded admirably. We have created a new generation of robber barons but this time they are playing for much higher stakes. The pathological fallout is no longer limited to our own borders. Their reach extends globally, involving us politically, environmentally and militarily with countries rich and poor. Illness knows no geographical limits.

The Legislative Branch

The members of the Congress are prime targets for corporate bribery. Lobbying is one thing. Lobbying backed by generous financial contributions is another. Recent legislation, for example, designed to lower the cost of drugs does more to insure the continuing huge profits of the drug companies. To restrain corporate greed it would have been better to control drug prices than to leave many with the choice between feeding a family or buying needed drugs. Pharmaceutical companies do not only bribe legislators, they also find ways that amount to bribery to influence the physician's choice of drugs.

Legislators are also pressured to favor corporate power over the protection of the environment. We have failed to come to terms with global warming under pressure from the coal and oil industry. Our public lands, long a treasured heritage, are under siege by oil and gas interests, as are our forests by the lumber industry. Added to this is the need for more effective monitoring of the industrial pollution of air and water.

The Judiciary

Individual psychopaths are small-time pickpockets compared to the huge sums of money that corrupt corporations manage to remove from the pockets of each of us. The ultimate victim is the public at large. We buy what they are selling. The individual psychopath when he is caught in a criminal act goes to jail. The criminal corporation goes to court, and until recently most often civil court rather than criminal court. In the case of the former, fines are levied which may or may not have the desired effect (there are recidivists). Criminal offenders receive sentences not commensurate with the damage they have done. The complex nature of corporate crime makes it more difficult to litigate. Lower level officials are often the ones that are scapegoats. Finally, there are insufficient prosecutory resources to thoroughly handle every referral.

Individual psychopaths are untreatable. Nor do we know much about the prevention. The prognosis is not quite as bad in the case or corporate Psychopathy. Some are so mortally wounded that sudden death occurs. For some a radical overhaul may be a successful treatment. Jail is simply an isolation word to temporarily prevent the illness from spreading. Prevention is the only approach to a cure. We know the causative virus is greed. An effective serum awaits the day when we succeed (if ever) in separating money from politics. We face the choice of closing our eyes to the very infectious nature of the virus and the plague it has produced, or radically rooting it out by seriously investing our resources in manufacturing that serum.

The government as it is now functioning is not in a position to prepare the services necessary to immunize the public. Each of us is faced with the task of creating our own antibodies by getting closer to an awareness of the extent to which we have been infected and do what is necessary to usher in wiser leaders,

The Executive Branch

We are profoundly ignorant of the etiology and prevention of Psychopathy in the individual. This is not so in the case of corporate Psychopathy. Deregulation, the money trail to power, and our materialistic concentration all pave the way to unmitigated greed. Legal penalties retard or stop the illness in individual cases of corporate Psychopathy but do not get at the root of the problem. In the light of the legislative failure at prevention, our only hope resides in an executive branch that has insight into the scope and nature of the illness and the way both government and our lifestyle has contributed to its existence, Of the three branches of government, the executive can be the most important in initiating a program of prevention. The world knows the price that society has paid for leaders that are poseurs or "strong men". Finding the proper leader who could initiate a genuine effort at prevention is a daunting one. We need a leader who has the courage to look into a magic mirror that reveals all the ways these malignant organisms have worked their way into the avenues of government and into the lives of the citizenry it is there to protect. He or she would have to have the foresight and vision of our Founding Fathers, the honesty of Abe Lincoln and the capacity of a war leader like F.D.F in keeping the country united instead of splitting it into two hostile factions.

Although the virus responsible for corporate Psychopathy has been endemic at least since Theodore Roosevelt's time, it has now risen to epidemic proportions. We are dealing with a virus that ravages people and the environment and has caused a palpable degree of moral fallout. Robert Hare, in his book, Without Conscience, refers to this latter change as resulting in a "camouflage society." He cites the role of corporate power as fostering a cultural atmosphere "where egocentricity, lack of concern for others, superficiality, style over substance, being cool, manipulativeness and so forth are tolerated and even valued. Even more important is the reality that the ullman* linkage of corporate Psychopathy to political power is a recipe for totalitarianism.

Our country is more divided along party lines than it has been in a long time. If we, the people, can come together in the recognition of this deepening illness in our midst, we can more effectively strive to eliminate it. Instead of a politically divided Supreme Court, we are in need of a Mayo Clinic of last resort. After all, doctors don't work along party lines in their efforts at healing.








The Inner Landscape of the Psychopath
From: The Mask of Sanity, by Hervey Cleckley, 5th edition

The Psychopath: The Mask of Sanity Special Research by Quantum Future Group
Discussion of Psychopathy Traits From The Mask of Sanity by Hervey Cleckley
A Basic Hypothesis of Psychopathy From The Mask of Sanity by Hervey Cleckley
Official Culture - A Natural State of Psychopathy? by Laura Knight-Jadczyk
The Inner Landscape of the Psychopath - Hervey Cleckley
"Stanley," a chapter from Hervey M. Cleckley's classic study of psychopaths, The Mask of Sanity
How Psychopaths View Their World

Kubrick's Psychopaths Society and Human Nature in the Films of Stanley Kubrick

The common problem with psychopaths... “Is they don’t see a problem with their behavior.”
Psychopath Support Group

“Non-victims can’t understand this, but the psychopath really does suck the life out of a caring person. I try to think of them now as a slimy suckerfish right out of the swamp, vacuum-lips out and prowling for someone vibrant and attractive to con and eviscerate.”

If you are a good person you will meet many evil people in your life, you need to recognize them and their actions. More importantly you need to recognize which evil behaviors you have been conned into accepting as reasonable and to reject those behaviors - both in yourself and in others - as unacceptable.

The English language has a variety of terms for psychopaths, of which "bastard" is perhaps the most polite. They have always been with us, and despite their corrosiveness and rejection of social mores, they show no signs of going away.

Think you can spot one? Think again. In general, psychopaths aren’t the product of broken homes or the casualties of a materialistic society. Rather they come from all walks of life and there is little evidence that their upbringing affects them.

Most of the millions of psychopaths in North America aren’t murderers. They’re our friends, lovers and co-workers. They’re outgoing and persuasive, dazzling you with charm and flattery. Often you aren’t even aware they’ve taken you for a ride – until it’s too late.

The problem of plausible lies is the most serious problem facing humanity today....Most good people are only aware of the least intelligent part of the evil distribution; those are the people who are obviously evil: criminals. The normal and intelligent ends of the evil distribution totally escape most good people's understanding.

Only as of late, with all the Enron scandals and related crimes, people are waking up to the fact that the most dangerous psychopath of all is the educated, socially adept psychopath, in fact, Dr. Hare recently said that he would probably be able to find many psychopaths involved in the stock market. It is time for American to "wake up" says Dr. Wolman, because we are being threatened by a serious epidemic of Psychopathy.

The Psychopathic or Sociopathic Personality

Based on twenty-five years of groundbreaking research, WITHOUT CONSCIENCE is a fascinating journey into the minds of these dangerous individuals. Are they born unable to feel empathy, or are they created by circumstance? How and why do they get away with cheating, conning, and murdering? Are they mad or simply bad? In what Dr. Hare calls our "camouflage society," how can we recognize and steer clear of these predatory people?

WITHOUT CONSCIENCE explores their shocking patterns- and exposes one of the most frightening, often-hidden social problems affecting our lives today.

The Psychopath is much more successful than you and I because he is not hemmed in by all sorts of impediments or worries.

A discussion with Adolf Guggenbuhl-Craig & James Hillman

“We fall prey to the seduction, it is irresistible. Then the nightmare of horror begins. The shabby treatment, the avoidance. I couldn’t believe it was happening to me. He had been so sincere, so kind. It was Jekyl and Hyde.”

“They go for the strongest and the best, but preferably those who are something of rebels within the group...the LEAST controllable. Because if they can crush them, they crush most of the rest at the same time. If they start at the bottom, with the weakest, it’s a long way to work their way up…The ideal target is therefore, strong, smart, rebellious and vulnerable through previous abuse.”

“A favored technique is to debilitate your identity [personally, I hate the term self-esteem] by leveling false accusations and/or questioning your honesty, fidelity, trustworthiness, your “true” motivations, your “real” character, your sanity and judgement.”

“They are absolutely the world’s best manipulators, liars, and fabricators of truth. They do so convincingly because they believe their own lies. After all their life is nothing but a lie, a sham, how can we possibly assume they know anything different.”

“Others around me would get so tired of the whole thing and insinuate that I was perpetuating things. All I wanted was for him to leave me alone. Part of the hurt and damage was done because others could but would not see what was actually happening. He would always try to ingratiate himself to others it was sickening. Usually psychopaths put on the nicest act, and you look like the harpy and bitch, and so everyone takes their side, it is a horror story, a psychopath can be very charming, and manipulative and manipulate the smartest of people.”

“My biggest frustration and source of anger, is at those who have refused to take a stand when they see the abuse . No matter how outrageous his behavior others often stood by and inadvertently fuelled his grandiosity and denial... although denial is too mild a word for it.

“If a psychopath throws the “bad childhood” stuff at you, keep in mind he might be trying to get sympathy and make an excuse for his atrocious behavior towards you and/or others. If we let these people make us feel sorry for them, we ultimately end up in the submissive position again...just what they want. I can “pity” them yes...but I refuse to shed another tear over the tragedies suffered by who is now, only a shell of a person.”

Regarding a psychopath: Considering a longitudinal section of his life ...it is hard to avoid the conclusion that here is the product of true madness - of madness in a sense quite as real as that conveyed to the imaginative layman by the terrible word lunatic.

With the further consideration that all this skein of apparent madness has been woven by a person of (technically) unimpaired and superior intellectual powers and universally regarded as sane, the surmise intrudes that we are confronted by a serious and unusual type of genuine abnormality.

Not merely a surmise but a strong conviction may arise that this apparent sanity is, in some important respects, a sanity in name only. We find instead a spectacle that suggests madness in excelsis, despite the absence of all those symptoms that enable us, in some degree, to account for irrational conduct in the psychotic.

Only very slowly and by a complex estimation or judgment based on multitudinous small impressions does the conviction come upon us that, despite these intact rational processes, these normal emotional affirmations, and their consistent application in all directions, we are dealing here not with a complete man at all but with something that suggests a subtly constructed reflex machine which can mimic the human personality perfectly.

So perfect is this reproduction of a whole and normal man that no one who examines him in a clinical setting can point out in scientific or objective terms why, or how, he is not real. And yet we eventually come to know or feel we know that reality, in the sense of full, healthy experiencing of life, is not here.

“Leaving is hard because of all that goes along with the going. It is not just the person you have to give up but your hopes and dreams and fantasies. It only happened for me in increments and I cried UNCLE often thinking if I gave it one more go I’d break through. It wasn’t until I really knew that no matter what I said or did or didn’t do this person could never love me or anyone.”

“The fantasy was exactly that, a FANTASY, that he created for himself, and presented to me as reality. My head said the fantasy wasn’t valid. I kept reminding myself: if the fantasy was real, I wouldn’t be treated like dirt, and feel like shit!”

“I have finally come to the conclusion that they cannot change, so all we can do is to refuse to participate in their sick drama and leave the stage.”

Cleckley: [The familiar tendency to disintegrate, against which life evolves, may be regarded as fundamental and comparable to gravity. The climbing man or animal must use force and purpose to ascend or to maintain himself at a given height. [...] Whether regression occurs primarily through something like gravity or through impulses more self-contained, the backward movement (or ebbing) is likely to prompt many sorts of secondary reactions, including behavior not adapted for ordinary human purposes but instead, for functioning in the other direction. The modes of such reactivity may vary, may fall into complex patterns, and may seek elaborate expression. [...] People with all the outer mechanisms of adaptation intact might, one would think, regress more complexly. [...] In a movement (or gravitational drift) from levels where life is vigorous and full to those where it is less so, the tactics of withdrawal predominate. [...] The psychopath as we conceive of him in such an interpretation seems to justify the high estimate of his technical abilities as we see them expressed in reverse movement.

"Alien reaction machines" in human form describes individuals with Anti-Social Personality Disorder (APD), Sociopaths, and Psychopaths.

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The surface of the psychopath, however, that is, all of him that can be reached by verbal exploration and direct examination, shows up as equal to or better than normal and gives no hint at all of a disorder within.

Nothing about him suggests oddness, inadequacy, or moral frailty. His mask is that of robust mental health. Yet he has a disorder that often manifests itself in conduct far more seriously abnormal than that of the schizophrenic.

Inwardly, too, there appears to be a significant difference.

Deep in the masked schizophrenic we often sense a cold, weird indifference to many of life's most urgent issues and sometimes also bizarre, inexplicable, and unpredictable but intense emotional reactions to what seems almost irrelevant.

