ENERGY ENHANCEMENT STUDENT REPORTS

THE SECRETS KNOWN ONLY TO THE INNER ELITES – THE LUCIFERIAN OLIGARCHIES HISTORY FROM THE TIME OF BABYLON AND THEIR POLICIES AND TECHNIQUES TO ENSLAVE THE WORLD

"An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile—hoping it will eat him last" - Churchill

"Those who ignore history are bound to repeat it" - Santayana

Through eight millennia of recorded history to date, from well before the time of Babylon and its Luciferian Oligarchic Elite of Luciferian Magicians who through meditation have the ability to live outside the body and pass from body to body, lifetime after lifetime through the Vampirism of the Psychic Energy of their cattle - normal unmeditative humanity - THE HUMAN HERD.

The Luciferian Magicians are those people who learned meditation over the past 200,000 years, learned how to make and control Energy Blockages - (make pacts with Demons) in order to vampirise Humanity, learned how to cut off their hearts, learned how to cut off from God, learned how to burn Negative Karmic Mass in the Center of the Earth - VITRIOL IN ORDER TO GET EVEN MORE ENERGY, and learned how to leave the body and exist in their own private universes in the chakras above the head and more importantly, how to descend and take over another body in order to gain even more energy on this planet.

In order to do this humanity must be kept, "barefoot and back on the reservation"

Through the Luciferian Oligarchic Bankster Policies of..

1.  Poverty through high taxes and usurious debt. Usurious Banking created in Babylonian times created Monetarism, Adam Smith, Leverage, 2000 Trillions of Dollars of false Derivatives based on thin air are all Luciferian Oligarchic created Economics to create austerity poverty and take over the World. Rather a credit system to build up the World proposed by Hamilton, Lincoln and Kennedy where the Government nationalises the Private Central banks currently in Rothschild hands and orders the creation of tranches of one trillion dollars of credit. Instead of spending this on bailing out the Zombie Banks and fuelling more imaginary derivative leveraged debt, instead we make these already bankrupt casino economy private banks actually bankrupt and through national banks we give real credit for real things of the real physical economy at 0% over 100 years to create real infrastructure and high paying technical jobs. Upgrade the Roads and Canal network. Invest in many water projects already proposed in California and Africa to irrigate the deserts. Write off all educational debt and Invest in free education for the future of humanity so that we can have the scientists  engineers to do all these necessary high paying jobs as in FDRs New Deal. Invest in a World Maglev high speed trains network. Invest in Nuclear Power Generation one hundred generators in the first tranche. Invest 100 Billions per year in Fusion and Matter/Antimatter reactions instead of the current 5 billions per year. Historically, countries using this credit system have grown 10% per year per year.. Real richness and the evolution of humanity

UW fusion reactor HIT-SI3 Working Prototype clean power concept is cheaper than coal

2. Low level science through dumming down and perverting education, encyclopedias and promoting reductionistic induction rather than hypothesis and intuition.

3. Low Level Energy - Richness is needed to create time necessary to evolve. Richness comes through the use of higher levels of flux density from Prometheus fighting the Luciferian Oligarchic Zeus to give the fire which can give infinite energy to humanity we have wood, coal, oil, nuclear fission through fourth generation nuclear reactors can give infinite free energy to humanity, fusion is almost here through to matter/antimatter generators in the future.

4. The Big Lie - Global Warming, Climate Change to promote excessive austerity taxes of Carbon Dioxide on poverty stricken humanity

5. Low level education see Charlotte Iserbyt

Charlotte Thomson Iserbyt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte_Thomson_Iserbyt - View by Ixquick Proxy - Highlight

Charlotte Thomson Iserbyt is an American whistleblower and freelance writer who served as the Senior Policy Advisor in the Office of Educational Research and ...

Charlotte Iserbyt: The Miseducation of America Part 1-Full - YouTube

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27 May 2011 ... Charlotte Thompson Iserbyt served as the head of policy at the Department of Education during the first administration of Ronald Reagan.

Charlotte Iserbyt - Deliberate Dumbing Down of the World - YouTube

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14 Oct 2006 ... Charlotte Iserbyt served as Senior Policy Advisor in the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), U.S. Department of Education ...

the deliberate dumbing down of america

www.deliberatedumbingdown.com - View by Ixquick Proxy - Highlight

Charlotte Thomson Iserbyt, former Senior Policy Advisor in the U.S. Department of Education, blew the whistle on government activities. Her inside knowledge ...

6. Pollution of Air to create ill health through fuctory outputs and the use of incinerators.

6a. Pollution of food to create ill health through Pesticides, xeno-oestrogens, which increase fatness, reduce male energy create diabetes and cancer and Frankenstein genetically modified MonSatan food cut with insect and fish genes .. which kills all rats three months after they start eating it and sterility in all humanity after three generations.

6b. Pollution of water with aluminium to create Alzheimer's disease, pesticides like Monsatan Roundup, and fluoride to create cancer, Low IQ and rheumatism. 

6c. Ill Health, the Death of a thousand cuts, prevents evolution and thus dissent, dumbs down the mind, maximises vampirisation of energy, and maximises Luciferian Oligarchy owned hospital and pharmaceutical profits - After armaments and oil, the non cure of cancer is the worlds most profitable industry.

7. Disinformation through trained agents - limited hangouts where real information is given which leads in the wanted direction and away from more important truths - in the manner of Venetien Secret Agent Paolo Sarpi - because all the truth (the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth) is not given instead, "parsimonious with the truth", as in Wikileaks causing trouble only to countries which are targeted for destabilisation.

8. Sovereign Country destabilisation through the creation of terrorist groups like the Muslim Brotherhood and Al-CIA-da and War through false flag attacks like the Lusitania WW1, Pearl Harbour WW2, Gulf of Tonkin Vietnam, 9-11 Iraq, Afganistan. Colour Revolution through the leading of discontent in the direction wanted with trained operatives in charge of discontented groups as in the French Revolution, Serbia, Ukraine, Egypt, Tunisia and the Spanish Indignados and the Worldwide Wall Street demonstrations.

An example of destabilisation is when China made Opium illegal, immediately the price of Opium - sold legally in USA , Europe and Africa together with cocaine - shot up by up to 200 times. With this profit the Sea Captain Families - the Lords of England - members of the British and Dutch East India Companies controlled by Venice, were able to corrupt and take over the Triads and the police forces and the politicians of every Chinese city over a period of 50 years - thus taking over China.

This same process has been taking place in the USA and Europe and Worldwide since the 1960's. In the same way that Prohibition of Alcohol started the process of Corruption, all it takes is a little political power to make drugs illegal and then to advertise them, promote Rock Groups who take drugs, publish Carlos Castenada, Timothy Leary and Aldous Huxley, brother of Eugenocidalist Head of the United Nations, Sir Julian Huxley and head of the movement of drugs into the USA in order to make enormous profits, and prepare for a World takeover by the United Nations and the Luciferian Oligarchs behind that organisation.

8a. Fighting Physically is not the way which may encourage those of faint heart who do not like direct confrontation. Indeed if you are not ready then fighting and revolution always result in Chaos to the benefit of the elite, because the elite are behind all revolutions. For example, Lord Urquhart was MI6 British Ambassador to Constantinople for many years. When he returned to Britain he controlled Engels who was Karl Marx's handler. Karl Marx was given an office at the British Library for the time he was writing "Das Kapital"  used to fulminate revolutions which took over Russia, murdered their  Royal Family and instituted their genocidal, eugenocidal puppets Lenin and Stalin who poisoned Lenin to create even more evil, Stalin who murdered 65 millions of people. Marx propaganda destabilised many countries and took them over at the behest of the Luciferian Oligarchic Elite which are the immortal families which have rules this World through the, "Luciferian Oligarchic Principle of Poverty" or Austerity and "Bombing them back into the Stone Age" - the destruction of the wealth of infrastructure through bombing - for thousands of years, since Babylonian times.

9. Through control over satanic mythologies which we will go into later in this missive and unreal imaginary myths like leveraged fiat money and imaginary derivatives - for example the gross world product is 70 trillions of dollars per year, leverage through hypothecation and re - hypothecation only available in the City of London, has allowed the creation of 1500 Trillions of derivatives which can then be used to manipulate the market and allow bankster financial warfare which can destabilise any sovereign state or create at will a worldwide depression - through its Usurious Banksters centered around the Mediterranean - for example currently Greece, Ireland,  Spain, Italy, France to destabilise the Euro and boost the dollar and the bank bankruptcy solution from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Iceland. There is not enough money to bail out the World. The only solution, apart from austerity leading to a new Dark Age designed to stifle human ingenuity is that of wiping out the imaginary derivatives using the Tobin Financial Transactions Tax or Glass-Steagal through ordered bankruptcy of the already bankrupt zombie banks.   

9. Through control over satanic mythologies which we will go into later in this missive and unreal imaginary myths like the Green Myth which truly aims at creating austerity, - a low level, low science, feudal world through scrimping and saving (The sharing of "Sharkey" from the Lord of the Rings) instead of producing a Pollutionless Plenty. The Green Myth of Carbon Dioxide - 0.036% of the atmosphere being responsible for global warming instead of the Sun being responsible for warming the earth due to a variable output caused by sunspot activity. Carbongate - the release of their emails proved that scientists in a British University were falsifying their evidence for Global Warming and this stopped the Copenhagen consensus leading to carbon taxes and more austerity, scrimping, saving, poverty. Peak Oil is another created myth, there is plenty of coal and oil and natural gas in the ground for the next 200 years, yet oil is not so flux dense as fission and fusion clean electricity to run pollutionless lithium ion powered cars and maglev trains as seen in China which is investing in 80 gigawatts of nuclear electricity generation over the next 15 years including one trial Fourth Generation reactor whose design comes from Russia.

10. The Pagan Satanic Gaia Myth, the myth of Venetian Agent Giammoto Ortes Carrying Capacity leading to plagiarist Malthus necessity for Zero Growth and the Hitlerian Eugenics of Julian Huxley and the Tax free Ford and like Foundations now called transhumanism in order to reduce the human population. The Myth that, "There are too many people, you know" This Myth leads directly to Genocide. This reduction in population is not necessary. Ortes said the earth could only feed one billion people, yet science has allowed this earth to comfortably feed 7 billions of people. Advanced Science, new irrigation projects and higher level of evolution vegetarianism can allow a "be fruitful and multiply" 50 billions and population for this planet.

11. The Satanic Economy Myths - lies - of Lord Shelburne sponsored Adam Smith promoting a lack of cooperation - "Private Vices Public Benefit" and his invisible hand which so, "Goosed the world" in the latest crash has been countered by the truth  that cooperation leads to more profits which has been mathematically proven by, "Beautiful Mind" Nobel Prize Winner John Nash - poisoned by the drug LSD to discredit him - for which proof he received the Nobel Prize!!

12. The takeover of all organisations by Dynastic families and Luciferian Oligarchic elites  through infiltration by Satanism. THE CREATION OF SATANIC CONTROLLING CLIQUES WITHIN Politics, Banking, Burocracies, Think Tanks, Intelligence Agencies like the CIA  and MI6, Masonry, Mormonism, Jehovas Witnesses etc. The takeover of Satanism is just another created Myth in  order to make all the previous above happen. The real Luciferian Magicians offer proof of immortality to the Elite Families for help in their oppression of the World, but they rarely deliver, instead they make Golem Slaves of their victims.

Satanism is defined by Ritual Sexual, Homosexual, Pedophilia, Human Sacrifice, Castration Rituals

13 The Creation of Fake Gangs (General Frank Kitson) of Psychopaths to create the managers of their world - CONSCIOUSLY CREATED FAKE GANGS - FIERCE HOMOSEXUAL WARRIORS, ISIS, PROTESTANTS, CATHOLICS, TORAH, SATANISM, LUCIFERIANISM, 33RD DEGREE FREEMASONRY, CAPITALISTS, MARXISTS, COMMUNISTS, SOCIALISTS, SABBATEAN FRANKISTS, EUGENICISTS, SOCIAL DARWINISTS, ECONOMISTS..

THESE RITUALS DEFINE SATANISM.. RITUAL SEX, RITUAL HOMOSEXUALITY, RITUAL PEDERASTY, RITUAL DRUGS, RITUAL HUMAN SACRIFICE, RITUAL CANNIBALISM, RITUAL CASTRATION

Satanism, Black Magic, Ordo Templi Orientis OTO, Aleister Crowley, Luciferianism, Wicca

Luciferian Satanic Illuminati Kabbalist Sabbatean Frankists - CULT OF THE ALL SEEING EYE

CONSCIOUSLY CREATED FAKE GANGS - FIERCE HOMOSEXUAL WARRIORS, ISIS, PROTESTANTS, CATHOLICS, SATANISM, LUCIFERIANISM, 33RD DEGREE FREEMASONRY, CAPITALISTS, MARXISTS, COMMUNISTS, SOCIALISTS, SABBATEAN FRANKISTS, EUGENICISTS, SOCIAL DARWINISTS, ECONOMISTS..

 

From Banking, Slave Trading, Drug Running Babylon

From Banking, Slave Trading, Drug Running Babylon to the Banking, Slave Trading, Drug Running Roman Empire to Banking, Slave Trading, Drug Running Venice and thence to Banking, Slave Trading, Drug Running City of London, the civilized world has been run by two, bitterly opposed elites, the good one associated with the faction of Socrates and Plato, the other with the faction of Satanic Babylon and their James Bond Superagent Aristotle, "The Poisoner" of Alexander the Great.

Although Intellectual Knowledge of this war through thousands of years can be instructive, its true purpose is to persuade you that knowledge is of no use in preventing this history and future history. Truly only meditation can show you the way out, and promote the true evolution of humanity. Luciferians are Master Meditators but use Meditation to create energy blockages which make them less than human, cutting themselves off from the energy of the Heart, cutting themselves off from the conscience of the Soul, the Chakras above the Head, from God himself. Luciferians whilst damning meditation through faint praise and dumming down all the methods of meditation so they become, "Designed to Fail" - In the end only the  Highest Meditation - Energy Enhancement - which speeds up the process of evolution can help you escape the Flesh trap, the endless wheel of life and death and reincarnation, the attainment of true Socratic, "Reason".

During these thousands of years, until the developments of approximately 1784-1818 in Europe, both factions' inner elites maintained in some fashion an unbroken continuity of organization and knowledge through all of their War and the political catastrophes which afflicted each of them In various times and locales.
 
          The cleverest way, psychologically, in which to hide a secret is to divert the investigator down a tiring trail of disinformation toward a false discovery. His own efforts convince him either that he has found a secret through great energy and cleverness on his own part, or, if the secret he seeks appears still but to barely elude his grasp, he values all the more his continued course of misdirection. That is the lesson which can be learned from Edgar Allan Poe's fictional case of The Purloined Letter.

            Exemplary of the follies into which presumably educated and informed people are misled in the pursuit of the snipe, are the doctrines of the "international Jewish conspiracy" and the recently more popular "international communist conspiracy." As we have seen above, the Jewish Religion, Communism and Capitalism are all false Luciferian Oligarchically Created myths. Carl Marx wrote his Das Capital from his office in the British Museum. His Intelligence handler was Engels who worked for the British Foreign Office. During the twentieth century, more people have been turned into dupes along those three false-trail pursuits than any competing obsessions. The real problem is the Luciferian Oligarchy and the low evolution of a zombie-like sheeple humanity.

            The effect of that sort of misdirected search for the ultimate, global master-conspiracy is principally two-fold. The dupes themselves are misled away from the secrets being hidden in this manner. Secondly, the discredit which is directed to fall upon the lured turns most others, foolishly, away from all searches for the secrets of those "inner elites" which have in fact run the world's affairs during approximately ten thousand years of known history.

            To illustrate the corollary aspect of the problem which is true of every country in the world; during a meeting between this writer and a leading political figure of Italy, which occurred during early 1976, the latter asked: "Why is it that Ugo La Malfa always comes out on top?" The context of his question was the period of initial efforts to replace the La Malfa-preferred Moro government with an Andreotti government. In the course of most of the postwar political crises in Italy, tiny, now-aging Ugo La Malfa, spokesman for the relatively tiny Republican Party of Italy, appeared to play the tunes to which Italy subsequently danced.

            The answer to that particular question is essentially: Ugo La Malfa has been a key Italian agent-of-influence for external Luciferian Oligarchic intelligence services all of his adult life.

These implanted agents exist in every country in the world.

            This is not to suggest that British intelligence services' operatives individually are supermen. In general, such agents, including leading operatives, are a poor lot; short attention-spans, scatterbrained, without moral mooring worth mention, easily provoked into loss of personal self-control, the majority downright louts, boors. So, Ugo La Malfa himself. It is not British intelligence services viewed in the terms the presumably informed layman ordinarily thinks of an intelligence service which are relevant to the indicated problem of La Malfa. Although British networks do have, inclusively, the sort of characteristics the misinformed layman would expect — more or less, it is not such incidentals which account for La Malfa's past successes.

            The relevant key point can be abstracted fairly thus. Since the English traitors Robert Cecil and Francis Bacon around the onset of the seventeenth century, and later, more notably, from the 1660 Stuart Restoration to the present day, within and behind British intelligence regular and irregular services there is an inner circle representing the ranks of the Black Guelph families of all Europe, a Luciferian Oligarchy gathered around the privileges and powers of the British and Dutch monarchies. (7) Attached to and overlapping these Luciferian Oligarchical families, there is a special collectivity, traditionally centered notably in Oxford, Cambridge, and Sussex universities in the UK and Yale, Harvard and many other Ivy League Universities in the USA including Russell Family funded Societies like the Skull and Bones, an inner intelligentsia of that faction, which studies the classics, thereby to gain the knowledge through which the forces associated with the Luciferian Oligarchs may rule the world.

            Through three millennia of recorded history to date, centered around the Mediterranean, the civilized world has been run by two, bitterly opposed elites, the one associated with the faction of Socrates and Plato, the other with the faction of Aristotle. During these thousands of years, until the developments of approximately 1784-1818 in Europe, both factions inner elites maintained in some fashion an unbroken continuity of organization and knowledge through all of the political catastrophes which afflicted each of them in various times and locales.

            It was the elite associated with the Platonic (or, Neo-platonic faction which organized the American Revolution and established the United States as a democratic constitutional republic. During the early eighteenth century, in circumstances associated with Marlborough's campaign and the Mississippi and South-Sea bubble destabilisations, the continuity of the Platonic faction was first administered a broad, temporary defeat with some lasting effects, and was shattered later as a world force through the events of 1784-1818.

            In the aftermath of the 1815 Treaty of Vienna, the shattering of the power of the Platonic elite in Europe meant in large measure both a scattering of the main forces of that faction, and an associated, increasing loss of the "secret knowledge" through which the Platonic inner elite had formerly developed and exercised its factional power. From that time to the present period, the inner circles of the Aristotelian (or, more exactly, "neo-Aristotelian") faction have been hegemonic increasingly in ordering world affairs. Although humanist (Platonic) factional forces have continued in existence and are represented among political and related elites today, the Platonic elite has lost connection to the body of knowledge upon which its former power depended.

            The person who posed the question cited is exemplary of this problem. He is not only a Christian humanist and a member of the ruling political elite, but a man of unusual personal character as well as political skills and power. Yet, with the considerable knowledge available to him, he did not know the answer to the question. Any member of the Platonic elite in command of the "secret knowledge" of that tradition would have known the answer immediately.

            The principal function of this report is to summarily, but systematically identify the "secret knowledge" of the Platonic inner elite. That includes the Platonic's knowledge of the secrets of the enemy, Aristotelian elite.

            Although the objective of this writer and his associates is to end the ages-long division between elites and the credulous, myth-ridden masses, this can not be accomplished usefully by bringing the elite down to the ignorance of the masses. The masses must be brought up out of mythology's grip, to attain the qualities of the Platonic elite. That accomplishment is impossible without the leading role of a reconstituted Platonic elite — education is impossible without the educators.

            Such a transformation of the mass of plebeians is the work of years, even under favorable circumstances. At this moment of writing, it would be criminal folly to propose to wait years before bringing the Platonic faction back into a leading position in the government of society. If the neo-Aristotelian faction prevails through the present period of crises, it is more than conceivable that the human race might not survive, or, at best, that the new beginnings of civilization would have to be assembled from the shards of general thermonuclear war creating a New Dark Age.

            The Platonic elite in the fullness of its knowledge must be reconstituted now. That cannot occur unless the "secret knowledge" of that faction is reestablished with aid of reference to classical knowledge, classical knowledge resurrected in appropriately modern terms of reference. That indispensable articulation is the function of this report.


I. THE LEGACY OF ARISTOTLE


            The single most important "secret" of the Aristocrats, the Aristo's, the Aristotelian, or neo-Aristotelian faction of the world's elite today is hidden behind the mythical image of Aristotle as an original philosophical thinker. In this chapter we shall trace this matter from Aristotle's time, emphasizing the role of his influence in the development of the Black Guelph faction, from the emergence of that fact on around the leadership of the Pierleoni during the eleventh century AD, into the neo-Aristotelian developments associated chiefly with Francis Bacon and the late seventeenth century successors of Bacon around the British Royal Society. Once the contents of this present chapter and the next, on historiography, have been presented, the reader will have access to the most crucial of the "secrets" employed by humanity's enemies today.

            The monstrously false report that Aristotle was the successor of Socrates and Plato, and also an important original thinker in behalf of scientific knowledge, is entirely a hoax without foundation in fact. Politically, philosophically, Aristotle was in all respects the enemy of Socrates and Plato, and also personally a chief enemy of Plato. The chief feature of Aristotle's character, the feature which is determining for everything else to be considered in that connection, is that like his contemporaries. the traitors Isocrates and Demosthenes, Aristotle was an agent working for the joint forces of the Babylonian, Persian and Macedonian courts. (1)

            Although Aristotle was an agent of Philip of Macedon, he was also a bitter enemy of Alexander the Great. Granted, Alexander and Aristotle maintained an interesting correspondence, and Philip did in fact appoint Aristotle Alexander's tutor. The textbooks which emphasize such selected bare facts for the deception of the credulous omit the additional facts; not only, was Alexander Aristotle's philosophical and political adversary, but it was Aristotle's nephew who was convicted of attempting to murder Alexander by poisoning, and Aristotle's agents who did, according to authoritative sources of that time, finally assassinate Alexander.

            The immediate background to the case of Aristotle is summarily as follows.

            Philip of Macedon was a protege and ally of the leading general and others of the, Persian imperial court. (2) The Luciferian Bankers of Mestopotamia, who centuries earlier had brought in the Persians to replace the Babylonians, had developed the view, by the mid-fourth century BC, that a new arrangement was needed. Their scheme centered about a policy of splitting the existing empire into two parts, both parts of which they would control. The western part of Anatolia, and the world otherwise west of the Euphrates, was to become part of a new empire of the West. Philip of Macedon was their initial selection for creating the empire to grow to the west of the Euphrates.

            First, they decided, Philip must subjugate Greece. To this purpose, Persian intelligence networks were deployed in behalf of Philip's conquest of Greece, and Persian advisors supplied to aid the process. Isocrates, Demosthenes, and Aristotle were representative of such joint Persian-Macedonian spy-networks assigned to Athens.

            This plot intersected the division over policy which had shaped the history of the Aegean since at least the eighth and seventh centuries BC. That division is reflected in a comparison of the irreconcilable outlooks of bucolic Hesiod and humanist Homer.

Preceding the Persian conquests, the Ionian city-states had been leading representatives of the policy known as the "city' builders" policy, the current to which the doctrine of the modern Freemasons traces their origins. Under the leadership of "philosopher kings," such as the exemplary Thales, Ionian culture was dedicated by constitutions and intent to the promotion of urban-centered scientific and technological progress, and to the development of modes of production and of world trade to promote this cause, through colonies and other means, to promote this cause throughout the world.

The opposite faction, centered traditionally in the priests and monetarist bankster factions of Mesopotamia, opposed scientific progress, opposed urban-centered cultural progress. They proposed a "zero-growth," antitechnology policy, and the rule of society universally by a rural-centered, landlordism-based aristocracy, an Luciferian Oligarchy allied to monetarist financier circles.

            This division was already an old one by the eighth into seventh century BC. As early as the middle of the third millennium BC, powerful city-states committed to urban-centered technological progress and world-trade promotion existed. Prior to the fall of the Phoenician center of Tyre at the hands of the Persians' Mesopotamian predecessors, Phoenician culture had been over centuries a notable Eastern Mediterranean base for city-builders' policies and culture. After the conquest of Tyre, the Phoenicians' resources had been turned largely into instruments of Babylonian Austere "zero-growth" policies. During this period, the political center of humanism in the Eastern Mediterranean region had shifted to lonia and adjoining Lydia.

            With the Persian subjugation of Lydia and lonia, the center of humanist command among Greek'speaking peoples shifted to Athens. However, Athens was never homogenously a humanist city. The pro-rural-aristocracy or "zero-growth" faction of mainland Greece was also represented, and was to one degree or another allied with the Persians against the Ionian faction among the Greeks. The control center for the Persian faction in the Aegean region was the cult of Apollo, nominally centered in the banking nexus at Delphi.

            Pericles is exemplary of Persian agents-of-influence in Athens. He may not have favored the Persian conquest of mainland Greece, but he did make every effort to ensure Persian subjugation of the Ionian cities, and launched the "WPA project" associated with his improvements of the Acropolis, as an antihumanist economic policy. Alcibiades is another case of a Persian agent-of-influence. (3) The zero-growth doctrine of Isocrates, the efforts of Macedonian paid-agent Demosthenes to aid Philip of Macedon in securing the desired war with Athens, and the spying and other black operations of Aristotle carried the tradition of the anti-humanist faction in Athens to its lawful extremes in degradation.

            The cult of Apollo at Delphi is crucial. During the course of Persian campaigns against the Greeks and

            Lydians, the cult of Apollo is known, conclusively, to have run at least seven major operations in behalf of the Persians, including delaying the departure of Spartan forces to Marathon. (4)

            The cult of Apollo should not be viewed as merely a, curious institution of that period. It was on the one side the key monetarist financial institution of that period.

            On the other side it deployed two cults as covers for its intelligence operations as such. One of these cults was the cult of Apollo itself. The other principal cult was a subcult known as the Phrygian cult of Dionysus (in its Roman form, the cult of Bacchus). British intelligence services (as a whole) at the present date represent essentially a continuation of that cult and its characteristic methods and techniques. Aristotle and his Peripatetics were agents of that cult into Roman times, both as official Ptolemaic debt-collectors of the cult's financial operations, and as the controllers of the cult and its Dionysian offshoots. (5) Not only is British intelligence today collectively a continuation of that cult, but it is the mastery and replication of the methods and techniques of that cult which represent the innermost secrets of British intelligence services.

            Before returning to the case of Alexander, we glance forward from the time of Alexander's death toward modem times, to afford the reader some sense of the importance 'of the cult of Apollo in ancient through modern history.

            The cult of Apollo was not only an established institution in the Roman republic, but that institution managed the history of Rome down to the miserable end of the Empire. (6) It was for this reason that Rome's only contribution to human culture was the military system which Rome perfected in the aftermath of the Punic wars. Roman law was, and is, a hideous, antihumanist concoction explicitly following the specifications of the cult of Apollo as explicated by Aristotle et al. The Roman aristocracy was promoted by the cult of Apollo as an expression of the "Persian model" doctrine of the court of Philip of Macedon. The fall of the Roman republic was the result of the cult of Apollo's placing its chips on the Marian faction (Caesar), and developing a Dionysian cult among the Roman plebeians in Rome, to provide Caesar with the same organization of a social base of power as the later Mussolini and Hitler.

            After the assassination of Alexander by Aristotle's agents, a humanist republic was established in Athens by a general who was otherwise one of Alexander's closest supporters. The Peripatetics were kicked out of Athens at that point, and moved their center of operations, lock, stock and library, to the Egypt of Alexander's enemy, Ptolemy. There, they created the exotic synthetic cults of Egypt (e.g., the Isis-Osiris cult), translated the Old Testament into waterfront-brothel Greek, and enjoyed management fees as debt-collectors of the cult of Apollo's financial operations. Acting through their branch at Rome, the Ptolemian head-office of the Peripatetic cult secured the movement of the Roman legions into mainland Greece, to destroy the last vestiges of Ionian political rule there. The visits of Julius Caesar and Marc Antony to Cleopatra's Egypt fall under the same category of significance.

            During the last decade of the eighteenth century, British intelligence services deployed agents Danton and Marat into Paris, organizing a rabble from among lumpenized peasant-vagabonds drawn into Paris as elements of a Dionysian cult, down to the detail of Phrygian caps. (7) British intelligence's creation of fascism in Italy and Weimar Germany, the more recent development of the rock-drug counterculture, the Maoist organizations, international terrorism and the "zero-growth environmentalism" are a replication of the same method and techniques used by the ancient cult of Apollo in managing its Phrygian cult of Dionysus in the Aegean littoral.

            The promotion of Roman law in eighteenth-century France was centered around British-intelligence protégé Montesquieu, just as Voltaire, another British agent, in his historical frauds, slanders against Leibniz, etc., reflected British imitation of the techniques used to the same purpose against humanism by the cult of Apollo during the fifth and fourth centuries BC.

            The technology of culture has changed profoundly since the fourth century BC. The essential methods and techniques of the cult of Apollo, and its continuation at Oxford and Cambridge have not altered in a single essential feature. The objectives, the policies, the methods remain essentially the same.

            During the middle fourth century BC the influence of the Ionian faction in Athens centered around the work of Socrates and Plato. The Academy of Athens was no mere teaching institution. Nor was Plato's decade of occupation with the republic-project for Syracuse exceptional in principle (the Republic). The participants in the Academy at Athens were drawn from all areas of Greek influence in the Mediterranean. The regular work of the Academy included the development of constitutional forms of government for the nations of that culture. (8)

            One of Aristotle's chief assignments as a Macedonian-Persian spy in Athens was his participation in the destruction of the Academy. The earlier judicial murder of Socrates was no eccentric autochthonous affair of Athenian internal life. Aristotle's other duties there were principally those of a spy for Philip of Macedon’s interest, a duty which he and other Peripatetic agents of the cult of Apollo performed in various places.

            On the basis of Aristotle's demonstrated deep — one should say, abysmal — commitments and skills as an enemy of the human species, his patrons assigned him to various locations. In addition to his services as a spy and assassin, he played a leading role in the literary activities for which the Peripatetics are ordinarily reputed, However, contrary to what is believed by the credulous, and taught by both hoaxsters and fools, Aristotle was not engaged in the progress of knowledge. The literary activities of the Peripatetics were chiefly dedicated to a scheme for eliminating the influence of scientific method from civilization - the dumming down of humanity.

            The technique employed to that malignant purpose was one which post-1670 Europe would justly term "encyclopedic." The doctrines of all existing branches of knowledge were rewritten, with the additional distinction of being recodified in such a fashion as to eliminate as far as possible all trace of the scientific method, and to mystify the origins of existing knowledge in this and related ways. Aristotle, like other members of the Peripatetics, was assigned to various locations. In each location he or others would take down a section of the existing body of knowledge from some relevant source-authority, and would then proceed to recodify that information according to the doctrine of the cult of Apollo.