Behind the exquisitely deceptive mask of the psychopath the emotional alteration we feel appears to be primarily one of degree, a consistent leveling of response to petty ranges and an incapacity to react with sufficient seriousness to achieve much more than pseudo experience or quasi-experience. Nowhere within do we find a real cause or a sincere commitment, reasonable or unreasonable. There is nowhere the loyalty to produce real and lasting allegiance even to a negative or fanatic cause.

Just as meaning and the adequate sense of things as a whole are lost with semantic aphasia in the circumscribed field of speech although the technical mimicry of language remains intact, so in most psychopaths the purposiveness and the significance of all life-striving and of all subjective experience are affected without obvious damage to the outer appearance or superficial reactions of the personality. Nor is there any loss of technical or measurable intelligence.

With such a biologic change the human being becomes more reflex, more machinelike. It has been said that a monkey endowed with sufficient longevity would, if he continuously pounded the keys of a typewriter, finally strike by pure chance the very succession of keys to reproduce all the plays of Shakespeare. These papers so composed in the complete absence of purpose and human awareness would look just as good to any scholar as the actual works of the Bard. Yet we cannot deny that there is a difference.


Meaning and life at a prodigiously high level of human values went into one and merely the rule of permutations and combinations would go into the other.

The patient semantically defective by lack of meaningful purpose and realization at deep levels does not, of course, strike sane and normal attitudes merely by chance. His rational power enables him to mimic directly the complex play of human living. Yet what looks like sane realization and normal experience remains, in a sense and to some degree, like the plays of our simian typist.

In Henry Head's interpretation of semantic aphasia we find, however, concepts of neural function and of its integration and impairment that help to convey a hypothesis of grave personality disorder thoroughly screened by the intact peripheral operation of all ordinary abilities.

In relatively abstract or circumscribed situations, such as the psychiatric examination or the trial in court, these abilities do not show impairment but more or less automatically demonstrate an outer sanity unquestionable in all its aspects and at all levels accessible to the observer. That this technical sanity is little more than a mimicry of true sanity cannot be proved at such levels.

Only when the subject sets out to conduct his life can we get evidence of how little his good theoretical understanding means to him, of how inadequate and insubstantial are the apparently normal basic emotional reactions and motivations convincingly portrayed and enunciated but existing in little more than two dimensions.

What we take as evidence of his sanity will not significantly or consistently influence his behavior. Nor does it represent real intention within, the degree of his emotional response, or the quality of his personal experience much more reliably than some grammatically well-formed, clear, and perhaps verbally sensible statement produced vocally by the autonomous neural apparatus of a patient with semantic aphasia can be said to represent such a patient's thought or carry a meaningful communication of it.

Let us assume tentatively that the psychopath is, in this sense, semantically disordered. We have said that his outer functional aspect masks or disguises something quite different within, concealing behind a perfect mimicry of normal emotion, fine intelligence, and social responsibility a grossly disabled and irresponsible personality. Must we conclude that this disguise is a mere pretence voluntarily assumed and that the psychopath's essential dysfunction should be classed as mere hypocrisy instead of psychiatric defect or deformity?

Let us remember that his typical behavior defeats what appear to be his own aims.

Is it not he himself who is most deeply deceived by his apparent normality?

Although he deliberately cheats others and is quite conscious of his lies, he appears unable to distinguish adequately between his own pseudointentions, pseudoremorse, pseudolove, and the genuine responses of a normal person.

His monumental lack of insight indicates how little he appreciates the nature of his disorder.

When others fail to accept immediately his "word of honor as a gentleman," his amazement, I believe, is often genuine. The term genuine is used here not to qualify the psychopath's intentions but to qualify his amazement. His subjective experience is so bleached of deep emotion that he is invincibly ignorant of what life means to others.

His awareness of hypocrisy's opposite is so insubstantially theoretical that it becomes questionable if what we chiefly mean by hypocrisy should be attributed to him.

Having no major values himself, can he be said to realize adequately the nature and quality of the outrages his conduct inflicts upon others?

A young child who has no impressive memory of severe pain may have been told by his mother it is wrong to cut off the dog's tail. Knowing it is wrong he may proceed with the operation. We need not totally absolve him of responsibility if we say he realized less what he did than an adult who, in full appreciation of physical agony, so uses a knife.

Can a person experience the deeper levels of sorrow without considerable knowledge of happiness? Can he achieve evil intention in the full sense without real awareness of evil's opposite? I have no final answer to these questions.

Attempts to interpret the psychopath's disorder do not, of course, furnish evidence that he has a disorder or that it is serious. For reliable evidence of this we must examine his behavior. Only here, not in psychopathologic formulations, can we apply our judgment to what is objective and demonstrable.

Functionally and structurally all is intact on the outside. Good function (healthy reactivity) will be demonstrated in all theoretical trials. Sound judgment as well as good reasoning are likely to appear at verbal levels. Ethical as well as practical considerations will be recognized in the abstract. A brilliant mimicry of sound, social reactions will occur in every test except the test of life itself.

In the psychopath we confront a personality neither broken nor outwardly distorted but of a substance that lacks ingredients without which normal function in major life issues is impossible. [...]

Simon, Holzberg, and Unger, impressed by the paradox of the psychopath's poor performance despite intact reasoning, devised an objective test specifically to appraise judgment as it would function in real situations, as contrasted with theoretical judgment in abstract situations. These workers are aware that the more complex synthesis of influences constituting what is often called judgment or understanding (as compared to a more theoretical "reasoning") may be simulated in test situations in which emotional participation is minimal, that rational factors alone by an accurate aping or stereotyping can produce in vitro, so to speak, what they cannot produce in vivo. Items for a multiple choice test were selected with an aim of providing maximal possibilities for emotional factors to influence decision and particularly for relatively trivial immediate gratification impulses to clash with major, long-range objectives. The same items were also utilized in the form of a completion test. The results of this test on a group of psychopaths tend to support the hypothetical interpretation attempted in this book.

If such a disorder does indeed exist in the so-called psychopath, it is not remarkable that its recognition as a major and disabling impairment has been long delayed. Pathologic changes visible on the surface of the body (laceration, compound fractures) were already being handled regularly by medical men when the exorcism of indwelling demons retained popular favor in many illnesses now treated by the internist. So, too, it has been with personality disorders. Those characterized by gross outward manifestations have been accepted as psychiatric problems long before others in which a superficial appearance of sanity is preserved.

Violent sociopaths exact a high toll onto human society. In the USA, more than half of the police officers killed by criminals were victims of sociopaths. ASP is common among drug offenders, women and child abusers, gangsters, terrorists, sadists, torturers, etc. In addition, "psychopaths are approximately three times more likely to recidivate--or four times more likely to violently recidivate--than were non-psychopaths", according to a recent study. Citing again Dr Robert Hare: "The enormous social, economic, and personal suffering inflicted by a few people whose antisocial attitudes and behavior result less from social forces than from an inherent sense of entitlement and an incapacity for emotional connection to the rest of humanity. For these individuals - psychopaths - social rules have no constraining force, and the idea of a common good is merely a puzzling and inconvenient abstraction."

Furthermore, under stressing social situations such as in wars, general poverty and breakdown of the economy, sweeping epidemics or political fighting, etc., sociopaths may acquire the status of regional or national leaders and saviors, such as Adolf Hitler, Stalin, Saddam Hussein, Idi Amin, etc. When they are in positions of power, they can inflict far more damage than as individuals. Renato M.E. Sabbatini

Democratic? Peaceful? Moral? In tune with mores of world community?

What does a "Potter" know about ex-Stalinist nations? My ancestors
came from Russia, one of the most Violence-Oriented nations in history.
You're a living argument for requiring people to take history starting
from Kindergarten. What happened was this: the Mongol Hordes
originating from Outer and Inner Mongolia (mostly Outer) invaded Europe
and Asia, for the three R's (the same three R's of the Ancient Viking
Marauders: Rape, Robbery, and Murder). Their most lasting and longest
lasting influence was on two nations: Russia and Iran (then part of
Persia). They taught Violence-Orientation to the children of their
rapes, just like the Latino children of the Spanish Conquistadora rapes
learned Violence-Orientation from generation to generation in Mexico,
Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Cuba, etc. Russia never had a
Parliamentary Democracy until almost our era, even while the U.K. was
developing Parliamentary Democracy from the Magna Carta in the 1200s
A.D. onward. Ditto for Persia/Iran. And of course the Parliamentary
Democracy in Russia didn't last long, since almost nobody believed in
it. Putin is a former KGB leader whose covert and overt terror against
the opposition resembles Islamist Terrorism and most of the U.N.'s
constituent nations.

That brings me to China, the hero of Nixon, Clinton, and the entire
Dumbocrat Party and factions to its left nowadays. The Emperors of
China were among the worst Genocidal Lunatics of all time, comparable
to Nero of Ancient Rome. You apparently never took Chinese history in
college. The Emperors used to go for parades in crowds and told their
guards and military accompaniment to cut off 50,000 heads on onlookers
at a time as a lark! China almost never had a Parliamentary
Democracy, and it still doesn't. Its Maoist Cultural Revolution was a
major 35 million genocide based on the theory of killing off Bureaucrats and
brainwashing Bureaucrats in their own nation without Parliamentary
Democracy and without Martial Law based on any semblance to
Parliamentary Democracy - the Military leaders like Mao just decided
who was the current Victim and either killed or imprisoned and
brainwashed him/her. Mao's widow tried to inherit his Psychopathic
leadership and was imprisoned together with her Gang of Four, but all
that changed is that today nobody even talks politics - the Military is
in charge of the "Communist Party" which is supposed to be not at war
so the excuse for Martial Law is gone. China's spent its later history
sending military advisors to African rebels, and both Russia and China
profit from heavy arms sales to the Islamist Terrorists - the same ones
that kill their own people, since Psychopaths have trouble
distinguishing between Right and Wrong not to speak of Friends and

What part of "From Russia With Hate" don't you understand?

Osher Doctorow








This world is a factory for the production of Enlightened Beings, thus we need a lot of feedback on our actions and thus one of the most capable of teachers is called karma... What you give you most certainly receive back. Only at the end of the path a student can learn how to eliminate their Karma and that of others in the Energy Enhancement Karma Cleaning Process.


Argentina torture


it is estimated that 40,000 people "disappeared" or were tortured then Murdered in Argentina from 1973 to 1983 when General Galtieri, who was in charge of that which happened below, was defeated in war by Margaret Thatcher.

There is a site called "Nunca Mas" also "Amnesty International" where such things can be found. I do not even like to think of such things, but if you search in Google then you can find this in full graphic detail.


At this moment 128 countries, according to Amnesty International, use torture as a means of repression and control.

This world is a factory for the production of enlightened beings, thus one of the most capable of teachers is called karma... What you give you most certainly receive back. Only at the end of the path a student can learn how to eliminate their karma in the Energy Enhancement Karma Cleaning Process.




Part I
The Repression

Nunca Más (Never Again) - Report of Conadep  - 1984


C. Torture

If when I was set free someone had asked me:
did they torture you a lot?
I would have replied:
Yes, for the whole of the three months ...

If I were asked that same question today,
I would say that I’ve now lived through seven years of torture.

(Miguel D’Agostino - file No. 3901.)


In nearly all the cases brought to the attention of the Commission, the victims speak of acts of torture. Torture was an important element in the methodology of repression. Secret torture centres were set up, among other reasons, to enable the carrying out of torture to be carried out undisturbed.

The existence and widespread use of different forms of torture is particularly frightening because of the perverse imagination demonstrated, and the character of the people who carried it out, as well as of those who supported its use and employed it as a means to an end. In drawing up this report, we wondered about the best way to deal with the theme so that this chapter did not turn into merely an encyclopedia of horror. We could find no way to avoid this. After all, what else were these tortures but an immense display of the most degrading and indescribable acts of degradation, which the military governments, lacking all legitimacy in power, used to secure power over a whole nation?

We have included the full version of the first of these cases, since it is typical of all of them. From it we can understand both the physical and mental suffering inflicted on the victims. We are quoting it in full to show the extent to which it affected the personality of the person whom the torturers were trying to destroy. In the other cases we mention, we have kept only those parts describing the methods of torture used.

Lastly, we are well aware of, and share, the feeling of dismay which the bald narration we set down here will arouse in torture victims and their families, who were made to suffer so much. We know only too well the anguish that a detailed knowledge of this barbarity causes.

Dr Norberto Liwsky (file No. 7397) is a doctor, married to Hilda Norma Ereñu. They have two small daughters. In 1976, he lived in a community housing estate in La Matanza, Buenos Aires, and worked in the medical dispensary there. Following complaints and action by residents of the housing estate to get legal recognition for their community, there was a raid on the night of 25 March 1976. During this, Cirila Benitez, the wife of the neighbourhood association’s president, was arrested. The next day, uniformed forces wrecked several houses and Dr Liwsky’s dispensary. They abducted Mario Portela, a housing association representative. He was found dead twelve hours later.