            This was exactly the technique employed, initially under the coordinating supervision of John Locke, to develop the British Royal Society, and launch the Scottish Encyclopedia Britannica. It is now documented that Isaac Newton made not a single original useful contribution to scientific knowledge. In fact, he was almost fully occupied with his efforts to master "black magic" — as the surviving archives show him to have been actually engaged at the time his associates later fraudulently alleged him to have developed his calculus before Leibniz. (9) Insofar as Newton (and Boyle) drew their materials from English sources, this involved not only appropriating as their own work of Wallis and Barrow, but shamelessly and repeatedly plagiarizing the work of Hooke. Newton's physics was, in the main obtained through Hooke's completing the mathematization of the discoveries already completed by William Gilbert, Kepler, and Galileo, and adding in the discovery (inertia) contributed by Gottfried Leibniz.

Leibniz - documented as the discoverer of the calculus - and Huygens were among the contemporaries most frequently plagiarized by the Royal Society during that period. Rightly could Newton inscribe his Principia, "hypothesis is not necessary"; what need has a plagiarist of hypothesis? However, the slogan, "hypothesis is not necessary" has another significance.

Like Aristotle's Peripatetics, the purpose of the Royal Society's circulation of scientific works was to eliminate scientific progress, by outlawing the principle of rigorously formulated crucial hypothesis (rituallly denounced as "metaphysics") which is the start of intuition and genius - a state higher than the intellectual mind -  in favor of that banalizing doctrine known as "the principle of the inductive sciences."

Satanic Secret Agents, Aristotle; Contarini, Pomponazzi and Giorgi; Sarpi, Galileo and Kepler; Conti, Newton and Leibniz - The Satanic Corruption of Science by the Satanic, Slave Trading, Drug Running, Bankster run Venetian Empire

The True History of The Satanic Venetian Empire's Secret Agent Fra. Paolo Sarpi and his Operation against Liebniz to create Worldwide Poverty by Sabotaging Scientific Development with Satanic Scientific and Economic Empiricism



          
  Such antiscientific literary undertakings aside, the principal empirical pursuit of the Peripatetics in matters of knowledge was the subject of botany. This is the one aspect of Aristotle's writings which stands out as having some explicit content of interest in the development of knowledge. Why the exception in this case? The interest in botany was essentially political, in a manner of speaking. The specialty of the Peripatetic assassins was poisoning. Aristotle the, "Poisoner" of Alexander the Great..

 

THE LIGHT OF THE SOUL IS THE SILVER LINING

"DO NOT LOOK UPON MY FINGER, INSTEAD LOOK TOWARDS THE SOUL TO WHICH IT POINTS" - BUDDHA

THE DEATH OF SOCRATES BY DAVID


ARISOTELIAN RELIGIOUS CULTS

 

            Apart from the work of spying, "encyclopedism," and poisoning, the principal production of the Aristotelian Peripatetics included the production of new religious and quasi-religious cults and incorrect myths and perversions. (It is not entirely without significance that that portion of the Thames suffering the misfortune to lie near Oxford is named the "Isis.")

We have already referred to the synthetic cults of Egypt (e.g., the Isis-Osiris cult, and others) produced by the Dionysian cults, yesterday and today: throughout the centuries a basic item of antihumanist social control technique. Peripatetics under the Ptolemies. The same methods used to this purpose by the Peripatetics have been continued by their emulators down to the present day.

Such British intelligence-service creations as the Hare Krishna cult, the "Children of God," Al Qaeda, Isis, and the so-called "Moonies" are only the most obvious and notorious such concoctions. The Maoist organizations of North America and Western Europe are based on the same methods and techniques of cult design, as is the British intelligence-created rock-drug counterculture, the "environmentalist" movement, and the overlapping organization of international terrorism.

THE SATANIC INFILTRATION OF RELIGIOUS CULTS TO CREATE POVERTY AND CONTROL HUMANITY The Witchcraft of Christians Who Are Not Christians and the Robber Baron Satanic Infiltration of ISIS, Horus, Osiris and Dionysius.

The Muslim Brotherhood Isis Arc of Crisis - PART OF THE SATANIC INFILTRATION OF RELIGIOUS CULTS TO CREATE POVERTY AND CONTROL HUMANITY  - Now 50% of Humanity have a Heart!! And the battle between the Old Psychopathic Species of "The Game of Thrones" "The Sopranos" and "Dexter" against the New Species of The People of the Heart is ON!!



 

 

 


            The methods of creating synthetic religious cults as instruments of state domestic and foreign policies is known in some significant detail since Babylon. The original synthesis of what later becomes the Jewish religion represents only one form of such Babylonian synthetic religious cults. It is not the details of these cults that ought to occupy our attention here, but rather the characteristic features of such cult-design from then to the present time.

            The usual form of the religious cult down to the Christian era was associated with a pantheon of polymorphs, gods and semi-deities whose images combined either features of several animals into one form, or which combined human and animal forms. The essential, political effect of such religious cults is to destroy the concept of a qualitative distinction between man and the lower beasts. These were, indeed, all "greenie" religious cults. The interesting distinction of the Jewish cult, among the usual, polymorphous productions of the Babylonian "foreign office," is evolution over subsequent developments away from the polymorphous image of worship. However, otherwise, the Babylonian- created cult of Judaism was the most thorough of the ancient zero-growth cults.

            Although the following involves an included element of speculation, the elements of knowledge drawn upon as circumstantial evidence are valid without question, Only the specific, historical connection we interpolate for further investigation of the matter is properly considered speculative.

CONSCIOUSLY CREATED FAKE GANGS - FIERCE HOMOSEXUAL WARRIORS, ISIS, PROTESTANTS, CATHOLICS, SATANISM, LUCIFERIANISM, 33RD DEGREE FREEMASONRY, CAPITALISTS, MARXISTS, COMMUNISTS, SOCIALISTS, SABBATEAN FRANKISTS, EUGENICISTS, SOCIAL DARWINISTS, ECONOMISTS..

            It is known that the Israel and adjoining nations of the period of Saul, David, and Solomon — especially Solomon's Israel, were buffer-states of the Phoenicians (e.g.. Tyre). In a manner consistent with city-builders' policies, the backward people of Israel had been brought up, largely, to a civilized state through a city-builder program. (Hence, the Freemason legend of the early Freemasons as Phoenician-trained builders of the temple of Solomon.) It is also known that there was no trace of "Judaism" as later defined, but rather a strong influence of the cult of Baal otherwise widespread throughout the region, together with Phoenician cults.

            We also know, from the standpoint of epistemology, that the characteristic philosophical outlook of Thales, Heraclitus, et al. is an expression of the world-outlook upon which the city-builders' culture converges. Hence, philosophical beliefs converging upon the views of the lonians, Socrates, and Plato were in fact influential among the leading strata of eastern Mediterranean city-builders prior to the Ionian period, including therefore leading strata in Israel.

            The function of the Babylonian creation of the Jewish religious cult was to transform the people of Israel into an advanced post-Babylonian puppet-state for Babylon's war against Tyre. Consequently, the Babylonians were constrained by the kinds of religious belief which already existed in an area strongly influenced by Phoenician culture. Hence, the ordinary sort of polymorphous image-cults might not have succeeded in that region.

            We know also that the city-builders and their anti-humanist adversaries often did not attempt to directly uproot existing mythologies, but rather to recodify existing mythologies in such a way as to serve the policy of the state. The mythology was adjusted to embody, as a mythology, the impulses appropriate either to a city-builders or antihumanist policy. The thrust, on the humanist, or city-builders side, throughout the known sources, is toward the deified human hero or heroine, for which the Herakles-Prometheus model is typical: the giver of knowledge (reason) to a whole people. The antihumanist policy emphasizes the opposite policy: it proposes the irrationality of the deities, it insists upon . the unfathomable mystery of the order of the universe. On this basis, we can not confidently assume that the existence of image-worship in itself meant one thing or the other. Only the features of image-worship or other forms of worship which are characteristically Platonic or anti-Platonic are solid evidence.

            The durability of the synthetic religion of Judaism, through its various evolutions up to the Christian era and its survival after the onset of that era, reflects the cumulative, "environmental" selective effect of the Platonic-Neoplatonic revolts against the older form of /religious polytheistic antihumanist cults. This revolt took its decisive form in the rise of Christianity, which was politically and philosophically a Platonic-Neoplatonic upsurge within the Hellenistic world against the monstrous evil represented by the Roman Empire and Roman law, This same principle is reflected in the original political thrust of the Prophet Muhammad, and in the emergence of the Ismaili current within

            Islam. During that latter period Judaism itself was divided between the reactionary "orthodox" currents and the tendency for humanistic, Neoplatonic transformation of Judaism. The emergence of the humanistic Sephardic current out of the Ismailite Judaic faction, and the emergence of Maimonides, Avencibrol, et al. of the Toledo school, reflect the course of the latter aspect of the development.

            In general, the main course of development of religious and philosophical belief among humanist and humanist-influenced currents has been away from the polytheistic, image-centered doctrines toward the Logos-principle, and toward the trinity doctrines as exemplified by the internal determinations of the

            Platonic dialogue. The survival of Judaism coincides with the effect of such circumstances. It is merely, in itself, a plastic form of belief, which can be made either humanistic or antihumanistic, and serves the latter purpose with the advantage of being ancient, and also largely free of the incredible, hated polytheistic forms which were discarded in the wake of the Mediterranean worldwide hatred of Roman Latin imperial order.

            Another decisive feature of Judaism is the ancient association of nominal Jews with banking. Throughout the period from Babylon into the persecution of the Jews during the thirteenth century and afterwards in Europe, one faction of Jews was continuously associated with monetarist policies of finance throughout the Mediterranean littorals, whereas the other faction, the medieval Sephardic faction, especially during the Christian era, was associated with Ismaili humanist policies of opposition to monetarist financial policies. Despite the inevitable, large-scale assimilation of Jews into the mainstream of the cultures in which they were situated, a kernel of Jewry remained defined and otherwise self-defined as "outsiders" to the mainstream of the cultures in which they resided. (And, so forth and so on. The relevant points should be clear.) This fact we shall encounter below, in connection with the Pierleoni.

            On their side of the matter of religion, the work of the Peripatetics was directed to the same objectives as their frauds in knowledge generally. In philosophy, the Peripatetics sought to poison the second level of Platonic knowledge, the mere understanding, against knowledge of the scientific method (reason). In religion, they treated the lowest state of human knowledge, simple beliefs of the ignorant masses, to the same purpose. The object was to promote irrationalist beliefs agreeable to state policies of zero-growth and monetarist-Luciferian Oligarchical rule.

THESE RITUALS DEFINE SATANISM.. RITUAL SEX, RITUAL DRUGS, RITUAL HUMAN SACRIFICE, RITUAL CANNIBALISM, RITUAL CASTRATION

            The same sort of project was launched by British intelligence services during the 1920s, with the evil Bertrand Russell the central figure in this operation. During the 1920s, Russell, as a principal spokesman for the effort, laid out a spectrum of projects, all aimed to bring about a "new dark age," through which an Luciferian Oligarchy-ruled "feudalist" Utopia could be established on a world scale.

            Russell proposed the end of progress in basic scientific knowledge. British radical-empiricists and their Vienna positivist-energeticist collaborators ganged up against Max Planck, Erwin Schroedinger, de Broglie and others in aid of this project. This represented an attempted "final solution" to the attack against “continental science,” which had been continuous British policy since the wretched Francis Bacon’s attacke on William Gilbert and the British Royal Society’s vendettas against Descartes and Leibniz. A key figure in this was British agent Niels Bohr. Bohr’s hideous conduct toward Schrödinger and others, the founding of the irrationalist "Copenhagen School," and the hooligan uproar against leading scientific thinkers at the 1920s Solvay conference, were leading features of the Russell-linked operations against scientific progress.

            The continuous campaign of the British against nuclear and fusion-energy development, from the World War II period to the present day, is partly the Black Guelph Luciferian Oligarchy's campaign against technological progress, and also a continuation of Russell's project for destroying the progress of science from within.

            Russell also proposed the application of existing scientific technology to the purposes of mass mind-control, including the development of drugs for mass use for this purpose. Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and music - Beatles, Rolling Stones etc. leading roles in promoting psychedelic drugs and drug-cultures are part of the implementation of that British Black Guelph project for mass drug-addiction.

            Russell was more directly active, from that point onward, in the development of what became known as "linguistics." This is the form of "linguistics" most popularly associated with the name of former Rand Corporation associate, Professor Noam Chomsky. Russell, working closely with longstanding British intelligence operative Karl Korsch, and with Carnap and others, launched linguistics in the United States during the 1930s, also in intersection with the work of the fascist sociologist, social-work "brainwasher" Dr. Kurt Lewin. Noam Chomsky, whose work is used prominently, and directly, for the development of explicitly brainwashing techniques, is a direct protege of the apparatus set up under Russell's leadership.

            Russell-Korsch-Carnap-Chomsky linguistics extend the methods of synthetic religious-cult building of the Peripatetics to an extreme. The cognitive feature of the use of language is systematically outlawed wherever linguistics methods are employed. The philosophical outlook of the cult of Dionysus is central to linguistics. There is no universal lawfulness, but only the heteronomic impulses and desires of the individual and small group. In other words, the doctrines of Thomas Hobbes, also perceptively adopted by the Nazi regime as appropriate to its character.

Maoism, the rock-drug counterculture, "green environmentalism," and the "philosophical" environment of British-created international terrorism and its sympathizers, are all forms of the cult of Dionysus developed during recent decades with majority complicity from a corrupt press and universities in the promotion and application of Chomskyian linguistics.

 


MACEDONIAN POLICIES

 

            The Aristotelians were essentially distinguished by their determination to wipe out the human race's memory of Ionian (i.e., Platonic) scientific methods, and to eliminate the influence of humanist, city-builder policies. They, as agents of the joint Persian-Macedonian policies of the cult of Apollo, were committed to what the Macedonian court of Philip identified as the "Persian model." This was, as we noted above, a policy of suppressing urban-centered culture and technological progress, in behalf of the rule of society by a landlord Luciferian Oligarchy allied to the monetarist Luciferian Bankers centered in Delphi and Mesopotamia. The Macedonian court thus expressed the same policies and sociological outlook as the British Black Guelph Luciferian Oligarchy of the past centuries to date.

            Ironically, the sodomy prevailing in the court of Macedon contributed to Philip's undoing. A member of his court had been gang-sodomized at the order of another. Philip not only refused to punish the perpetrator, but, instead, appointed the Criminal to the governorship of a province. This motivated the victim to become the assassin of Philip at a most appropriate point in history, on the very eve of the intended implementation of the joint project of Philip and the Persian court circles.

            In this connection, we should reemphasize what we have outlined above in connection with Aristotelian religious cults.

            The commonplace blunder of professed Marxists and others in assessing British policies is the mistaken assumption that the ruling forces of the British Luciferian Oligarchy are motivated by specifically capitalist impulses. It is of course the case that the British Luciferian Oligarchy and its global allies live in a world in which the industrial-capitalist forms of manufacturing, agriculture, trade, and culture are the premise upon which human existence depends. It is also true that world rule to this date in recent modern history has been feasible only to the extend that representatives of the Black Guelph Luciferian Oligarchy and its Knights of Malta controlled the financial power, and state material power adapted to industrial-capitalist development. However, to conclude from such and related evidence, evidence valid up to a point, that the British Luciferian Oligarchy's motives are subsumed under the rubric of "capitalist" is the grossest of blunders, of incompetencies.

THE BORGIAS, LIKE THE ROCKEFELLERS, ARE ONE OF THE GANG CLAN FAMILIES WHO STILL RULE THE WORLD THROUGH THE BRITISH EMPIRE, THE VATICAN, JESUITS, KNIGHTS OF MALTA, BRITISH EMPIRE PRIVATE CITY OF LONDON THOUSAND YEARS OLD ANCIENT MERCANTILE LIVERY COMPANIES, MASONS WORLDWIDE - ARISTOCRATIC AGENT MAO WAS A 33RD DEGREE MASON!! JESUIT BLACK POPE CONTROLS THE 900 YEARS OLD INTELLIGENCE ARMY OF THE KNIGHTS OF MALTA (SMOM) GANG MEMBERS - THE BUSH FAMILY, TONY BLAIR, GEORGE SOROS, HENRY KISSINGER, ALEXANDER HAIG..

            The Guelph (Welfen) were originally a bucolic German aristocratic house, associated with the rule of Franconia, with branches in Italy. During the eleventh century, through an alliance among Roman banking families centered around the Pierleoni, including Matilda of Tuscany and the ruling house of Lotharingen (Lorraine), the Luciferian Oligarchical faction of the present millenium acquired the name Guelph through the marriage-connection of Matilda of Tuscany's House to the Welfen house. In the course of developments following the Guelph defeat of the Hohenstaufen House (Frederick Barbarossa through Frederick II) during the events of 1266-1268 AD, there arose the Guelph-Ghibelline (Ghibelline = Italianized Waibling, as Guelph was Italianized Welf) disputes. In the internal struggles within Italy (and elsewhere) at the onset of the fourteenth century, the Italian branches of the Guelph aristocracy split into a "White Guelph" and a "Black Guelph" faction, the former won to the humanist policies otherwise associated with the Ghibelline (Hohenstaufen-Waibling) faction. Dante Alighieri was a leading thinker for the White Guelph faction. From the early fourteenth century, the antihumanist Luciferian Oligarchical faction of Europe has represented the continuity of the Black Guelph faction of Dante's time.

            The Capetian House in France, the later Hapsburgs (whose significance dates from the emergence of the Black Guelph faction of which that household is predominantly a part), and the majority of the aristocratic households of Europe have been predominantly a conscious continuation of the traditions and policies of the Guelph faction of the eleventh century and its Black Guelph continuation since the onset of the fourteenth century. The term "black nobility" in today's Italy refers with approximate exactness to the present-day continuation of the Black Guelph Luciferian Oligarchical families in Italy.

            Aristocratic families do not necessarily mean Black Guelph, however. The case of the Bourbon-Borbon house of France and Spain illustrates the point.

            The humanist tradition within the French monarchical houses dates from the fifteenth century Louis XI—whose father, Charles, was a despicable, Guelphish monster. The humanist (city-building) policies of Louis XI were continued by the House of Navarre during the sixteenth century, and continued by the seventeenth century politic/ties— Richelieu, Mazarin, and Colbert.

            In fulfillment of Richelieu's anti-Hapsburg policy, France of Mazarin et al., allied with Cromwell's English Commonwealth, finally humbled the Hapsburgs in 1653, leading to the Borbon succession in Spain.

            The Bourbon-Borbon monarchs were a mixed lot, as typified by the case of Louis XIV. The Bourbon tendency expressed by Louis IV's minister Colbert — and by Descartes and Huygens — was one current. The rural aristocratic input into Louis XIV was the Guelphish side. The case of the ill-fated clock-hobbyist, Louis XVI, less interesting than his exceptional contemporary, Joseph II of Austria's Hapsburgs, illustrates the case of monarchs pulled toward the humanist side of policies, just as the Duke of Orleans was not only a raving Guelph, but an agent of the British monarchy.

            Prior to the hegemony of Godoy in the Spanish court, the Spanish Borbon court of the mid-eighteenth century was a center of influence of the "French faction," to which the painter, Francisco Goya was attached. This faction of the Spanish Borbon court developed a humanist, city-building project-policy for "Greater Spain," and contributed in a vital way to the fostering of the humanist currents in such later Latin-American nations as Mexico.

            The English Tudors are another example of the problem. The case of Richard III of England is open to fresh scrutiny. The case of Warwick is of more immediate interest. In any event, the accession of the Tudors involved the influences associated with Louis XI of France, and apart from peculiarities of some of the Tudor monarchs as such, the humanists gathered around the Dudley family are key to everything decent that occurred in England during the sixteenth century and immediately thereafter.

            The accurate view of the role of the European aristocracy and monarchical families in general is twofold. First of all, these families were divided overall and internally on fundamental issues of policy. Some representatives were deeply committed to humanist or anti-humanist policies. Others vacillated under pressure of opposite factions — as did Elizabeth I of England. Second, the point against the institution of monarchy made by Machiavelli and emphasized, in denouncing both monarchy and democracy, by Thomas Paine. that the hereditary monarchy, subject to radical changes in the policy-outlook of the state's chief, hereditary executive from generation to generation, proved itself to be intolerable to the humanist interest.

            The case of Russia's czars is also exemplary. The humanist leaders of later Byzantium, the Paleologues, rose to power through a persisting conspiracy of the humanists of central Europe. Henry V of Germany, in approximately 1106 AD, assigned a humanist aristocratic family of Italy (from Viterbo, outside Rome) to infiltrate the establishment of Byzantium. As the Paleologues, this humanist aristocratic family gained the rulership of Byzantium during the thirteenth century, holding that power until a Turkish conquest (1453) arranged by the perfervidly Aristotelian patriarch of the eastern church and the Luciferian Bankers of Rome traditionally controlling the Papacy. However, among the positive heritages of the Paleologues was their humanist influence in Russia, establishing the policy of Ivan III, and of Ivan IV (The Awesome). (11) Despite the efforts of Ivan IV's political heir, Boris Godunov, the Hapsburg-led evil then seizing continental Europe led to the undoing of much of the humanist efforts of the czars, producing a post-Boris period of chaos which ended only with the emergence of the Romanovs.

            From Peter I, the Romanovs were under the influence, increasingly, of Anglo-Dutch penetrations of the Russian court. Barring the curious case of the death of Catharine in the eighteenth century, every Czar died a I sudden death, exactly at the point Anglo-Dutch policy-interest prescribed this demise {12} English physicians  attached to the Czarist household were not irrelevant to such abrupt departures from life of the Czars, nor was it irrelevant that British intelligence services, conduiting funds through their agent Alexander Herzen, funded Bakunin and controlled the Russian anarchist movement and its terrorist offshoot. Nor is it astonishing that when Count Witte was embarked on a policy for promoting the industrial deyelopment of Russia in closer relationship to Germany, the Russian 1905 Revolution was organized with a lead-role of Anglo-Dutch (Samuel) agent Alexander Helphand-Parvus, and with a leading role by Parvus's protege of that moment, Leon D. Trotsky. (Kari Radek, N. Bukharin, and G. Riazanov were agents of the Anglo-Dutch — Royal Dutch Shell — intelligence networks featuring Parvus. The "doctor's plot" against Stalin's life was probably no exaggeration at all.)

            As Thomas Paine emphasized, monarchy is an unacceptable form of government in the humanist interest, but sections of the aristocracy and monarchs have been, nonetheless, dedicated humanists.

            Exemplary of the latter point is the case of the Salian Holy Roman emperors, from Otto I through Henry IV, and the Hohenstaufen emperors, from Frederick Barbarossa through Frederick II. The thrust of these Holy Roman emperors was earlier expressed by Charlemagne. They were predominantly humanists, city-builders. The policies otherwise expressed by Abelard were embedded in the building of urban-centered culture and trade-routes, north-south and east-west by the Salian emperors. The urban culture of Europe did not emerge by some spontaneous principle within "feudalism," but because leading "dirigist" monarchs and others steered the application of "national" financial and economic resources to bring this about, and because those same potentates and others fostered humanist education, including energetic programs for establishing great universities, and collecting the greatest minds available and the most valuable documents available for this purpose.

            The ruling elites of civilization have very long memories, and represent objectives and policies which have not changed essentially over thousands of years.

            For example of the follies to be brushed aside, consider Karl Marx's nonsensical argument advanced in his effort to brush aside the evidence of the American Revolution. Marx argued that English capitalism was old and matured, whereas American capitalism was young, primitive and lacking the problem of high relative organic composition of industrial capital which prevailed in "more matured" England. Factually, Marx's observation was purely conjectural and false. (13)

            During the eighteenth century, despite the continuation of Guelphish, "feudal" relations in the French countryside, French industrial development and French rates of industrial expansion and technological progress were in advance of those in an England which was relatively stagnating under Guelph policies of the Hannoverian monarchy. During the latter half of the eighteenth century, both wages and social productivities of labor in the English-speaking American colonies and the young United States were significantly higher than those in England, just as American literacy rates were then more than double those in England. Wherever industrial capital was introduced in the United States — the issue which was central to the American Revolution — the quality of American technology was significantly superior to that in England. Marx's argument, that the organic composition of capital had overtaken the more matured England, was sheer nonsense.

            The "high organic composition" of British capital was not a result of industrial accumulation, but of the British financial debt, incurred in the effort to prevent continental Europe and England itself from developing an industrial-development-centered policy.

            As Alexander Hamilton's 1791 Report on Manufactures proves clearly enough, and as Henry C. Carey 'stated the point bluntly and accurately, the British System was not an industrial capitalist model, but a "mixed economy," in which the interest and dynamic of industrial capital was subordinated through the monarchy and Luciferian Oligarchy to parasitical landlord interest, an interest which took "primitive accumulation" from rural landholdings as its point of reference for policy. The British physiocratic doctrine, like its French imitators, expressed that point of view exactly. (14)

            The same point is exposed most nakedly by the Ford Foundation's 1964 "Triple Revolution" report, advocating a "post industrial society," and the coordinated launching of the international "environmentalist" ferment by British intelligence services' networks beginning the autumn of 1969. The targets of these British intelligence services' operations have been precisely industrial development, industrialist profits, and so forth. Excepting London's (and its monetarist allies ) perfervid preoccupation with strengthening its control ( of the world's nominal financial wealth, London's policy is perfervidly anti-capitalist.

            What sort of an idiot is it that would attempt to turn up a capitalist motive for the policies of British Intelligence services and the British government?

           
The ruling, Black Guelph Luciferian Oligarchy of Britain, together with those Luciferian Oligarchical families (aristocratic and quasi-aristocratic) to which it is allied outside Britain, dedicated essentially, by its own statement on the matter, to bringing about a "new dark ages," out of which depopulated globe (reduced willfully to the order of as few as 1 billion persons through wars and economic genocide by the close of the present century), the permanent rule of the world by "feudal" Luciferian Oligarchical families is established. In short, the British monarchy and the forces rallied about it represent nothing but the effort to implement the "Persian model" policies of the court of Philip of Macedon in a modern technological context. That is the project Henry Kissinger, James R. Schlesinger, W. Michael Blumenthal, Zbigniew Brzezinski and other British agents-of-influence within the United States represent now as emphatically as the Churchills, Mountbattens, Russells, and such British social-democrats as Denis Healey and Roy Jenkins.
 

 


            Why should Bertrand Russell, grandson of Lord John Russell, godson of John Stuart Mill, and deeply committed member of the Russell family branch of the Black Guelph families of Britain, ostensibly dedicate his adult life to "radicalism"? Russell had no emotional difficulty in opposing capitalism, because his class, his family have always been and remain perfervidly anti-capitalist. They are "feudal" Luciferian Oligarchs in the deepest parts of their being, they are Black Guelph in the most evil connotations of that factional commitment. They are determined to destroy capitalism, and all other expressions of humanist policy, in order to bring back the "feudal" Utopia for the lasting benefit of their families' posterity. Bertrand Russell rolled for decades in the slime of Dionysian anticapitalist cults, because he was a dedicated, deeply dedicated enemy of the human species. He gave his life's work to the posterity of his evil, Luciferian Oligarchical class.

            It is only as one understands the Black Guelph in those terms of reference, that one comprehends how and why they fall so frequently into wild, masturbational fits in admiration of Maoist China. Granted, the late Foreign Minister Chou En Lai had been a British agent since 1919 — and Mao himself a 33rd degree Freemason yet, why their euphoria over Maoist China? It is the antihumanist, "labor-intensive" bucolic obscenity of Maoist China which arouses their orgasms. It is the "feudal" Luciferian Oligarchy's zeal to restore the cult of Dionysus as the mythology of a mass of plebeians reduced to bucolic moral imbecility of human-manure tossing, instead of modern agricultural methods, which arouses their passions.

            Conversely, whenever one notes this or that ostensible "conservative" political spokesman in Western Europe or North America making an obscene public spectacle of himself in admiration of Maoist China, the persistence of such episodes is a "litmus test" certifying that conservative to be a British intelligence services' agent, a mercenary of the Black Guelph Luciferian Oligarchy centered in the British monarchy. A similar point is applicable to the case of those who rhapsodize over the memory of N. Bukharin in the Soviet Union.

            This connection of the British monarchy, Black Guelph Luciferian Oligarchy, and British intelligence services to the "Persian model" is not simply an imitation resurrected through aid of Oxford and Cambridge scholars. The connection of today's Black Guelph Luciferian Oligarchy to the ancient Macedonian court and Ptolemaic Egypt is direct — granting the point that in places, the continuing road winds somewhat. The continuity of the doctrines of Aristotle throughout the centuries into the policies and methods of the "neo-Aristotelians" of British empiricism, of pragmatism, is a direct continuity of antihumanist bestiality leading into the British intelligence services of the present date.


 

THE CASE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

 

To return to the fourth century BC, Alexander came out of exile to seize the throne of Macedon, bringing with and after him his close collaborators. Alexander was a committed follower of Plato, advised by leading representatives of Plato's Academy, and totally opposed to the "Persian model" policies of his father's court. His enthronement was, in consequence, a coup d'etat of Plato's faction against what we would term today the Aristotelian policies and faction of the Macedonian court.

            This point was not overlooked by the Persians. A general mobilization was prepared by Philip of Macedon's erstwhile patrons, the Persian forces, preparatory to crushing Alexander. Alexander reacted decisively. Abandoning all vacillation or "Maginot Line" alternatives, he crossed to Anatolia, where an army of 25,000 foot and 5,000 horse awaited his command —resolved to defend his kingdom by defeating the Persian enemy before the enemy was adequately deployed for such enterprises as attacking Macedon itself. (25)

            His first political act of that campaign was to restore the humanist constitutions of the Ionian city-states.

            Once he had completed the work of digging the Persian satrap's forces out of Miletus, that city became a leading force of his new Asia Minor base. The other, sweeping reforms he instituted in western Anatolia are exemplary of his Platonic policies.

            After defeating the Persian forces in the battle of Issus (the battle for the Cilician gates), he rejected the Persian offer of the terms previously extended to Philip — the empire west of the Euphrates — also rejecting 10,000 talents and a Persian princess. He moved to besiege Tyre, an undertaking which succeeded through the offer of and negotiation of an alliance with the city of Sidon. The revolt of the Greek sections of the Persian fleet, and now the support of the revolting Phoenician fleet decided the issue in the eastern Mediterranean waters. The priests of Amon in Egypt staged an Egyptian revolt against the local Persian satrap, and negotiated what circumstances show to have been a city-building-policy alliance with the priests of Amon — certifying this by ordering the opening of the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea.

            Humanist, city-builder policies were Alexander's policies up to the point of his death at the hands of Aristotle's assassins. His policy was to develop Babylon as a center of world humanist culture and world trade, to dredge the Euphrates to Babylon, to build roads linking Babylon to the Mediterranean, and to develop education programs modeled on the Academy throughout the empire. There is recorded no policy like it known until the conscious commercial development policy of the Salian emperors of the eleventh century.

            After his death and the division of his empire among the generals, (principally) his enemies, humanist policies were nonetheless reestablished at Athens — until the Ptolemies brought the Roman legions into Greece. With that event, and with the defeat of the humanist faction of the brothers Gracchi, the Apollo-ridden evil that was Rome degenerated rapidly into the imperial form. It is upon the latter, the protofascist Pax Romana, that the post-1660 Restoration British Black Guelph faction modeled its eighteenth century-adopted policy of Pax Britannica — or, rightly named, Pox Britannica. Behind mouthings of adoration of British agents-of-influence Metternich and Bismarck, it is the Pox Britannica to which British agent-of-influence Henry Kissinger is dedicated.