Two years afterwards, when a mass was called to celebrate the freeing of Señora Benitez, several people were kidnapped. On 5 April 1978, at approximately 10 p.m., Dr Liwsky arrived at his flat in Flores, in Buenos Aires city:

As I was inserting the key in the lock I realized what was happening, because the door was pulled inwards violently and I stumbled forward.

I jumped back, trying to escape. Two shots (one in each leg) stopped me. However, I still put up a struggle, and for several minutes resisted, being handcuffed and hooded, as best I could. At the same time, I was shouting at the top of my lungs that I was being kidnapped, begging my neighbours to tell my family, and to try to stop them taking me away.

Finally, exhausted and blindfolded, I was told by the person who apparently was in command that my wife and two daughters had already been captured and ’disappeared’.

They had to drag me out, since I couldn’t walk because of the wounds in my legs. As we were leaving the building, I saw a car with a flashing red light in the street. By the sound of the voices and commands, and the slamming of car doors, interspersed with shouts from my neighbours, i presumed that this was a police car.

After several minutes of heated argument, the police car left. The others then took me out of the building and threw me on to the floor of a car, possibly a Ford Falcon, and set off.

They hauled me out of the car in the same way, carrying me between four of them. We crossed four or five metres of what by the sound of it was a gravelled yard, then they threw me on to a table. They tied me by my hands and feet to its four corners.

The first voice I heard after being tied up was of someone who said he was a doctor. He told me the wounds on my legs were bleeding badly, so I should not try to resist in any way.

Then I heard another voice. This one said he was the ’Colonel’. He told me they knew I was not involved with terrorism or the guerrillas, but that they were going to torture me because I opposed the regime, because: ’I hadn’t understood that in Argentina there was no room for any opposition to the Process of National Reorganization.’ He then added: ’You’re going to pay dearly for it ... the poor won’t have any goody-goodies to look after them any morel’

Everything happened very quickly. From the moment they took me out of the car to the beginning of the first electric shock session took less time than I am taking to tell it. For days they applied electric shocks to my gums, nipples, genitals, abdomen and ears. Unintentionally, I managed to annoy them, because, I don’t know why, although the shocks made me scream, jerk and shudder, they could not make me pass out.

They then began to beat me systematically and rhythmically with wooden sticks on my back, the backs of my thighs, my calves and the soles of my feet. At first the pain was dreadful. Then it became unbearable. Eventually I lost all feeling in the part of my body being beaten. The agonizing pain returned a short while after they finished hitting me. It was made still worse when they tore off my shirt, which had stuck to the wounds, in order to take me off for a fresh electric shock session. This continued for several days, alternating the two tortures. Sometimes they did both at the same time.

Such a combination of tortures can be fatal because, whereas electric shock produces muscular contractions, beating causes the muscle to relax (as a form of protection). Sometimes this can bring on heart failure.

In between torture sessions they left me hanging by my arms from hooks fixed in the wall of the cell where they had thrown me.

Sometimes they put me on to the torture table and stretched me out, tying my hands and feet to a machine which I can’t describe since I never saw it, but which gave me the feeling that they were going to tear part of my body off.

At one point when I was face-down on the torture table, they lifted my head then removed my blindfold to show me a bloodstained rag. They asked me if I recognized it and, without waiting for a reply - impossible anyway because it was unrecognizable, and my eyesight was very badly affected - they told me it was a pair of my wife’s knickers. No other explanation was given, so that I would suffer all the more ... then they blindfolded me again and carried on with their beating.

Ten days after I entered this ’pit’, they brought my wife, Hilda Nora Ereñu, to my cell. I could scarcely see her, but she seemed in a pitiful state. They only left us together for two or three minutes, with one of the torturers present. When they took her away again,

I thought (I later learned that both of us had thought the same) that this would be the last time we saw each other. That it was the end for both of us. Despite the fact that I was told she had been set free with some other people, the next news I had of her was after I had been put into official custody at the Gregario de Laferrre police station, and she came at the first visiting time with my daughters.

On two or three occasions they also burnt me with a metal instrument. I didn’t see this either, but I had the impression that they were pressing something hard into me. Not like a cigarette, which gets squashed, but something more like a red-hot nail.

One day they put me face-down on the torture table, tied me up (as always), and calmly began to strip the skin from the soles of my feet. I imagine, though I didn’t see it because I was blindfolded, that they were doing it with a razor blade or a scalpel. I could feel them pulling as if they were trying to separate the skin at the edge of the wound with a pair of pincers. I passed out. From then on, strangely enough, I was able to faint very easily. As for example on the occasion when, showing me more bloodstained rags, they said these were my daughters’ knickers, and asked me whether I wanted them to be tortured with me or separately.

I began to feel that I was living alongside death. When I wasn’t being tortured I had hallucinations about death - sometimes when I was awake, at other times while sleeping.

When they came to fetch me for a torture session, they would kick the door open and shout at me, flailing out at everything in their way. That is how I knew what was going to happen even before they reached me. I lived in a state of suspense waiting for the moment when they would come to fetch me.

The most vivid and terrifying memory I have of all that time was of always living with death. I felt it was impossible to think, I desperately tried to summon up a thought in order to convince myself I wasn’t dead. That I wasn’t mad. At the same time, I wished with all my heart that they would kill me as soon as possible.

There was a constant struggle in my mind. On the one hand: ’I must remain lucid and get my ideas straight again’; on the other: ’Let them finish me off once and for all’. I had the sensation of sliding towards nothingness down a huge slippery tube where I could get no grip. I felt that just one clear thought would be something solid for me to hold on to and prevent my fall into the void. My memory of that time is at once so concrete and so personal and private that the image I have of it is of an intestine existing both inside and outside my own body.

In the midst of all this terror, I’m not sure when, they took me off to the ’operating theatre’. There they tied me up and began to torture my testicles. I don’t know if they did this by hand or with a machine. I’d never experienced such pain. It was as though they were pulling out all my insides from my throat and brain downwards. As though my throat, brain, stomach and testicles were linked by a nylon thread which they were pulling on, while at the same time crushing everything. My only wish was for them to succeed in pulling all my insides out so that I would be completely empty. Then I passed out.

Without knowing how or when, I regained consciousness and they were tugging at me again. I fainted a second time.

At that moment, fifteen or eighteen days after my abduction, I began to have kidney problems, difficulties with passing water. Three-and-a-half months later, when I was a prisoner in Villa Devoto prison, the doctors from the International Red Cross diagnosed acute renal failure of a traumatic origin, which could be traced to the beatings I had undergone.

After being held for twenty-five days in complete isolation, I was thrown into a cell with another person. This was a friend of mine, a colleague from the dispensary, Dr Francisco Garcia Ferndndez.

I was in very bad shape. It was Ferndndez who gave me the first minimal medical attention, because in all that time I had been unable to think of cleaning or looking after myself.

It was only several days later that, by moving the blindfold slightly, I could see all they had done to me. Before that it,had been impossible, not because I didn’t try to remove the blindfold, but because my eyesight had been so poor. It was then for the first time that I saw the state of my testicles ... I remembered that as a medical student I saw, in the famous Houssay textbook, a photograph of a man who, because of the enormous size of his testicles, wheeled them along in a wheelbarrow! Mine were of similar dimensions, and were coloured a deep black and blue.

Another day they took me out of my cell and, despite my swollen testicles, placed me face-down again. They tied me up and raped me slowly and deliberately by introducing a metal object into my anus. They then passed an electric current through the object. I cannot describe how everything inside me felt as though it were on fire.

After that, the torture eased. They only gave me beatings two or three times a week. Now they used their hands and feet rather than metal or wooden instruments.

Thanks to this new, relatively mild policy, I began to recover’ physically. I had lost more than 25 kilos and was suffering from the kidney complaint I’ve already mentioned.

Two months prior to my abduction, in February 1978, I had suffered a recurrence of typhoid fever. Somewhere between 20 and 25 May, in other words forty-five or fifty days after my capture, I fell ill again with typhoid owing to my physical exhaustion.

In addition to the physical torture employed from the very beginning, torture of a psychological nature (already mentioned to some extent) was used throughout the period of imprisonment, even after the interrogations and physical torture had ceased. There were also countless attempts to humiliate and degrade the prisoner.

The normal attitude of the torturers and guards towards us was to consider us less than slaves. We were objects. And useless, troublesome objects at that. They would say: ’You’re dirt.’ ’Since we ”disappeared” you, you’re nothing. Anyway, nobody remembers you.’ ’You don’t exist.’ ’If anyone were looking for you (which they aren’t), do you imagine they’d look for you here?’ ’We are everything for you.’ ’We are justice.’ ’We are God.’

Phrases like these, repeated endlessly. By all of them. All the time, and often accompanied by a slap, trip, punch or kick. Or they would drench our cell, mattress and clothes at two in the morning, in winter. As the weeks went by, I began to identify voices and names among them: Tiburón (Shark), Víbora (Snake), Rubio (Blondie), Panza (Potbelly), Tete (Dummy). Also the sound of movements (together with my previous idea about the route I was sure we had taken) gradually led me to believe that the detention centre must be police premises. Piecing together the clues (there was also a police station close by, and a school - I heard girls singing - and a church, from the sound of the bells) it appeared that the place was the detective squad headquarters in San Justo.

Among those kept prisoner with me, whom I could identify because I heard their voices and they told me their names, despite being in separate cells, were: Aureliano Araujo, Olga Araujo, Abel de León, Amalia Marrone, Atilio Barberan, Jorge Heuman, Raúl Petruch and Norma Ereñú.

On 1 June, the day the World Cup football began, I was blindfolded and taken with six more of the detained-disappeared prisoners in a van (piled like sacks one on top of the other) to a place which turned out to be the Gregorio de Laferrère police station.

One of the most enthusiastic torturers took part in our transfer. I am also certain that he was the person who shot me when I was kidnapped. The route and time taken confirmed my hypothesis as to the location of the detention centre.

A fact which became extremely important later on, was my professional participation from 1971 in a Model School for the Social Integration of Handicapped Children, set up in 1963. The school was in Hurlingham, part of Morón, Buenos Aires province.

On 18 August, after spending two months in a police cell (one night they made me sign a piece of paper - with my eyes blindfolded - which was later used as my initial statement to the Regular Court Martial 1/1), they took me to the regimental headquarters at Palermo, Buenos Aires. There the magistrate informed me of the charges against me. Among them was the fact that I had worked at the Model School in Hurlingham.

At my trial I denounced all the violations of my rights, Including torture, the looting of my home, and having been forced to sign a statement without being able. to read it.

Dr Norberto Liwsky was brought before a military court: the Military Tribunal. This court declared itself incompetent to judge the case as it had no charges to bring. He was then handed over to the civilian courts, who immediately dismissed the case. All the martyrdom related here was suffered by someone against whom no charges were ever brought.

With Oscar Martín Guidone, resident in Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza province (file No. 6837), we can see another consequence of torture. He states that he was arrested by an army patrol and taken to the regimental headquarters. There, on 2 June 1976, after a week:.

.. they handcuffed him to a wall, with his arms spread out, so that he was only able to stand on tiptoe. They threatened and insulted him constantly. They began to hit him with something hard, like boxing gloves but larger, covering over half his abdomen every time they hit him. This lasted for about three hours. They questioned him about names and people. That was called a ’softening up session’.

They took him to the cell in such a terrible state that people who were being held in the block began banging on the bars, demanding that he be seen to immediately. He was taken to the military hospital where he was seen by doctors. Armed guards were stationed at the door. Their orders were that not even the President of the Republic was to enter. Ex-Governor Martínez Baca next door.

Later the doctors told him that they knew he had studied medIcine, so that he would know what a secondary rupture of the spleen was, and that they would have to operate. They operated on him in that hospital the next day, performing a laparotomy.

They gave him medical treatment while he was tied up. After twenty days he was sent back to the 8th Regiment (which is next door to the military, hospital). They even allowed him to continue reading medical books. Because of his knowledge, he helped other prisoners after the torture sessions: Forty-five days after his operation, they tied his hands and blindfolded him, taking him by truck on a very short journey to a torture centre. One of those taking him was very short of breath, as though drugged. They got him down from the truck and one of them said to him, ’We’re off to a bad start,’ as Guidone had trodden on his foot. They questioned him about his ideology; he replied that he didn’t have any. With each negative reply they made him remove an item of clothing, until he was completely naked.

After that they bound him with chains, face up on a table, his limbs spread apart. They began to torture him with electric prods, blaming him for the dismissal of two colleagues who, when they had tortured him earlier, had caused the physical problems which led to his operation. They fired shots over his body and constantly threatened to take his life and kill his family. This torture lasted for some two or three hours. In the last part of the torture they applied a huge voltage which made his body contract so violently that he broke the chains holding him down. They taunted him, saying that his moustache was more like that of a Fascist than a Communist, and that he had chosen the wrong ideology. The effects of this session lasted for several days, causing a deep depression with physical after-effects.