            The legacy of Plato and Aristotle reemerged in the Hellenic world in and through the influence of the rise of Christianity as the fascist economic order that was imperial Rome underwent its lawful internal decay and weakening of its authority. (77) It is not irrelevant that Christian humanism made no significant headway among the Latins themselves, but only enslaved Hellenic strata in Italy, and otherwise first in the Hellenic regions, extending to the barbarians. The indigenous population of Italy was too morally depraved by Roman culture.

            Christianity lawfully lost its vitality in the Eastern Empire as it became a state religion during the post-Constantine period. Cutting through fascinating details of the matter, the Aristotelian policy of coopting and syncretizing religious beliefs into forms suitable to serve as Luciferian Oligarchic state cults was the root of the weakening. In the combined decay of Byzantium and of the episcopal Christianity attached to the Byzantine state, the germs of Platonic-Neoplatonic influence provided the environmental influence for the rise of the Prophet Muhammad, and the subsequent rise of the Ismaili humanist faction within Islam. The establishment of the cities of Baghdad, Sammara and Fatimid Cairo are cases of Ismaili-promoted new cities, continuing the policies of the ancient city-builder faction. The new cities developed in Persia also belong to the same category.

            The transmission of civilization from Ismaili Islam to relatively barbaric Europe becomes most notable in the time of Charlemagne, and the circumstance of Charlemagne's liaison with his contemporary, Caliph Harun al-Rashid of Baghdad. From that point, a fight was joined in Europe between the Aristotelians (the monetarist banker-linked forces attempting, and often succeeding, in controlling the papacy) and the humanist currents.

            Some of these Roman banking families were Jewish, Luciferian Bankers speculating in Roman real estate and engaged in control of a significant part of Mediterranean trade through correspondent connections with banking families as distant as Baghdad.

            Historically the most important of such Jewish banking families of Rome was the Pierleoni. (18) Emulating another Roman Jewish banking family which had "converted" earlier to Christianity, to successfully benefit from the financial advantages of the papacy, the Pierleoni "converted" with the same purpose in view. One member of the family, styling himself Pope Gregory VI, took the direct route to his goal, buying the papacy from an incumbent pope. That sordid arrangement was nullified by intervention of the German emperor, and ex-Gregory VI and his heir Hildebrand, later Pope Gregory VII, were hustled off into exile.

            This occurred during the eleventh century, and is no quaint element of church history but the focus of a chain of events which shaped the course of history over the following centuries, until the culmination of this policy in the mid-fourteenth century Black Death's killing of about half the existing population pf central Europe. To follow events from 1045 AD to 1453 AD in the Mediterranean one must move one's attention constantly back and forth along the map from Rome to as far eastward as Mongolia. All the principal elements of history over that period are directly linked.

            From approximately 1045 AD, Hildebrand, later Pope Gregory VII, was shaping European history for the worst. Hildebrand's immediate principal allies were Lotharingen, Matilda of Tuscany, the Guelphs allied to Maltilda, and the rich, corrupt Cluniac monastic order in France. Hildebrand's adversaries were the empire itself, the independent bishops and other clergy of the Church, and the humanist forces generally.

            Three principal operations of that period were decisive in enabling Hildebrand to seize the Papacy. First, the Norman conquest of Saxon England and the associated project for the Norman conquest of Sicily. Second, the murder of three popes, two by Aristotelian methods within twenty-three days of one another, by Hildebrand's family's associates, a family then, among other functions, providing catering services to the papacy - the famous Borgia Cup!! Third, the alliance with the Seljuk Turkish mercenaries to attempt to crush the last bastions of Ismaili influence within Islam.

            Through Hildebrand's securing the papacy, he, as Pope Gregory VII, instituted a series of what are euphemistically termed "reforms," which like many reputed reforms, were efficiently dedicated to institutionalizing •a more hideous corruption than the reforms were reputed to have remedied.

            First, the Norman conquest of Saxon England.

            Saxon England was a far more civilized place in 1065 than it became again for a long time after the monstrous looting of the population by the Normans. It was the northern base of the Great Design of the German emperors, the northern point of trade routes running into Venice and up across the mountain passes of Switzerland and Austria into the course of the Rhine and its tributaries. From the Black Sea, up the Danube, another channel of trade moved northward, joining with the Rhine tributaries. To the West, the Rhone and the Seine provided another axis of north-south trade, branching into the Meuse. At the intersection of the headwaters of these French rivers, in the vicinity of Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) down to the present Swiss border along the Rhine, east-west routes of trade joined. The Weser and the Elbe had emerging similar functions. From the rich south of France, in the Languedoc of the Albigensian developments, from Toulouse, along the Garonne to the port of Bordeaux, another key route linked the Mediterranean to the Saxon kingdom in the north.

            The eleventh-century levels of per capita wealth and ratios of wealth in trade may appear tiny now, but those quantities in trade represented the sinews of transmission of technological and scientific knowledge. They have been the portion of the social tissue in which economic growth and progress have been located over the, ages.

            Hildebrand and his co-conspirators undertook to begin breaking the power of the empire by attacking its ally in the north. With aid of the intelligence-service capabilities of the Cluniacs, they attacked the Saxons on three fronts simultaneously. They rallied traitorous forces within Saxon England. They deployed the Scandanvians in an invasion that was to deplete the strength of King Harald prior to the Battle of Hastings They launched the Norman invasion as a crusade — in fact, the first crusade as such — with Church blessings of the banners of the invaders and Church rallying of the invading forces.

            The murdering of elected popes terrorized other candidates to the point that Hildebrand was able, with aid of other means, to determine the succession to the papacy, finally installing himself.

            A faction of Baghdad Luciferian Bankers of that time were allies of the Pierleoni in the joint fight against humanism, against city-builder policies. (19) Through their control of Baghdad and other cities, and through the promotion of Seljuk mercenaries (initially brought from the vicinity of present-day Afghanistan), they held the native Islamic population essentially in suppression and had reduced Ismaili power in the region from Mesopotamia eastward almost to nonexistence. However, the Ismaili tradition and influence was still powerfully embedded in sections of the population (it was not to be uprooted until after the Mongol conquest).

            The principal Ismaili figure whose influence the Baghdad Luciferian Bankers most feared was that of Ibn Sina (Avicenna). In the effort to eliminate Ibn Sina's (and other Ismaili) influence, the Baghdad Luciferian Bankers resorted to the Aristotelian method, the cult-of-Dionysus tactic - rent-a-mob.

An evil figure of some demagogic skill, al-Ghazali, was promoted by these Luciferian Bankers and their Seljuk allies, organizing a "sansculotte" movement of terrorists, lumpens and bedouins - Jihadis - to "purify" Islam of reason with an orgy of murder, rape and book-burning. A study of the commentaries in Burton's unexpurgated 1001 Nights, added to the study of the use of the al-Ghazali "Sufi" movement, identifies the methods principally used to this day - ISIS - by British intelligence services in manipulating Arabs and their governments. The British intelligence services have operated a synthetic "Ismaili" sect since the end of the eighteenth century (out of Oxford and Cambridge) and have also operated, with greater emphasis, an international "Sunni" movement also run out of Oxford, Cambridge and Sussex universities, as well as the London School of Economics.

            By crushing the extremes of humanist influence, and by strengthening the Normans as a battering-ram-force against humanism, the Black Guelph forces associated with the Pierleoni created the circumstances advantageous for defeating the humanist forces.

            Gregory VII's "reforms" concentrated both on breaking the independent power' of the Church's bishops (the real purpose of his celibacy rule), and institution of the Aristotelian hoax of "canon law." (20) The essence of this arrangement was to make Christendom nominally helpless before the swindles deployed under protection of the papacy by the Roman and other Guelph-allied banking families, and to ally with the most bucolically imbecilic strata of the nobility against "encroachments" by a humanist, Great Design policy ' of development. The other cornerstone of Gregory VII's policy was the combined institution of the Inquisition and Crusade, although the latter was not formally put into effect until after his death.

            By the close of the eleventh century, the Cluniacs were too blatantly corrupt to be credible as religious authorities. They were replaced by the Cistercians, with whom is associated one of the most evil men in European history, Bernard of Clairvaux, who developed the model on which Martin Luther's (Luciferian Agent of Venice) theology was based.

            The humanist forces were defeated but not crushed. The continuity of the Neoplatonic current was fully maintained. In the East, Hassan ben Saba raised a new kind of force able to deal with the brutal methods of the Seljuks and followers of al-Ghazali, establishing a countervailing Ismaili power in the Middle East which persisted until the Mongol conquest of the thirteenth century. (27) The Knights Templars and Knights Hospitalers were influenced by the Ismailis. Despite the monstrous crimes against humanity perpetrated by a corrupted papacy in the name of the Crusades, humanist power resurged in Europe, especially around the Hohenstaufen from Frederick Barbarossa to Frederick II. Alfonso the Wise of Toledo was a cousin of Frederick II.

            In a concerted operation, the Guelph Venetian faction and its rent an ally Ghengis Khan to the East broke the power of the humanists during the seventh decade of the thirteenth century, celebrating this with the launching of the Inquisition against the Jews.
 

Skull and Bones - the Brotherhood of Death, the Oddfellows, Eulogia, Ishtar, Cybele, Attis, Dagon, Baal, Molech, Inquisition and the Ninth Satanic Circle


            The strategic key to the operation in Europe lay in Asia. The Mongol invasion was the key. Although there never existed a Mongol "horde" — the Mongol male population of that period, boys and men, never exceeded one million by generous estimate — the Byzantine methods of conquest (chiefly by treachery) employed by Genghis Khan did leave some hideous bloodbaths in their aftermath. The papacy had had a liaison with the Mongol leaders since the twelfth century, contributing at least one church in Mongolia at so early a date. It was the papacy which organized the Mongol invasion.

            Hassan ben Saba, who had one of the best intelligence and intelligence-evaluations networks in all history to date, foresaw the shape of things being arranged, correctly assessed Genghis Khan's potentials, and dispatched forty assassins into Mongolia in a regrettably unsuccessful effort to shorten Genghis Khan's career. (22) The crushing of the economy to the East by the Mongol advance had the expected effects on Mediterranean trade, creating the circumstances in which the Templars were crushed by Philip le Bel of France, Alfonso the Wise overthrown in Spain, and Frederick II's power ended in Italy.

            The thirteenth century was the period of rise of the Aristotelian faction as such within the Church. Previously, the most important intellectual influence in Europe had been that of Ibn Sina. Although Averroes of Toledo was not a consistent representative of Ibn Sina's work, Averroes (Ibn Rushd) was an Ismaili. It was he who had rebutted al-Ghazali's The Destruction, the irrationalist attack on Ibn Sina, with his own The Destruction of the Destruction. (The Turks replied to Ibn Rushd with a book entitled, The Destruction of the Destruction of Destruction.) This Ismaili influence reached Europe not only by way of the Toledo school. but through Sicily and Venice, especially under the encouragement of Frederick II. All of the intellectual leaders of Europe in philosophy and science during the thirteenth century were chiefly influenced by the Ismailis. England's Roger Bacon, for example, who died in prison at the hands of the Dominicans under the inquisition, is a notable representative of Ibn Sina's influence. To combat the humanist influence associated with Ibn Sina (Avicenna) the Dominican order was deployed to lead the Inquisition, turning to Aristotle as the Church's then-adopted official philosopher, and following the policy adopted by Thomas Aquinas in his irresponsible writings in criticizing the anti-Aristotelian Ibn Sina as an erring "commentator" upon Aristotle. The entire Aristotelian business was a hoax, as Thomas Aquinas sadly suspected toward the close of his own life. (23) During the fifteenth century, the documents were studied which fully proved the whole Aristotelian business a hoax, as well as the concoction known as "canon law."

            As a consequence of the triumph of the Guelph faction with aid of Aristotle, the Guelph Luciferian Bankers enjoyed an orgy of debt-pyramiding. The Jews — unwanted competition— were driven off, as in England, as a side-effect of monarch's receipt of loans from the Bardi, Peruzzi and other leading Guelph Luciferian Bankers. The pyramiding of the debts of Europe's monarchs and other potentates led to an early form of Schachtian "fiscal austerity." The labor on the estates was intensified and estates significantly depopulated, as a means of producing a short-term increase in debt-service payments capability. In the depletion and mass vagabondage these austerity measures produced, the population of central Europe was turned into a forcing-culture for genocidal epidemic disease — using the "Indian Blanket" form of Bacteriologic Warfare, half of the population was wiped out during the middle of the century.

            The circumstances of the Black Death were also the circumstances of widespread repudiation of unpayable debts. This weakening of the power of the Guelph Luciferian Bankers and Guelph faction provided the opportunity for a resurgence of the humanist renaissance, this time in the form of the Renaissance of the fifteenth century. The Conciliar movement drastically reformed the papacy — and was then sent its way. This development in central Europe was re-enforced by the rule of the humanist Paleologues in Byzantium. The longlived Georgios Gemistos Plethon, one of the greatest intellects of European history, brought to Italy from Byzantium the large bulk of the writings of Plato and other relevant materials on which European knowledge of Plato depends principally to the present date. (24)

            This process of humanist progress was attacked by the Black Guelph in the traditional way— from the east. The Guelph families of Rome, in alliance with the patriarch of the Greek Orthodox Church, organized the fall of Constantinople into the hands of the Turk, Muhammad II, “The Conquerer." (25)

            The key to the operation was the adoption of Aristotle as the official philosopher of the Eastern Church by the patriarch, a point underlined by the excommunication of Plethon as a Platonic. This measure, which isolated the Paleologues from aid by the Greek population, was decisive. When Constantinople was attacked, it was defended only by four thousand Genoese and a mere two thousand Greek militia. On the Turkish side, Muhammad II had siege cannon, a technology supplied to him by the Guelph families of Rome! At the same time, the Guelph deployed operations throughout key points in Europe, tying up Europeans in these affairs to the point that no adequate aid could be dispatched to Constantinople. (26)

            This Black Guelph alliance with the Turks in the East was supplemented by an operation in the West, in Spain, the activation of the Reconquista and Inquisition under the leadership of the evil Ferdinand of Aragon and Castile, consort of Isabella. It is consistent with the character of Ferdinand that he, grandson of a Jew, launched the Inquisition against the Jews of Spain; Even before the Fugger-bought accession of Charles V Hapsburg to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, the Guelph Luciferian Bankers of Italy and their client Ferdinand began to perform a crucial role in the destruction of the culture of the western region of the Mediterranean, including a growing evil role in Italy.

            Although the Spanish infantry continued to play a potent role in Europe until its decisive defeat of 1653, Ferdinand - using the Luciferian Policy of Poverty - created those institutions in Spain which lawfully degraded Spain from a major power into an impoverished "Third World" nation of the looted Iberian peninsula.

            Ferdinand's role was to increase the dominance of the bucolic-imbecilic rural aristocracy of the Reconquista at the expense of the urban and cultured strata of Spain, using the Inquisition and the limpiaza de sangre (purity of blood) as the principal instruments of this social program. It was his policies which shaped the later Spanish genocide in the Americas. (During approximately half a century during the later, sixteenth century, Spanish methods reduced the population of present-day Mexico from over twenty millions to less than two millions.)

            However, it was not until after 1470, notably beginning the 1490s, that the consequences of the fall of Constantinople and Ferdinand's Spanish policies began to have disastrous effects. The Medici family, intimate collaborator of Plethon, established the Platonic Academy (e.g., of Marsilio Ficino) in Florence and spread Platonism throughout Europe.

Plethon did more than bring Platonic scholarship to Western Europe. He was the author of a remarkable policy-formulation, proposed as a policy for defending Byzantium against the Turks, which incorporates every principal feature of modern capitalist policy - Dirigism - for both industrial and agricultural growth, far in advance of anything Satanic Adam Smith, David Ricardo or their successors even understood. Who in Europe knew directly, the contents of this remarkable document is not determined at this point, but the subsequent policies of France's Louis XI and the Dudley’s of Tudor England show the same general policy-thrust.

            Louis XI, as noted before, established modern France from the wreckage and pieces it had been over the preceding centuries, simultaneously multiplying not only the total wealth of the nation, but the per capita production of wealth. Through the faction of Navarre, and such politiques as Richelieu, Mazarin, Colbert, and their eighteenth century successors Vergennes, Turgot, and Brissot, French industrial-capitalist development was established. Through the humanist faction around the Tudors and the later Commonwealth Party of John Milton et al., industrial capitalism was also established in England beyond the ability of the post-1660 monarchical forces to undo this accomplishment.


          
  GIORDANO BRUNO

The most important thinker of the fifteenth century was Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464), the first known thinker (possible excepting Abelard) to fully replicate the conception of the "necessary' existent" earlier developed in the Metaphysics of lbn Sina. Nicholas was a universal mind, noted both for his political-science contributions, such as the relatively early Concordantia Catholica, and his devastating attacks on Aristotle in the course of rigorously setting forth the method later employed by the greatest scientific thinkers of Europe through Gottfried W. Leibniz.

            The most important direct intellectual successor of Cusa was the sixteenth century Giordano Bruno, burned at the stake by allied Guelph Catholic and Protestant officials for purely political reasons in 1600. As a result of the widespread destruction and suppression of Bruno's writings, and the terror his imprisonment and death effected among so many of his allies — including Galileo — it remains an open question whether we shall ever be able to reconstruct the full record of his power and influence in Europe during the last decades of the sixteenth century. So feared was Bruno that even the transcript of his trial was suppressed. What is known to date identifies him as one of the greatest intellects and most effective political personalities in European history.

            It is known that Bruno established a network of organizations throughout Europe, and the chief parts of his work in England and France are known, especially his English work. The Dudleys, Sir Philip Sidney, and Christopher Marlowe were among his closest collaborators in England, and the princes of the House of Navarre his closest collaborators in France. It is also known that most extant Shakespeare scholarship is absurd, on the basis of the evidence turned up by focusing on Bruno's work in England. (28) It is relevant to all these points that Christopher Marlowe wrote "Doctor Faustus" in behalf of an effort to rescue Bruno from the Guelph Inquisition, and that English Tudor poetry, drama and music were based on the Platonic dialogue as a method, a matter in which Bruno's influence was direct and potent.

            Bruno of the late sixteenth century is the key; common link for all humanist networks of the seventeenth century. As such, he is the dominant figure of that period, although one cannot now — and may never be certain — determine what proportion of influence he directly contributed among all the influences intersecting his organizing and related efforts.

            In England, more broadly than just among those figures cited, his orbit was known as the "Italians," a circle to which William Shakespeare was junior, intersecting the work of John Dee, the activities of the teacher of the well-tempered musical system in England, John Bull, and the circles of the scientist William Gilbert, the discoverer of the first principles of magnetism — among other achievements.

            Directly opposite to Bruno and his allies in England was the evil Cecil (Lord Salisbury), and Cecil's appendage, the evil Francis Bacon. Elizabeth I vacillated, balancing, "neither wholly good nor wholly bad," between the Dudley-centered humanists and the Black Guelph Jesuit faction of the Cecils. After the wretched Essex affair, the balance was tilted badly. With the accession of the wretched Stuart, James I, and James's Chancellor of the Exchequer, Francis Bacon, an inquisition was launched against the humanists, the English economy was set back, and the circumstances leading to the belated beheading of Charles I set into motion.

 

AMERICA VERSUS BRITAIN

 

The Erasmian Thomas More's Utopia was the poorest among the outlines of a project adapted by European humanists, notably sixteenth century English humanist leaders such as the Dudleys. The difficulties of establishing a humanist republic of viability under the encumbrance of deeply entrenched Guelphish institutions prompted thought of the ancient policies of the classic humanist city-builders. Go to the Americas, taking some of the best of the European humanists, and build a humanist society there by bringing modern technology to the natives. Use this as a base for building a humanist world order. (29)

            This project was more vigorously pursued in the ebb of Elizabeth's reign and the hideousness of the Stuarts. The Massachusetts Bay Colony, Penn's Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Connecticut, were leading elements of a general effort by the Commonwealth Party to launch such humanist colonizing projects during the seventeenth century. So, a selection of the best humanist' minds of Europe and their predominantly literate supporters established those colonies. (Consequently, during the last half of the eighteenth century the literacy rate and social-productivity of the Americans was more than double that of Britain.)

            In effect, the American Revolution was a civil war between the humanist and Guelph factions within British culture. It was a direct continuation of the civil war in seventeenth century England; and, was seen rightly as a civil war by those American leaders, typified by Paine, who sought to extend the American Revolution into England itself. By the close of the eighteenth century, there was an unbridgable gulf between the leading American humanists and the ruling British empiricists.

            As is generally known, the success of the American Revolution was secured, strategically, through the aid of the League of Armed Neutrality as well as French direct aid. The French aid was the center of this. The point of the matter is not that Benjamin Franklin secured French aid, but that Franklin was the leading American representative of the Commonwealth Party faction throughout the world, the heirs of Penn, Milton, and others. The French humanists, for their part, were essentially Colbertistes, the historical allies of the English Commonwealth Party faction. Moreover, this alliance between Commonwealth Party and Colbertistes was a continuation of the alliance between the Tudor humanists of England and the House of Navarre from the fifteenth century, with roots going back to the time of Louis XI. The key eighteenth century figure to be added into the account is Gottfried Leibniz, the last universal mind of old Europe.

            Against the humanists of the eighteenth century was arrayed the most evil machine ever developed, the Black Guelph ruling elite of Britain.

            In the aftermath of the victory of the Commonwealth, the Black Guelph Luciferian Oligarchical families of Britain had either squatted sullenly in Britain, or had fled to the continent, the core to Holland. In exile, the leaders of this faction drew upon the resources of their allies throughout Europe, determined to build a policy and machine which would ensure their power forever, if — as they were determined — they could once again ensconce themselves in power in Britain.

            Brooding in exile, these forces — typified by Hobbes, Francis Bacon's former secretary, and John Locke — worked out their master plan for dealing with the Platonic-Neoplatonic influence they hated and feared. Francis Bacon was their point of departure, and Aristotle their principal guide. They emulated Aristotle with a vengeance, hoping to replicate what they saw as Aristotle's victory over Plato's Academy. In the course of this they studied, attempted to master, and also to suppress from public knowledge the skills of their Neo-platonic enemies.

            This development went through a second phase during the last decades of the eighteenth century. The defeat of Britain by the American Revolution and League of Armed Neutrality was a crisis for Britain, a crisis which led to the fore the circles of CEO of the British East India Company and later Prime Minister of England, Lord Shelburne. Shelburne's protege William Pitt the Younger, and Shelburne's master of dirty work, head of MI6, Jeremy Bentham.

            This crew, using Swiss and French agents under London's direction, wrecked French credit (Necker), mobilized the slum population (sansculottes) as an initial wrecking force (Orleans's staging of the storming of the Bastille, etc.), and then launched their trained agents Danton and Marat to set in motion the Jacobin Terror, launching the latter from inside the faction of Necker protege and dupe Robespierre. The success of the Shelburne gang in reducing continental Europe into a war-ruin until 1814, and the successful establishment of the bucolic imbecility, the Holy Alliance, as an instrument for paying dividends on debts to the City of London, established the Shelburne gang and its tradition as the ruling force in and around the British monarchy to the present date.

            The poor fools, with a "different perception" of history, are the lawful, helpless prey of that mob attached to the British monarchy. Believing the historical and other mythologies concocted for such credulous fools as themselves, the British can perform the same tired old Aristotelian swindles of, "Pump and Dump", Bubbles and Ponzi Schemes upon them yet another time, without facing an effective defense, and without the victims even then awakening to the reality of what has been done to them.

 

II. THE KEY TO HISTORY

 

The rigorous study of human history as a whole proceeds methodologically from a preliminary division of historiography into three sub-categories. Each of these three, overlapping categories is distinguished from the other two by a specific time-span of its principal, distinct applicability, and also by the distinctions among methods and materials of evidence peculiarly emphatic for each time-span.

            The first is history as such, the conscious history of the rise of Mediterranean and adjoining civilization as developed from the starting point of literary evidence. This category begins as a continuity in approximately the eight century BC.

            The second category is archeological history, whose span begins, varying with locale, approximately between eight and four thousand BC. Although some literary or protoliterary records are obtained from parts of this part, the evidence employed is predominantly non-literary artifacts from the sites of urban centers. The methods developed in such work have been extended in application to agrarian and pastoral sites, and to earlier periods.

            The third sub-category is the paleontological history of our species. This is currently believed to begin between two and three million years ago, during the Pleistocene.

            Beginning with the first category, history as such, the preliminary ordering of the account is produced through cross-checking literary records and of some other forms of other evidence, to produce the reconstructed annals of a 'period of culture in terms of such sources. The literary bits and pieces are thus assembled into a reasonably corroborated narrative account of notable events reported to have occurred at the indicated points of the calendar. This sort of narrative account is indispensable, but only preliminary to actual historiography. It does not represent in itself the essential quality of workmanship by which the historian is properly distinguished from the mere story-teller.

            Historiography begins with informed distrust of literary source-documents from the periods studied. Surviving literary records must be approached with the assumption that such records either are or might probably be defective on several counts. The following illustrative listing of the kinds of probable defects adequately presents the point for this stage of the discussion.

            First, narrative history begins as we have noted, with surviving literary records available to us. This includes not only ordinary literary records, but inscriptions on various monuments and so forth. This source-material as a whole has the obvious defect of not including documents which have not survived, some of which may be as significant as those prominent in the available collections. It also omits the .literary materials not written, but which would be required if we were to possess testimony concerning all important transactions. There are, similarly, the monuments which were either destroyed — or not constructed — to the same effect. In all this. in most periods the portion of the population which left a literary record was small and selective.

            Second, in addition to willful falsifications of fact in official and other source-documents, the rulership and internal ordering of societies has always centered to this time around sets of mythologies. Only special categories of records, created by special kinds of persons under special circumstances have the authority of candor, and still fewer of that same special class represent efficient candor for the professional historian's purposes. In general, the source-documents of history have not been designed on the basis of "objectivity." History has been recorded chiefly for the time and circumstances in which source-documents were written. What is said is usually intended to be credible by prevailing standards of that period. Usually, for a report to meet the contemporary requirements of credibility, it must not make itself incredible by offending prevailing mythologies entirely. It must. in most cases, appeal to credibility as some existing mythology of that time defines credibility. Surviving documents, even were they adequate as accounts of significant occurrences, could not reflect reality as the disciplined historian properly requires. They reflect, overall, principally a mixture of willful falsifications and adaptations to the mythologies of their place and time.

            Third, apart from falsifications and mythologies, most of the authors of source-documents were incompetent to judge the events of their time, to determine why certain consequences ensued from this or that development, or what was in fact important in determining the course of events.

            All these and related faults of source-documents and related evidence, the historian must remedy. History merely as given to us from sources does not yield a narrative to which we can directly and competently address the questions beginning with “Why?”

 

THE CASE OF BISMARCK

 

A further, principal problem of historiography, a problem which few generally accredited historians have so far comprehended in anything near adequacy, is the impossibility of developing a competent account of an isolated part of history in terms of materials available in sources from such a specific locale and period. The case of Bismarck illustrates the point.

            Most of the textbook and related treatment of Bismarck and of Germany during the last half of the nineteenth century is almost useless for understanding the "Why?" of the events of that period and region.

            Bismarck's accession to the Prussian Chancellory was in no respect chiefly a product of circumstances internal either to Prussia itself or Germany as a whole. Bismarck was conspicuously a cultivated protege of the House of Rothschild, and ascended to the Chancellory through notable interventions centered in London origins. In all major respects, Bismarck was a British agent-of-influence. He won the war with Austria (1866) because London rigged the treasuries and the "radical" movements of Europe to procure and secure that result. He won the Franco-Prussian war under London's auspices and pre-arrangements. It was the British Luciferian Oligarchy's preference that Germany be unified (in its main parts) under a Prussian monarchy and Luciferian Oligarchy being molded by London's influence into emulation of the British model.

            Although one can point meaningfully to prominent, included features of the nineteenth century "concert of Europe" to account for the secondary aspects of London's Prussian preference, the criteria by which those empirics were judged in London are not located in the nineteenth century, but in the millennial history of the "Persian model" policies of the Black Guelph faction.

            London's Prussian policy is clearer when compared with London's policy concerning Napoleon III, its Mexican policy, and its policy for attempting to reconquer the United States.

            The France of Napoleon III was notably a Saint-Simonian sort of deformed humanist-republican impulse for industrial progress, contained within and overwhelmed by arrangements dominated more visibly by the "second emperor of France," Baron James Rothschild. To be more exact, Napoleon III was former British special gendarme Louis Bonaparte who was preferred and promoted by British influences, to the purpose of containing the republican impulses expressed in the events of 1848 and 1848's aftermath.

            Thus, within limits, Napoleon III was for a time an interest of London's foreign policy. By 1866-1870 the time had arrived, in London's perception, for dumping Louis Napoleon.

            In the broadest terms, the weakening of France's power on the continent of Europe had been the policy of the Guelph faction and that faction's Roman-banker predecessors since the time of Charlemagne. The pope who officiated at the imperial crowning of Charlemagne and Charlemagne recognized one another as principled adversaries, not notably on personal grounds, but in terms of the policies and interests they respectively represented and typified. It was not a conflict between the emperor and Christian Church, but between Europe and the forces committed to the "Persian model," which latter at that point, and too frequently thereafter, controlled the papacy. This difference was expressed formally by Charlemagne's denunciation of the forgery known as "The Donation of Constantine," the forgery which purported to be the Emperor Constantine's decree placing secular rule of the Western Roman Empire under the authority of the bishop of Rome. France's position as the strongest of the civilized nations of western Europe represented to the Roman Luciferian Bankers controlling the papacy the key political force capable of undoing their efforts to perpetuate the policies of the cult of Apollo and its Stoic version under Christian titles.

            The Scandinavian berserkers' invasion of France was the first of the principal developments which had weakened France to the advantage of the "Christian" agents of the cult of Apollo. The weakening of France had shifted the main political focus of opposition to Apollonian policies to the German Holy Roman emperor. However, without an alliance between Germany and France, subsequent history repeatedly demonstrated, the combination needed to defeat the Apollonian interest was usually lacking.

            Guelph policies against France date efficiently from the founding of the Guelph faction during the eleventh century. .The Guelph mobilization of the Norman Conquest of Saxon England created a Norman power in the north of France which, especially after Simon de Montfort's slaughter of the Albigensians, threatened, weakened and repeatedly almost destroyed France, until Louis XI completed the work inaugurated around the figure of Jeanne d'Arc.

            Although Navarre was allied to the humanist Tudor faction, and Cromwell's England to Mazarin's France, France's English allies had always been the Guelphs'' enemies.

            The model for British Guelph French policy from 1660 to the present date is the House of Orange's operation against Colbert's France. The House of Orange undermined both the French Colbertistes and the Dutch humanists (De Witt, Spinoza, et al.), by strengthening the grip of the rural-aristocratic faction in Louis XIV's court, and launching Louis XIV into his wars against the House of Orange. In the course of that development, the humanist forces in both England and France were then weakened significantly, by Marlborough's campaigns in behalf of the Dutch-Hanoverian interest, and by the simultaneous launching of the two financial bubbles, the South Sea Island and Mississippi bubbles, in both England and France.

            The same policy was applied, somewhat more elaborately to post-1783 France. It must be borne in  mind, to understand Anglo-Dutch Black Guelph policy during that period, that it had been the French-led League of Armed Neutrality which had proven strategically decisive in enabling the victory of the American Revolution. After scrambling the post-1789 efforts of French humanists to construct a French republic on the basis of the American constitutional model and policies, London and its allies undid the ' related impulses among the circles around Carnot — through British Agent Napoleon I.

            It must be noted, to appreciate British policy of that period, that 1784-1812 England was objectively helpless against the power of France. Despite the myths later concocted for the misdirection of the credulous, France of the last half of the eighteenth century was by far the major and most progressive industrial power of the world — despite the Luciferian Oligarchical yoke of serfdom persisting in French agriculture.

Only by inducing France to destroy itself on the continent of Europe could Britain defeat France — and also place all Europe under the British satrapy known as the Holy Alliance. In addition to Anglo-Dutch agent Talleyrand, and despite continued humanist tendencies represented by Carnot, the Napoleonic regime was riddled with Luciferian Black-Guelphish ideologies, typified by the Luciferian Oligarchical struttings of the Napoleonic elite and the degrading influence of Roman law. Napoleon I. by emulating the follies of Louis XIV ultimately won the Napoleonic wars for England.

            The model of Napoleon was parodied by the British and their allies in fostering the judo tactic embodied in Napoleon III.

            What London feared, especially after its experience in the United States' Civil War, was the potential that French and German Rhineland industrial interests would ally programmatically with the emerging political labor movement of those nations, and set into motion an "American Revolution" on the continent of Europe. This potentiality London perceived to be the fatal weakness situated in the regime of Napoleon III, and so the basis in perception for the urgency of the humiliation of France by a Germany under Prussian rule.

            Admittedly, in following that Prussian policy, London set into motion in Germany an industrial impulse echoing awkwardly the very impulse it had attempted to crush in France. However, this oversight of London's did not take important political form until after the ushering of Bismarck from the Chancellory.

            The circumstances of 1866-1871 in Europe were determined by preceding developments in North America.

            The "French faction" in the eighteenth century Spanish Borbon court had transmitted into the cultured circles of Latin America the echo of the "Great Design" policy which was the Greater Spain project. All the Spanish colonies were to be elevated in political status to form a transatlantic Spanish state, a state dedicated to scientific, technological and cultural progress. The defeat of this humanist faction in Spain by the rise of  the British-linked Godoy, and the British puppet-status of Spain and Portugal throughout the nineteenth (into the twentieth) century, had left the active kernel of the Spanish humanists in the colonies.

            Thus, one had, in the case of Mexico, the irony of an independent monarchy pushed forward by the British rulers of Spain, where the Mexican humanists still aspired to play their role in the Greater Spain project, the transatlantic republic.

            Among the most fortunate of the Spanish colonies intellectually was Mexico, the nation in which the humanist influence was most deeply planted and solidly based in the intelligentsia. Here. a genuine civil war has been conducted down into the establishment of the modern Mexican constitution, the struggle between the humanist faction (e.g., Obregon, et al.) and the Luciferian Oligarchical traditions of the antihumanist Spanish Reconquista, a constitution which is otherwise informally known as the continuing Mexican (humanist) revolution.

            During the middle of the nineteenth century, the Mexican humanist tradition was centered around the Kantian Benito Juarez, who gained the leadership of his nation and proceeded toward putting into motion the humanist policies shared by the "French" faction of the eighteenth century Borbon court and by their allies the American revolutionaries.

On the pretexts of the British imperial doctrine of "limited sovereignty" and the collection of Mexico's debt service payments to European Luciferian Bankers, London organized a joint British, French, Spanish invasion and occupation of Mexico. The Foreign Legion of Napoleon III was assigned the duty of looting the Mexican population in behalf of the London Luciferian Bankers. This forerunner of fascist economic policies was nominally legitimized by the installation of the Hapsburg Maximilian on the Mexican throne. London's adherence to the "Persian model" showed clearly.

            London's Mexican project was contingent on the success of London's companion project for dividing the United States itself into several squabbling tyrannies. Rothschild agent August Belmont identified those objectives with shameless candor in his correspondence of that period. A Confederacy, based on chattel slavery and ruled by a slave-owning Luciferian Oligarchy, was to rule in the southeast, under the custody in part of London Rothschild agent and Confederate Treasurer Judah Benjamin. The Western states were to be split away, under British influence. (British agents centered in British Columbia treat the states of Washington and Oregon as colonies about to be recovered by Canada to the present day. One cannot understand the politics of a certain senator from Washington unless one understands this point.)

            The labor-industrialist alliance rallied around the Clay-Carey Whig — Neoplatonic humanist— Abraham Lincoln, by the end of 1862 proved itself in the process of defeating the British project to destroy the United States. During 1863. the British monarchy dropped the project, and also abandoned the Mexican project to the unfortunate Napoleon III and his puppet Maximilian.

            Much is made - too much, of the prominence of names such as Rothschild. Mendelssohn, Oppenheimer, and so forth in London's evil operations against Germany, France, the United States. The role of these Jewish financial houses correlates, a bit too quickly and conclusively in the minds of some, with the role of Jewish financial families in the horrors which have beset civilization during the period since the eighth century BC. A brief summary of the relevant observations should be included at this point, to show the folly of the "international Jewish conspiracy."

            According to admissions conceded by Winston Churchill at the close of the last world war, there were two points of the Nazi regime at which the British had the option of ridding Germany of the Nazi pest. The first was during 1938, when Admiral Canaris and members of the military general staff had an operation in place for overthrowing Hitler. Winston Churchill personally intervened to prevent the plot from being carried through. During the war itself, Allen Dulles and others had established links with generals and others prepared to dump Hitler, the conspiracy which ultimately expressed itself as the "generals' plot." Churchill once again directly intervened to prevent support of this plot.

This, Churchill admitted to have been British government policy (omitting mention of his personal role in the matter). Churchill's reply to the parliamentary question, credibly reported to have been drafted by the same Hugh Trevor-Roper who sponsored the postwar doctrine of German "collective guilt." emphasized that Britain did not support the overthrow of Hitler, because His Majesty's government preferred Hitler to his opponents in each instance.

            That matter highlights in the sharpest fashion the nature of the relationship between the British monarchy's "court Jews." such as the House of Rothschild, and the forces which actually rule Britain. The Rothschilds, in particular, have shown themselves persistently, fearfully perceptive of that reality, struggling to secure the added protection of the highest possible aristocratic titles for each branch of their family. In a sense, the Rothschilds are a nominal and important part of the British aristocracy, but no Jew could ever become truly an insider to the most crudely anti-Semitic stratum of power existing on earth today.

            "The phenomenon exemplified for popular contemplation by the name Rothschild is, from the Jewish side, the pursuit of the policy of "Jewish survival" on the terms traditionally adopted by a majority of "court Jews" over the centuries — especially since the thirteenth century. Some Jews in that stratum are known to view the matter explicitly in those terms. On grounds of overwhelming evidence, one assumes that most members of "court Jewish" families either attempt to hide the issue from themselves whenever possible as some are known to do, or view it less blindly in essentially the indicated terms.

            It is by being indispensable to their Luciferian Oligarchical Black Guelph masters, accomplishing for those masters what the masters could not accomplish otherwise for themselves, that the "court Jew" survives as a "court Jew."

In this fashion, by virtue of this often morally wretched and always degrading sort of outstanding service to his Luciferian Oligarchical masters, the "court Jew" produces evidence apparently supporting the myth of the "the international Jewish conspiracy." What is the origin of the Rothschilds? Out of the ranks of Germany's "court Jews." What is the origin of the Jewish financial houses known as the Oppenheimers, the Mendelssohns? The same. Jewish fear is key.

            It is against the background of events so exemplified that one probes the British Luciferian Oligarchical mind to locate the criteria which governed London's decision to sponsor Bismarck as its "man in the Prussian Chancellory." Prince Albert was explicit. The Prussian aristocracy needed to be led into better informed, British Luciferian Oligarchical ways of doing things, to understand the importance of the charades of "liberalism" as a means for strengthening — and masking — the autocratic, Luciferian Oligarchical power behind the charade.

The essential thing, excluding all those criticisms London did moot or may have mooted concerning the Prussian Luciferian Oligarchy, was to promote the "Persian model" — to proceed pragmatically toward the "feudalist" Utopia to which Black Guelph tradition remains committed to the present date.

            Advance the Luciferian Oligarchical cause pragmatically: that is British-centered Black Guelph policy. Abandon a vulnerable flank here. Seek to position the influence of the Luciferian Oligarchy advantageously there. Plant the seeds of future strategic Luciferian Oligarchical advantage where nothing more is feasible. Meanwhile, move constantly to isolate and destroy the Platonic-Neoplatonic influences everywhere, under all conditions, whether as political forces, as national policies, as factional policies, or in the sciences, music, literature, and so forth.

            The case of the North American Confederacy is exemplary. (7) By a narrow squeak, chattel slavery was not outlawed with the establishment of the U.S. Constitution. The need for the votes from Virginia was crucial on this connection. However, the United States was committed to ending chattel slavery, until the close of the Napoleonic wars in Europe. Britain's control of the Holy Alliance, of the high seas of commerce and world trade placed the isolated United States in the position, aided by corrupted New England commercial interests, in which an increase in black chattel slavery was imposed upon the United States, an increase accelerated by the election of British agent-of-influence Andrew Jackson to the U.S. Presidency.

            The thrust of Jackson's and Van Buren's policies was to wreck the United States' previous policy of scientific and industrially centered technological progress, and to impose a "zero growth," rurally oriented policy. The promotion of black chattel slavery was an integral part of this operational policy.

            This policy of promoting black chattel plantation slavery had two distinguishable features. First, economically, the looting of the soil and slaves' bodies and minds in cotton production represented a looting of the internal economy of the United States in favor of London financial interests, with a portion of the theft paid off to both United States financial and commercial interests as well as the plantation Luciferian Oligarchy.

Second, this British theft fostered the development of the seeds of the "Persian model" in the United States, the emergence of a plantation-centered Luciferian Oligarchical class of slaveowners allied to London-linked monetarist financial interests centered in New Orleans, New York, and Boston. The most conspicuous of those financial interests were U.S. agents of the London Rothschilds.

            From Aaron Burr and the Gallatin family. New York-centered British agents and agents of influence controlled the national leadership of the Democratic Party. Van Buren and his puppet Andrew Jackson exemplify this, as do Pierce, Buchanan and 1864 Democratic nominee McClellan. It was the alliance of southern slave-owning Luciferian Oligarchs and monetarist financial and commercial interests which controlled the United States in varying degrees of domination from 1829 through 1860.

            Likewise, only by tracing such policies to their roots in the cult of Apollo, to show how the British mentality has been evolved as a luciferian-species-mentality, can one comprehend the criteria which governed London's choice of Bismarck and Prussia. Without knowing the sweep of history as a process, one can not competently understand any of its parts.



How The Venetians Took Over England and Created Freemasonry

Conference Address by Gerald Rose, Schiller Institute Conference, September, 1993

I had become increasingly interested for many years, beginning with my research into the American Revolution, as to why England seemed to be the source of such evil. This is not only on the level of geopolitics and the unbelievable savagery that the British Empire carried out in its usury and slavery, but also on the level of culture. The British creation of Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, and Hume, leading to the outright Satanism of Bertrand Russell, Aldous Huxley, Aleister Crowley, etc. underscores the motivation that created the British Empire. As you look deeper, there is no doubt that the New Age issued from England. This includes emphatically the creation of the Jacobins at the hands of Lord Shelburne and the creation of communism--with its twin evil, fascism--at the British Foreign Office by Lord Palmerston and in his collaboration with Giuseppe Mazzini.

The stated goal of the New Age is the destruction of monotheistic religion and a return to outright paganism, whore of Babylon sexual ritual, homosexual dog priest sexual ritual, pederasty, bestialism, human sacrifice.

Freemasonry is the instrument created to carry out this return to paganism. It is the Venetian takeover of England and its creation of Freemasonry that is our subject today.

I think it is important here, to reference the prime satanic evil that Venice really is. There are two works of art which deal most effectively with the methods of Venice. They are The Jew of Malta by Christopher Marlowe and The Ghostseer by Friedrich Schiller.

In both masterpieces, we see a portrait of pure evil, where there is no right or wrong, just corruption. The key to this is Aristotle, and it should not come as any surprise that it was the University of Padua, run by Venice, that trained the elite of Venice explicitly in Aristotle.

Aristotle rejects Plato's method of successive approximations of perfection, which bring one closer to the Creator. For Aristotle, the Creator has nothing to do with the unfolding of the universe and the continuing creation. For Aristotle, man's progress is a mere illusion and we are always infinitely far from the Creator. For Aristotle, there is no right or wrong, because there is no knowable truth. For Aristotle, there is only ethics but no morality, and ethics is only a matter of convention.

In The Ghostseer Schiller captures this in the most profound way. He shows that the essence of Venice is that it is always on both sides of every issue--but the essence of its method is corruption: Find the adversary's weakness, and then corrupt him. This is Satanic. It is evil for evil's sake. Its method is to degrade humanity and take delight in that. We will recount how this Venetian evil took over England and created the New Age.



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Cultural Warfare


How did the ``New Age'' come into existence? This story will be told today. Further, we will achieve a most startling result: We will learn that what we call modern scientific method is basically occult belief created by Freemasonry to destroy the work of Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa. It was the Venetian creation of Freemasonry that imposed upon science a radical split between the science of the Spirit which is theology and the science of matter. As you will learn, this is literally gnostic. This is not an epithet; it is quite literally true. Our major problem looking at this period is that we are trying to track two secret societies, both the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons. If you were Sherlock Holmes you would never find them. If they were careful, they would leave contradictory clues and you would never be able to reach a conclusion as to who they are, using traditional empiricist methods.

 
How do you proceed? you must use the method of hypothesis of the Necessary Existent.

What do I mean by that? We must proceed from what we know to be the case.

What do we know about all warfare? Ninety percent is cultural and only 10 percent is physical.

And the key is culture. Analyze the culture and no matter what name a thing is given, you will never be fooled.

It is on the level of culture that our enemy must drop his guard. He is not that bright and when Satan is forced out on the level of culture, he is scared. As we can document, after the initial debates with Lyndon LaRouche on the question of economics, these cultists never dared debate him again. They are, as Satan is, primarily frauds.

We will focus intensively on the Venetian takeover of England, for it was England that had the misfortune of becoming the new Venice and where Freemasonry was to establish itself.

At our conference a year ago, Webster Tarpley presented the documentation showing how Venice created the Reformation and the Counterreformation in order to implement the New Age [published in a longer version in New Federalist in three installments, March 22, April 5, April 12, 1992]. It is important to state this, because any competent approach must focus on the cultural climate as the basis on which any intelligence operation can be run. It is prima facie imcompetent to believe that history is run by assassinations and gossip, without first accounting for what are the cultural paradigms which are being fought out.

Now to our story.



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The Venetian Reformers


After the League of Cambrai almost destroyed Venice in 1509-13, Gasparo Contarini, from one of the leading noble families in Venice created a grouping, later known as ``I Spirituali,'' that decided that the hedonism that had overcome the Venetian ruling families up until Cambrai would have to change. Contarini and his Venetian Agents Giorgi (or Zorzi) and Sarpi created movements which still rule the World

Cardinal Contarini was able to create a a group of ``reformers'' that created all the essentials of protestantism while remaining nominally within the Catholic Church. Gasparo Contarini was trained by Pietro Pomponazzi, the leading Aristotelian at the Venetian Sponsored University of Padua. Under the guise of Christian piety, Cardinal Contarini led a dramatic return to Aristotle within the Catholic Church and also created the Venetian intelligence arm, the Jesuits.

It was Venetian Agent Cardinal Contarini who set up the commission that led to the Council of Trent, which was to prosecute the war against the Protestant Reformation, while on the other side, as Webster documents, Contarini and his associates created Luther the Venetian Agent who created Protestantism in order to oppose the Catholic Church, - "Divide and Conquer".

It was Venetian Agent Giorgi or Zorzi who created the dummed down myths of Satanism, Rosicrucianism, Alchemy and Freemasonry - not the real thing as used by the real Luciferian Oligarchic Elite and Energy Enhancement - in order to subvert governments, create Occult Subversive Terrorist groups and oppose Catholicism and its, "Imago Dei".

It was Venetian Agent Sarpi who created the myths of Carrying Capacity later plagiarised by Malthus and the Green myths of using less energy so as to move humanity back into a Feudal Serfdom and back to living in caves - for the Earth! - because it is the richness, the amount of energy - increased flux density of energy - which humanity can use which detemines its wealth and richness.

As one American General, Curtis LeMay, May 1964 said, "Bomb them back into the Stone Age", which determines the satanic wanted evolutionary cultural level of Humanity. Sarpi introduced these myths for later use to his political agents in every country in the world.


From a limited standpoint it was clear that the very existence of the Catholic Church and a powerful Spain would always threaten a Venice whose naval power was formidable, but whose ability to defend itself on land was very limited because of its size. As the Venetians saw in the League of Cambrai, the very existence of these institutions was a threat to Venice.

Yet, on a deeper level, something much more devastating was going on. As LaRouche pointed out in his paper ``On the Subject of God,'' the abiding commitment to Aristotelianism stemmed from an Luciferian Oligarchical outlook of tremendous contempt for humankind as capable of being, "The Living Image of God" or "Imago Viva Dei".

Instead, for the Luciferians, a perverted humanity must not believe in a life after death, the myth of freedom to enjoy yourself without having to say sorry to the victim people you hurt in the process and homosexuality seem to be the calling card of the Libertine Aristotelian Venusian Agents.

Aristotelianism and homosexuality is an Luciferian Oligarchical disease.

It was Christianity that asserted that all men were in the image of God, which represented a mortal threat to the Venetian Luciferian Oligarchy. Luciferian Oligarchs are the ``Gods of Olympus'' who live outside of the body on the astral plane on the vampirised energy and pain of all humanity and who think of themselves as above God's law.

Indeed they consider themselves the creators of the law.

They hate Christianity and the Renaissance's reassertion of this idea of humanity as "Imago Viva Dei" in a profoundly personal way.

We could develop this more if there were more time. I wanted to reference it because freemasonry and the New Age are a Venetian attempt to wipe Christianity from the face of the earth.



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Venice Invades England


It is not an accident that Venice focused much of its attention on England.

 
The Venetians said it themselves. In the Venetian ambassadors' reports to the Venetian Senate, which are now public, England was the key to the destruction of Spain. One report outlines that Flanders and the Netherlands were the workshop of the Spanish Empire. If you could control the English Channel, then you could break the Spanish sea route to the Netherlands and weaken Spain irrevocably. It is uncanny how accurate the Venetian report on this is. It is in fact exactly what happens during the Thirty Years' War.

I believe this story begins with the break of Henry VIII from continental Europe with his setting up of the Anglican Church. This cataclysm in English history set up the basis for religious warfare that was to rip England apart for centuries.

It was the hope of the Renaissance men such as Erasmus and Colet and emphatically Sir Thomas More that England would become an island of great learning and a benefit to all mankind. Erasmus dedicated his Enchiridion of the Militant Christian to England's Henry VIII, just as he dedicated his Education of a Christian Prince to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

The Venetians decided they could not to allow this.

Venice's big concern ever since the League of Cambrai almost wiped them out was to assure that Spain was never to have a league with France and England again. The papacy had some interest in this, because the contest between France and Spain tended to be fought out on Italian soil. I state this because the papacy was among the first to form the League of Cambrai and declare a war on Venice. The league came within an inch of crushing them forever, yet the papacy was the first to break ranks and conclude a peace with Venice.

If we look at English diplomacy during the League of Cambrai, when Spain went into the league, so too, did England join. When the alliance broke down, and Spain had a quarrel with France, Henry immediately declared war on France. The obvious point is that, as long as Henry VIII was married to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of the Spanish king, the ability to manipulate Henry against Spain was greatly diminished. This came to a head after the Sack of Rome. At the Battle of Pavia in 1525, the French troops were so badly defeated by Charles V, that the French king was seized and held for ransom.

Venice panicked. Besides the fact that a victorious Spanish army was on Italian soil, the French, who were critical to the Venetian balance of power against Spain, had just fallen apart. This was the year 1525. From the Venetian standpoint, England had to break with Spain.

There was only one way to do that: Henry had to be induced to divorce Catherine. The pretext for divorce was to be Catherine's failure to produce a male heir. Clearly Henry was driven mad by this adventure if he were not mad already. There were ways that Henry could have resolved this matter peaceably without a divorce or a break with Rome. One way--it was suggested even by Henry--was to legitimize his bastard son so that this offspring could have been his rightful heir. This, by the way, had been sanctioned by the papacy in a previous case. Another way was to marry his lover Anne Boleyn while remaining married to Catherine, in order to produce male offspring for the succession. Such arrangements had been made before for reasons of state with papal sanction.

On the one hand, the papacy under Spanish control could not allow any of this, but more significantly it seems that Henry was induced to take the most violent path possible. His chief adviser for the initial phase was Cardinal Wolsey. Wolsey was perfectly happy to get some kind of dispensation from the papacy for Henry. Wolsey did not want anything too precipitous to happen because he had pretensions to be elected pope with French help.

Then something dramatic happened. Henry dumped Wolsey and the Howard family became Henry's top advisers. In their midst was the top Venetian agent Thomas Cromwell--I mean literally trained in Venice. One can speculate on the exact way this was done, but there can be no doubt of Venetian control of the split.

In the middle of this, in 1529, the Venetian friar and cabalist Francesco Giorgi (Zorzi) comes on the scene. He is sought out by Thomas Cranmer, who is soon to become the first archbishop of Canterbury agreeable to the break with Rome. The pretext for bringing in Giorgi was that he could read the original Hebrew of the Old Testament to discern whether Henry's marriage to Catherine had been valid in the first place. The background is that Catherine had originally been married to Henry's elder brother, the crown Prince Arthur, who then died within a few months. There is one passage in the Old Testament recognizing a man's obligation to marry his deceased brother's wife, and one passage forbidding the same. To cover all possibilities, a papal dispensation had been issued permitting Henry's marriage to Catherine. Giorgi was now brought in to persuade Henry that the biblical passage prohibiting such a marriage was authoritative, and that the opposing passage was not applicable. The dispensation on which Henry's marriage rested, by virtue of having contravened scripture, was null and void. The pope had exceeded his authority by issuing it, according to Giorgi. Catherine's credible testimony that her first marriage had never been consummated was simply ignored.

According to Giorgi, therefore, Henry had never been legally married to Catherine. Giorgi, with the full power of Venice behind him, assured Henry that he would be supported in his break. Henry was by now inflamed with passion for Anne Boleyn, the granddaughter of Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk, and eagerly grasped for Giorgi's conclusions.

Once Cranmer was named archbishop of Canterbury, he officially rendered a new decision using Giorgi's reasoning. Appeals to Rome had now been made high treason.



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Giorgi and the Occult - "False Gold is created because the True Gold Exists!!"


Giorgi was no minor figure. His family was one of the ten top ruling families of Venice and he became one of Venice's ambassadors during critical years after the sack of Rome in 1527.

 
Yet, more significant than his interpretation of scripture relating to the divorce of Henry VIII, as critical as that was, was that he was the transmission belt for a counterculture movement which was to culminate in the occult takeover of England and eventually lead to the creation of Speculative Freemasonry. It is striking that Giorgi was aware of who his major enemy was. In his major work, Harmonice Mundi, Giorgi attacks Nicholas of Cusa. In what should become known as the very founding statement of Speculative Freemasonry, Giorgi states: ``The seeker after the Monas (the one) may retreat into negative theology and the Docta Ignorantia, or he may seek to follow the divine Monas in its expansion into the three Worlds.''

Harmonice Mundi is one of the first systematic works of the Neoplatonic so-called Christian Cabala. Giorgi makes a deadly cultural assault on England. He introduces two critical notions which set England up for Freemasonry. First, the Neoplatonic idea that the ``One'' is directly knowable through the senses. In Plato's Parmenides dialogue, he proves that there is only one way human beings can have knowledge of the One. He proves it by a method later called by Cusa ``docta ignorantia,'' by the method of proving intellectually through the senses that any approach that attempts to resolve the paradox of the one and the many leads to hopeless contradiction through the senses alone. Therefore, he leaves the reader of the dialogue with the necessity to hypothesize another solution, that of going beyond the physical senses in meditation to contact the intuition, higher than the intellect, of the Soul and higher chakras above the head. The idea that the one is directly knowable through the senses is a direct distortion of Plato.

The idea that God is directly knowable is a mystical notion which is true of meditation but never true of the senses and this is the nub of the false myth of Giorgi's mythical Luciferian Oligarchic sponsored religion. Here we get directly to the point of Venetian epistemology. As Lyn elaborates in his paper on ``History As Science,'' the face of evil is empiricism, or the belief that the only thing you can know is what is verified directly by your senses.

It would seem that mysticism and empiricism are directly polar opposites and this is true except to Giorgi. Mysticism is the exact opposite of empiricism. The logic of the mystic Giorgi, is that indeed we can only know through our senses; therefore the only way to truly know God is to directly experience him through our senses. This is the essence of Giorgi's Luciferian Oligarchic myth of mysticism. It is actually only empiricism. This is the lie of his false religions.

True mysticism, True alchemy and freemasonry exists only through its basis, meditation - The Masonic, "Point from which a man cannot err" - This is the true Gold.

Giorgis Alchemy and Freemasonry is a lie based solely upon the intellect and the senses, without intuition, without meditation - This is the false Gold.

Of course the true Luciferian Oligarchic elite work through meditation - projection onto the astral plane and the development of psychic powers. An ancient meditative technology with the addition of the ancient science of creating energy blockages to facilitate mind control of servants, similar to the creation of evil myth, but also to enable one to cut oneself off from the infinite energy of God.

Thus in order to live forever, they need to maintain their energy through vampirism of the psychic energies of humanity. They know about meditation, but they refuse to teach it or to enable any true teaching of its technology. Instead they lead their servants through false promises of immortality through advanced elite medicine and the false promise of transhumanism - uploaded into the machine - which they themselves have won solely by meditational techniques which they do not teach correctly to their satanic servants, - instead feeding the satiation of their servants senses through the perversion of drugs and sex - a false heaven.



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Attack on the Renaissance


It is here I want to develop what might seem like a diversion--but there is no way you can understand what happens next without such a discussion. Frances Yates, an enemy of ours at the Warburg Institute, has done, from an enemy standpoint, some useful work on the creation of a pagan revival around the Platonic Academy of Florence. I must add a cautionary point here which is indicative of how our enemies create myths. The Warburg Institute is the major research institute into the Renaissance. It is Yates at Warburg who attempts to prove that the Renaissance came from an occult return to pre-Christian religions and a revival of Neoplatonism.


So in her typical fashion, she goes much too far, but her identification of the tendency is irrefutable. The attack on the Aristotelian Schoolmen issuing from the Renaissance is useful and has a spinoff effect, particularly in England, of creating a highly literate grouping around John Colet and others, who travel to Florence and learn ancient Greek. They group around Erasmus and Sir Thomas More. They create a flowering of real Christianity and culture which leads to Shakespeare.

It should also be noted that Erasmus came out of the great teaching movement called the Brethren of the Common Life and not predominantly from Ficino's Platonic Academy.

One has to understand what insanity it was for Aristotle to be allowed to remain the predominant force in universities, to understand what a relief it was to reintroduce Plato in the original. This useful work was translated by Ficino and funded by Cosimo De Medici.

Yet, alongside of this came a Neoplatonic fraud and the translation of an ancient mystic by the name of Hermes Trismegistus. According to the legend believed in the fifteenth century, which had come from Lactantius, a father of the Church, Hermes Trismegistus was supposed to have foretold the coming of Christ. Hermes Trismegistus, in the book titled The Perfect Word, made use of these words: ``The Lord and Creator of all things, whom we have thought right to call God, since He made the second God visible and sensible.... Since, therefore, He made Him first, and alone, and one only, He appeared to Him beautiful, and most full of all good things; and He hallowed Him, and altogether loved Him as His own Son.'' The fraud perpetrated by Neoplatonics of the second century was that Hermes was supposed to have been living at the time of Moses and his creation story and the quote which I read you was all about 1,500 years before Christ. In reality it was dated about the second century A.D. Ficino did not know that. Therefore, the reverence for Hermes was based on the belief that he foretold by 1,500 years the coming of Christ.

In the hermetic works that Ficino translated, he personally was very struck by some of the Natural Magic elements that were in the writings. He meant no heresy and was later defended by the Pope, but it opened the door to legitimizing what turned out to be a Neoplatonic fraud. The danger here is the same danger that was always inherent in the Neoplatonics as opposed to the real Plato. The Neoplatonics belived in a world spirit, and that one could coax the spirit into matter through cutting off the soul from God. The Soul was located midway between spirit and matter. This use of the cut off soul is what is known as magic. Augustine was revulsed by this practice and strongly admonished Hermes for practicing such magic.



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The Cabala


The worst aspect of this came in through Pico della Mirandola. He went back to an idea of the world soul, asserting that man participated only as a receptacle of the world soul. Presumably, the body died but the world soul lived on. This denied the individual soul and the uniqueness of the individual. Pico, in his ``Oration on The Dignity Of Man,'' gives his most dramatic formulation of this idea:
``... Whatever seeds each man cultivates will grow to maturity and bear in him their own fruit. If they be vegetative, he will be like a plant. If sensitive, he will become brutish. If rational, he will grow into heavenly being. If intellectual, he will be an angel and the son of God. And if, happy in the lot of no created thing, he withdraws into the center of his own unity, his spirit, made one with God, in the solitary darkness of God, who is set above all things, shall surpass them all. Who would not admire this our chameleon? Or who could more greatly admire aught else whatever? It is man who Asclepius of Athens, arguing from his mutability of character and from his self-transforming nature, on just grounds says was symbolized by Proteus in the mysteries. Hence those metamorphoses renowned among the Hebrews and the Pythagoreans.''

Pico also went further into mysticism, as he insisted that the Cabala was the fount of ancient wisdom that Moses passed down to elite disciples, an esoteric doctrine that only an elect can interpret. This is the idea that through the intellectual manipulation of symbols you could directly access God and His universe in prediction and divination. It is a rejection of scientific method in favor of the intellectual manipulation of symbols.

Pico wrote: ``35. In exactly the same way, when the true interpretation of the Law according to the command of God, divinely handed down to Moses, was revealed, it was called the Cabala, a word which is the same among the Hebrews as `reception' among ourselves; for this reason, of course, that one man from another, by a sort of hereditary right, received that doctrine not through written records but through a regular succession of revelations.... In these books principally resides, as Esdras with a clear voice justly declared, the spring of understanding, that is, the ineffable theology of the supersubstantial deity; the fountain of wisdom, that is, the exact metaphysic of the intellectual and angelic forms; and the stream of knowledge, that is, the most steadfast philosophy of natural things.''

It is this movement that Giorgi is a part of and this branch of Venetian philosophy founds Freemasonry and the New Age.

Here is a point of enormous importance. One of the main confusions that the present-day Catholic Church has on the question of the Renaissance is that Aristotelians in the Church used the identification of this Neoplatonic problem to attack the Renaissance as pagan and humanistic, when in fact this was launched as an operation by Venetian funded Paduan Aristotelians in the guise of Platonism to destroy Cusa and Christianity.

This occult Neoplatonism and Cabalism came pouring into England. No less than Christopher Marlowe took up the attack against it.

In his play on Faustus, Marlowe identifies the problem of the whole Elizabethan elite. Marlowe himself was an intelligence operative and was on the inside of major decisions being made by Walsingham, who was in a sense CIA chief under Elizabeth.

Marlowe sums up the problem of the age and exposes the mysticism and necromancy around the court of Elizabeth. The whole of Faust was that he was fed up with all knowledge. Presumably this was an attack on Aristotelian Schoolmen, but Faust, in the end, makes a deal with the devil. In this, Marlowe identifies the truth about the relationship between Arisotelianism and mysticism. A school to promote Satanism.