In August 1978 he was released.

Luis Alberto Urquiza, a psychology student, joined the NCO Training School of the Córdoba Provincial Police on 1 November 1974. He was repeatedly harassed about his university studies by the training officer. Subsequently, following many episodes related at length by the witness, he graduated and began to work in various sections covering ’intelligence’, and was then himself taken prisoner.

Señor Urquiza’s testimony (file No. 3847) was made on 22 March 1984 in Copenhagen, at the Embassy of the Argentine Republic it Denmark. His arrest took place in Córdoba on 12 November 1976. He suffered tortures which will be detailed in our discussion of what is generically termed submarino (immersion) and simulated execution.

... then the beatings began. The next day I was again beaten up by several people. I recognized the voice of Chief Inspector Roselli, who went to visit the office because of our arrest, and I was able to recognize the voice of the adviser to the Chief of Police, a lieutenant-colonel who also hit me. Throughout the day I was punched and kicked by people going past. On the third day I was beaten up in the afternoon by several people, one of whom asked me if I recognized him. He was Warrant Officer Dardo Rocha, ex-instructor at the Police Training School and at that time carrying out duties in Signals Division. From the sharp pain I experienced in breathing, I could feel I had several cracked ribs; I asked the officer on duty for a doctor, but this was refused. On 15 November I was again beaten up, especially at night, by a group of men from the Intelligence Squad. They stood me in the middle of a circle of people and I would be propelled by punches and kicks towards the group, and from there back to the centre of the circle. If I fell I was trodden on and pulled up again by the hair.

In the early hours of the 16th I was taken to the toilet by the officer on duty, Francisco Gontero, who, from a distance of four or five metres, loaded his 45-calibre gun and fired three shots, one of which went through my right leg at the height of my knee. I was left standing bleeding, for some twenty minutes. The same person then ripped my trousers and poked a stick and then his finger into the wound. When other people arrived, this officer said that I had tried to grab the gun from him and escape. I was separated from the rest of the prisoners and put in a dark room. I was not allowed to go to the toilet, having to perform my natural functions in my trousers. I was examined by a doctor, who gave me an injection and tranquillizers. I was given no other medication, though my leg was bandaged. This doctor was the forensic doctor on duty at the police clinic that day.

Throughout the 16th I was hit, especially on the wounded leg. I spent two days on the floor, unable to recall anything else because of the intense pain and my state of semi-consciousness.

Luis Alberto Urquiza was released in August 1978 for lack of evidence, remaining in Argentina until September 1979. Dr Teresita Hazurun (file No. 1127), Argentine, a lawyer by profession, was abducted at 11 a.m. on Saturday 20 November 1976. She was taken by the Chief of Police himself, making no attempt to resist, believing that she was required professionally for a detainee.

Dr Hazurun was subjected to the usual tortures (beatings and the electric prod) as well as other new procedures which she saw applied to others, such as the ’burial’ she describes in her account. She was taken to the offices of the State Intelligence Services in CaIle Belgrano, in the town of Frías, Santiago del Estero province.

On the 22nd (Monday) at 8 p.m., two people came and took her to a room behind the offices. They began punching her in the stomach and face. She was interrogated by Musa Assar (whom she recognized by his voice).

They asked her about her ex-boyfriend Hugo Libaak, what he was doing, whom he met. Unable to get any reply, they laid her down on a bed, where they applied the electric prod to various parts of her body.

When people arrived at the offices they would be taken to pits which, had been dug in the ground; they were buried there up to the neck, sometimes for four days or more, until they asked to be taken out, having decided to talk. They were kept without food or water, in the sun and rain. When they were dug out (they were buried naked) they would be infested with sores from insect and ant bites. From there they would be taken to the torture chamber (next door there was a room where the torturers lived).

Prisoners there said that the torturer was the captain of the Rural Infantry. They had an instrument of torture known as the ’telephone’ (an electric prod applied simultaneously to the ears and teeth).





Part I
The Repression

Nunca Más (Never Again) - Report of Conadep  - 1984


Sometimes the victims were not only taken to the limits of endurance, but did not even understand what they were being asked - as could happen to anyone who was totally unfamiliar with the jargon used by the torturers. Antonio Horacio Mifio Retarnozo (file No. 3721), was abducted from his workplace in Buenos Aires on 23 August 1976. It was the usual sequence of events. First they took him to Police Station No. 33. Then he tells us:

In the station, things began normally. I was first questioned about my full name, nom de guerre (I didn’t know what that was), my rank in the orga (again, I didn’t know what they were talking about) and then I was offered a passport, flight ticket and a thousand dollars to leave the country. Not knowing what they were asking me about and refusing to reply, the dialogue came to an end and ‘persuasion’ began. I was blindfolded and the beatings started.

Three or four people surrounded me and blows and kicks started raining down all over my body. When I remained firm in my refusal, they resorted to sticks and rubber truncheons. They repeated the sequence of questioning followed by blows until they lost patience and, in order to achieve better results, took me, wrapped in something thick, which could well have been a carpet, to the Federal Security Headquarters. They put me on the floor in the back of a police car. Two or three people trod on me so that I wouldn’t move.

At the headquarters I was taken straight to the parilla (grill). That is, I was tied to the metal frame of a bed, electrodes were attached to my hands and feet, and they ran an electric prod all over me, with particular savagery and intensity on the genitals.

Despite the bonds, when on the ’grill’ one jumps, twists, moves about and tries to avoid contact with the burning, cutting iron bars. The electric prod was handled like a scalpel and the ’specialist’ would be guided by a doctor who would tell him if I could take any more. After a seemingly endless session they untied me and resumed their questioning.

They would plague me with questions about the cap of the mir. I hadn’t the faintest idea what cap of the mir could be. I couldn’t understand any of their jargon. And immediately I was on the ’grill’ once again, and the questioning-electric prod-grill sessions recommenced. They would repeat the same questions, changing the order and wording to obtain answers and find contradictions.

It was only a year-later that I learned from another prisoner that cap of the mir referred to the capture of the 29th Rural Infantry Regiment, which occurred on 5 October 1975 in Formosa, a town I had lived in all that year.

The interrogation sessions later became shorter, but the electric prod was more intense, savagely seeking out the sphincters. The worst was having electrodes on the teeth - it felt as if a thunderbolt was blowing your head to pieces - and a narrow string of beads, which they put in my mouth and which were very difficult to swallow because they induced retching and vomiting, thus intensifying the ordeal, until finally they forced one to swallow them. Each bead was an electrode and when they worked it seemed like a thousand crystals were shattering, splintering inside one and moving through the body, cutting everywhere. They were so excruciating that one couldn’t even scream or groan or move. They produced convulsions which, if one hadn’t been tied down, would have forced one into a foetal position. This left one shaking for several hours with all one’s insides one huge wound and an unbearable thirst, but the fear of more convulsions was stronger, so for several days one didn’t eat or drink, in spite of their trying to force one to do so.

Every day they invented new things as collective punishment. Once it was really horrific. A person calling himself ’Lieutenant’ came and said that he was giving us military training, which wasn’t true - we were tightly blindfolded and couldn’t talk. There were nearly always guards there and they were always coming and going, bringing people in and taking them away.

They took us to what I imagine was a large room; they surrounded us and, began to hit us all over, but especially on the elbows and knees; we would crash into each other, blows were coming at us from all sides, we would trip and fall. Then, when we were completely prostrate on the floor, they started throwing ice-cold water over us and with electric prods they would force us to our feet and take us back to the place we had come from. They left us all together, shaking, wet, shivering, huddling together for warmth.

We could hear them playing cards, their voices raised to drown out the constant screams of somebody being tortured. When they finished the game they would amuse themselves by illtreating us.

When they took us from the ’lion’s cage’, to the questioning-torture room, we would have to climb three steps and go down two, or vice versa, go up two and down three, and they would make us turn round so as to disorientate us.

The night of Wednesday 1 September was transfer night for some, and with it came additional fear and insecurity, for in those days it was well known that they would kill prisoners during the transfers, inventing ’shoot outs’.

We were taken to a transit camp, for ’softening up’ before being disposed of. There the torture was such that we had no name or surname but a number. Mine was number 11 - It was like a cellar, there were fifteen of us; I recognized Puértolas’s voice by its high-pitched intonation, which still haunts me.

The punishment was brutal. On Thursday they took me for two sessions, and on Friday I received the most horrific beating I’ve ever had. There was somebody on the ’grill’; it sounded like Puértolas, although it was very difficult to recognize his voice, we were in such a sorry state. They put me on the bed on top of him and when they applied the electric prod to me, he would jump too. My feet were close to a wall and if I touched or dirtied it, or moved at all, they would beat me on the legs.

Following continuous ill-treatment and death threats, Miño Retamozo was taken to the 29th Rural Infantry Regiment.

I arrived With a star billing, since in their view I was the one who had planned the attack on the regiment.

They began to work on me early on Monday, and continued morning, noon and night. For the first few days, in between sessions, I was tied naked to a bed, with a guard beside me and without food. At night I would be taken to a corridor and thrown down alongside the other prisoners, who didn’t know what to do, wanting to move away from me through fear of being mistaken for me and taken away in my place. At night the ’female voice’ would arrive, a well-known officer of the Gendarmeria (Armed border police used in rural areas) who spoke in falsetto. The first thing he would do was to stroke one’s testicles in anticipation of the pleasure of his task.

This went on for three weeks. They suffocated me with plastic bags or by putting my head under water. They tore me apart with the ’helmet of death’ (a horrendous device full of electrodes placed over the head), which doesn’t even allow you to say no. Your body is racked with screams.

One night they amused themselves with a boy from Las Palmas (Chaco province) and myself. The soldiers were whiling away the time listening to the radio; the local team Patria and Rosario Central were playing football. Throughout the match they used the helmet on the boy, which left him crazy for about two weeks afterwards. Then it was my turn. During the interrogation sessions there was always someone who would smash the joints of one’s hands and feet with a piece of wood.

Regarding his subsequent transfer to Formosa, Miño Retarnozo, adds:

As Formosa was a town with a population of about 100,000, most of those there knew the identity of the torturers, such as Sergeant or Top Sergeant Eduardo Steinberg, Second Commander Domato, and the man known as ’Death with a female voice’, also Second Commander of the Gendarmería.

When the guards were a little more,lenient, we would ask for a bucket of water so we could wash. I nearly died the first time I had a bath. When I took off my blindfold I could hardly recognize myself. I was black with marks, as if I’d been rolling in barbed wire, covered in burns from cigarettes and the electric scalpel; I was the picture of misfortune. The ’electric scalpel’ cuts, burns and cauterizes. They hardly used it on me, compared with Velázquez Ibarra and other prisoners. I still have scars from it on my back. Electrodes or scalpel? As my back was raw, my shirt would stick to it. With the heat and dirt it had started to fester and I hadn’t noticed. My companions, who took such care of me, called a soldier from the infirmary to disinfect the wound.

One day I finally understood the reason for my misfortunes, if one can use the word in these cases. At break time, someone from the cell opposite told me that Marta Infran had talked. They had caught her and her husband. First they tortured her husband until he was completely broken, and then killed him. Then they started on her. At some stage she cracked, tried to save herself, or was driven to the edge of insanity and began to invent the most farfetched things. She sent over fifty people to prison. She said that I had planned the attack on the regiment, that I was active in the ’Montoneros’ organization and that they had offered me logistic backing.

I had met Marta Infran in 1975, when she was nineteen and working in a law court. We both attended the same course, in the first year of Forestry Technology, and we were casual acquaintances.

I was released on 6 June 1977.

In this instance, a chance acquaintance, a denunciation made in a state of delirium during the torture inflicted on Marta Infran, was enough for Miño Retamozo to suffer the ordeal described.

Equally significant is the testimony of Oscar Alberto Paillalef (file No. 6956) of General Roca (Río Negro province).

Señor Paillalef was summoned by the local police to report to the headquarters of the 6th Brigade in Neuquén. As he had a company car they let him drive home in it. He was told to return because he would have to be questioned by Major Reinhold of Intelligence. He went back on the 19th of the same month.

I was taken to a place which apparently was next door to the building I had been in. I was put on another bed there. Two people were facing me, one asked questions and the other supposedly acted as his assistant. They continued to hit me as I was being questioned, and they attached what they called ’the wires’, which was the electric prod, to me, on the inside of my arms and then under the blindfold, on my temples. After a long while I was taken back to where I’d been originally.

This treatment continued. There were guards who would hit and kick me and tighten the handcuffs until they cut my wrists, The interrogation sessions continued until the 29th, roughly every other day. Several times they played a macabre game with me: they would put the barrel of a gun to my head and pull the trigger, but it didn’t go off. At night when it was quieter I could hear lorries passing fairly close by, which led me to suppose that we were very near Highway 22 and, in my opinion, we were in the Battalion barracks.