Marlowe's play caused complete pandemonium in the Venetian networks around Elizabeth. In a coup de grace, Marlowe directly references Giorgi. When Mephistopheles appears to Faust and he is too ugly, Faust says, ``Go and return an old Franciscian friar, that holy shape becomes a devil best.''

It was shortly after this play was written that Marlowe was assassinated.



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The Creation of Freemasonry


Now we pick up the story of the 1580s and how the Venetians created Freemasonry in England.
As I said, occultism was pouring into England. With the defeat of the Spanish Armada, a Venetian grouping around Fra Paolo Sarpi, called the Giovani, decided to become more aggressive.

Venice gets into a war with the papacy in 1606. It is a jurisdictional dispute over money and the right to try criminals who happen to be under papal jurisdiction. The pope puts Venice under the interdict. Sarpi is chosen by Venice to defend the city-state and is excommunicated. He successfully writes several pamphlets against Rome which are immediately translated into English and widely distributed. After Venice wins this battle, Sarpi is nearly assassinated, and despite several wounds to the neck and head, he survives. The assassination attempt is put correctly at Rome's doorstep. At that point, Sarpi becomes the most celebrated man in Venice and England. Henry Wotton, the English diplomat, was in touch with Sarpi the whole time, through go-betweens.

The next escalation occurred in 1616, when a royal marriage was arranged. This marriage was the talk of England and was called the Marriage of the Thames and the Rhine. James I's daughter was to marry the Elector of Palatine. This Protestant-Anglican marriage was, in the view of Venice, a significant counterweight to the Habsburgs.

Then the strangest thing occurs. The year of the marriage the first Rosicrucian tract is written. It is called the ``Fama.'' It calls for the formation of a Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross and for the reformation of all knowledge. It is not too distant from what Francis Bacon, a friend of Sarpi, is calling for. Shortly thereafter, another document, the ``Confession,'' again explicitly Rosicrucian, is written. It calls the pope the anti-Christ. Both are written in German and circulated in the territory of the Elector of Palatine.

This stuff is straight Neoplatonic Cabalism. Here is a description of the grave of Christian Rosenkreutz from the first pamphlet, ``Fama'':

``In the morning following, we opened the door, and there appeared to our sight a vault of seven sides and corners, every side five foot broad, and the height of eight foot. Although the sun never shined in this vault, nevertheless it was enlightened with another sun, which had learned this from the sun, and was situated in the upper part in the center of the ceiling. In the midst, instead of a tombstone, was a round altar covered over with a plate of brass, and thereon this engraven: ... ``This is all clear and bright, as also the seven sides and the two Heptagoni: so we kneeled altogether down and gave thanks to the sole wise, sole mighty and sole eternal God, who hath taught us more than all men's wits could have found out, praised be his holy name. This vault we parted in three parts, the upper part or ceiling, the wall or side, the ground or floor. ``Of the upper part you shall understand no more of it at this time, but that it was divided according to the seven sides in the triangle, which was in the bright center; but what therein is contained, you shall God willing (that are desirous of our society) behold the same with your own eyes; but every side or wall is parted into ten figures, every one with their several figures and sentences, as they are truly shown and set forth Concentratum here in our book.''

Several other documents on the Rosicrucian thesis were written, all confessing to have solved the riddle of the relationship between the microcosm and the macrocosm. This was also the name of a book written by Robert Fludd. Fludd is attacked by Kepler as a mystic who uses numbers as a form of cabalistic symbolism, and engages in a wild defense of his writings. Almost immediately, several Rosicrucian documents are written and circulated, all published by the same publisher in the Palatinate.

The political, Venetian side to this was totally obvious. The military adviser to the elector was Christian Anhalt, a friend of Henry Wotton and Paolo Sarpi. Their hopes were that a Protestant League would form around the prince in his effort to take the Bohemian Crown and defeat the Habsburgs. The elector is massively defeated. This incident touched off the Thirty Years' War. It is reported that the reason he was so defeated was that James of England refused to go along with the plan. We would not be far off the mark if we said that from Venice's standpoint James was not adequate, and Venice had to bring a more radical government into power. It was they who supported Oliver Cromwell. Venice always wanted parliamentary sovereignty as a form of government to control any king.

What were the Venetians up to? Now it becomes interesting. Consider two quotes, one by Sarpi and the other by Paruta, you have a fundamental attack on scientific method. Paruta had been an empiricist:

``Although our intellect may be divine from its birth, nevertheless here below it lives among these earthly members and cannot perform its operations without the help of bodily sensation. By their means, drawing into the mind the images of material things, it represents these things to itself and in this way forms its concepts of them. By the same token it customarily rises to spiritual contemplations not by itself but awakened by sense objects.''

Sarpi was also an empiricist: ``There are four modes of philosophizing: the first with reason alone, the second with sense alone, the third with reason and then sense, and the fourth beginning with sense and ending with reason. The first is the worst, because from it we know what we would like to be, not what is. The third is bad because we many times distort what is into what we would like, rather than adjusting what we would like to what is. The second is true but crude, permitting us to know little and that rather of things than of their causes. The fourth is the best we can have in this miserable life.''

This is Francis Bacon's inductive method. Bacon's ideas about inductive method were taken, plagiarised, from the ``Arte di ben pensare'' and other of Sarpi's writings.

Here I would like to quote from Webster Tarpley's series in The New Federalist: ``Sarpi sounds very much like Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, and Hume. This is no surprise, since Sarpi and Micanzio were in close contact with Hobbes and Bacon, sometimes directly, and sometimes through William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire, a friend of Francis Bacon and the employer of Thomas Hobbes. Bacon was of course a raving irrationalist, a Venetian-style Rosicrucian, and a bugger. Cavendish may have introduced Bacon to Hobbes, who soon became a couple. In Chatsworth House in Cornwall there is a manuscript entitled `Hobbes' Translations of Italian Letters,' containing 77 missives from Micanzio to the Earl (called `Candiscio'). According to Dudley Carleton, Cavendish visited Venice and Padua in September 1614, accompanied by Hobbes. At that time meetings with Sarpi and Micanzio would have been on the agenda.

``This is clearly the inspiration for Francis Bacon's ramblings on method.'' Now the most startling result.

Bacon, Fludd, and Descartes, all claim to be Rosicrucians or searching for the Rosicrucians. The coincidence is overwhelming.

What was this movement? It becomes the British Royal Society and Freemasonry. This Venetian cult actually runs the science establishment of Western Europe! Our scientists today are the most buggered epistemologically of any group in society!



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The Royal Society


Now to the creation of the British Royal Society. We date the formation earlier than was previously thought. There was a series of meetings in England in 1640. This is an important year because it was the beginning of the Long Parliament. Comenius and Samuel Hartlib were involved. Comenius was originally from Bohemia, and was in the Palatinate during the fateful Rosicrucian years, along with the Englishman Samuel Hartlib, with whom he was in close contact. With the defeat of the Palatinate they both, through different routes, end up in England. When the Long Parliament started, there was another outburst of ecstatic literature. One piece written by Hartlib in 1640, ``A Description of the Famous Kingdom of Macaria,'' is a utopian work addressed to the attention of the Long Parliament. A year later, Comenius wrote ``The Way of Light.'' They call for an ``Invisible College,'' which is a Rosicrucian code name.

 
Now the plot thickens. In 1645, a meeting takes place for a discussion of the natural sciences. Present at the meeting are Mr. Theodore Haak from the Palatinate and Dr. John Wilkins, who at the time was the chaplain to the elector of Palatine. Wilkins was the man behind the Oxford meetings which become, in 1660, the British Royal Society. Another founder of the Royal Society was Robert Boyle, who in letters in 1646, refers to, again, an invisible college. John Wilkins writes a book in 1648 called Mathematical Magic, in which he explicitly mentions the Rosy Cross and pays homage to occultists Robert Fludd and John Dee.

The key to the actual Rosicrucian tradition in the British Royal Society is Elias Ashmole. He was unabashedly a Rosicrucian and in 1654 wrote a letter to ask the ``Rosicrucians to allow him to join their fraternity.'' His scientific works were a defense of John Dee's work, in particular Dee's Monas Hieroglyphicas, and the Theatrum Chemicum Britanicum of 1652. This is a compilation of all the alchemical writings by English authors. In the opening of this work he praises a mythical event in which a brother of the Rosy Cross cures the Earl of Norfolk of leprosy.

Ashmole was one of the official founding members of the British Royal Society. The other major, explicitly Rosicrucian figure was Isaac Newton. He had copies of both the Fama and the Confessio in his possession, and the book compiled by Ashmole, The Theatrum, was Newton's bible. Also, as we uncovered earlier, Newton had a series of papers on the book of Daniel calculating the end times.

Historian Frances Yates, in her book The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, in a chapter entitled ``Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry,'' quotes one De Quincey, who states, ``Freemasonry is neither more nor less than Rosicrucianism as modified by those who transplanted it in England, whence it was re-exported to the other countries of Europe.'' De Quincey states that Robert Fludd was the person most responsible for bringing Rosicrucianism to England and giving it its new name. What is fascinating is that Elias Ashmole was one of the first recorded inductees into the Freemasons, but the actual first recorded induction was Dr. Robert Moray in Edinburgh in 1641. Both Ashmole and Moray were founding members of the British Royal Society. While there are many stories about the ancient origins of the Freemasons, here is an announcement for one of their meetings in 1676: ``To give notice that the Modern Green-ribboned Cabal, together with the ancient brotherhood of the Rosy Cross: the Hermetic Adepti and the company of Accepted Masons....'' It is interesting to note how clear the tradition is.

In conclusion, we have demonstrated that Venice created the Rosicrucian movement that dominates England and creates Freemasonry. Freemasonry in turn creates the British Royal Society, which engages in total war with Cusa's influence upon Kepler and Leibniz. We have also accomplished a surprising result in understanding the war over what is called modern scientific method.


This speech was prepared with the collaboration of Webster Tarpley and David Cherry.

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Captions
``What we call modern scientific method is occult belief, created by freemasonry to destroy the work of Nicolaus of Cusa. It was the Venetian creation of freemasonry that imposed upon science a radical split between the science of the spirit, theology, and the science of matter.''
(Bacon, Ashmole, Newton monument):


National Portrait Gallery

Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), from 1618, Baron Verulam and Lord Chancellor of England. Bacon, who corresponded with Venetian superagent Paolo Sarpi, is falsely credited with contributing to the founding of scientific method.

Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), alchemist, one of the founders of the Royal Society. Ashmole was deeply interested in Rosicrucianism, and wrote in defense of the Elizabethan astrologer John Dee.


Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

A monument to scientific fraud Isaac Newton, the other major Rosicrucian figure in the early Royal Society. Titled Allegorical Monument to Isaac Newton, it was painted by the Venetian artist Giovanni Battista Pittoni.

``This story begins with the break of Henry the VIII from continental Europe with his setting up of the Anglican Church. This cataclysm in English history set the basis for religious warfare that was to rip England apart for centuries.''

``As long as Henry VIII was married to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of the Spanish king, Venice's ability to manipulate Henry against Spain was greatly diminished. This came to a head after the Sack of Rome.''

British Museum

Henry VIII (1491-1547) toward the end of his life, in a drawing by Cornslys Matsys.

National Portrait Gallery

Henry VIII's queen, Catherine of Aragon, was a powerful living embodiment of the traditional alliance between England and Spain. Artist unknown.


The Duke of Norfolk

Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk, led the Venetian party among the English nobility until his death in 1524.

National Portrait Gallery

Anne Boleyn, granddaughter of the second Duke of Norfolk, was set up as sexual bait to detach Henry from Catherine. Venetian friar, superagent and cabalist Francesco Giorgi counseled Henry that his marriage to Catherine had never been valid.

Frick Collection, New York

Thomas Cromwell (1485?-1540) became Henry's first minister with the ascendancy of the Venetian party. Cromwell had a clear vision of an amoral state as a law unto itself, as delineated by Aristotle in his Nichomachean Ethics.

``Giorgi's work was the transmission belt for a counterculture movement which was to culminate in the occult takeover of England and eventually led to the creation of speculative freemasonry.''

``Venice created the Rosicrucian movement that dominates England and created freemasonry. Freemasonry in turn created the British Royal Society, which engaged in total war against Cusa's influence upon Kepler and Leibniz.''

The alchemical, occult, and mystical writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus from about the third century A.D. were insinuated into the Judeo-Christian tradition by its enemies. Robert Fludd continued this tradition in Elizabethan England, as did Newton (1642-1727), from his post as president of the Royal Society. Clockwise from top left, two woodcuts of Hermes Trismegistus; an illustration from the title page of Fludd's Summum Bonum, which defends Rosicrucianism.

"False gold is there only because the real gold exists"
 

THE CONSPIRATORS


            Yes, the world has been run by conspiratorial elites employing secret knowledge. In its lesser aspects, that conspiracy, has subsumed features which coincide at first impression with what you might imagine a conspiracy to be. However, if you pursue the investigation from the standpoint of your usual, misguided preconceptions of a "global conspiracy," you will only mislead yourself into another pathetic concoction of mixed facts, half-truths and fantasies, like the concoctions associated with the "international Jewish conspiracy" or "international communist conspiracy."

            Global conspiracies which function succeed by establishing false mythic "controlled environments" like a Television Soap around the minds of the credulous masses of the world.

Such a controlled environment is summed up efficiently by stating that the credulous masses are ruled by mythologies, and that the elites rule such masses by creating, shaping, and manipulating the mythologies. The methods employed by Joseph Goebbels and carried further by British intelligence networks for creating and manipulating the mythologies of credulous masses through control of all or at least key portions of the press and radio and television, are the center of modern techniques to this effect.

            Outside and above the foolish folk who rely upon the Washington Post. New York Times, London Times, or the popular women's magazines, and so on and so forth, there is indeed a governing elite. This elite does possess "secret knowledge." The first aspect of this special knowledge, which makes it efficiently secret, is that the elite not only know that the mythologies are mythologies, but also know that they themselves create and use those mythologies to manipulate the credulous masses.

            Beyond that first broad level of division between the knowledgeable and the credulous, the secret knowledge is distinguished by the division of elites into two irreconcilable factions. Beyond the sheep-pens of the believers in mythologies, there exist two fundamentally opposed views of what to do with the world, of what direction to adopt in steering the historical movement of the human, species.

One elite, the humanists, the Platonic or Neoplatonic faction, is dedicated to steering the course of history away from rule through mythologies.

The other, the Aristotelians and their heirs, is committed to strengthening the rule by mythology, for the purpose of establishing a permanent, "feudal-like" Utopia of obedient, simple-minded folk ruled by a tenured neo-Aristotelian Luciferian Oligarchy. Thus the policy of the Luciferian Oligarchy is to prevent Human Evolution

            The secret knowledge is, at first distinction, as secret as the purloined letter of the Poe tale. Once the mythologies are known to be mythologies, the primitive aspect of truth lies factually in plain sight. Once mythology is cast aside, the development of real knowledge out of such primitive truth, the development properly termed scientific progress, begins.

            In the case of La Malta, the point to be made is this.

            Ugo La Malfa, like Cuccia of Mediobanca, Riccardo Lombard! of the Socialist Party of Italy, and Amendola and Napolitano of the leadership of the Communist Party of Italy, began his career as a British intelligence services' agent under the tutelage of the same evil Benedetto Croce who mentally crippled Antonio Gramsci and many others.

Together with the British intelligence services' Italian' Mafia, and the British-allied "black nobility" of Italy, the networks radiating from Croce's original base at Naples University are among the principal forces that presently govern Italy from within for London. In the end, it is the Black Guelph Luciferian Oligarchy of Italy which is the local branch of the real rulers. The Mafia, together with such persons as La Malfa, Lombardi, and Amendola are merely the expendable mercenaries.

            The central figure of the work of Croce, the key to his usefulness to his British masters, was his circle's mastery of the Italian mythologies. As scientific or scholarly work, Croce's writings on Hegel and aesthetics are infantile rubbish. However, they are not merely rubbish; they represent a model for the nonsense an ignorant, superstitious Italian will tend to swallow. In this way, Croce and his circle made themselves craftmasters of the manipulation of Italy's characteristic mythologies. They are the qualified sheepherders of the sheep of Italy, the sheep who have made up the majority of Italy's myth-ridden population.

            On this account it should be readily understood that the notable folly of La Malta's opponents is that they esteem themselves "practical politicians." In other words, they are at their best and their worst Machiavellians. As with Machiavelli in his fatal worst feature, they define the art of ruling as one of bending with the winds of prevailing mythologies — the mythologies employed by their adversaries. They seek to bend the levers of such prevailing mythology, intending so to move political processes into directions which correspond in actuality with the real interests of Italy and its people. By committing such a blunder of "practical politics"— sometimes termed "ductility" — they commit themselves to leading within the limits of the sheep-pen that La Malfa and his British masters control, the sheep-pen of the British-controlled Italian mythologies.

            A popularized mythology is like a goldfish bowl. No matter how cleverly the fish chooses his direction within the bowl, he can never escape it in such a fashion. No matter how cleverly he adapts to the environment of the bowl's medium (e.g., popular mythologies), whoever moves the bowl moves him in a corresponding direction.

            The misguided ""realists," the self-esteemed "practical politicians" of Italy's humanist forces, regard it as wisdom to maintain influence and credibility in terms of popular political mythologies, to attempt to bend the internal features of enemy-controlled mythologies in the direction agreeable to the interests of the nation and its people. Those for whom La Malta speaks control the medium within which the humanists so situate themselves. Thus, and not by any advantage of personal prowess. La Malta has often appeared to win in most of the political crises of Italy to date.

            The same political arrangement prevails in North America and throughout Western Europe to the present day. It prevails in most of the developing sector, and in a somewhat different form in Eastern Europe. Only a relative handful of persons in any nation have knowledge of the true reasons behind the policies currently at issue. The masses, together with most of the persons ordinarily considered national leaders, know only the myths, the mythologies through which their minds and wills are manipulated by others.

            The institutions of ballot-democracy — massive vote-frauds momentarily overlooked — have done little to improve this on principle. What does it mean to have the power to vote, if massive vote-frauds determine the official tallies, or, if the knowledge given to the voter is predominantly a myth, and if the voter's criteria of judgment are chiefly mythological? If you, Adelaide, are a typical plebeian, you are still today largely a puppet of those elites which control the shaping and manipulation of your adopted mythologies

 

THE ARISTOTELIAN ENEMIES OF MANKIND

 

For reasons better understood on the basis of the body of this report, the only effectively ruling elite in the capitalist sector of the world today has been the neo-Aristotelian faction's inner circles, the inner circles of a force centered in Britain and its American Families and Agents. The humanist elite exists, but, with handfuls of exceptions relatively speaking — chiefly scattered exceptions — lacks the "secret knowledge" upon which its global effectiveness depends. For reasons we shall identify in due course, the present center of the power of the neo-Aristotelian or Luciferian Oligarchical faction, the "Babylonian model" faction, is the Black Guelph monarchies of Britain and Holland, the ...power of both monarchies consolidated under the British. So, as we account for the Black Guelph faction as a whole, we focus here upon its center, the British monarchy.

            One of the most notable frauds afoot in today's credulous world is the myth of British "democracy," British "constitutional government." Britain has in fact two governments, the first a parliamentary charade for the edification of the credulous, the other the real, monarchical government.

            With notable aid from corrupt Presbyterians, the House of Orange and its Amsterdam banking allies overthrew the British Commonwealth in 1660, installing the Dutch puppets, the House of Stuart, upon the British throne. Those Stuarts proved to have several important defects as Dutch puppets. More narrowly, this being typical of the immorality and venality of the Scottish aristocracy generally, the Stuarts sold their favors wherever the market prices suited them, including circles around the French monarchy. More significantly, under James II the Stuart monarchy was reviving the efforts of the 1640-1660 period. The Dutch chose to reorganize the British government preemptively, under the direct supervision of the House of Orange.

            The late seventeenth century House of Orange had no moral resemblance to its predecessor, William the Silent. The Dutch Neoplatonic humanism of William the Silent had been continued by the De Witt who was the ally of Benedict Spinoza. The wars between France and Holland had enabled the corrupted House of Orange to oust De Witt's humanists.

            The late seventeenth century House of Orange, allied by marriage to the ruling. Black Guelph House of Hanover and otherwise thoroughly committed to Black Guelph policies in its own right, undertook to neutralize the republican ferment within the larger portion of the English population by instituting the form of theater known variously as British "constitutional monarchy" and British "liberalism." By giving the credulous British plebeians the thoroughly corrupted (to this day) British parliament with which to amuse themselves, the Black Guelph (Orange-Hanover) monarchy preserved to itself all it considered essential respecting the actual government of the United Kingdom.

            By cultivated popular reputation, the British monarchy is a quaint enclave of ceremonial functions, plugging along quaintly on an annual household budget of a few millions. It, like its associates among the Black Guelph aristocratic families of continental Europe, is reputed by the credulous to exist principally to provide editorial copy for the society pages of certain news media, and for those quaint little women's magazines so popular among the most brutalized portions of the European population.

            In reality, the British monarchy defines a domain of special powers and privilege outside the reach of existing practices of parliamentary control. It is screened from inquiry by the doctrine of lese majeste and by an arrangement known as the Official Secrets Act. Through the monarchy's own privileged financial activities, and through interface with and discretion of both the Bank of England and a select group of private merchant-banking families, it is the centerpiece of one of the most powerful financial institutions of the world. It is otherwise armed with extraparliamentary control of Britain's combined official and unofficial intelligence services meeting with heads of Army and Intelligence services every week, and has de facto as well as some nominal control over the British military. The Prime Minister of England, in reality the first minister of the Monarchy meets with the Queen each week to do her bidding. All politicians swear allegiance to the Queen as do the Army and all the Freemasons.

            This power is nominally located in the powers and privilege of the incumbent monarch. That aspect of the matter has a certain importance, but represents far too narrow a focus. The British monarchy is best viewed as the rallying point for an assemblage of Luciferian Oligarchical families, both British and Commonwealth nations, and also strata of the allied Luciferian Oligarchical families of Europe. These Luciferian Oligarchical families, together with their most trusted political servants, gather around and behind the screen of the powers and privilege of the British monarchy. Through such and related means, and through the vast networks of influence they have developed among many nations over recent centuries, these combined forces control and deploy one of the most powerful forces on earth, and the most efficiently evil force existing today.

            The neo-Aristotelian "secret knowledge" of these Luciferian Oligarchical forces is transmitted to each generation within the privileged strata in principally a threefold way.

            First, the families themselves transmit their Luciferian Oligarchical tradition, a certain way of viewing the world and its matters of policy. This transmission is both explicit and implicit. Some of the old families of Europe — on both sides of the struggle — have organized memories going back to Charlemagne's time. More characteristically, the reach of tradition is between approximately four and eight centuries. The explicit, formal aspect of the transmission of family traditions centers around glossed genealogies, preferably illustrated with family portraits. More broadly, implicitly, the tradition is transmitted through a kind of "drill" governing the rearing of the young in its public schools and elite universities.

            Second, the British Luciferian Oligarchical tradition and attitudes are shaped into forms of knowledgeable world outlook, in varying degrees of depth and breadth from case to case, by Oxford, Cambridge, and Sussex universities. (The London School of Economics is chiefly the center for recruiting foreign future politicians and terrorists to British intelligence service.) Together with these universities there are the public schools, which feed into the former. These institutions provide a center and model for the "gentlemen's education" of the Luciferian Oligarchies' young throughout the world.

            Third, the articulation of policies and strategies agreeable to that tradition is accomplished through aid of various "think-tanks." Oxford, Cambridge, and Sussex universities include privileged domains which are the core of such arrangements. These are the institutions which coordinate the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS or MI-6), MI-5, and the London Tavistock Institute. Other British institutions controlling British Policy, including its intelligence services' policies, include the Round Table, the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA), and the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS).

            The British intelligence services operate branches of IISS in many nations, including a part of the New York Council on Foreign Relations and the Aspen Institute in the United States. The Trilateral Commission is predominantly an arm of British intelligence services. The London Tavistock Institute controls the United Nations Organization's World Federation of Mental Health, is the "mother" and continuing influence of the RAND Corporation, runs the Fabian operation against the United States' United Mine Workers Union, and many other institutions, including international terrorist networks, in many nations.

            It is notable that many persons in high positions in the United States and other nations are both nominally and efficiently British intelligence services' agents-of-influence. The U.S. Labor Party has publicly documented the case of Henry A. Kissinger being an Agent of Influence for the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) at Chatham House, London. The cases of Vice-President Walter A. Mondale, Senator Edward Kennedy, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Werner Michael Blumenthal, James R. Schlesinger, and many others could be added. The "Watergate" against President Richard M. Nixon was a monstrous hoax, set up from both inside and outside the administration by Kissinger, General Alexander Haig, and other British agents-of-influence, run on the outside largely by the networks of the Institute for Policy Studies and corrupt, complicit elements of the press, themselves either British agents outright or British agents-of-influence.

            The United States is only the most important of the nations massively subverted by Venetian Party British intelligence services in this way.

 

THE “SECRET KNOWLEDGE”

 

            The core of the knowledge guiding the overall direction of work of British intelligence services is "secret knowledge" based ultimately in the classics. This control of "secret knowledge" is centered in the collectivity represented by an inner intelligentsia of the Luciferian Oligarchical elite, a collectivity centered within Oxford and Cambridge universities.

            On condition that one knows the classics and also the practical import of the knowledge embodied in them — which, admittedly, few do, the "secret knowledge" of British intelligence services stands out as clearly as the sought-for letter stands out to the witting personality in the Poe story. Most relevant to this point is evidence proving the distinction between what Oxford and Cambridge know and what they profess publicly to believe.

            The point is illustrated by the case of Thales's associate Anaximenes. "Everyone knows" that Anaximenes specified "air" to be one of the primary constituents of all substance. Yet, the Greek term which Oxford and Cambridge, in particular, have certified to signify "air" has approximately the same meaning as the modern German Geist, "mind" or "spirit," more precisely defined by context of usage. The fraud is so blatant that the translator who perpetrates it shows that he is engaged in a witting hoax.

            Yet, the credulous Ph.D.'s and others who piously recite the fraud, and interpret Anaximenes from this standpoint, have not yet had their degrees revoked — least of all, not by Oxford and Cambridge.

            Most of the widely accredited textbooks on classical philosophical and related topics are riddled with, indeed based upon blatant hoaxes to the same effect. To get at the real issues of the fourth century BC and earlier, and to trace the consequences of those continuing issues over subsequent centuries into the recent eighteenth century, one is obliged to discard the largest portion of the accredited "secondary sources" as either witting frauds or as a learned fool's glosses on the frauds he pathetically repeats.

            Focusing for the moment only on the explicitly British conduct of such frauds, instances such as those we cited in connection with Anaximenes prove conclusively that the inner circles centered around Oxford and Cambridge are engaged in an effort to conceal the most vital issues of historical scholarship to their own advantage. By these means, they convert the most vital categories of historical knowledge into the "secret knowledge" of the inner elites, the elites not duped by the mythologies of the popular universities' classics and political science departments.

            Once one knows that this fraud exists, sufficient primary and other suitable source-documentation exists to reconstruct the core of the truth in these matters — even acknowledging the masses of ancient documents which may be buried away from the honest scholar's view in one fashion or another. Consequently, the bare facts of the "secret knowledge" do indeed represent a likeness to the case of The Purloined Letter. The knowledge, admittedly widely scattered, exists in large measure, on condition one knows what one is seeking and in what sort of place it is located in which fashion.

            That is the principal "secret" of the British intelligence services, the core of the body of "secret knowledge" through which the British and their accomplices have largely ruled the world during recent centuries.

            We are not to be accused of singling out arbitrarily the seventh-through-fourth centuries BC in this connection. Once one has understood the crucial issues of that period of civilization, and knows how those issues shaped the course of all subsequent history, there exist with certainty no more important secrets to be discovered respecting past or present. That fact will be made clear in the course of this report.

            We now cite one related, important case here. We cite the case of that influential hoax known as the Jewish religion. (3)

            The modern Jewish religion originated not with the Kingdom of Solomon or earlier, but centuries later, as a synthetic cult created by the order of the Babylonians and other non-Jews. The first step in the fashioning of the Jewish religion was based on piecing together scraps of Mesopotamian legends (and anti-Phoenician and anti-Egyptian propaganda), with odd pieces of actual Babylonian and other history added to the mixture. The latter infusion gave a credible calendar to the otherwise fraudulent concoction. This original Mesopotamian hoax was reworked repeatedly, always under the supervision of non-Jews, with the basic structure of the Old 1'estament hoax completed during the Persian Empire period.

            This hoax was first introduced into European languages about 230 BC, on the recommendation of the same Aristotelian Peripatetics who contrived the exotic cults of Ptolemaic Egypt, and on orders from the Ptolemies. That edition, of the "Seventy," is otherwise notable for the fact that it was produced in a variety of demotic Greek peculiar to such locations as the waterfront brothels of Egypt. (4)

            Later, when Philo of Alexandria attempted to develop a Platonic version of Judaism (the roots of the later Sephardic tradition of Maimonides and Avencibrol), Philo avoided, for obvious political reasons, simply throwing out the mess before him. He attempted to circumvent the problem by the rabbinical, Pharasaical ruse of the "commentary," tolerating the text while fundamentally altering the reading to be attributed to it. The Christian Apostles, confronted with the same general problem, rid Christianity of the worst implications of the Old Testament by emphasizing the "Dispensation of Christ," and warning against the dangers of the "concision." Christ had freed man from such barbarisms as the Old Testament. Only those sections of the Old Testament which pointed toward the coming ,of the Messiah or otherwise happened to coincide with Christianity were to be treated seriously.

            It does not follow from this that the Apostles were in any fashion hoaxsters of the Aristotelian varieties.

            Apostolic Christianity always, and rightly so, regarded Aristotelianism as an organized force for evil, as did the greatest religious thinkers of the European Renaissance. Even Thomas Aquinas belatedly associated himself among such thinkers by acknowledging, during the period before his death, that all his preceding writings / had been fundamentally in error. Apostolic Christianity and its leading continuations were always Platonic or Neoplatonic in respect of philosophical method. Aristotelian syncretic methods and Aristotelianism were introduced to Christianity initially by way of the vestiges of the cult of Apollo, in the effort of the collapsing Roman Empire to develop an episcopal form of Christianity in conformity with pagan (Aristotelian) policies for design and use of state religious cults.

            Although that view is not usually supported with such frankness by published church histories, many leading theologians, notably including Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa, are explicit on the problem of Aristotelianism. However, those theologians who concur with our judgment have generally regarded it as imprudent to disturb the naive faith of the ignorant with historical problems of this sort. This policy within Church circles intersects the fact that both the Platonics and Aristotelians adhered, for opposite reasons, to the doctrine of controlling the masses of people through mythologies. Since the point has also fundamental importance for the whole matter of this report, the Platonic view of the cited Church practice should be summarized at this point.

            The Platonic method rightly distinguishes three qualities of knowledge, mental levels, among people.

            The first, lowest condition of the human mind is the level of simple belief, belief premised on popular mythologies and prejudices, and on the state of ignorance concerning individual experience otherwise known as "common sense."

            The second, next-higher level of knowledge is equivalent to the condition of understanding defined by Immanuel Kant, the mere understanding. Persons at this level have consistent knowledge of the ostensibly lawful features of practice in certain, various categories of human practice in general. This is a condition corresponding to the lowest level of what may be termed scientific knowledge. Such persons do not know why such categories exist, or how or why the ostensibly lawful principles appropriate to such categories are determined. They have merely practical knowledge of consistent cause-and-effect features of practice in those categories of experience in which they have been educated. ;

           
The third, highest level of human knowledge is reason, otherwise termed Plato's Socratic reason, or intuition, genius, enlightenment. It is only on this level that truth can be efficiently comprehended .

            The knowledge of the two lower levels is necessarily mythological, false, or, as Spinoza specifies, "fictitious."

            For such reasons, the Platonics judged mythologies twofoldly. All mythologies they knew to be inherently false (fictitious), but no person could rise above mythologies except by attaining reason. Therefore, in dealing with masses living at the inferior levels of mental life, it was deemed necessary to deal with them on the terms of mythological beliefs. The issue of practical politics therefore took the task-oriented form of distinguishing among destructive and useful mythologies. Those forms of simple beliefs or mere understanding which tended to allow society to move in directions otherwise required by reason were deemed the tolerable class of mythologies. Those other mythologies, which tended toward evil consequences, were evil beliefs, which must be fought accordingly.

            It is impossible to understand the central doctrinal issues among leading Christian theologians, from the apostolic period to present times, without taking that 'Platonic view inclusively into account. These theologians have been concerned for themselves and for determination of policy with the issues of truth according to reason. They have been, at the same time, otherwise concerned with popular mythologies, respecting chiefly the issue whether this or that popular belief lee away from or toward the realization of the dictates of reason. Although the objective has been to bring all of mankind into the state of reason (atonement), for immediate purposes the rule has been that this effort must be situated within terms of the problem defined by the simple beliefs of the ignorant.

            The Aristotelians and their heirs, notably including Bernard of Clairvaux, Martin Luther and the Presbyterian leaders, had and continue an opposite policy concerning mythologies. The original Aristotelians were the intelligence-services arm of the Luciferian Oligarchies jointly controlling the court of Philip of Macedon and the contemporary Persian court of that time. Their objectives were to stop technological and scientific progress, and to create zero-growth synthetic mythologies as the simple beliefs of the ignorant masses. These efforts they regarded as the means to establish permanent world-rule by a landlord-based Luciferian Oligarchy, deemphasizing cities in favor of the countryside, and maintaining "Malthusian" zero-growth, antitechnology policies against scientific progress. They have not altered that method or purpose to the present day.

            The innermost belief of the leading Christian theologians with access to reason is typified by the outlook of the famous Abelard of the eleventh century AD. Where strict Aristotelians argued that God made himself impotent by creating inalterable laws for the universe — and hence only omniscient — Abelard defined the function of man's existence according to reason to be the helper of God in the continuing work of creation. Abelard located lawfulness in the lawfulness governing the ordering of continued creation. The exact opposite position was classically argued by the twelfth-century Bernard of Clairvaux, a point of importance we shall cover in the course of this report.

 

THE OUTER LIMITS OF "MARXISM"

 

            Although Karl Marx made some genuine and important additions to human knowledge in general, Marx never succeeded in becoming part of the knowledgeable "inner elite." His doctrine has a collateral but no fundamental place within the "secret knowledge" of the elites.

The reason for this of course is that he was working for Urquhart of the British foreign office through his handler, Engels, in order to create an evil myth, the false polarities of communism and capitalism in order to create chaos and through chaos, a descent into feudalism.

            Marx wrote that all history is the history of class struggles. To the extent this is partially true as a matter of description, it is otherwise so misleading as to be false as a guide for practice. Marx also wrote that the principal achievement of the emergence of industrial, urban-centered capitalist development was to end the rule of society by "the idiocy of rural life." The latter observation touches upon the "secret knowledge" of the elite, whereas the maxim cited before does not. Marx also bent, unfortunately, toward the view that the essential positive struggle of the human intellect was toward "materialism." by way of but away from "idealism. " That latter view of Marx's is not only nonsensical, but prevented Marx from turning into the directions in which he might have discovered the "secret knowledge" he sought.

            The true, primary determinants of the course of human history are expressed in the most concentrated form in the factional issue between the factions of Plato and Aristotle during the fourth century BC. All preceding and subsequent history is properly understood from that standpoint of conceptual reference, as we have already indicated and as we shall show in this report.

            The partial truth buried under Marx's misunderstanding of the class struggle, a partial truth to which Marx himself was happily close for his practice, is that the progress of humanity has been accomplished through the instrumentality of those social forces which, as social classes, have been oriented toward urban-centered technological, scientific and related cultural progress. So far, Marx, like Lenin's Chernyshevskii, was correct.

            However, that is an incomplete picture. As Plato emphasized, the moving of the potentially positive social forces, e.g., positive social classes, has always depended upon the initiating role of a Platonic or Neoplatonic intelligentsia, an intelligentsia which in every age has been activated by the seminal influence of a great, universal thinker. In today's preceding European history, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the last such universal intellect.

            It is notable that Lenin's successful practice was governed by an approximation of the indicated principals.

            Marx, unlike Leibniz, proceeded in ignorance of the "secret knowledge" of the Neoplatonic elite, and so Marx developed his important contributions to knowledge in a flawed, one-sided way.

            At points, Marx did come close to the "secret knowledge." Notably in his "Theses on Feuerbach" and in the first section, "Feuerbach," of The German Ideology, he touched upon the kernel of Neoplatonic knowledge. Had he not clung obstinately to certain important elements of Black Guelph mythology, his further development would have followed a much superior course. Pointing to those blunders of obsessive misbelief exposes the essential problem of Marx.

            Marx's simplistic misconception of the class struggle in history and his pathetic view of "materialism"-versus-"idealism" are essentially derivative of his acceptance of the myth certified as "history" through the broad influence of the Black Guelph, London-centered faction. In the wake of the 1815 Treaty of Vienna, the fraudulent account of history was made rapidly authoritative throughout Germany and other parts of Europe.

            Those were the accredited, prevailing "scholarly" views of Marx's time. Factually, they were more absurd than they were accredited. Marx's credulous acceptance of the main features of that hoax known as the "Ninth of Thermidor," and his related, crippling historiographical folly in tracing the progress of European intellectual life from Francis Bacon, are exemplary of the key to Marx's failures. For those and related reasons, the useful core of his work on methodology and political economy was situated within a containing belief in a prevailing. Black Guelph historiographical mythology.

            Marx's foolish criticisms of the leading American economist, Henry C. Carey, efficiently illustrate the point.

            Following the 1815 Treaty of Vienna, the American branch of the Neoplatonic movement of the eighteenth century was significantly contained and subverted increasingly overall, but it did not die out as a force as quickly as the Neoplatonic forces were crushed into obscurity in Europe itself. Through circles of "American Whigs" associated with John Quincy Adams, Henry C. Carey, and Henry Clay, a residue of the knowledge of the Neoplatonic heritage persisted, centering around knowledge of the fact that Britain continued to be the deadly enemy of both the United States and humanity in general, combined with the understanding that the British economy, despite its included industrial-capitalist feature, was governed by an anticapitalist Luciferian Oligarchy whose rule characterized the British economy as a whole.

            Marx, as is generally known, viewed the British model as the classical empirical case of reference for the best approximation of industrial-capitalist development. That view was nonsensical, as Carey proved in his own writings. Marx, however, stubbornly rejected those abundant facts which refuted his credulous obsession on this point.

            Marx's obsessive absurdities concerning history coincided with the flaws crippling his theory of knowledge.

            He, and Frederick Engels to greater extent, laid the basis in content for the foolish Soviet doctrines of perception and knowledge. The foolish doctrine that perceptions are the mirror-image of objects, and ideas predominantly the mirror-image of the objective state of development of the social-productive forces. This blunder is connected to Marx's ignorant overestimation of Francis Bacon and the eighteenth century "French materialists," as well as his incorporation of a total misrepresentation of European history up through the Treaty of Vienna.

 

OUR SPECIAL COMPETENCE

 

            The time for tolerating the rule by fallacious doctrines of historiography has ended. The survival of the species demands a revival of the "secret knowledge" of the Neoplatonic elite. That knowledge must not only be revived, but as we do here, must be situated within and updated by appropriate terms of modern scientific knowledge.

            The writer and his associates have come to this present state of knowledge fortunately, but not by / accident. This writer, powerfully influenced at the outset of his teens by Leibniz's writings, has pursued that impulse by various pathways of activity, experience, and study all of his adult life. On the basis of his own initial, distinguishing accomplishments in political economy and method, beginning in the early 1950s, he subsequently, beginning in 1966, initiated a new kind of political organization ex novo, an organization based on those conceptions and their strategic-programmatic relevance for the developing world crisis.

            Since early 1968 that organization has been in escalating direct conflict with British intelligence networks. In the course of that escalation matters have come to the present point, a point at which we have become, much as was Leibniz himself, one of the primary adversary-targets of the London-centered enemy forces.

            During the course of this escalating conflict, we developed what became a novel, specialized political-intelligence capability. Partly because of and partly with aid of the capability, we have intersected increasingly leading political forces, including other intelligence circles, in many parts of the world. Through this total experience, with aid of resources immediately and otherwise available for aid of our work, we have been able to produce the best conceptual overview of the British intelligence problem presently available.

            Through the combined effects of our work in advanced aspects of the physical sciences and a decade's coordinated application of political-intelligence methods to crucial issues of history, we have in due course discovered ourselves to be much less a novel institution than we might otherwise have assumed to be the case. We have discovered that into the 1790s, the leading forces of the United States and the leading humanist forces of Europe were linked by common participation in international Neoplatonic networks, networks reaching back, essentially unbroken in continuity, over approximately three thousand years and more. Through such and related efforts, we have been able to revive, in suitably modem terms, the essential parts of the "secret knowledge" of that Neoplatonic elite.

            Others among today's humanist elite already command important sections of that knowledge. In specific aspects of the matter, their knowledge is more richly developed than our own. Our distinction among these forces is that we have a grip on this knowledge in its universality. Our included task is to give that universal overview to all sections of that elite, and to obtain from them, in turn, the richer knowledge of particulars at their command. Our combined forces, using this knowledge so revived among us, must rapidly inform other layers of the humanist elite — political figures, scientists, trade-union leaders, industrialists, outstanding farmers, and so forth — to the effect of creating the intellectually armed leadership force needed to defeat the horrors the London-centered Black Guelph faction now seeks to impose upon the world. We must mobilize ourselves to lead the human species once and forever out of the paranoid night of rule by evil perverting mythologies.

 Although Intellectual Knowledge of this historical war through thousands of years can be instructive, its true purpose is to persuade you that knowledge is of no use in preventing this history and future history. Truly only meditation can show you the way out, and promote the true evolution of humanity. In the end only the  Highest Meditation which speeds up the process of evolution can help you achieve Genius and escape the Flesh trap, the endless wheel of life and death and reincarnation - The true Gold of Human Evolution founded only in Meditation, be good, do good - Real Illumination, Enlightenment.

"This World is a Factory for the production of Enlightened beings" - Swami Satchidananda


 

 

 

THE PSYCHOPATHIC GAME OF THRONES DETAILS THE TRUE OLIGARCHIC PSYCHOPATHIC HISTORIES FROM SCOTLAND AND NORTHUMBERLAND - AND THE IRON BANK



Its Vatican Bank - The Game of Thrones Iron Bank - is fronted by the Rothschilds, has 500 Trillion Dollars, controls 70% of Fortune 500 companies, controls 70% of all banks Worldwide, controls 100% of all central Banks consciously creating all depressions, all austerity, all Wars, all famine genocide - due to major events such as False Flags and the assassinations of JFK, RFK, and MLK, or the September 11th “Terror Attacks”.

The Treaties - Trans Pacific Partnership TPP - USA - SE ASIA, and Trans Atlantic Partnership TAP - USA - EUROPE, now signed into Law even though these Treaties are Secret, place Vatican Controlled International Fortune 500 Companies above all Governments to censor the internet and much more..
 

All Rituals, Religion, Education, Secret Services and Political Movements have been Scientifically Engineered to create Fake Gangs for 10,000 Years. It's what the old Roman Empire, and the Babylonian Empire, and the Cult of Apollo, and the Byzantine Empire did before.

The Guy Fawkes plotters were a 'Fake gang' controlled by the London government. The UK's General Frank Kitson (Trail Blazing Fake Terrorism) refers to the 'Fake gangs' set up by the security services. The idea of the 'Fake gang' is to carry out acts of violence which can then be blamed on other people. Fake gangs have been used in Ireland (IRA), Vietnam, Italy - GLADIO, Turkey, Belgium, the Philippines, Kenya, Malaya, Iraq, Syria (ISIS), New York (Al Qaeda) and many other places. Lord Stevens, a former UK police chief, is quoted as saying that only three out of 210 terrorist suspects he arrested in a probe in Northern Ireland were not working for either the police, the security service MI5 or the UK Army. On 21 December 2011, we learnt that the IRA was run by the UK security services. Stephen Grey's book The New Spymasters says the UK intelligence services used the family of 'IRA leader' Gerry Adams as spies for the UK military. It would seem that the security services set up satanic pedophile child abuse rings in order to control certain key people.
 

The fake gangs idea has been used since Babylon 10,000 years ago,  with this Scientific Engineering of Society, the Satanic Religion - another fake gang - has spread and infil-traited every noble family, every noble civilisation, and it is even now infil-traiting your country, your civilisation. All Rituals, Religion, Education and Political Movements are designed to create fake gangs of psychopaths who can then be used to create control through chaos created poverty - destroying infrastructure - preventing human evolution.

CREATED FAKE GANGS

The Scientific Engineering of Groups and Tribes to create FAKE GANG Psychopaths..
1. ISIS - Venetian created MI6 created Wahhabism in 1706 - based on the same principles as Lutherism - and institutionalised it in MI6 created Saudi Arabia to create destabilising Jihadi Armies creating chaos in the Middle East, Russia and China.
2. PROTESTANTISM - Luther, like Abdul Wahhab was a paid Agent, this time working for Venetian Cardinal Contarini
3. ETON - SINCE 1430, Whipping and Fagging to create Fierce Pedophile Homosexual Warriors in an educational system based on Greece and Sparta - The Fierce Pedophile Homosexual Warrior - the foundation of the the British Empire and its Army, Banks and Commerce, and the Church.
4. SATANISM/LUCIFERIANISM/33RD DEGREE FREEMASONRY - Pagan Rituals and Myths used to pervert, degenerate and control a psychopathic ruling class. Mao was a 33rd Degree Freemason put in charge of China by the Fascist CIA creating 85 millions tortured dead!! Kissinger supported Pol Pot and his three million Killing Fields Genocide.
5. SATANIC SABBATEAN FRANKISTS infiltrate Jews and Jewish organisations worldwide. Rothschilds funded Jacob Frank and its Sabbatean Rituals and Myths are used to pervert, degenerate and control a Jewish psychopathic ruling class of Donmeh Attaturk, Rothschilds, Rockefellers, Schiffs, Astors, Warburgs.
6. KARL MARX - Wrote Das Capital from his MI6 provided office in the British National Museum under Ambassador Urquhart creating MI6 inspired Communism, Russian Revolution (65 millions tortured dead) and Mao's Chinese Revolution (85 millions tortured dead), and Socialism.
7. CATHOLICISM AND CYBELE, ATTIS AND MOLOCH WORSHIP and its castrated Galli Homosexual Pederast Priests - the State Religion of the Roman Empire - morphed into the Catholic Church, Cybele - Mary, Adonis - Jesus, Molech - God. The Black Death. Pederasty, Inquisition - The Horror Holy Medieval Inquisition - 50 million tortured burned dead, - burning alive, breast rippers, strappado, rack etc. Fascism and the Holocaust. The Catholic Church is controlled through the Gang Kings, Queens, Nobility of Europe. The Jesuits, The Knights of Malta. Its Vatican Bank is fronted by the Rothschilds, has 500 Trillion Dollars, controls 70% of Fortune 500 companies, controls 70% of all banks Worldwide, controls 100% of all central Banks, consciously creating all depressions, all austerity, all Wars, all famine genocide.

I guess the education system isn't full proof indoctrinating your children into Bolshevik Communism.... they need more weapons to more quickly dumb down humanity... vaccines are all set up to make the tribe over at the Rockefeller medical industrial complex $90 Billion a year....autism was practically unheard of (one in 25,000) until they started pumping babies with poisoned vaccines to turn them into a bunch of handicapped chimps... (Now Autism is one in ten moving to one in two)

If you really think that my analysis is a form of harshness then you really misread me and the purpose of this site. You probably know that it is a well-known problem with despots and dictators when they gradually surround themselves with only those kind of advisors who enthusiastically agree with everything the despot wants to hear and with everything the despot says.

Enemy Propaganda is like this.

My question to you is simple: do you want to turn into a “despotic reader” – somebody who will come to this site to hear his views supported, his ideas vindicated and his hopes affirmed? Or do you prefer to come here, get what I hope is an honest, if generally cautious, analysis which you can then either accept or reject?

My job is to try to present to you the truth as best as I can distinguish it. Even when that truth is cautious or, worse, unpleasant.

Look, the intelligence process goes through what is called the “Four A's”: Acquisition, Analysis, Acceptance, Action. The first one is “getting the data/info”. The second one means making sense of it and presenting it to your “client” (in this case: all of you). The third one is always overlooked: acceptance by the “client” – i.e., the willingness to hear a negative or disappointing analysis. This is the part which YOU (collective “you”) must do (or refuse to do). Last is action.

 

The actions I recommend are the avoidance of poison, and the active getting the poison out of the body, physically, emotionally, mentally, spiritually with Energy Enhancement. Deprogram, Become normal. Spread the plan.

 

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Research..

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They may even feel the need to join an activist group such as 9/11 Truth, or do their own research into the background of people involved in such rogue networks. Investigate the Pope, Bush, Cheney, Rumsfeld, the Bush family, the CIA, etc. Just like with Left-Right Paradigm Awareness, these people are likely to be open-minded, yet because they are willing to research for themselves, you need only steer them in the right direction and affirm things that they are finding out.

New World Order/Conspiracy Awareness: This category can be termed “fully awake.” Chances are, such people have done their own research on the rogue networks that are responsible for various assassinations or false flag terror plots, and have chosen to “take the red pill”. Such people have most likely already found resources containing treasure troves of information not only on the New World Order, but on Truth in History.

They know that Meditation is the only way to deeply deprogram themselves.

For one to achieve this level of awareness suggests a desire to remove all of his or her own ego, false indoctrination, biases and/or religious beliefs as well as the commonly accepted wisdom of modern secular society.

They know that Meditation and Enlightenment is the Only Solution to this.

 

They will take complete responsibility for the state of the Earth and whilst trying to help humanity, and will be very involved in trying to remove the energy blockages of their own indoctrination, to open their hearts and become enlightened themselves.

They know that 10,000 years of Psychopathic Oligarchs have fashioned their eternal policy of dumming down humanity in order to CONTROL. And that this CONTROL is the answer to the folowing questions.
Why is it that no-one focuses on solutions? - because the solution is CONTROL.
Why is it that psychopaths have been created to rule everywhere? - because they are one of the solutions to CONTROL.
Why poison the water, air, food and vaccines - Because of CONTROL
Why Susainability, Carbon Taxes, Agenda 21 and 30 - Because of CONTROL
Why is it that no-one is interested in Human Evolution as the purpose of being on this Planet? - because the Oligarchic purpose is CONTROL.

As Khalil Gibran so famously wrote in The Prophet, “No man can reveal aught but that which already lies half asleep in the dawning of one’s knowledge.”


 

Satanic ISIS, British 1710 Secret Agent Hempher Salafism and Saudi Arabian Wahhabism ISIS - Venetian created MI6 created Wahhabism in 1706 - based on the same principles as Lutherism - and institutionalised it in MI6 created Saudi Arabia

TANTRA AND HOMOSEXUALITY IN SATANIC RITUAL HOMO-OCCULTISM - The Ritual Implantation of Energy Blockages - ETON - Whipping and Fagging to create fierce homosexual PEDOPHILE Warriors in a educational system based on Greece and Sparta - The foundation of the British Empire.

 

 

 

 

The Devil Worshipping Satanic Jewish Dönmeh and the Infiltration of Satanism into Luciferian Satanic Illuminati Kabbalist Sabbatean Frankists - Jewish Families - Rothschilds, Rockefeller, Schiff, Astor, Saud, Attaturk, Stalin, Hitler, Mao. (Only the Torah Jews were Genocided in the Holocaust)

Luciferian Satanic Illuminati Kabbalist Sabbatean Frankists - CULT OF THE ALL SEEING EYE

THE SATANIC HISTORY OF THE WORLD - PART TWO - OLIGARCHIES-POLICIES-FROM-THE-TIME-OF-BABYLON-AND-THEIR-HISTORICAL-TECHNIQUES-TO-ENSLAVE-THE-WORLD - IT'S THE OLIGARCHIC GANG FAMILIES STUPID!! PROTESTANTISM - Luther like Wahhab was a paid Agent working for Venetian Cardinal Contarini

THE EVOLUTION OF A NEW HUMANITY - 1. THE ENLIGHTENED SPECIES AND THE HUMAN INTRA SPECIES PARASITES 2. THE LUCIFERIAN SPECIES 3. THE SATANIC SPECIES  - SATANISM/LUCIFERIANISM - Pagan Rituals and Myths used to pervert and degenerate a psychopathic ruling class.

THE SATANIC HISTORY OF THE WORLD -  PART ONE - The Satanic Psychopathic Palmerston, Prime Minister of the British Empire circa 1850 - and his Three Satanic Psychopathic British Agents, Mazzini, Urquhart and Napoleon III - as a Continuation of the same Satanic Psychopathic Gang Families from Satanic Psychopathic Babylon through the Satanic Psychopathic Roman Empire, the Satanic Psychopathic Venetian Empire to the Satanic Psychopathic British Empire to the current Satanic Psychopathic Anglo-American Establishment  - KARL MARX - Wrote Das Capital from his MI6 provided office in the British National Museum under Ambassador Urquhart creating MI6 inspired Communism, Russian (65 millions tortured dead) and Chinese Revolutions (85 millions tortured dead), and Socialism.

The Illuminati Enemy Within Freemasonry - Weishaupt, General Pike, Palladian Rite, Morals and Dogma, Rose-Croix, Templars, Alta Vendita or highest lodge of the Italian Carbonari, Mazzini, The Lost Keys of Freemasonry, Manly P. Hall the seething energies of Lucifer - Satan, or Lucifer, and the demons, Demonic Possession, Morals and Dogma, Albert Pike, Elias Ashmole edited Dr. John Dee, sorcerer who "brought through" the Enochian system of magic, of satanic ritual and demonic evocation, the Pagan Eleusinian Mysteries, Council on Foreign Relations ... the Trilateral Commission ... and the Bilderberger Group serve to disseminate and to coordinate the plans for this so-called new world order, Alice A. Bailey, 1950, 1986, "The Plan" involves a one-world government, an occult hierarchy, an elite "illumined" oligarchy ruling over a world in which Christianity has been slated to be displaced and destroyed.

THESE RITUALS DEFINE SATANISM.. SATANIC RITUAL SEX, RITUAL HOMOSEXUALITY, RITUAL PEDERASTY, RITUAL DRUGS, RITUAL BLOOD SACRIFICE, RITUAL HUMAN SACRIFICE, RITUAL CANNIBALISM, RITUAL CASTRATION MORE..

SATANISM, RITUAL SEX AND HUMAN SACRIFICE, BLOODLINES, SATANIC PROPAGANDA DARWINISM EUGENICS AND THE REMOVAL OF IMPLANT ADDICTION SEX AND DRUG BLOCKAGES

THE EVOLUTION OF A NEW HUMANITY - 1. THE ENLIGHTENED SPECIES AND THE HUMAN INTRA SPECIES PARASITES 2. THE LUCIFERIAN SPECIES 3. THE SATANIC SPECIES

 

THE SATANIC HISTORY OF THE WORLD -  PART ONE - The Satanic Psychopathic Palmerton, Prime Minister of the British Empire circa 1850 - and his Three Satanic Psychopathic British Agents, Mazzini, Urquhart and Napoleon III - as a Continuation of the same Satanic Psychopathic Families from Satanic Psychopathic Babylon through the Satanic Psychopathic Roman Empire, the Satanic Psychopathic Venetian Empire to the Satanic Psychopathic British Empire to the current Satanic Psychopathic Anglo-American Establishment
 

THE SATANIC HISTORY OF THE WORLD - PART TWO - Luciferian OligarchIES-POLICIES-FROM-THE-TIME-OF-BABYLON-AND-THEIR-HISTORICAL-TECHNIQUES-TO-ENSLAVE-THE-WORLD

SATANIC HISTORY OF THE WORLD PART 3 - OSHO ON ARISTOCRACY - ARISTO - ARISTOTLE, CRACY - GOVERNMENT BY.. THOSE ARISTOCRATIC OLIGARCHIC SATANIC PAGAN GANG GENERATIONAL FAMILIES AND THEIR CREATIONS, JESUITS AND KNIGHTS OF MALTA - WHO DO NOT BELIEVE IN THE SOUL.. THEY WANT TO KILL YOU!!

Satanism, Black Magic, Ordo Templi Orientis OTO, Aleister Crowley, Luciferianism, Wicca

VAMPIRE ADDICTION IMPLANT BLOCKAGES VAMPIRE SEXUAL ADDICTION IMPLANT BLOCKAGES VAMPIRE DRUG ADDICTION IMPLANT BLOCKAGES VAMPIRE FOOD ADDICTION IMPLANT BLOCKAGES

DEEPAMKARA BUDDHA - THE LAMPLIGHTER, THE GURU, THE SPIRITUAL MASTER

ALEISTER CROWLEY - SEX TANTRA ADDICT, DRUG ADDICT, VICTIM OF VAMPIRE IMPLANT ADDICTION BLOCKAGES

 

THE REAL REALITY OF THE WORLD AND THE PURPOSE OF "SPIN", HERMENEUTICS, HISTORIOGRAPHY, HEGEMONY, MYTH AND GRAMSCI'S "PHILOSOPHY OF PRAXIS" ON THE PATH OF ILLUMINATION, ENLIGHTENMENT

THE PURPOSE AND THE PSYCHOPATHIC PERVERSION OF THE PURPOSE - THE CAUSE OF ALL EVIL IN THE WORLD!!

THE ORIGEN OF THE BANKSTERS

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PURUSHOTTAMANANDA Energy Blockages Create the Matrix

PURUSHOTTAMANANDA Discovering the Meaning of Happiness in Illumination

 

SEE BELOW.... THIS PAGE.... THE SECRETS KNOWN ONLY TO THE INNER ELITES – THE LUCIFERIAN OLIGARCHIES HISTORY FROM THE TIME OF BABYLON AND THEIR POLICIES AND TECHNIQUES TO ENSLAVE THE WORLD

"An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile—hoping it will eat him last" - Churchill

"Those who ignore history are bound to repeat it" - Santayana

THIS PHILOSOPHIC BATTLE BETWEEN PLATO AND SATANIC ARISTOTLE IS PORTRAYED ABOVE BY RAPHAEL

 

 

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ENERGY ENHANCEMENT MEDITATION SAMYAMA

 

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Meditate with the first Initiation of Energy Enhancement and Gain Super Energy, the psychic powers of perception. Leap into eternity with a quantum shift of energy from the Sky. Fuse with the higher chakras above the head which work at a higher and faster frequency.

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ARCHAEOLOGY



Now, we resume the clarification of historiographical categories of method.

In archeology, one assembles the shards of available evidence, to the intermediate purpose of reconstructing a working-model conception of the society under study.

At this point, one has what might be described as the intermediate model. At this phase, the work of the archeologist suffers flaws analogous to those of the credulous historical narrative form. This phase is indispensable, but does not represent material which of itself is reliable for adducing historiographical knowledge.

To develop the "intermediate model," the work of the archeologist focuses on what was constructed, how it was constructed, and to what use it was employed. By organizing the study of this subject matter in terms of labor time and amounts' of household consumption of the population as a whole, archeological studies can be advanced to a high degree of rigor in accounting for the general features of a culture. In a more useful sort of site or group of sites, the evolution of the culture in these terms provides the most advantageous and a relatively rigorous reconstruction of the sort indicated.

The danger is that the study of the matter is concluded on that level of investigation. To put the matter crudely, but otherwise usefully, the emphasis on the "objective" evidence deprecates the decisive "subjective" side of the culture.

Human practice as a whole is not "objective." Something happens. That might be termed "objective." Yet, one such objective occurrence does not lead directly to a human action in response in an objective way. Man responds to the stimulating event "subjectively," interprets its import and character "subjectively," and selects his response (or, non-response) "subjectively." In first approximation, historiography focuses on the "subjective," determining linkage between an "objective" occurrence and responsive objective" human action. This locates the crucial, "subjective" area of investigation, but does not in itself represent yet competent historiography. The question is how that "subjective" behavior is itself determined. whence and how that manifest way of seeing and responding to the world is developed.

In the absence of literary records, or with aid of only some fragments of literary or protoliterary records, that subjective side of the archeological record must be interpolated. Unfortunately, most efforts of this sort extant are deceptively plausible, specious, and wrong. The same sort of rigor employed in determining how paleolithic man produced stone tools must be applied to the "technology" of development of ruling sets of ideas. This can not be done on the basis of archeology. We must develop epistemology for this work by working backward from history as such, by first applying archeological methods to the historical period, and thus develop a rigorous method to be applied to the archeological periods as such.

For one brief example, on the basis of knowing crucial features of the history from the eighth century BC, one can project judgments upon the subjective side of sites from the middle of the third millennium BC, and so forth. How this is to be accomplished, and how we may be certain that such methods are valid, we shall demonstrate in due course in this report. For the present instant, it is sufficient to announce that there can be no competent archeological historiography without commanding the secrets of the "inner elites."



HUMAN PALEONTOLOGY



It may be noted that we employ "human paleontology" here in an included sense which is more commonly associated with the rubric "anthropology." The compelling reasons for our preference will be qualified in due course below.

Otherwise, the reader should be forewarned that human paleontology, properly understood, is the uniquely competent premise for) all scientific knowledge, competent historiography included. Consequently, a certain intensity of focus is supplied for that aspect of our report. Not only are we concerned to communicate the secrets of the "inner elite," but also to reformulate them from the standpoint of insights and knowledge not available entirely to our predecessors.

We take up this matter now. beginning by treating the subcategory in question as we treated the other two facets of historiography, and then proceed to the deeper issues.

Human paleontology is occupied in a minor, if not insignificant way, with the varieties of hominids and other matters of physical, or biological anthropology. This feature pf the investigation gains importance as our attention focuses inclusively on those characteristic features of the human species' behavior which distinguishes our species from all other anthropoids and hominids, the power of reason. This distinction, we are obliged to assume, correlates with some specific biological distinction associated with human processes of mentation, even though the specific biological "substrate" in which that distinction is essentially located may not yet have been defined for investigation. We know that such a distinction exists, and are therefore obliged to pursue the nonbiological side of the investigation in such a way that our work will aid in isolating the biological feature of the matter. If that rigor were not observed, then the entirety of our work would suffer a correlated incompetence..

The proper, principal concern of human paleontology is the study of the development of the human species as a whole, a universality, through study of cultures over long sweeps of time.

Although human paleontology has some incidental overlaps of included techniques with animal paleontology, the evolution of human culture is a feature of the human species' existence which compares only with successful biological differentiation of more advanced varieties and species in animal paleontology. All animals but man are categorically limited, by variety and species, in their range of behavioral possibilities. This works to the effect that this range of possible variations in species-reproductive behavior is delimited as. if by genetic inheritance. Human "culture has, overall, successfully evolved to an effect approximated in the plant and animal kingdoms generally only by the emergence of biologically superior varieties and species. It is that feature of the cultural evolution of mankind which is the essential, primary subject-matter of human paleontology, and which absolutely distinguishes the subject, human paleontology, from the subject of animal paleontology.