Every time they took me for an interrogation session, in addition to questioning, I would be taken to and from that room and beaten up again. One night, threatening to finish me off, they put cigarette ash under my blindfold so that, they said, ’Your eyes will rot.’

In some cases, such as that of José Antonio Giménez (file No.3035), aged fifty-three, living in Centenario, Neuquén, arrested on 10 January 1977 outside his house, they used a slight variation:

... I was blindfolded, and had cotton wool over my eyes so that I wouldn’t see anything, which didn’t stop the blindfold from slipping at times and letting me see that some of the guards were wearing army boots. What’s more, on one occasion when they tried to get me to sign a statement - which I did not - they removed my blindfold and I saw that the person speaking to me, a young man, was dressed in military uniform and wore a gas mask which entirely covered his face.

I was subjected to torture, which consisted in being hung by the arms from a wall behind me with my legs hanging from another wall, that is, with my body suspended in the air. They had attached electrodes to my temples, under the blindfold, and applied current through those electrodes. This was carried out at another centre, built of zinc sheets and a wooden frame, like shelters found in railway stations. These sessions were repeated several times without my being able to say exactly how often, interspersed with interrogation sessions limited to ordering me to ’sing’, that is, to tell what I knew, though they did not ask me any specific questions about any event, circumstance, place or date, nor regarding any person in particular. When they finally demanded that I write in my own words a description of my actions during the period immediately before my abduction, I started to do so, but was interrupted before I could sign it, evidently because it was no use to them.

As he was having dinner on 20 January 1976, Santos Aurelio Chaparro was abducted from his house in Ingenio la Florida, Tucumán province. The kidnappers were in three cars. Some were in military uniform, others were dressed in civilian clothes. He recognized the place they took him to as the Tucumán Police Headquarters. He says they kept him in a room with other prisoners, and declares (file No. 5522):

... That on the second day of being illegally held in those conditions, two people took him to a smaller room where they stripped him and tied him to a bed known as the ’grill’. They attached wires to his head and began to torture him with electric current. They applied the electric prod all over his body, with preference for the genital and pectoral areas, and on the head, mouth, gums, etc. He was tortured for about two hours, then they took him away to another room in the same building, where a group of people subjected him to a brutal beating. This continued for several hours, until he lost consciousness. He was then taken to the room where he had first been held. This form of torture was carried out every day for twenty days, (File No. 5522.)

Señor Chaparro was taken to a ’recuperation’ camp to recover from his injuries. After twenty-five days he returned to Police Headquarters and was tortured to a lesser degree for five days. They promised to release him but cancelled the order as soon as they had signed it, This took place in the School of Physical Education on 2 4 March 1976. He goes on:

After this period he was again taken to a little room and tortured On this occasion, he was made to drink large amounts of water whilst being tortured with the electric prod. They put a bottle to his mouth, telling him they would make him drink all the water in the River Salí. He drank two bottles of water. He was repeatedly tortured with the electric prod. After this he was brutally beaten, passing out again, bathed in blood. Water was oozing out of different body orifices and they were apparently scared by his condition, since after this they tried to rehabilitate him. He remained here for about twenty days and then they transferred him to another place which he cannot identify precisely.

There he was tortured on a table with the electric prod. He was also subjected to the submarino, in a 200-litre tub. While he was in it, they banged on the sides of the tub and applied electricity.

He was told he was going to be killed. They took him out and subjected him to a brutal session of torture with the electric prod, and after this he was made to stand against a wall. An officer of the Gendarmería (whom he had seen wearing a military cap) gave him a karate kick in the back, following which he says he passed out.

He was subsequently brutally beaten, with sticks. He thinks they cracked his sternum and broke bones in his fingers. The blows caused his chains to break and he lost consciousness. He was left with permanent disabilities, such as a buzzing in the left ear, no feeling in his toes, etc.

He was then transferred to La Plata Prison, being released on probation on 23 March 1982.

We will omit the details of the arrest in Santa Fé province of Orlando Luis Stirnemann, of Río Gallegos (file No. 4337), and only mention what one of his kidnappers said. At the time of the arrest, when asked why the victim wasn’t being hooded, he replied:

’It’s not necessary and’he knows it. He’s ”got his ticket”.’

After being held for a fortnight in that detention centre, I was transferred to another one, presumably in the same army region. 

They would employ torture to interrogate prisoners, including the electric prod, for which they used a high-voltage device which, when applied, would cause the tongue to contract, so that it was impossible for the prisoner to scream. Another method was to put a cat inside the clothes of the person being interrogated, then to give it electric shocks so that it would react violently and injure the prisoner.

In the testimony of Enrique Rodríguez Larreta (file No. 2539) we find new ways of applying torture. We will include only the essential paragraphs of his statement:

The following night it was my turn to be taken to the top floor, where I was interrogated under torture, as were all the men and women there. I was stripped naked and was hung by the wrists with my arms behind me some 20 or 30 centimetres from the ground.

At the same time they put so me kind of underpants on me,  which had several electrical terminals in them. When they were connected, the victim received electric current in several places at once. This device, which they called the ’machine’, was switched on during questioning, while they hurled threats and abuse at me, hitting me in the most sensitive parts.

The ground below where the prisoners were suspended was very wet and covered in coarse salt crystals, with the aim of intensifying the torture should the person manage to rest his feet on the floor.

Several of the people held there with me slipped from their bonds and knocked themselves against the floor, getting seriously hurt. I especially remember the case of somebody whom I later knew to be Edelweiss Zahn de Andrés, who suffered deep cuts about the head and ankles which later became infected.

Antonio Cruz, Argentine, married, resident in Buenos Aires, was a member of the Gendarmería between 31 December 1972 (when he joined up, according to Confidential Bulletin 1460, paragraphs 3-6) and 31 December 1977 when he left, according to the JMM (Joint Military Message - SD5289/77).

We will transcribe the most important parts of his testimony (file No. 4676):

Here I must refer to the PAC (Prisoner Assessment Centre) known as La Escuelita. It was located in Famaillá, about two or three blocks away from the railway to San Miguel de Tucumán.

At the time of our arrival, this was the ’dogs of war’ section.

I will proceed to describe the interrogation room. This was in the last classroom in the school, and in it there was a military-type iron bed, a table and photographs of the prisoners. ... There was also a battery-operated field telephone which would generate an electric current when the handle was turned. The voltage produced depended on the speed at which it was turned. The interrogators had a rubber truncheon similar to that used by the Federal Police, with which they would beat the prisoners to ’soften them up’ as soon as they were brought in.

Cruz then refers to the fate which befell a prisoner placed in his charge:

The next day the interrogation of this person began. First he was tied down to a bed - be couldn’t be handcuffed because there weren’t any handcuffs large enough to fit his wrists. He was beaten with a rubber truncheon but, seeing that they were not getting any results, they began using the telephone wire on him, One of the wires was tied to the foot of the bed and they applied the other to the most sensitive parts of his body, and to his back and chest. As they still couldn’t make him talk they started hitting him again, until at one point the prisoner asked to go to the toilet, which request was granted. I was put in charge of guarding him personally, which terrified me. I noticed then that he was passing blood, that is, he seemed to have sustained serious internal injuries. When I handed him back to the interrogators I mentioned this, but they dismissed it. Before the torturers went off that night, they left him tied to a pillar in the open air with strict orders not to feed him and to give him only water to drink. He died hanging there in the early hours of the morning. He had been so badly beaten that he had been unable to withstand the punishment. When they came back to question him the interrogators were told what had happened, and they regretted having been unable to obtain any precise information.

Women were interrogated in the same manner. They were stripped naked, laid down on the bed, and the torture session would begin. With women, they would insert the wire in the vagina and then apply it to the breasts, which caused great pain. Many of them would menstruate in mid-torture. With them they only used the telephone, no other device.

On one occasion they brought in a wounded prisoner. One day, out of curiosity, I went up to his window, since I was alone and you could see in through the gap. As I got closer, I saw his head had been split open, and when I looked at his hands I noticed that they were full of maggots. This turned my stomach because the poor bloke was becoming infested with maggots.

With the testimony of Carlos Hugo Basso (file No. 7725), Argentine (currently in exile), we return to the now notorious La Perla and La Ribera camps. Basso was abducted on 10 November 1976 in the Alto Alberti district of the town of Córdoba. Following the usual procedure, with blows and a journey on the floor of a car under his captors’ feet, they arrived at the secret detention centre.

They opened a door which, from the noise it made, was probably metal. One of those taking me warned me that I was shortly to meet the ’Priest’, who would be in charge of ’taking my confession’. This person they called ’Priest’ must have been quite big since as soon as I went in he grabbed me by the sides and lifted me in the air ...

Afterwards they beat me with sticks and a hammer which they used to smash my fingers whenever my hands were on the floor. They undressed me and tied my hands and feet to a bed-frame they called a ’grill’. For what must have been about an hour they applied electric current to the most sensitive parts of my body: genitals, hips, knees, neck, gums. ... For the neck and gums they used a tiny instrument with several points, directly connected to the mains supply of 220 volts. I could see under my blindfold that every time a discharge was produced, the light of a small bulb over the ’grill’ dimmed. During this time I heard one of the torturers being addressed as ’Gringo’. Afterwards somebody applied a stethoscope to my chest and they untied me. I found I couldn’t walk, but they dragged me 20 or 30 metres to a mattress in a large room, against a wall, where I remained until the following day.

Teresa Celia Meschiati was abducted in the town of Córdoba on 25 September 1976 and taken to the La Perla centre (file No. 4279). She tells us:

Immediately after my arrival at La Perla I was taken to the torture room or ’intensive therapy’ room. They stripped me and tied my feet and hands with ropes to the bars of a bed, so that I was hanging from them. They attached a wire to one of the toes of my right foot. Torture was applied gradually, by means of electric prods of two different intensities: one of 125 volts which caused involuntary muscle movements and pain all over my body. They applied this to my face, eyes, mouth, arms, vagina, and anus; and another of 220 volts called la margarita (the daisy), which left deep ulcerations which I still have and which caused a violent contraction, as ” all my limbs were being torn off at once, especially in the kidneys, legs, groin and sides of the body. They also put a wet rag on my chest to increase the intensity of the shock.

I tried to kill myself by drinking the foul water in the tub which was meant for another kind of torture called submarino, but I did not succeed.

The gradually increasing intensity of the electric prod was matched by the sadism of my torturers. There were five of them, whose names were: Guillermo Barreiro, Luis Manzanelli, José López, Jorge Romero, and Fermín de los Santos.

Nélson Eduardo Dean, Uruguayan, married, abducted at 10 p.m. in the Almagro district of Buenos Aires on 13 July 1976 (file No. 7412), says in the essential parts of his testimony:

Once there, we were put in various rooms. With my wrists handcuffed behind my back, eyes blindfolded, and bleeding profusely, a new wave of blows began. After half an hour I was taken to a room on the top floor. There they stripped off all my clothes, handcuffed my wrists behind my back again and began to throw buckets of water over me. Next they put wires around my waist, thorax and ankles. They tied a rope or chain to the handcuffs and pulled my arms up as high as they could without dislocating them. I was in that position, literally hanging at a distance of about 30 centimetres from the floor, for a Period of time which is not possible to determine in hours, only in terms of pain. Because of the great suffering induced by this form of torture, one loses all track of formal time.

Later the torturers slackened the rope some 20 centimetres, enough to enable me to touch the ground with some difficulty and rest my arms a little - actually, any notion of rest was illusory, since when I tried to touch the floor and succeeded I started to receive electric shocks. It’s really very difficult to express in words all the agony these shocks produce. I think it’s only possible to offer a tragic caricture of what it was like.  Two things might prove useful as examples and give some idea; some actual physical events and some sensations. As to the physical effects, I feel there are two which will show you the extent of the torture:

(a) After torture, the soles of the feet were burnt and layers of hard skin would form, which peeled off later. Obviously the skin was burnt from the electric shocks.

(b) During the application of electricity, one would lose all control over one’s senses, such torture provoking permanent vomiting, almost constant defecation, etc.

(c) As for sensations, electricity begins to rise up the body. All the parts with wires attached to them feet as though they are being torn from the body, Thus, at first, it’s the feet which feel as though they are being torn off, then the legs, testicles, thorax, etc.

These torture sessions went on for a period of five days, increasing in Intensity. During the last few days they repeated all the above methods and, in addition, inserted wires into my anus, testicles and penis. These practices were carried out in a diabolical setting; the torturers, some drinking, others laughing, hitting and insulting, tried to extract from me the names of Uruguayans living in Argentina who opposed the current regime governing my country.

I noticed that officers of the Uruguayan Army participated directly in these interrogation and torture sessions. Some said they belonged to a group called OCOA (Anti-subversive Operation Coordinating Organization).





Part I
The Repression

Nunca Más (Never Again) - Report of Conadep  - 1984


Raúl Esteban Radonich (file No. 6956) was arrested in Neuquón  on 13 January 1977 and released in Senillosa on the 19th.  He was arrested at half-past eight in the morning at his office.  They took him on a roundabout route in order to disoriente him:

…to premises of the 16st Engineers Battalion, to a place called La Escuelita, which was actually the pick-up centre operating in the area. There I was handcuffed to the sides of a bed for a while, before being transferred to another place. They made me walk in a squatting position all the time in order to prevent me making out the various installations. once again I was handcuffed to a bedframe, this time by the hands and feet. They put two wires under the blindfold on my temples. They asked me for personal details, which were typed on to what looked like a file card. This done, a totally different interrogation session began. The first question they asked me was my rank and nom de guerre, to which I replied that I had neither. That was when I received the first discharge of electricity. Their questions centred around my participation in politics, from my role in an organization to my inclusion in student election lists.  They also asked me if I had any idea where I was.

This clearly worried them a lot since they kept on repeating it - I had done my military service in that same military unit in 1976. As I continued to reply in the negative, they increased the frequency, duration and intensity of the discharges, which were always to the head. I lost track of time, although several hours seemed to go by. in between questions and my screams they made various kinds of threats.

Blood was pouring from my mouth, as my muscles contracted during the discharges and I clenched my jaws with my tongue protruding, so that I virtually bit through it. As my condition got progressively worse, they threw a bucket of water over me to revive me, and eventually suspended the session.  They told me that it would start again in the afternoon, and that it would depend on me, and the answers I gave, whether or not they continued to torture me. The interrogation session was conducted by at least three people, and was attended by the head of the group who had arrested me. He took on the role of the ’kind-hearted’ one, suggesting I talk as it wasn’t worth sacrificing myself for the sake of others. The rest, on the other hand, used a threatening, commanding tone.

In the case of Juan Matías Bianchi (file No. 2669) there was a double simulation: of incineration and of execution:

They made him smell a liquid, asking him if he knew what it was that they were making him smell, to which he replied yes, that it was a solvent. They asked him if he had anything to say, to come out with it, because they were going to burn him, all the time rustling papers for him to hear. They also simulated execution by putting a gun to his head.

Just as they were pretending they were going to burn him alive, he heard a car draw up, someone approached him and said, ’Look, you’d better resign your position as union delegate’. After that there was silence, and then he heard the car pulling away. He stood still for a time, until be realized that there was nobody there and they had removed the handcuffs.

Daniel Osvaldo Pina (file No. 5186) also went through the terrifying experience of simulated assassination. The whole context was beyond belief. He describes it thus:

From there they took us to two other places, where they continued to torture-us and, in the second one, after torturing Arra, they took Moriña away. Koltes and I awaited our turn. Suddenly Moriña’s screams stopped, and I could hear running and voices calling for a doctor. After that, they came to fetch us and, without questioning us, they put Koltes and me in a lorry and took us somewhere else which I assumed was in the mountains. Moriña was no longer with us.

I spent two or three days in the new place. it was almost a month since my abduction, though since I was permanently blindfolded, it was difficult to be specific. On one of those days I heard people going near the place where, from noises, I had judged they were keeping Arra. I heard their boots marching, then they ordered him to ’Get up ... Walk .. .’

I heard the sound of feet dragging towards the door and two or three minutes later, four shots rang out. Then they went to where I -had guessed Koltes was, and exactly the same thing happened. When my turn came they didn’t say anything. I heard the sound of the gun as they prepared to shoot, then they fired four shots close to my head.

The next day they took me away again but this time on my own, in what I think was an ambulance from the army block. Then I was transferred to a van belonging, I think, to the Mendoza police. I was put on the floor and they kicked and spat on me as well as continually threatening to kill me, until eventually we arrived at the prison.

There are testimonies of other kinds of torture, such as being hung from a tree or beam. As an example of this ’system’ we transcribe the relevant part of the statement of one of the victims, Enrique Igor Peczak (file No. 6947).

I was arrested on 15 October 1976 by an army unit, which surrounded and raided my mother’s house, where I was living. Jorge Armando González was arrested with me. We were tied up and blindfolded, then I was suspended from a tree with my hands behind me and beaten from noon until evening. I could hear my mother’s screams as she begged them not to kill me. I could also hear them hitting González. At one stage they filled a container with water, hung him up by the feet and submerged him head first. That was repeated several times.

As one of them was beating me, he told me that if they hadn’t forgotten the electric prod I would already be talking. Then suddenly he punched my ears with both hands, causing me intense pain and a loud buzzing which lasted for several months.

In the evening they took us down and took us to what I later found to be the provincial police headquarters where they separated us and beat me again ...

... and hung me by the throat, until I passed out. I began to lose track of time and my memories became confused, so that I can’t be sure of the order of events, but I’m almost certain that they took a photo of me and then used the electric prod on me on the floor…

They took me to a house ... in one of the places they suspended me by the hands in such a way that I could only touch the floor with my toes. By then my thirst was unbearable and I shouted for a glass of water: somebody came and stuffed a gag in my mouth. Since I passed out, I can’t figure out how long I was hanging for.

Daniel Eduardo Fernández (file No. 1131) was eighteen when he was abducted. He was a secondary school student. At that age he came to know all kinds of torture: punches, kicks, death threats and what was known as submarino in both its forms, ’dry’ and ’wet’.

The idea was to leave the victim without any kind of psychological resistance, until he was at the mercy of the interrogator, and thus obtain any answer the latter wanted, however absurd. if they wanted you to reply that you had seen San Martín on horseback the previous day they succeeded. Then they would tell us we were liars, until you really felt it was true, and then they carried on with the torture ...

... They would make us stretch our hands out and hit us on the fingertips with a sort of truncheon. Afterwards we couldn’t move our hands. Others were beaten until their mouth or eyes bled.

They even went as far as putting a plastic bag over our heads and tying it tightly round the neck until we ran out of air and were about to pass out.

Another method was to tie us to a board and put a container full of water at one end. The victim’s head would be submerged in it and they wouldn’t pull him out until he let out the last bubble of air; as soon as he took a mouthful of air they submerged him again.

On 13 September 1977 I was released, blindfolded, my hair badly cut, wearing jeans and a T-shirt on a very cold day. They left me on Avenida Vélez Sarsfield, near a railway crossing.

In file No. 5604, Lidia Esther Biscarte describes her abduction and subsequent martyrdom, It shows the ingenuity the interrogators brought into play in applying new methods of torture in addition to the usual tools of their trade. She was abducted from her home (Zárate, Buenos Aires province) in the early hours of the morning of 27 March 1976. They covered her head with the sheet she had been using. She was kidnapped barefoot and in her nightdress.

She heard from the radio that she was in Zárate police station. Without asking her anything, they applied the electric prod, stripped her and applied the prod again in the anus, vagina, mouth and armpits. They threw water over her and tied her to a leather armchair. The sheet had been tied over her head. Somebody came up to her and started to twist her nipples, causing her intense pain since they had also applied the electric prod to them.

There were another two abducted men in the same room. Somebody came in and told the other character to leave her alone, ’they are going to take them for a walk’.

The deponent knows that the place she was transferred to later with the other two people was the Zárate naval base since she lived a block and a half away, and from the way the boat berthed. They could hear the shouts of the deckhand and the shock as the boat bumped against the dock.

They were taken off the boat in Zárate arsenal. Stakes were hammered in, and they were stretched out, and left all day. They were tortured with the electric prod. When evening came they were put on board a boat and handcuffed together, that is to say, the deponent’s arm was handcuffed to someone else’s.

On the boat, they hung her by the feet and gave her the submarino treatment in the river. With her were Señor Iglesias, Teresa di Martino, with whom she was subsequently in prison, Blanda Ruda, a Dr Marta and her husband, the former being brutally tortured and her husband raped by the torturers, a lad called Ferndndez who is now abroad, in Switzerland she believes, and Tito Cono or Aniconi or something similar, now free.

They spent about two days on the boat, during which time they were tortured and hung from a crane ...

They loaded them into prison vans and took them to a place she believes from the Esso factory whistle was Tolueno, in Campana. After two or three days they were put on board a raft and taken across what was probably the Tigre. The raft was steered by a soldier in green uniform. They left them on the craft on the shore of an island. Later, she was taken and put into an Army truck, with lots of other people. They were driven to a torture house, where they could hear the noise of cars and aeroplanes.

In the house they were put into an empty swimming pool with high-powered searchlights trained on them. In the pool there were hundreds of dead bodies. She was moved into the house and tortured. It was a house with a bathroom and two large bedrooms. She heard a guard saying, ’These have had it, they stay here, take them to rooms 1 and 2.’ The guards would call each other by animal names: ’Tiger’, ’Puma’, ’Viscacha’, ’Rattlesnake’.

In the testimony of Juan Matias Bianchi (file No. 2 669), resident in Campana, Buenos Aires province, we find a new sadistic variant of sexual perversion:

On 4 March 1977 at 3 a.m., four individuals claiming to be military personnel appeared at the victim’s house, with black stockings covering their faces.

At one point he was lifted up, taken along a corridor and ordered to undress. He was thrown on a bunk and told: ’Listen, I’m ”The German”.’ He could hear women and men screaming. ’The German’ tried to stick a length of pipe in his anus. He heard another voice telling the German to leave him alone, then this person said to him: ’See, I’m ”The Spaniard” and I rescued you from this fellow busting you by sticking the bar up you.’

They stretched him out naked and tied him down with leather thongs. ’The Spaniard’ told him to talk applying electric current to his ankle, burning his muscles so badly that he still bears the mark. He was also questioned by a woman. ’The Spaniard’ then applied the prod to his armpits, where he also still has scars. ’The Spaniard’ was laughing and said to the woman, ’Since you like the privates, you carry on.’

Then he felt the woman grab his penis and pour in a sort of caustic liquid, as a result of which he has had problems with micturition.

In the following extracts from testimonies, there appear amongst other tortures various forms of rape. The victims in each case will remain anonymous, 

C.G.F., Argentine, married, (file No. 7372) was abducted outside her workplace in the centre of Buenos Aires at 5 p.m., the time she usually leaves work. The usual procedure followed car without markings ... blindfolded ... ending up in an unknown place ... tied to a bed ...

…and five men proceeded to question me for about an hour, roughing me up and instultng me.  They obtained my in-laws’ address and decided to go there, leaving me alone for several hours.

When they returned from my in-laws’ house they were furious. They tied me with my arms and legs spread out, and interrogated me again with worse treatment and insults than before. They said they had taken my two-year-old son prisoner so that I would cooperate; soon afterwards they took that back.

Then they proceeded to insert what I afterwards knew to be a police truncheon into my vagina. Then they took me to another room, where they tried to force me to eat handcuffed to a table. When I refused they moved me again and they stood me in a corner while they interrogated me once more, hitting me on the head and threatening to stick the truncheon into my anus…

Within what could be called the daily routine, I remember the door of the room was locked from the outside. We were fully dressed all the time, even when we slept. In the sleeping quarters, on trips to the bathroom and to the kitchen, my eyes were uncovered. They would make some or all of us wear a blindfold ‘wall up’ - whenever members of the force other than the usual guards came in. In these cases it was routine for them to intimidate us with their guns, pushing them into our bodies, neck or head ...

On two occasions they took me blindfolded to another building, where I was made to strip against a wall. Shouting abuse they pushed me down on the metal frame of a bed and tied me with my limbs apart. Then they ’prodded’ me in the lower abdomen and vulva while questioning me. On the second occasion they told me they had AG.P. with them, who worked in the same department as me and was office representative. She had been abducted on 28 March 1977, outside the institution.

After these sessions they would  make me dress, and politely, with words of consolation, they would take me to the sleeping quarters and tell another woman prisoner to come and comfort me. This they also did when they brought one of the other woman prisoners from their sessions. I asked for medical attention, and they did give me some treatment for my palpitations ...

One day they took me blindfolded from the dormitory to a room I recognized as the place where I had been ’prodded’. They made me take off my blindfold, and I was left alone with a man who, offering me cigarettes, politely asked me to tell him everythng they had done to me.

As I described the events to him, he pointed out one I had missed, which showed that he had witnessed all the interrogation and torture sessions or, at least, that he was fully aware of them. At the same time, he tried to instill in me the idea that nothing which had happened to me there had really been that serious, nor had the blows been as heavy as I imagined. He told me they would release me and that I wasn’t to tell anybody what had happened to me during that time.

Blindfolded once again, they took me back to the dormitory. At midnight on 14 June they announced that they would let me go and gave me back some of the belongings (watch, bracelet, money) I had had with me at the time of my abduction. They took me blindfolded out of the building and put me in a car in which there was only the driver (who turned out to be the same person who had kindly tried to show me that all that had happened was trivial) and myself.

After driving over a rough, potholed terrain, he stopped the engine. He told me he had orders to kill me, guiding me with his gloved hands to touch the guns he had in the glove compartment. He offered to save my life if in exchange I would agree to  have sexual relations with him.