There is a correlated difficulty arising from this distinction. Although paleontological evidence dates hominid existence to the Pleistocene according to prevailing estimates, it cannot be assumed that the present human species dates from the onset of that period. Skeletal fragments and a scattering of some artifacts do not enable us to rigorously or conclusively distinguish among hominid "relatives" or "ancestors" who lacked characteristic human qualities of reason and the modern, human species which possesses that distinguishing species-power. The fact that chimpanzees, gorillas, and baboons include the use of

"tools" within their range of behaviors in the wild state suggests, usefully, that a certain amount of tool-use may be associated with a species having a human-like skeleton but lacking the power of reason. Until the subsumed issues are resolved, we date human paleontology as an investigation to the Pleistocene, with the provision that adoption of this period has the function of defining the span within which we may locate more precisely the emergence of species-man.

The intrinsic methodological defect of "anthropology" as heretofore defined is that its adopted tion backwards to this or that notion of a "primeval horde." The fact of the matter is that the power to evolve culture, in the directed way man has secularly advanced his culture since the paleolithic, is the distinguishing quality of the human species, the quality by which we can distinguish the human species from other, inferior hominids. This distinction separates species-man from the hominids of any hypothesized "primeval horde."

Modern biological research has pointed to some helpful points in this connection. It is now determined that the notion of genetic determination of species and varieties is inherently defective. A heritable varietal change in a species can be induced "environmentally" without genetic variation. (2) The experimental evidence to this effect is conclusive, and already locates the functions of genetic material as heretofore defined within a much larger process which is actually determining. Closer study of the role of the ribosomes shows itself to be a fruitful, if not yet conclusive approach to comprehension of the actually determining processes. (3) What this current line of biological research implies is that without alteration of what is ordinarily considered genetic material, a heritable alteration in the hominid stock could be introduced to the effect of producing a new variety. If this new variety were distinguished by a suitably significant change from other varieties, we should be obliged to consider the new variation a new species on that account.

It is desirable to achieve rigorously defined answers. It is indispensable, first, to have rigorously defined questions. It is such questions which properly define science, questions to which we possess only sometimes satisfying answers.

The subject of human paleontology is the empirical investigation of the characteristic of the human species' capability for social evolution from lower into, higher forms of knowledge and social practice. This standpoint takes man of this distinction as a species, denying the existence of culture as a, development within a precultural "primeval horde." This subject , demands its own, appropriate, methods of historiography, which we define at some length below.

It is to be granted that the British and their dupes take officially a strong public stand against a principle of cultural evolution, proposing instead the dogma of "cultural relativism."

It would be nonetheless an insult to Oxford and Cambridge to assume that their inner circles actually believe their own publicized propaganda in behalf of "cultural relativism" as an anthropological-scientific thesis. Such propaganda is created for the stultification of the credulous. There is overwhelming evidence that the inner circles of the British intelligentsia are confidently convinced of the very opposite to what they teach credulous fools.

The fact of the matter is that the British colonial system has always followed the instruction of Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, the policy that populations should be kept wherever possible in a backward state of economic and cultural development relative to Britain itself. This was the feature of Adam Smith against which the American Revolution was fought. It is also a fact that the British colonial office pursued a political doctrine of "cultural relativism'' with respect to colonial peoples in general, and promoted that doctrine as anthropological propaganda as a part of the effort of the London School of Economics and other institutions to recruit agents for British service and interest from among the natives of the nations they proposed to keep in cultural backwardness. This is otherwise an old propaganda trick of the cult of Apollo, the characteristic feature of its cult of Dionysus, as exemplified by the case of al-Ghazali.

The inner circles of the British intelligentsia are not so stupid as to believe their own propaganda on this issue It cannot be seriously proposed that they do not know that cultural evolution is efficient; it is certain that thev do believe that continued cultural evolution is contrary to the Utopian goals of the Black Guelph oligarchy.



PALEONTOLOGICAL METHODS



Modern historiography properly combines the results and methods appropriate to all three subcategories of historiography into a single methodology. The proper methods for human paleontology are the foundation for the elaboration of historiography — and also the axiomatics of all scientific knowledge — as a whole.

Since human paleontology's essential, primary subject matter is the qualitative difference, human reason, between man and the animal species, it is the rigorous focus upon evidence most directly and universally bearing upon that difference which is the proper kernel of all historiography.

The first approximation of the method required is obtained by focusing on the problem human ecological population-potential. This is. at first inspection. the potential number of persons humanity can sustain in a certain mode of producing the necessary means of existence. At second inspection, more accurately, it represents the rate of growth populations at various levels of population-density in a given mode of production and associated culture. The question is thus posed: What is the potential rate of expansion of the population which sustains the average individual in a condition of life equal to or better than the condition at a previous, less numerous population? Quality of condition is properly defined in the same way; quality is the equipotentiality of the culture representing individuals in such a condition to maintain at least the same rate of growth of population.

This admittedly involves a conceptual difficulty for the person of merely an ordinary university or even a more advanced education. The British doctrine of the inductive sciences." which has become relatively hegemonic in one guise or another, starts with countable objects, and derives notions of ordering and other kinds of relationship through formulations in which the quality of the counted objects is external to the process. Only the quality of the so-called dependent variable is ordinarily assumed to be subject, to constructive valuation by formulation. “Self-reflexive functions” are, considered outlawed by the dogma of "the inductive sciences" (4) Yet. we have admittedly introduced a “self-reflexive function" here. It is the inductive-science dogma which is in error, not our definition given just above.

Beginning with that rough definition of ecological; population-potential, we can refine this notion effectively only by considering the conceptual problem which arise as we study the processes through which the mode of production is bettered, and as we at the same time more rigorously define the criteria which determine what is a betterment of the mode of existence.

The first such conceptual difficulty which might pop into view is this. As the mode of culture changes, the requirements of consumption by individuals are altered. Consequently, we cannot compare successive states of cultural development with the included assumption that the normative spectrum of consumption required for the first case is appropriate for the second. Also, we cannot assume that a linear function can account for the transformation involved. Related conceptual problems will be faced as we proceed.

Changes in ecological population-potential are effected to human advantage through advances in mode of culture, in which advances in mode of production are,, decisive. These changes originate modally as discoveries mediated through individuals, which become more or less universalized for that culture's practice through, typically, the transmission of such an individuals discovery to numerous others.

This peculiarity of the individual defines the powers of reason (creative discovery) of the individual person as a singularity which characterizes the human species as a species. We shall develop the significance of, that in due.

Historically (paleontologically), the cumulative effect of such successful discoveries is a secular trend of increase in the number of calories of useful energy commanded by the average individual engaged in production. This secular increase in per capita energy-density of production has in fact risen secularly. Empirically, the cultural progress of the human species correlates with an exponential rate of increase of per capita energy-density for production (cf. Figure 1).

Not all cultures have maintained such advance. In general, those strains of cultural progress which are most rapid determine a superior rate of population-potential for the branches of culture involved. Stagnating cultures collapse, retrogress, and so forth. In this way the branches of culture which maintain progress determine the largest portion of the human population.

This is not contrary to the fact of population-expansion in the developing sector today. The recent tendencies for expansion of those populations are the consequence of European culture. However, because of the City of London's domination of the world financial markets, and because of related malignant influences, the growth of population in developing nations, itself caused by more advanced European cultural influences, appears to represent a problem. This is not a problem because of the numbers of persons existing, or population growth rates. Using presently available nuclear-energy technology and imminently available fusion technologies, the world would have already the technology to maintain a population of tens of millions of persons at current European standards. The problem is that the social productivity of populations kept at "labor-intensive" levels at or near barbarism is inadequate to sustain those persons.

There is a recurring "resources problem," of course; however, this problem has no resemblance to the hoaxes circulated under that rubric by Ralph Nader, the Club of Rome, or Barry Commoner.

From early in the existence of the human species, man has been perpetually, or with frequent recurrence, confronted at each such point with what a contemporary "Club of Rome" could have argued to be an "insuperable limit to growth" with as much finality as the actual Club of Rome argues presently. This problem existed when the human population of the earth could be counted in mere millions, and repeatedly so thereafter. Yet, in all those branches of cultural evolution which have led into modern civilization, man has repeatedly overcome what "environmentalist" maniacs of those times might have' decreed to be "insuperable limits to growth."

The British oligarchy's inner circle of intelligentsia knows this to be a fact. Privately, as some examples attest in fact, they should consider themselves insulted (privately) in respect of their intelligence if one accused them of actually believing the rubbish published by the Club of Rome. Similarly, since the British have developed and operated nuclear power plants, the British elite knows that nuclear energy production by established standards is the safest sort of energy production yet in existence.

They know, and sometimes concede privately, that the Club of Rome thesis and "environmentalism" generally are hoaxes, fit only for the consumption of very foolish, very credulous dupes. After all, it was they who ordered that those hoaxes be concocted.

As in the instance of "cultural revolution," their point is that they do not wish to maintain technological progress; they are only wicked, not stupid; they are not such abysmal idiots that they do not believe technological progress could not solve all the present ecological problems. It was to aid them in mobilizing adequate political support from masses of fools, to block technological progress, that they promoted the Club of Rome's hoax. They generated a myth to persuade the hysterical donkeys of plebeia that technological progress was undesirable — because they are determined to bring on the "new dark age" out of which they aim to establish enduring rule for their "feudalist" Utopia.

At first glance, the pseudo-limits to growth have been successively overcome by our species through increased per capita energy for production. The use of tools, the development of the simplest forms of agriculture, the simplest forms of livestock raising, increase the usable energy commanded by a calorie of human biological effort. The application of fire and its cultural derivatives have the same effect. The "reducing power" of the species relative to existing forms of man-altered nature is increased. The increase in calories of "artificial labor" commanded by a calorie of human biological effort tends toward a qualitative decline in costs of "primary materials" per calorie of human biological effort, such that marginal or out-of-reach primary resources of a lower state of culture become the abundant, cheap resources of a new stage of progress of culture.

It is man's movement away from labor-intensive forms of production into what are presently capital-intensive forms of increasing emphasis upon "artificial labor," which define the world-line of human survival and progress. Conversely! the shift from capital-intensive forms of production can have only one consequence: large-scale genocide against the populations so murderously oppressed.

The British who propose labor-intensive methods know this. They propose labor-intensive "full employment" methods precisely because they intend to reduce the earth's population to the order of between one and two billion persons by the end of the century.

They create movements for labor-intensive full employment measures, such as the U.S. draft Humphrey-Hawkins legislation, because they wish to induce populations to willfully mass-murder themselves in this emulation of the lemming.

Increased energy-density is indispensable for maintaining as well as advancing human culture. Yet, it is not undifferentiated, scalar increases in energy per capita which enable man to survive. It is inventions. It is inventions which make possible increases in the energy-density of production. It is inventions which make possible the effective conversion of that augmented energy-density into useful forms of production.

The effort to reconcile two interconnected causes, energy and reason, into something equivalent to a single "equation" points us immediately in the direction of the most fundamental issues of scientific knowledge. Energy is ordinarily measured in calories, watts, and so forth. These are all scalar measures. In what units is human reason to be measured? The concern of Thales and other lonians for the combined action of mind, fire (energy), and continuous primary substance cannot seem so unimportant a conception as Aristotle and his admirers have purported to make the issue — it is indeed so fundamental that the import of Thales' work is to this day concealed with aid of British frauds.

We shall turn attention to the subsumed physics of that problem subsequently. It is indispensable to note the existence of such a problem at this state of the report, so that it can be temporarily set to one side, and that we may proceed to examine one crucial facet of this matter seemingly independently of the physics problem as such. We shall show, subsequently, why energy cannot be fundamentally a scalar magnitude, and under what circumstances it might nonetheless appear to be a scalar.



THE MEANING OF SCIENCE



So far, we have outlined the premises for the following judgments concerning historiography. History, in both its narrowest and broadest meanings, is the history of the human species. Consequently, it is the history of the distinguishing characteristics of the human species, the history of reason, and of the consequences of actions taken according to or contrary to reason by individuals and societies. The advances in ecological population-potential, which determine whether or not the species shall continue to exist, determine successive advances (secularly, for the species as a whole) \n successive forms of culture.

Reason is not applied ex novo to raw, precultural conditions, but is always reason informed by an existing culture acting to change (advance) that culture. Hence, history and the internal history of science are inseparable facets of the same inquiry. It is the ordering 'of the evolution of human culture according to the principles internal to scientific progress which is the primary feature of competent historiography, the standard of reference with whose governance we comprehend inclusively the failures of human history.

Conversely, history so studied is the unique premise for competent scientific knowledge.

The key to scientific method, and thus to the mastery of both science and history, is the method of the Platonic dialogue. This is also properly termed the dialectical method, as such a method is associated with Thales, Heraclitus and Plato. It is not, however, the "dialectical method" represented in most of the available literary productions of the Moscow Institute of Marxism-Leninism — even though the kernel of Karl Mark's method was a distillate from the Ionian dialectical method.

This Platonic method has two inseparable facets. As a consequence of its findings, the Platonic method early correctly classified all forms of human knowledge into three primary categories, showing, as we have noted earlier, how the method of the Platonic dialogue ordered the progress of the mental development of the individual from the lowest to the highest of these three levels.

The lowest level is the level of simple belief, the level of individual judgment defectively based on narrow experience and informed chiefly by prejudices and mythologies. That is the level of "common sense," or "horse sense," the donkey-like state of the human intellect. The second level is the level of the understanding, as defined by Immanuel Kant, for example. It is on this level that underdeveloped and miseducated persons mislocate their definitions of "scientific knowledge." Those misdefinitions of scientific knowledge are what we must expose as fraudulent here. The third, highest level is the level Plato associated with Socratic reason, or, for our purposes here, simply reason, the Vemunft of whose existence Kant was certain, but whose efficiency he pronounced incomprehensible to the understanding. It is at this level that science properly defined is found.

That is the understanding, and application of science we must outline here.

The Platonic dialogue's method, the dialectical method, is essentially as follows.

It begins with the certainty that all knowledge presumably believed by the individual on the basis of his culture and narrow sense-experience is inherently false because of that very narrowness of its empirical basis. In the way this was defined by Spinoza, "such knowledge is inadequate or fictitious. In the Platonic dialogue, the individual examines his own consciousness in terms of the way this consciousness is consciously mirrored in the thinking of another person(s). The point of this is not to compare different views if one attributes such a trivial significance to the Platonic dialogue, one condemns oneself to benighted ignorance forever. The object of "mirroring" is to make one's own consciousness an object for, a subject of one's willful consciousness, to make consciousness an object of willful consciousness for itself.

The subject of such willful consciousness of one's own mirrored consciousness is not primarily the "what?" of the consciousness brought under willful scrutiny. The primary subject matter is the "how?" and "why?" of that consciousness. My concern is not simply to discover on what points I may have believed in error; my concern is to discover in my consciousness how previously prevailing criteria have led me into error, and why I have thought foolishly. The subject of willful consciousness of consciousness is willful mastery of the method of conscious thought. The object of the Platonic method is to develop in oneself an effective method of thinking, of judgment, to reduce consciousness itself to a subject of scientific inquiry concerning method.

The first goal of the Platonic method is negation, is to break out of the narrowness of fictitious, false knowledge ("common sense," "practical experience"), I must. in first approximation, determine what methods of conscious judgment will actually solve problems without significant error over entire ranges of experience.

These method-specific ranges of experience are termed categories of knowledge. In turn, what is termed a category is determined by the differences in specific methods of judgment required for various aspects of knowledge (understanding). Another term for category is a relative universality. For example, physics, chemistry, botany, internal medicine, economics, and so forth have been subcategories of knowledge on these grounds, even though they may otherwise overlap.

To arrive at methods of thought by which one has mastered such a universality of knowledge methodologically from the standpoint of relatively best contemporary levels of practice, is to have arrived at a condition of understanding for that category. However, this does not remove the case in which a person has an understanding of physics and yet is a donkey in matters of, for example, internal medicine and economics. To characterize persons as persons of understanding in general has a special meaning. It means that the philosophical outlook of the person toward categories of knowledge which he has not yet mastered in particular ,is methodologically in correspondence with the principles of understanding — although he may not yet have achieved yet the competence of particular understanding in that category. It means that his philosophical outlook, his governing sense of personal social identity, is governed by the methodological principles of understanding.

Consequently, derived from or subsumed under this level of mental development, we have given to us the usual misdefinition of scientific knowledge among educated persons. In the case of the mathematical sciences, science is usually associated with the range of conceptual apparatus currently developed by the culture in the indicated categories. There is another, worse meaning, we merely identify at this instant, the meaning given to "science" by the dogma of "the inductive sciences."

In reason, we advance a qualitative step beyond the mere understanding. In understanding, we seek to extend present elementary knowledge and special methods "horizontally," so to speak, to fill out the extent of knowledge in each category, to establish coherent connections among categories, and to correct included errors in the body coexisting knowledge in an ordinary fashion. Although creative-mental activity is essential to this work, it is largely unconscious mental activity, and so appears only as a tool of the effort; it is generally regarded as something outside the domain to which it is applied transiently in acts of creativity. In progressing from mere understanding to reason,. we apply the same Platonic method to the inadequacies of understanding that was applied, to achieve understanding, to donkey-like states of "common sense"

There is nothing properly mystical in this, no mumbo jumbo, yoga-like meditative gimmickry, or any "black magic" of that sort. Geniuses are grown, cultivated, not produced miraculously out of donkeys sucking on some, fortuitously acquired philosopher's stone.

The inadequacy of existing scientific knowledge generally is that it must be superseded, to arrive at a higher level of scientific knowledge. This is not solved, by the effort to leap abruptly into the next qualitative development of scientific knowledge

The process of progressive evolution of scientific knowledge must be made itself an object for willful consciousness. It is the internal history of progress of scientific and related knowledge, approached in this way which enables consciousness to willfully abstract the element of progress from the consciousness of scientific knowledge in particular. In other words, the subject of consciousness is transformed from the conscious contemplation of an existing body of scientific knowledge, into comprehension of the process which characterizes the historical progress of scientific knowledge. It is this element of science, the motion of scientific progress, from which we abstract for consciousness the method for willfully effecting scientific progress. The mastery of that indicated method, developed for knowledge in that way. is reason.

In that way, the kinds of unconscious process of thought by which the creative person otherwise on the level of mere understanding produces the exceptional insights turning up seemingly so abruptly in his conscious understanding, are brought into willful consciousness by the Platonic method, and thus made the ruling criteria of what then becomes ordinary, willful consciousness of reason for that person.

The way in which the contemporary nonsense-version of the "dialectical method" came into circulation, e.g., the case of the Moscow Institute, was that certain persons encumbered with the duty of professing that method, and yet without the slightest acquaintance with it, applied, at best, the mere understanding to the task of composing glosses on what seemed appropriate passages from Hegel, Marx, Engels and so forth, often with reference to Lenin's Materialism and Empiric-Criticism and "Philosophical Notebooks" added.

This method — in its actuality — is not only a method tor developing geniuses, or, more modestly and realistically, lor developing people's mental powers in directions converging upon genius. It is the indispensable point of reference for competently defining the lawful ordering of the universe. We shall turn to develop that facet of the point now, and return, later, to complete the notion of science on the basis of such grounding development.



THE PROOF OF SCIENCE



The proof of scientific knowledge is essentially that through the improved social practice with which its application is associated, man advances the power of his society in terms of ecological population-potential. Although the individual invention is expressed in this, the individual invention, defined only as an individual invention, does not define such a proof of the knowledge embodied in itself. It is the generality, or relative universality of invention, a generality which is at least implicitly expressible as a quality of prevailing scientific practice, which a society tests, tests by the I success of its existence through progress.

In a limited sense, therefore, the efficacy of existing scientific knowledge, as demonstrated in the indicated way, does prove that the laws attributable to scientific knowledge are in some form of correlation with the lawful ordering of the universe. However, the paradoxes of existing scientific knowledge, in particular, conclusively indicate that the existing body of scientific knowledge is not competently representative of comprehensive knowledge of universal laws. indeed that the flaws of existing mathematical-scientific knowledge are axiomatic on this account.

This apparently insuperable problem begins to evaporate once we shift the focus from an existing body of scientific knowledge to the history of progress of human scientific and related knowledge. At no point has the prevailing body of knowledge according to understanding been adequately in correspondence with reality. Yet, in respect of all those advances in understanding which are rankable as advances by the criterion of ecological population-potential, the progress in understanding determining such advances is progress in correspondence with the lawful ordering of the universe.

In other words, no form of understanding, mathematical physic as presently defined included, could possibly be in actual correspondence with the lawful ordering of the universe, but reason is. One could avoid the point, out of fear no doubt; and say merely that the successive, qualitative advances in physics appear to converge, as if asymptotically, upon some "true physics" which is in correspondence with fundamental laws. That view would be more credible to the taste of prevailing mythologies, but is false for that very reason. It is also a useless compromise, since such a fearful, conservative observation contributes nothing which points our attention in direction of fruitful scientific progress.

The problem which such fearful evasions of the point most explicitly incur is that the level of understanding, exemplified by mathematical physic's, involves axiomatic assumptions like those associated with mathematics as such. Once we shift our focus away from the standpoint of mere scientific knowledge to the process of historical progress of scientific knowledge, such axiomatic difficulties begin to vanish.

The formal solution to this problem for mathematical physics began to emerge for direct, conscious comprehension through the combined efforts of Riemann and Cantor. We sum up here the point to be extracted from those sources.

Throw away the mistaken notion of a universe which can be represented by the heurisms of a fixed, n-dimensional geometry. Imagine instead, a universe whose characteristic, defining feature as a whole is a constant self-elaboration from the equivalent of any given n-geometry into an (n+1)-geometry. Now, rather than considering the symbols of "n," "n+1," "n+2," as counting the numbers of geometric-like dimensions of such a universe, let "n," "n+1," "n+2," and so forth denote different qualities of universe, in the sense of transfinites as developed by Cantor.

Now. to illustrate the implications of this, we note the following applicable case, without, we trust, implying that this illustration offered is exclusive.

We have at hand a case which corresponds to such an "n," "n+1." "n+2" ordering. If the world of prevailing physics and chemistry knowledge is taken as such, this can be termed the "n-dimensional" continuum. Mathematically interpreted in presently prevailing ways, that continuum is presumed to be characterized by entropy. It is not entropic in fact, but the prevailing analysis of such an "n-dimensional" continuum might be and is usually construed to suggest that, on condition such a continuum were the universe. The phenomena of living processes correspond then to an "n+1" ""continuum, which is characteristically negentropic. The phenomena of creative reason in living beings, human cultural evolution, represents an "n+2" continuum, which is of a higher order of negentropy than the "n+1."

Moreover, "n+2" is efficient with respect to both "n" and "n+1", and "n+1" is efficient with respect to "n." Furthermore, "n+1" "historically" developed out of "n," and "n+2" "historically" out of "n+1."

That is, incidentally, the basis in conception on which Riemann explicitly developed all his principal contributions, and is also the basis on which Cantor, with explicit reference to relevant aspects of the work of Leibniz and Nicholas of Cusa, developed his complementary notion of transfinites.

The conception of reason employed by Riemann and Cantor was not original to them. This conception of the fundamental ordering of the universe was first documented, to our present knowledge, by ibn Sina, in his Metaphysics — as the conception of the "necessary existent," and also by Cusa, as his conception of the "Non-Other." This is also the guiding conception of Gottfried Leibniz, the "secret" of his Monadology, and of his development of the notion of "inertia" with aid of a methodological criticism of Descartes derived directly from this order of conception of universal law.

Two principal observations have to be made immediately on the points just developed. First, a matter of some importance, "n," "n+1," and "n+2" correspond significantly to the three qualities of the human intellect in the Platonic method. This not merely because they represent three levels, but because the characteristics of mental life at each level correspond to the epistemology of experience as seen from each of these levels. Second, the characteristics of neither an "n," "n+1" nor "n+2" continuum can correspond to the real universe. Only the principle which characterizes the going over from an "n" to "n+1" to "n+2," and so forth, can be the higher, relative transfinite in correspondence with the actual lawful ordering of the universe, (cf. Figure 2)

Again, the only aspect of human consciousness which is in correspondence with such a transfinite — or transinvariant— principle of the universe, is the quality of progress in human scientific knowledge, rather than any specific, subsumed scientific knowledge as such. The adducing of that principle, in turn, provides the methodological principle for ordering thought to the effect of willfully "energizing" the progress of scientific knowledge. That is the method of rigorous hypothesis. That is the meaning of the dialectical method, the method of rigorously developing valid hypotheses.

The method employed is the Platonic method of negation, as applied from the standpoint of the level of reason. The method of negation means to isolate those axiomatic fallacies of existing knowledge (understanding) which bear upon crucial-experimental problems confronting us. The qualitative elimination of the axiomatic fallacy permits the defining of experiments which can be represented in terms of quantitative relationships. The essential, underlying test of the validity of an hypothesis (as an hypothesis) posed in this way, is the test of whether the hypothesis, if successfully demonstrated, implies a means for increasing the negentropy of human practice.

Such hypotheses are defined by Riemann as "unique hypotheses." Their distinction in effect is that they test the laws of the universe for a category of knowledge, rather than merely testing the applicability of extension of established principles to a problem without involving a testing of general laws. Such hypotheses are more commonly, less rigorously, termed "crucial-experimental hypotheses."

In the case such an hypothesis fails experimentally, no loss. The failure of the hypothesis narrows qualitatively our approach to the axiomatic fallacy it attacked, and thus acts as positive progress in knowledge for attacking that axiomatic fallacy in a more effective way.



THE CASES OF ARISTOTLE AND NEWTON



On the basis of surviving writings of Plato and of fragments of the work of his predecessors of the Ionian current, it is shown beyond admissible ambiguity that those Ionians and their collaborators were attacking precisely the problems we have so far defined, and also attacking them in a most rigorous and fruitful fashion. It is clear from the writings attributed to Aristotle, that he not only had direct access to numbers of these Ionian works — some of which he cites — but that he set out deliberately to obfuscate those writings, not only by falsifying his commentaries in a sweeping fashion, but by focusing his frauds upon the most crucial features of such writings. That most crucial feature was, in broadest terms, the Platonic — or dialectical— method, and. emphatically, the method of rigorous scientific hypothesis derived from it.

The same method was employed, with no advance in sophistication of mental exertions, by Francis Bacon and later, by the associates of John Locke in developing the program of the British Royal Society.

Notable is the comparison between Francis Bacon and William Gilbert. Gilbert, a Neoplatonic, competes with Avicennean Roger Bacon as the greatest scientific thinker England ever produced. Francis Bacon, by contrast, was a bungling, unproductive incompetent. It was Gilbert whose De Magneto provided Kepler with the indispensable final link for solving the problem of the solar orbits. Both were in the networks linked to Giordano Bruno, linked to the great center of Padua, the accomplishments of the Florentine Academy, and to the rigorous formulation of the method of crucial scientific hypothesis by Nicholas of Cusa. Bacon's obsessive attacks on Gilbert are a degraded scandal, and Bacon's Novum Organum a malignant "neo-Aristotelian" hoax.

The point is made clearer by comparing Bacon's attacks on Gilbert with his attacks on the English composer John Bull. (6)

Contrary to the mythology taught by the confused to the credulous in the music departments of our universities Johann Sebastian Bach did not develop the well-tempered system as such. That system was fully developed by the tenth century Ismaili al-Farabi, whose writings introduced the system to medieval Europe through such influences as Guido Aretino, centuries before Bach. Al-Farabi, writing in the tenth century, reports the well-tempered system to have been very ancient by his own time. and the surviving writings of a contemporary and adversary of Aristotle's corroborate this. Bach's accomplishment was not to develop the well-tempered system. Bach, previously thoroughly schooled in the well-tempered system, accomplished something quite different. Bach resolved the contributions of European vocal polyphony into a lawful, contrapuntal system of musical composition, to the effect that every note of a composition has a well-defined lawful significance, including those which represent dissonances. Later, Beethoven, himself intensely schooled in Bach during childhood, carried Bach's accomplishment a major, qualitative step forward, beyond Bach's formal system of reference, into the principle of self-developing systems of counterpoint — as exemplified by Beethoven's own late major works.

Bach's work on methods of composition was not original to him. Exemplary, John Bull taught the well-tempered system to bodies of students as a method of composition. Together with his contemporary Sweelinck, Bull was one of the leading masters of the well-tempered system of composition in his time, and part of the heritage directly transmitted to Bach's own teachers.

Bacon drove Bull out of England and caused Bull's writings on music to be destroyed.

Bacon's book-burning orgy is no isolated matter. The British intelligence services hounded Bach into isolation and attempted to suppress all knowledge of his work throughout Europe, to the point that even Bach's virtuoso son was intimidated against performing his father's compositions. A similar operation was deployed against the influence of Beethoven — through Mendelssohn, Richard Wagner, and others.(7) Although the factional issue so expressed was much older, there is a direct, unbroken factional tradition concerning music by the Black Guelph faction from Bacon to the present day. The British-promoted "rock" and the Frankfurt School's promotion of the school of Schoenberg, Webern, et al., are consistent continuations of that issue.

The British neo-Aristotelian music-doctrine was early associated — into the nineteenth century — with the irrationalist doctrine that musical thematic material was properly only an arbitrary selection of tunes, which were agreeable for one or another reason peculiar to the composer or to the relationship among the composer, performer and audiences. Harmony for the British was merely a matter of an agreeable form of embellishment of the performance of the arbitrary tune; the other forms of embellishment of the melodic line, for which rococo performances are notorious, were argued to be a matter of idiosyncratic taste by the performer. The promotion of, first, Schoenberg's school, and later "rock" by the British intelligence services, has the special significance of introducing the principles of the Phrygian cult of Dionysus into the neo-Aristotelian doctrine's general application.

From the ancient times, the well-tempered system was intrinsically associated with an opposite view of both musical composition and the function of music.

The prevailing mythology of the present-day music department bears on this issue directly. According to the neo-Aristotelian doctrine, the musical doctrine of Pythagoras defines a system of "natural" intervals. On this premise, with the aid of reference to the mechanics of vibrating strings, the ignorant edify the dupe with the doctrine that the Pythagorean scale is a "natural scale," and that. therefore, the well-tempered system is an "artificial system" adopted for this or that plausible reason. Al-Farabi's argument shows correctly that this view is nothing but absurd. The human requirement of the fifth, the derivation of the octave from this approach, and the fact of modulation from one mode (or, key) or other within a composition, illustrates the point that human beings are not "vibrating strings," and that human music has nothing to do with the purported amusement of inorganic substances.

Music is a sensuous medium of mental creative activity, in which the composer lawfully arrives at relative dissonances in various ingenious ways within terms of the lawful order of an initial mode. These relative dissonances are resolved as transitions to another lawful mode, and so on and so forth, such that the resolution of such developed relative dissonances in a composition defines a coherent totality, subsuming several modes and their made-necessary transitional connections. Thus, a good such musical composition resolves this process in the enunciation of a summarizing stretto or the equivalent, which, at the completion of the composition, resounds in the hearer's mind as an affirmation that the development which has occurred within the composition is now demonstrated to be lawful in its own right. In other choice of terms, a successful musical composition is a demonstration of the coherence of freedom (creative expansion of what is lawful) with necessity (that everything must satisfy some form of lawful ordering).