I agreed to his proposal, in the hope of saving my life and of having the blindfold removed ...

He started the car and after we got on to an asphalted surface he told me to remove the blindfold. He drove the car to a motel; he told me that he was taking a big risk and that if I did anything suspicious he would kill me immediately.

We entered the motel. I carried out his demands under threat of death, so I felt and consider myself to have been raped. On leaving, he drove me to my in-laws’ house.

A seventeen-year-old adolescent, then a secondary school student, refers in the following statement to the outrage to which she was subjected. AN (file No. 6532) reports that she was abducted from her home in Buenos Aires on 9 May 1978. She was taken along a motorway to a secret detention centre. They, followed the usual procedure. She goes on:

... in the early hours of the morning she was taken to another room where she was tied to a bed with wooden slats. She was surrounded by ’The Basque’, three or four other men subordinate to him, and a woman nicknamed’La Negra’.

She was stripped of her clothes, tied to the bed and interrogated with the application of the electric prod and blows to her body.

The interrogation concerned her school companions (she was attentinding the Carlos Pellegrini school), particularly M.W. and J.C.M were already being held in that detention centre and are still ’disappeared’.

She was also interrogated about two boys, L.Z. and G.D. and a young woman, M.G.; as it turned out, they were also being kept there and were afterwards released,

For a time, the duration of which was impossible to ascertain, the deponent was taken to various places in the secret centre ... 

One night a man came to her cell. He tied her up and beat her, then raped her amid threats, forbidding her to tell anybody what happened. After that he took her to a bathroom to get cleaned up. 

As a result of the above, her feverish state worsened and she became delirious, begging not to be raped. When they heard her, ’The Guaraní’ and others of higher rank, ’The Frenchman’ and ’The Basque’, appeared in her cell, questioned her and began a supposed investigation since, so they said, ’rape was forbidden’ in that place.

Once recovered, she was transferred to another ’house’.

Prior to her transfer, her handcuffs and hood were exchanged for a blindfold and her hands were tied. She was led, together with the youths C.N., S.Z. and G.D., to a car in which they set off, stonoing hortiv afterwards. They were warned not to move or a bomb would explode.

Soon afterwards, uniformed army personnel approached the car, made the four prisoners get out, untied them and transferred them to the 10th Ordnance Battalion in Villa Martelli.

She records that when the above occurred she was seventeen years old, as were her three companions. They were all students at the Carlos Pellegrini Commercial High School. In the battalion barracks they were examined by a doctor and put in adjacent cells in a ramshackle building. They were guarded by conscripts, a corporal and a sergeant. After they had been there a few days, Colonel Hernán Teetzlaff came to her cell, bringing with him a statement which she had to sign under duress. This was during her captivity in the SDC which she now recognizes as El Vesubio.

On 30 or 31 August 1978, she was transferred to Villa Devoto Prison together with her companions, to be tried by the Military Tribunal.

In October, this Tribunal declared itself incompetent to judge the case. They were passed to the civil court presided over by Dr Giletta, being released for lack of evidence on or about 30 October, first going through Federal Police Headquarters.

The testimony we present next shows the state to which M. de M. was reduced by the ordeal she suffered (file No. 2356).

Abducted in Buenos Aires she was taken for a long distance in a pick-up truck. judging by the sound of crickets and other details, they took her somewhere in the country. It was like a camp, a provisional set-up, with canvas sheeting and tents everywhere. They left her in a sort of room where she felt terrified and started to scream. Thus alerted, her captors put her into a tank full of water, Her breasts were hurting a lot, as she was breast-feeding at the time ...

Then they bound her hands and feet with wires and passed electric current through them. She began to have convulsions. They said that was the breaking in she needed in order to confess. Then they stripped and raped her.

She asked to go to the toilet. They took her naked along an open gallery full of soldiers. She remembers that they all laughed. She also recalls them taking a group of people and putting them into a helicopter: they were thrown out at the end of a rope, and each time they were raised again they were questioned.

She asked them to send her to prison. She said she would sign anything; she couldn’t stand any more because she had a ruptured stomach and her ears hurt, so much that she was continually fainting. When they took her back to the foot of the metal bed where they had apphed the electric prod to her, the would make her touch the wires, passing an electric current through when she did so, which brought on more convulsions. Current was passed through her whole body by the same wires which bound her hands and feet.

As she had those convulsions and her body writhed about, they would get more annoyed, The doctor would come and examine her, but time went by, until she lost all track of it. It was always the same, the same screams. Later they told her they’d brought her little boy, they made her listen to a recording, but she had become very obstinate, in a state of oblivion, and she didn’t care any more.

They would tell her that the recording was her son crying. As she was being given pills, apparently for the convulsions, which made her sleepy, she can’t remember everything. What she can remember is that at some stage she was given an injection, but she knew that after that the doctor would come, he was always there while she was being tortured.

She also remembers very clearly that they would parade her naked along the gallery and that she was raped several times. She doesn’t remember whether they were conscripts or police. She recalls that at the time she bled a lot and by then didn’t care if she died, nothing mattered to her any more, she no longer even cried. Sometimes she felt that they were rewarding her by giving her cigarettes, later on even that was stopped. Afterwards she was put in with a girl who told her her name and surname, but she doesn’t remember them, she can’t recall anything.

One day she was summoned to make a statement; they sat her at a desk and took a written statement from her, asking the names of her parents, brothers and sisters, what they did, where they were born, etc.

She couldn’t see properly when they were taking her statement because, having been blindfolded for so long, the light bothered her eyes. She knows they made her sign three or four documents; they took off her blindfold to sign but told her not to look up. That night they put a lot of people into a lorry, which was continually stopping and dropping people off. She thought then that they were being killed, she had no idea what was going on. She knows she was last, but didn’t want to get down because she thought they were going to kill her, so a man with swarthy features and wearing what looked like a brown leather jacket said to her, ’Get down or I’ll kill you.’ She was convinced he was about to do so, and managed to tug her blindfold off. When she saw his face, she became even more frightened. He got her down from the lorry and, putting his gun to her head, said, ’Don’t turn round.’ It was then that she thought she had died. She remained still for quite a while, so long that she didn’t even notice the man had gone, she was in a state of shock, she thought she had died ...

Before her parents died, her husband came out of prison. He had also been tortured, but they never talked about it, she in particular never told everything that had happened, as she felt embarrassed about it. He gradually got to know about it because she would become delirious and was scared of going to see a psychiatrist. Now though, she has begun treatment and is prepared to cooperate, should her testimony be of any use.

Of a similar nature because of the sadism displayed is the testimony of Mirtha Gladys Rosales (file No. 7186). It transpires that she was arrested on 10 March 1976 at her workplace in the General Office of Penal Institutions. She was taken to the Federal Police station:

When I arrived at the station I found my father, a lad called Mamondez and his sister, and a youth, Ramos, who, like my father, was from Quines; the Mamondez were from Candelaria. Later I learnt that they had all been savagely beaten up in Quines and subsequently at the station as well. just then an officer called Borsalino appeared and, dragging me by the hair and kicking me, took me to the back of the building and beat me up in the kitchen, telling me, ’You’re the one to blame for my having beat the shit out of those wretches.’ After that he took me to the Chief Inspector’s office: the Chief Inspector, Deputy-Chief Inspector Cerisola, Lieutenant-Colonel Lualdi, Inspector Visconti of the Provincial Police and Borsalino were present. They blindfolded me and, with insults and death threats, gave me electric shocks while I was handcuffed to a chair, all the time interrogating me about my-political activities.

After this session I was beaten up on several occasions, as they kept me at the station for almost four months, It was always Borsalino who did it, in the presence of Inspector de Maria.

In mid-June I was transferred to the Women’s Prison, where I stayed until 9 September, when I was taken away by Intelligence personnel from the Provincial Police and brought to Police Headquarters.

After a while they got everybody out and the Assistant Chief of Police, Captain Pla, appeared with the Head of Intelligence, Inspector Becerra. The two of them started to interrogate me in between punches and kicks. Soon Captain Pla said to me that he’d ’try another kind of treatment since I don’t want to talk’ and they took me to a police station on Calle justo Durant, a block away from Avenida España. They took me in through a car entrance on the right and Becerra put me into a room where Domingo Ildegardo Chacón was tied up, obviously having been tortured. Later on, I saw Raúl Lima who was being beaten up, and Domingo Silva and a Señor Moyano, from Candelaria. Later they took me into the back, where I saw Hugo Velázquez, a driver, Rubén Lucero, and a policeman by the name of Olguin, who subsequently committed suicide, during a trial in the provincial courts. There I was savagely beaten up for about an hour. This was done completely sadistically and cruelly, since they weren’t even questioning me; they would only roar with laughter and insult me. After that I was taken back to the headquarters and left in the office, with Captain Rossi and a Lieutenant Marcelo Eduardo González. As he left, Officer Lucero, who had brought me along, said to them, ’She’s already been softened up.’ Punishment began once again, this time carried out by Rossi and González, who started to hit and insult me, each putting their gun to my temple and, cocking it, asking me ’who had the weapons’, pressing me to sign some statements which had already been drawn up. Meanwhile Pla, Becerra, Velázquez and Luis Mario Calderón, another officer, turned up, and one of the worst torture sessions I had to bear began. I was put in the middle of them and they started to hit me all over, putting my hair, giving me the ’telephone’, which meant clapping both hands over my ears at once, maltreating me, twisting my breasts and other such atrocities. By the time they had finished with me or had had enough, I was disfigured from the blows. That night they gave me some ice to reduce the swelling on my face and neck in order to be able to return me to prison, which they only did two days later ...

On 12 or 13 November they again fetched me and brought me to Intelligence where I was beaten up again, with Franco, Pla, Becerra, Chavero, Ricarte, Luis Alberto Orozco and another individual called Benitez taking part in the punishment. They all beat me up, they gave me the ’telephone’ and kicked me. At one point Ricarte showed me a photo saying. ’Tell us what you know, otherwise you’ll end up like Ledesma, look what happened to him.’ In the photograph Ledesma was sort of lying face-down on a table or on the floor, with his chin up so that his face could be seen, arms spread out in a cross and blood pouring from his mouth; he appeared to be dead.

They took me somewhere we had to cross railway lines and a barrier to get to. There were some steps at the entrance to the building or enclosure where they tortured me. They tied me up and laid me down on something made of metal, they hit me and put me head-flrst in a container of water until I was drowning. Soon I began to bleed (I was having my period), so they took me back to Intelligence. The same men who had beaten me up hours before at Headquarters were present at that session. In the early hours of the morning they decided to send me to prison, which they did mid-morning. When I arrived, as I was in such a pitiful condition, disfigured by bruises and swelling, and my old work colleagues had seen me, there was an argument between those who were taking me (Inspector Juan Carlos Pérez, Carlos Garro and Rubén Lucero, the driver) and prison staff.






Part I
The Repression

Nunca Más (Never Again) - Report of Conadep  - 1984


D. Secret Detention Centres (SDCs)

General considerations

The policy of the disappearance of persons could not have been carried out without the detention centres. There were about 340 of them throughout the country. Thousands of men and women illegally deprived of their freedom passed through them, often being kept in detention for years, sometimes never returning. This was where they lived through their ’disappearance’; this was where they were when the authorities would reply in the negative to requests for information in the habeas corpus appeals. There they spent their days at the mercy of others, with minds twisted by the practice of torture and extermination, while the military authorities (who frequently visited these centres) would respond to national and international public opinion by asserting that the disappeared were abroad, or that they had been victims of feuding amongst themselves. (Statements of this nature are included in the answers given by the de facto government to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of the OAS - see ’Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Argentina’, 1980.)  

The characteristics of these centres, and the daily life led there, reveal that they had been specifically conceived for the subjection of victims to a meticulous and deliberate stripping of all human attributes, rather than for their simple physical elimination.  

To be admitted to one of these centres meant to cease to exist. In order to achieve this end, attempts were made to break down the captives’ identity; their spatio-temporal points of reference were disrupted, and their minds and bodies tortured beyond imagination.  

These centres were only secret as far as the public and the relatives and people close to the victims were concerned, inasmuch as the authorities systematically refused to give any information on the fate of the abducted persons to judicial appeals and national and international human rights organizations. It goes without saying that their existence and operation were only possible with the use of the State’s financial and human resources, and that, from the highest military authorities down to each and every member of the Security Forces who formed part of this repressive structure, these centres were their fundamental basis of operation.  

The reality was continually denied, the military government also making use of the total control it exercised over the media, to confuse and misinform the public. It would subsequently be seen during the hostilities of the war in the South Atlantic, to what extent covering up the truth and misinformation were essential to the most important acts of the military governments between 1976 and 1983.  

I categorically deny that there exist in Argentina any concentration camps or prisoners being held in military establishments beyond the time absolutely necessary for the investigation of a person captured in an operation before they are transferred to a penal establishment. (Jorge Rafael Videla, 22 December 1977, Gente magazine.)  

There are no political prisoners in Argentina, except for a few persons who may have been detained under government emergency legislation and who are really being detained because of their political activity. There are no prisoners being held merely for being political, or because they do not share the ideas held by the Government. (Roberto Viola, 7 September 1978.)  

From the highest levels of the military government they attempted to present to the world a situation of maximum legality. Disregarding all limits - even the exceptional de facto legislation - the dictatorship kept up a secret, parallel structure. At first categorically denied, later - faced with a mass of evidence resulting from accusations made by relatives and the testimonies of prisoners who were released - they had to admit the existence of this structure, though with false explanations.

La Perla, did it exist? Yes. It was a meeting place for prisoners, not a secret prison ... the subversives were there but in the protection of each other’s company ... (Luciano Benjamín Menéndez, 15 March 1984, Gente magazine.)  

A substantial number of reports and testimonies received by this Commission corroborate the presence of high-ranking military officials in the detention centres. Martha Alvarez de Repetto (file, No. 7055) states:  

I was arrested in my house in the town of Corrientes, and taken to offices of the Federal Police in that town. There I was hooded and tortured, and later transferred to the officers’ mess of the 9th Infantry Regiment, where they set up simulated executions and also tortured people. One of the visitors I saw myself and was even interrogated by was the then Commander of the 7th Brigade, General Cristino Nicolaides. Another of the visitors was the then Commander of the 2nd Army Corps, General Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri, who was there in mid-November 1976.  

The prisons were crammed with political prisoners, whom the authorities tried to present as common criminals, avoiding any recognition that ideological persecution was reaching levels unheard of in our country before. This legal structure, however, was intimately connected to the other one, of darkness and death, where thousands of disappeared suffered without the slightest chance of protection.  

Thus, after lengthy periods in secret detention, many of those released would find their abduction made official by their transfer to public prisons or to police stations.  

Guillermo Horacio Dascal (file No. 6533) states:  

In the early hours of 11 May 1978 I was awakened in my bedroom by two or three men shouting orders. They carried rifles and wore civilian clothes. They ordered me to get dressed and then put a pillow-case over my head, like a hood, leading me out to a car and putting me in the boot. This car took a route which I cannot work out and, after passing through a gate or some place where they had to identify themselves, we came to a halt and I was taken out. I remember that there were more people in the same place, about six in my situation. After some time, which I can’t specify, I was led to a room where there was a table or bunk on which I was beaten up by two or three men who questioned me for the names of other ex-students of the Carlos Pellegrini School. I was held in this ’house’, which I now recognize as the one known as El Vesubio on the Ricchieri motorway, for about forty days. Then with other prisoners I was called out by name and we were separated into groups of four. Our captors told us that until then we had been held at the disposal of the self-styled ’CALA’ (liberators of America Anti-subversive Commando) and that we were now to be handed over as prisoners to Army authorities. My group were put into the back seat of a car which was driven for about thirty minutes, after which I heard the kidnappers stop a taxi and put the four of us in it, after roughly forcing the driver to get out, We went a short distance in this second car and then were left inside it, a few metres from the 10th Ordnance Battalion in Villa  Martelli. Our captors threatened that if we tried to escape they would detonate a bomb they had placed in the car. A few minutes later I heard one of the doors being opened by a man who removed our blindfolds. I could then see that he was wearing green military uniform. He took us into the Battalion. There we were put in cells, the men separate from the women. In the Battalion we had to sign a ratification of the statement that we had signed under duress at the secret detention centre. According to the evidence (of the second copy) issued by the Military Tribunal 1/1, my entry into the 10th Ordnance Battalion was on 19 June 1978. I remained there until 31 August 1978, when we four prisoners were transferred to Villa Devoto Prison at the disposal of the same Tribunal until 3 October 1978, when my case was dropped. I was released on 5 October 1978. Despite being at the disposal of the Military Tribunal 1/1 since 19 June 1978, my family only learned of my arrest on 1 September 1978.  

By the same token, prisoners in official penal establishments were abducted, and many of them are still to this day ’disappeared’.

Others were returned to the prisons after months in the secret centres.  

Afterwards I was transferred to the place known as Puesto Vasco ... From there I went on, in September I think, to the Arana outpost ... In Arana I saw Camps and Inspector Miguel Etchecolatz, who often went there. In December 1977 I was transferred again to Unit 9, La Plata Prison, from where I was released on 24 July 1978.  

The places mentioned in the preceding testimony by Dr Juan Amadeo Gramano (file No. 3944) after his transfer from La Plata Prison, operated as secret centres. He was held in them for seven months before being returned to the official establishment.  

Although the adaptation of premises to house prisoners in secret was intensified from the time of the coup d’éat in 1976, this Commission has records which show that already in 1975 there were centres of this kind operating in the 3rd Army Corps region, in Tucumán and Santiago del Estero, which functioned as pilot centres during the ’Independencia’ operation.





Part I
The Repression

Nunca Más (Never Again) - Report of Conadep  - 1984


Location of the Secret Detention Centres


In some cases they were premises which alreadv functioned as detention centres. In others, they were civilian buildings, police offices, and even the Armed Forces’ own establishments, adapted for use as SDCs. All these were handed over to the corresponding regional military authority.

Examples include military premises such as the Navy Mechanics School in Buenos Aires; La Perla in Córdoba; the Mendoza Military School and Campo de Mayo.

Those which were used most often as concentration camps were police stations and posts. This was the case with the 1st Army Corps, given that - in spite of the existence of testimonies showing that some disappeared persons passed through there - between 1976 and 1979 they kept the majority of their prisoners in buildings controlled by the Federal and Buenos Aires Province Police. We are referring to COT I Martínez, Puesto Vasco, Pozo de Minfield, Pozo de Quilmes, La Plata detective squad headquarters, Arana, Atlético, Banco, Olimpo, Monte Pelone, El Vesubio or Automotores Orletti, all within their area of operation. Amongst the exceptions to this general rule we can include that of Señor Federico Vogelius, Argentine, entrepreneur and landowner, who was kidnapped in September 1977, and was kept in the 1st Army Corps headquarters. He was released after spending twenty-five months in captivity in various SDCs and having been sentenced by a Military Court.

In the case of premises used for the incarceration of common criminals before the sudden influx of people brought in by the gangs, the conditions of imprisonment worsened, turning those places into sheer hell. Adriana Calvo de Laborde (file No. 2531) states:

We slept in the cells in groups of two, three or four, according to how many of us there were, on the concrete floor, without any kind of covering. In Police Station No. 5 of La Plata the doors were kept padlocked, each cell measured approximately 2 metres by 1.5. Later I was transferred to the Pozo de Bánfield ...

There, the conditions of imprisonment were no better; on the contrary, the regime was much harsher than in the police station. We were only let out to eat once every two days. There were three or more women in each cell and the lavatory consisted of a bottle of bleach with the top cut off.





Part I
The Repression

Nunca Más (Never Again) - Report of Conadep  - 1984


Living conditions in the Detention Centres


’Disappearance’ began with admission to these centres and the suppression of all links with the outside world, hence the name of pozos (’pits’) used to designate many of the centres in the jargon adopted by the repressive forces. It was not just a case of deprivation of freedom which was not officially acknowledged, but a sinister form of captivity, which pushed daily existence to the limits of cruelty and madness.





Part I
The Repression

Nunca Más (Never Again) - Report of Conadep  - 1984


'Walling Up'


The abducted person would arrive hooded - ’walled up’ - and would remain so throughout his stay. The purpose of this was to make him lose his spatial awareness, thus depriving him not only of the world outside the pozo, but also of everything immediately beyond his own body.

The victim might be assaulted at any time without the slightest chance of defending himself. He had to learn a new code of signals, sounds and smells in order to guess whether he was in danger or if the situation had eased. That was one of the heaviest burdens to endure, according to a number of testimonies received.

The psychological torture of the ’hood’ was as bad or worse than the physical, although the two cannot be compared since whereas the latter attempts to reach the limits of pain, the hood causes despair, anxiety and madness ...

With the hood on, I became fully aware of my complete lack of contact with the outside world. There was nothing to protect you, you were completely alone. That feeling of vulnerability, isolation and fear is very difficult to describe. The mere inability to see gradually undermines your morale, diminishing your resistance ...

The ’hood’ became unbearable, so much so that one Wednesday, transfer day, I shouted for them to have me transferred: ’Me ... me ... 571’. The hood had achieved its aim, I was no longer Lisandro Raúl Cubas, I was a number. (File No. 6974)

To be ’transferred’ was considered synonymous with death. No less horrifying are the recollections of Liliana Callizo, who in page 8 of her testimony (file No. 4413), states:

It’s very difficult to tell of the terror of the minutes, hours, days, months, years spent there ...

At first the prisoner has no idea what his surroundings were like. Some of us imagined it to be round; others, as a kind of football stadium, with the guards circling over our heads.

We didn’t know which way up we were, which way our heads and feet were pointing. I remember grabbing hold of the mattress with all my strength, so that I wouldn’t fall, although I knew that it was on the floor.

We would hear noises, footsteps, the sound of guns, and when they opened the grille we would prepare to face our execution. Military boots continued to circle around us.

Reconstruction of the SDCs was based on hundreds of testimonies given by released people who had spent differing lengths of time as disappeared prisoners. The astonishing similarity between plans sketched by the deponents in their files and the definitive ones produced under the direction of architects and technical teams who took part in the inspections and surveys carried out by the Commission can be explained by the necessary sharpening of the other senses and by a whole set of patterns meticulously stored in the memory, as a means of clinging to reality and life. The change of guard, the noise of planes and trains, and usual torturing times were an essential part of these ’patterns’.

As to space, corporeal’ memory was a determining factor: how many steps they had to take before turning to go to the toilet; the sound, the speed and the turnings taken by the car they were being driven in when entering or leaving the SDCs, etc. In some cases the abductors, who were aware of these techniques, managed to disturb and even totally confuse memory by means of various tricks. Sometimes they would take unnecessary turnings in the car, The technique of taking the prisoners hooded to the toilet, in single file and constantly hitting them, made identification of the place very difficult. The same happened with the constant disruption of sleep patterns. Nevertheless, many of the prisoners still managed to piece together the jigsaw, in some cases from ordinary sounds such as the dripping of a water tank, the cleaning of a cesspit, the murmur of people eating, birdsong, or boats banging against a pier.

On many of the Inspections of the SDCs carried out by the Commission, witnesses would put on a scarf or bandage, or simply shut their eyes tight, in order to relive that time of terror and be able to remember the ordeal in detail. ’Walling up’ tended to cause damage to the eyes, says Enrique Núñez (file No. 4846):

…They put a dirty blindfold on me, very tightly, which pressed on my eyes and cut my circulation. It seriously damaged my eyesight, leaving me blind for more than thirty days after I was released from the Guerrero Centre, Jujuy ...

The commonest physical damage this form of torture produced was conjunctivitis. Another, less common, was the infestation of the conjunctiva by maggots. The deponent of file No. 2819 states:

In Campo de Mayo, where I was taken on 28 April 1977, the treatment consisted of keeping the prisoner hooded throughout his stay, sitting, without talking or moving, in large rooms which had previously been used as stables. Perhaps this phrase does not express clearly enough what that actually meant, because you might think that when I say, ‘sitting, hooded, all the time’, it is justa figure of speech. But that is not the case: we prisoners were made to sit on the floor with nothing to lean against from the moment we got up at six in the morning until eight in the evening when we went to bed. We spent fourteen hours a day in that position.  And when I say ‘without talking or moving’, I mean exactly that. We couldn’t utter a word, or even turn our heads. On one occasion, a companion  ceased to be included on the interrogators’ list and was forgotten.  Six months went by, and they only realized what had happened because one of the guards thought it strange that the prisoner was never wanted for anything and was always in the same condition, without being ’transferred’. He told the interrogators, who decided to ’transfer’ him that week, as he was no longer of any interest to them. This man had been sitting there, hooded, without speaking or moving, for six months, awaiting death. We would sit like this, padlocked to a chain which could be either individual or collective. The individual type was a kind of shackle put on the feet; the collective type consisted of one chain about 30 metres long, long enough to be attached at either end to opposite walls in the block. Prisoners were chained to it every metre and a half, as circumstances required, so that they were all linked together, This system was permanent.

Another example is provided by the testimony of Enrique Corteletti (file No. 3523), who was kept in the Navy Mechanics School after his abduction on 22 November 1976:

They put  a sort of shackle on my ankles and I was handcuffed the whole time. When they took me to the second floor, after being put through the ’machine’ for a while, I could see that there were many people there. They put me between two not very high partitions. They laid me down on a kind of mattress. Because I was shackled, my right foot became infected, so they changed the shackle for another round my left foot, attached at the other end to a cannon ball ... and thousands more..... and more....











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