In consequence, music which satisfies the principles of the well-tempered system of composition (and its evolutionary derivatives) is both an abstract form of and also a sensuous exercise of the creative potentialities of the minds of composer, performers, and audiences.

The greatest possibilities for such musical development originate as polyphony is ordered in a well-tempered system. Thus, where the confused, miseducated dupe says "harmony," the musician says "voices." Each voice, elaborating its material according to the lawful ordering, is in active, lawful relationship to the concurrent voices, also proceeding lawfully. By shifts in accents and intonations, cross-voice "voices" are created, including relative dissonances. In this ordering, there are no "chords" being struck (or strummed) "in harmony" with a vocal melodic line. Every note is the ongoing activity of a voice, every note an activity of a voice which is in polyphonic (contrapuntal) relationship to everything else in the composition. Every voice, every note of each voice, must have a necessary role for the development of the composition, or it should not be sounded. . The folly taught as musical theory in most schools today is most directly derived from the nonsense produced by Rameau, the doctrine of harmony as arbitrary, neo-Aristotelian rules (fixed categories) enslaved to the irrationalist selection of a melodic element. It was this doctrine of Rameau's which the British intelligence services promoted against Bach during the early eighteenth century, and which nonsense has left its embedded influence in the axiomatics of nineteenth century musicological theoretics and their various twentieth century derivatives.

Notable is the nineteenth century "romantic" school, which in its most banalizing aspects substitutes an unhinged and arbitrary obsession with sheer chromaticism as what was deemed an adequate alternative to the rigorously defined dissonance of the contrapuntal development processes of composition.

In consequence of the destructive influence of British intelligence services on music, we have reached the circumstance today at which good .musical performers (and a vestige of a sane musical audience) exist almost entirely because of the influence of Bach, the late Mo/art, and Beethoven upon their childhood instrumental (and) other training. In this way they have arrived at an "instinctive" insight into music. Yet, because the musical theory taught is the wretched myths and nonsense of the British influence's effects, virtually no good performer is able to articulate his or her valid insights in the form of musical-theoretical statements — and there are no significant composers. There are those who possess valid "insight" into great music, but virtually none sufficiently familiar with the laws of music to be able to create a musical composition even by standards prevailing during the early nineteenth century, or the modern proper equivalent of such standards.

This indicated attempt to destroy music by Bacon and others was not original to the British neo-Aristotelians, or even their earlier, medieval predecessors. Aristotle himself was the ostensible author of the British neo-Aristotelian doctrine.

In the matter of music as in scientific knowledge generally, Aristotle and his imitators of the British Royal Society followed the same policy, and the same motive. Aristotle's objective, as in his fraudulent commentaries on Plato's and other writings, was to eliminate all evidence of and credit for scientific method, for the method of reason; Just as the principles of musical composition can be formally described only from the Riemannian standpoint we have identified earlier here, so the conceptions of Riemann are nothing but a derivative of the principles of reason in the Platonic-Neoplatonic sense of reason.

The same principle was applied by the British to Germany of the late nineteenth century. Most visibly, from approximately the time of Bismarck's accession to the Prussian Chancellory, but beginning, more modestly, earlier. British influence in Germany focused on promoting two philosophical methods. The first was the so-called neo-Kantian fad; the second was the convergent phenomenology and existentialism leading into the existentialism of the Nazi Martin Heidegger. and more immediately agreeable to post-Bentham varieties of British "philosophical radicalism." The nominal targets of this campaign were G.W.F. Hegel, and actually Immanual Kant himself — the neo-Kantians were in fact predominantly anti-Kantians.

Insofar as Kant defined the problem of Vernunft (pure reason), the British hated him. The premises on which Kant argued that the "thing-in-itself must be incomprehensible to the mere understanding, the British hostilely rejected. They used Kant because he was a famous (and. conveniently, dead) German philosopher, and because the by-products of his critiques could be perverted to the form of the British doctrine.

The point is crucial; we summarize it here.

The basis of Kant's notion of the incomprehensible "thing in itself was this.

Kant proceeded from the Platonic definition of the three categories — simple belief, understanding and reason. He also defined the progress from simple belief to understanding in the mode of the Platonic dialectic. The point to be considered is made, most succinctly in the second portion of his Critique of Practical Reason, "The Dialectic of Practical Reason." He recognized the existence of reason in the Platonic sense, adding the stipulation that reason must be efficient for practice, that knowledge created by reason was the basis for efficient practice in the world otherwise known to the understanding.

He stumbled at the problem of pure practical reason in the following way. Reason, standing "above" the deterministic ordering of the mere understanding, must affect the world in a way {freedom) not in conformity with the fixed deterministic rules of the understanding. However — and here is the crux of Kant's problem — since human knowledge of the determination of categories of knowledge is limited to the forms of the understanding, the efficient consequences of reason are unknowable, indeterminate, for the understanding. Hence/the real world, which must embody the efficiency of practical reason, must define 'existence (the. thing-in-itself) in a way which is not comprehensible to the understanding; hence, the thing-in-itself is incomprehensible.

The neo-Kantians (at least, in the main) ignored Kant's argument, and substituted the principle of irrationalist indeterminacy within the nominal form of Kant's formulation of the problem. Instead of Kant's judgment that the efficiency of reason was beyond human comprehension, the neo-Kantians proposed that the thing-in-itself was indeterminate because it was, intrinsically, arbitrarily anarchic. Thus, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were smuggled into the neo-Kantian's commentaries on Kant.

This was the same result offered by Aristotle. On the one side, Aristotle adopted the appearance of a pure determinist. He proposed fixed, lawful orderings of categories, and so forth. However, embedded within that schema, the elementarily of the irrational takes the place of the problem of the comprehension of the specific lawfulness of reason. So, the Phrygian cult of Dionysus was embedded within the cult of Apollo. Roman stoicism was developed to the same effect by the cult of Apollo as the secularized version of the Apollonian mysticism.

Phenomenology and existentialism are simply such neo-Kantianism or Aristotelianism viewed through the microscope.

The complementary expression of this in contemporary Maoist cults is the secularized theological doctrine of "God is dead." The doctrine's source-rationale is as follows. If God created the universe with fixed universal laws, then by so doing, God precluded his own subsequent willful intervention into the universe. Hence, God may be omniscient, but is certainly impotent. Hence, to take the point a step further, God, because entirely impotent with respect to the universe, is dead with respect to the universe. Furthermore, although the individual will is entirely irrational (arbitrarily anarchistic), the laws of the universe are so fashioned that they succeed despite the anarchy of individuals. The contemporary Maoist doctrine follows: do whatever you please, what is going to occur will occur anyway. On this ground Maoists are secularized strict Lutherans. "The ordering of the world is governed by principles beyond your power to comprehend or change. What is of concern to you is merely your private exercise of your anarchistic impulses." This is also the doctrine of Bernard of Clairvaux. "You are only efficiently concerned with such matters, the matters of your personal, Hobbesian sub-universe. The fundamental error would be to follow Abelard, to attempt to be the helper of God in the ongoing work of creation. Abelardian elites, such elitists, are the only problem with which you have to deal."

The British purpose behind the neo-Kantian campaign in Germany was the destruction of science. The case of Georg Cantor is exemplary, as is. in a different form. the campaign of Ernst Mach and his allies against Max Planck, and the Copenhagen-centered assault on the leading scientific thinkers of the 1920s.

Cantor, the student of Weierstrass, inherited Weierstrass's conflict with the wretched, but influential, British-favored Kronecker. Cantor, sensible of the importance of his discoveries, was perplexed by the way — it seemed to him — that Kronecker was orchestrating a Europe-wide, successful effort to slander and isolate him. All Europe generally, was turned into' what was effectively a "controlled environment." such that even Cantor's supposed friends induced him to capitulate to Kronecker. Cantor broke under this orchestrated pressure, capitulated to Kronecker, and, as a result of this capitulation, went insane. A British operation.

From the foundation of the British Royal Society, its principal dedication was to the destruction of what it termed "continental science." This began — in that form — with Locke's coordination of attacks against Descartes (echoing Bacon's campaign against Bull and Gilbert), continued with Leibniz — next regarded as the chief danger — and continued through the nineteenth century. During the nineteenth century, Faraday was obsessed by this impulse. Maxwell was governed by it; (5) Pasteur was hated, harassed by British influences in France. Riemann's reputation as well as Cantor's was victimized by the British tools on the continent, just as British agent Niels Bohr played a prominent role in that filthy business during the present century...as a shocked Werner Heisenberg notes in respect to Bohr's atrocious antics toward Schroedinger.

Einstein, although predominantly a protege and prisoner of the British, had enough independence of character both to be shocked and to plainly discredit one of the architects of this evil, Bertrand Russell, in print, echoing similar views by the neo-Kantian Ernst Cassirer.

Yet, although the British inner circles have known that they have been perpetrating knowingly monstrous frauds and crimes, in general they have also mystified themselves with respect to reason and scientific method. Newton's preoccupation with the most infantile sort of black magic, and his involvement in one of the nasty black religious cults developed within Royal Society circles, his insanity during the 1690s, involve the desperation of the members of the Royal Society on account of their inability to command the sort of creative powers manifest in those from whom they plagiarized and whom they defamed. It was the same with the wretched Aristotle.

The ruling British elite are like animals — not only in their morality, but in their outlook on knowledge. They are clever animals, who are masters of the wicked nature of their own species, and recognize ferally the distinctions of the hated human species. Nonetheless, obsessively dedicated to being such animals, they can not assimilate those qualities unique to true human beings.



THE PHYSICS OF THE MATTER



The "n" and "n+1" orderings of continua arise not only in the comparison of entropic doctrines of physics and chemistry with respect to living processes. They occur in the experimental domain of physics itself. They arise there in a twofold way: through the crucial fallacies intrinsic to accredited physics doctrines, and in certain key aspects of the experimental realm. Not accidentally, the two aspects often intersect: an "anomalous" experimental phenomenon often corresponds to the problem of an intrinsic fallacy of accredited physics.

The general problem has been outlined by Uwe Parpart (9) and matters of detail have been covered by a number of articles reported either in the journals of the Fusion Energy Foundation or by the science staff of U.S. Labor Party intelligence. (10) The problem of the electron (11) and the related problem of negentropic types of anomalous phenomena in plasma regimes locate the problem.

In certain types of phenomena occurring in plasma regimes, the process initially determined ostensibly according to ordinary, accredited physics doctrines, is transformed to produce self-sustaining or even reproductive phenomena, such as the vortices occurring in plasma-focus experiments or solitons. The latter phenomena "violate" the basic laws of physics as ordinarily defined, to the effect that the causal features of the process are subject to accountability, but the consequences of this causal connection are not determinable in terms of the initial conditions from which starting-point they are produced.

This intersects the fact that an electron-particle could not exist, according to prevailing doctrines of existing physics, if it were a particle, and yet in,many respects it behaves as if it were a particle. The crux of the difficulty is that the available gravitational forces to hold the particle together as a particle are miniscule with respect to the electromagnetic forces driving it apart. (12)

However, it has been shown that so-called elementary particles and negentropic sorts of plasma anomalies, such as vortices and solitons, are distinguished inclusively by the same Schroedinger-De Broglie properties. This indicates that the electron may be likened, at least conceptually, to the vortices in a plasma-focus experiment. In that case, the existence of the particle-form involves none of the paradoxes cited.

Therefore, we have a case of the "n continuum" being transformed into an "n+1 continuum." Moreover, the "n+1 continuum" for this case coincides on crucial points with the relevant biochemical evidence concerning the physics of living processes. If one discards the notion of chemical bonds associated with the paradoxical definition of the electron as a particle, and so forth, then chemical bonds must be reconceptualized accordingly. The altered conceptions indicated as appropriate are much improved in the sense of being more agreeable to the crucial biological evidence. Whether living processes are in the same "n+1 continuum" as the negentropic singularities of experimental physics is an open issue; perhaps we must go from an "n+1" to "n+2" to arrive at living processes.

What is conclusively illustrated by that sort of evidence (it is also demonstrated in other ways) is that the scalar notion of energy and of the characteristics of "n" continua traditional to modern physics, are useful but ultimately false. Insofar as we can treat the "n continuum" experimentally as if it were a continuum in those terms of conceptual reference — keeping away. in particular, from the singularities of the "very small" and the paradoxes of the "very large." the scalar notion of energy and the constant speed of .light are ostensibly adequate, experimental conceptions of physics. However, breaking outside those limiting circumstances for experimental invesigation, or attempting to complete the conceptual apparatus of physics for the universe in terms of the mathematical physics of the “n continuum,” science falls into contradictions and absurdities. This should cause no panic. Quite the contrary. All this we should have suspected. Science does not thus become less accessible to reason; it warns us that we must proceed now in accordance with what reason should have informed us beforehand.

The ostensible characteristic of a sub-continuum is a characteristic of that continuum in a conditional sense, but also merely a simplified aspect of the actual characteristic. The actual characteristic must be at the same time the characteristic of the universe described by the going over from an "n" into "n+1" into "n+2" and so forth continua, each continuum of which process is necessarily efficient with respect to its "predecessors." This characteristic is the transfinite for which the ostensible characteristics of each sub-continuum are enumerable predicates. Furthermore, this transinvariant cannot be linearizable, is not a constant, but is a constant principle of self-development. of true negentropy.

Abelard might, were he alive, put it this way. God, the prime existence, is a creative principle which creates Universes as the instruments for mediating the process of continued creation to ever higher states. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) has already defined this principle as the "necessary existent." Nicholas of Cusa defined it rigorously to the same effect as the "Non-Other."

Werner Heisenberg, among others, could not have erred as he did (in his adoption of the Copenhagen doctrine and postulating his notion of "indeterminacy") if he had grasped the epistemological significance of Max Planck's quantum-of-action. What Planck demonstrated, in effect, was that in the "very small" one encountered not some ultimate irreducible particle, but a singularity. The work of Schroedinger and De Broglie precisely intersected and advanced upon that feature of Planck's contribution. The cited paradox of the electron's existence as a supposed particle intersects Planck, Schroedinger, De Broglie et al. to the same effect. Indeed, during the middle 1950s De Broglie anticipated the existence of such phenomena as solitons and plasma vortices on related grounds. (13} If Heisenberg had been qualified in epistemology, rather than conditioned to the sort of neo-Kantian outlook he has reported and outlined, he "should have recognized that Riemann had already fully anticipated the necessary nature of physics to such purposes, and should have recognized, further that this entire problem was already posed by Leibniz's criticism of Descartes on "inertia," and otherwise anticipated in the broadest sense by Plato's Ionian and allied predecessors.

We focus on this point in two ways. First, we summarize the significance of the electron. Second, the connection between philosophy and physics.

The electron (and other "elementary" particles), being an existence determined in the "n+1 continuum," is efficient with respect to the "n continuum," but is not determinable as an existence within the latter. It is, therefore, a singularity within the latter. This state of affairs becomes paradoxical only if one clings to the mistaken notion that the scalar determination of energy in an "n continuum" characterized by a constant speed of light is an adequate representation of the universe. As long as that delusion is gripped, then the existence of the electron becomes a fact which threatens to demoralize science. Then. the doctrine of Heisenberg, or the more chaotic, despairing view of a von Weizacker tends to follow as a reflection of that demoralisation. If the evidence of the electron's existence as a singularity is accepted, the, opposite vantage-point, then the result is a mobilization of joyful efforts to discover the new, larger reality of the universe which has been proven available to us in this manner.

The problem of the well-tempered system is identical. Human beings are not vibrating rods, or anything else determinable according to the physics of an "n continuum." They are singularities of the "n+2" (for purposes of reference). They are efficient with respect to the n continuum. Their relations, insofar as they are mediated within the realm of the n continuum, have aspects which are partially determinable in terms of the physics of vibrating rods. However, music as human music, as the communication between the human singularities mediated in that way, is not determinable within the n continuum but only in the "n+2" continuum.

Physics can only progress as physics. It is the worst sort of absurdity to judge the fragments of Thales, Heraclitus, et al., from the standpoint of attempting to show how close or remote those minds were from the conceptions of modern physics. The issue of mind, fire (energy) and continuous substance (matter-field continuity) in Thales is not a matter of physics sub-categories as such. It is a matter of method. It is a question of how the categorical questions concerning the lawful ordering of the universe shall be posed to consciousness at the level of reason, for the purpose of rigorously ordering the production of hypotheses bearing upon the principles of universal lawfulness.

This knowledge concerning categorical questions of that sort is not physics in the sense we use the term "physics" ordinarily. It is a distinction between those directions of hypothesis-making which are useful, and those other directions which are methodologically manifestly absurd.

One cannot spin out concrete physics from a philosopher's chair. The relationship of philosophy to physics is, more narrowly, to discern which philosophical statements by physicists are' intrinsically, methodologically absurd. On the positive side, given adequate knowledge of physics to date, philosophy shows us how to select the experimental conception which will be most fruitful in gaining the next step of progress in mastery of the principles appropriate to physics. That, in general, is all that philosophy can accomplish with respect to positive sciences. That is all. but that is indispensable to the progress of science. That is the means by which the approach selected by the creative scientist is properly determined — just the approach, just the indispensable matter of approach.

The case of the electron paradox is appropriately illustrative. Confronted with a problem involving "elementary particle" experimentation, knowing that the electron doctrine of accredited physics is intrinsically absurd is representative of that kind of philosophical knowledge which guides the experimenter to the most fruitful experimental hypotheses. Thai illustrates the method to be applied in a more generalized way to order the progress of science in general.

Reason, which is definable in a consistent way in principle over the ages, is thus a kind of "constant." However, reason is not otherwise constant, not linearizable. As it assimilates to itself the fruits of its own accomplishments in mastering the lawful ordering of the universe, reason develops itself in its particular powers. In this process of self-development of reason, mediated through the practical scientific progress effected by efficient action of reason, reason parallels and intersects the fundamental, also self-developing lawful ordering of the universe.



THE HIERARCHY OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE



The discoveries in the domain of the physical sciences accomplished by the U.S. Labor Party and its collaborators, and reflected in part in this report, were accomplished in the manner indicated. Through assimilation of this method, as embodied for reference in the subject of political economy, recruits to the Labor Party and associated organizations were originally drawn from young persons representing the most promising minds of the late 1960s and early 1970s — and through their own individual and collaborative efforts in mastering physics, biology and so forth, some of these persons were able to produce original contributions to scientific progress in those fields. This represented, in some instances, important new discoveries by individuals or teams of individuals. In other instances, it represented the kind of discovery involved in appreciating the broader implications of the discoveries reported by others. Method, informed by existing scientific knowledge, acted, as the power of informed reason, to advance the body of knowledge by which it was informed.

Although those persons probably would have tended to succeed in their professions with distinction in any case, the overall quality of distinctions associated with the U.S. Labor Party's work has been added to their powers, directly or indirectly as a benefit contributed by this writer's work of the 1950s.

The kernel of this writer's distinctive, original contributions to human knowledge is the successful application, beginning in the early 1950s, of the cited Riemann and Cantor conceptions to solving the basic errors in Karl Marx's three-volume Capital. This effort was "energized" by a youthful adoption of the methodological outlook of Gottfried Leibniz — in which connection Leibniz's Monadology was outstanding. Any body of knowledge which erred from the standpoint of that methodological outlook was viewed as intrinsically in error, and the existence of such error became then a source of intellectual "tension," impelling the writer to reject the indicated doctrines as given, and, if the matter involved were important, to seek a remedy agreeable to appropriate method.

The fundamental error of Marx's Capital, for purposes of reference, is this. Although Marx's own Neoplatonic outlook led him to correct systematic conclusions concerning the essential "internal contradiction" of capitalist accumulation as a whole, in all Marx's efforts to develop a set of linear equations for "extended reproduction" from the set of linear equations for "simple reproduction," he failed — and necessarily so. "Simple reproduction" is an arbitrary, heuristic construct, an effort to imagine the simplest case in which a capitalist economy perpetuates itself on the same level of technology in the same extent. Marx attempted to move to the case of "extended reproduction," in first approximation, without considering the effects of technological progress, but only extension in scale (through investment of portions of surplus value in additional plant, equipment, materials, employment of productive labor, and so forth). Consequently, on this side of his efforts, Marx's work ends up in the wretched confusion typified by the material which Marx's editor, Friedrich Engels, assembled as the concluding chapter of Capital, Volume II. For related reasons, all efforts of Marxologists to explicate the "internal contradictions" of capitalist accumulation in terms of systems of equations for "extended reproduction" become increasingly absurd as the profession of convergence upon a solution within Marx's terms is more energetically advanced.

This is not the only political-economic error in Marx's work. As we have noted elsewhere, although the kernel of Marx's method was essentially a reconstitution of the Neoplatonic dialectical method of Leibniz et al., somewhat better informed in aspects than Leibniz, the elaboration of Marx's work was contained within his credulous acceptance of a prevailing historical mythology, essentially an acceptance of the British falsification of history. This infectious blunder affects many aspects of Marx's work. It affects his political-economic work in the respect that in his elaboration of the internal order of capitalist accumulation processes, he adopted the fictitious, British model of "industrial capitalist development" as the empirical case for which competent theory must account. This effort to adapt his elaboration of political-economic theory to the fictitious British model is the chief determinant of the major errors in Marx's work on that subject.

The results of this writer's work of the 1950s, which included an emphasis on the actuality of American industrial reality, a quality almost entirely lacking in Marx's work, led to a new, • independent political-economic theory, which in no way depended upon the presumed authority of elements of Marx's own work, although it benefited most substantially from knowledge of the work of Marx. This new economic-theoretical method was crucially proven by testing of hypotheses against emerging developments of the 1950s and 1960s, establishing the newly developed theoretical economics as uniquely competent in contrast to all extant competing theories, Marx's included. (14)

The essential feature of this economic doctrine was that the principle of technological progress was the primary determinant of economic processes, rather than an "added-in" feature, as Marx's approach had attempted erroneously to deal with the matter.

This effort not only circumscribed the problems of method generally, but was associated with an intensive study of history, both history as such and archeological history, to the purpose of discovering empirical indicators of the characteristics of precapitalist economies, and the characteristic philosophical outlooks of precapitalist societies. The results of this were coherently embodied in the instructional program on which the predecessor organization of the U.S. Labor Party was established as an organization ex novo (as opposed to an organization assembled from indoctrinated elements of previously existing organizations, etc.).

Over the years, the question often arose, what is the basis in authority for imposing certain criteria of hypothesis upon work in the physical sciences. To this question, the consistent answer given was, and rightly so. the proof of that method in political economy. The fact that the order of the universe appropriate to the above-indicated features of the physics of Riemann has been crucially proven once in the domain of political economy proves also that the entire universe is ordered according to such principles. Political economy, viewed and developed in that way, is the highest form of science, the crucial source of authority for scientific knowledge in all domains.

The crucial experiment upon which human knowledge is essentially dependent is human existence itself.{15) Since all particular knowledge is ultimately and necessarily superseded, no form of knowledge as such (understanding) can embody proof of the validity of scientific knowledge in a lasting way. What is proven by human existence is the efficiency of creative reason in ordering the progress of knowledge to the effect of maintaining and advancing the human specie’s ecological population-potential. It is as political economy situates the direct connection between progress of knowledge and changes in the ecological population-potential of human practice based on advancing knowledge, that the essential connection is made, and uniquely so. It could not be otherwise It is to Karl Marx's credit that he attempted to found his efforts on realizing that perception. His "Theses on Feuerbach" and the first section, "Feuerbach," of The German Ideology, are most notable to this effect. Also notable is the recurrence of that Neoplatonic notion as the conception of "Freedom-Necessity" in Capital III, Sec. 7. Marx's failure was broadly his effort to elaborate his work within British historical mythologies, and to close himself off from the "inner secrets" of the elite by his foolish "materialist" emphasis respecting the determination of ideas. Both these principal errors were necessarily interdependent.



HISTORIOGRAPHICAL METHOD



History is to be understood as the subjective connection between "objective" events and conditions perceived, as they are "subjectively" perceived, and the "objective" consequences of the human actions (or acts of omission) taken in consequence of such perception. The crucial subject-matter is not merely that "subjective" element itself, but the processes which determine the character and development of that "subjective" element.

The accomplished historian must be both a person who has mastered that approach in essentials, and also a person who has progressed further, to the competence to adduce the "subjective" element of history from the patterns of "objective" behavior which the "subjective" clement has left as its spoor.

The case of the militia illustrates the problems of the latter work.

Putting the case of the Roman republic to one side for a moment, the most effective form of warfare is the mobilization of the resources of a state in the form of a well-trained militia. This depends, in turn, upon the constitution of the state in such forms that the general population can be "trusted" by the rulers as the armed population — trained in arms, with arms in hand when called. An oppressing ruler dare not persist in this practice, but prefers either special armed bodies of volunteer professionals or mercenary forces. His military policy centers as much on subjugating the population as contending against foreign adversaries;

The case is not cut and dried. There are exceptions of importance, and of some frequency of recurrence. Even so, the uses of the militia versus more limited or mercenary armed forces have clear, if partial implications concerning the political character of the state and the mentality of the state. The case of the mercenary force is virtually conclusive.

Rome has a double implication.

The fact that the affairs of the Roman republic were ordered from an early time, according to available knowledge, by the cult of Apollo, is of utmost importance in showing that accredited historiography on this subject is grossly flawed. The character of evolving Roman law, also consistent with the antihumanist doctrines of politics and law of the Peripatetics, is also relevant. Rome's successes, including its conquests of its Italian and Etruscan neighbors, have a different moral quality than Roman writers and their admirers would have us believe.

Nonetheless, the Roman policy of the militia was an integral feature of Roman successes overall. At the point that Roman moral and economic decay progressed to the point the militia basis evaporated, beginning the point that Rome could no Songer teed itself except by looting foreign nations, the Roman Empire was doomed.

Let there be no foolish assumption that perhaps this report exaggerates the folly of most existing appreciations of the history of the Roman republic. According to Livy and other sources, it was the cult of Apollo which governed Roman policy with the same sorts of tricks the cult employed during other regions at that period. Moreover, it is repeatedly noted that the ' loot taken in war was shared generously with the cult of Apollo. The role of the cult of Apollo in bringing the Roman legions to Greece, the cult's sponsorship of Julius Caesar of the Marian faction, using the methods of the Phrygian cult of Dionysus, and the Stoic cult, are also indicative. Rome was not some out-of-the-way development of the republican period, but during much of that period, at least, was a part of the relatively global apparatus being deployed by the cult at Delphi and by way of Ptolemaic Egypt.

The evidence of technological and scientific progress is another crucial objective fact of archeology. The existence of a flourishing city-state of large population is already an indication of the city-builders' faction and outlook. The rate of progress, and the quality of existence of various strata of the population, as well as their occupations, is similarly indicative.

The primary distinction to be made is whether the state was dominated by city-builders' forces, the oligarchical faction, or by a struggle between the two forces. Objective features of the archeological evidence, especially those bearing on rates and directions of developments, are crucial. These indications inform us, to a corresponding degree of accuracy, of the mentality of the leading forces of that state. We can presently correlate literary and archeological records adequately back to the eighth century BC to be able to go back at least two millennia earlier with principally archeological evidence in hand, to "reconstruct" essential features of the "subjective" element — the element decisive to historiography.

We know, both from history and modern experience, how the two, primary opposing policies are determined. The Hobbesian view and its correlatives are associated with the rule of heteronomic impulses, which tend to be strengthened by "entropic" developments in culture and political-economy. The humanist outlook is always originated through great intellects, an influential political and scientific intelligentsia, in whole sweeps of cultural progress usually associated with the most prominent influence of a single creative mind. These humanist influences become hegemonic through successful technological progress, which creates the conditions under which the ordinary individual of urban-centered culture values others and himself or herself in terms of the practical importance society attributes to the increased power of individuals for discovery, transmission and applications of technological and related advances in knowledge.

What defeats the human race repeatedly is "practical politics." The adaptation of policies of factions to prevailing mythologies and prejudices creates advantages for the enemies of humanity, because human progress occurs only through the hubristic intellectual leadership and action of a political intelligentsia — an elite! — to effects which are feasible but nonetheless contrary to traditional practice and prevailing prejudices concerning "practicality."

The history of man and of ideas is not determined by objective circumstances as such, but subjectively, by the action of creative powers of reason, informed by existing knowledge and with means available, to transform the objective domain according to directions specified by creative reason. Objective circumstances determine the potentialities of specific actions (and associated kinds of ideas) which reason may employ.

The history of mankind, those circumstantial aspects understood, is the history of reason's struggle against the oligarchical principle of unreason. Not to be a Neoplatonic humanist today is to be morally not a member of the human species.



NOTES



FOREWORD

1. Cf. Christopher White on the significance of the families, “The Noble Family," Campaigner Special Report No. 11, New York, 1978.

2. The majority of the following concerning Greek history is based upon or corroborated by the work of a task force coordinated by Criton Zoakos, plus work coordinated on behalf of the Wiesbaden Academy by George Gregory III.



3. Cf. Paul Arnest, "From Babylon to Jerusalem: The Genesis of the Old Testament," Campaigner, Vol. X, No. 4, Fall 1977, pp. 31-64.



4. Criton Zoakos.



THE LEGACY OF ARISTOTLE

1.Criton Zoakos, "Aristotle and the Craft of Intelligence." New Solidarity, Vol. VIII, Nos. 99. 100 (Feb. 24 and 28, 1978). See the policy statement authored by Persian-Macedonian agent Isocrates, of the Athenian school of rhetoric. The record of the "check stubs" of payments to agent Demosthenes by the Persian-Macedonian forces still exists.



2. Criton Zoakos, "Aristotle and the Craft of Intelligence."



3. Criton Zoakos et al. Also (cf. Gregory, "Aristotle and the Cult of Dionysus," [Unpublished: Wiesbaden, 1978]) the role of Alcibiades in pushing the Magna Grecia campaign in the form and at the time most expedient for the troubled Persians.



4. Gregory, "Aristotle and the Cult of Dionysus."



5. Cf. Paul Arnest, "From Babylon to Jerusalem," p. 64.



6. Livy is the standard source on this. See the commentaries on Livy by Machiavelli. On the role of the Ptolemies in the Romans' campaign against Greece, see Gregory.



7. Cf. Linda Frommer, "How Pitt's Jacobinism Wrecked the French Revolution," New Solidarity, Vol. VIII, No. 28 (June 3, 1977) and Vol. VIII, No. 29 (June 7, 1977) and David Goldman,"How the City of London Got Through the Revolutionary War Crisis," New Solidarity, Vol. VIII, No. 78 (Dec. 2, 1977) and Vol. VIII, No. 79 (Dec. 6, 1977) on the French Revolution. Lord Shelburne, allied to the Barings, and the British East India Company, used the circumstances of the 1783 Treaty of Paris to bring his circles into a dominant position within the British monarchy, putting William Pitt the Younger forward as the most visible accomplice of his circles. Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, the Mills, Thomas Malthus, (later) David Ricardo, and others were tools of this Shelburne-centered reorganization of British intelligence. This was the predecessor phase for the later reorganization toward the close of the nineteenth century, in which the emergence of the Fabian Society and Lord Milner's networks were the most prominent feature — including the Rhodes Scholarship project for aiding the subverting of the United States by the British intelligence services. Necker, who wrecked the French credit from within — much like W. Michael Blumenthal and James R. Schlesinger wrecked the dollar for the British during 1977-78. was a part of the Geneva-centered circles of British intelligence. The Duke of Orleans was a British agent to the end. Danton and Marat were British-trained and British-coordinated agents-provocateurs, deployed from London to organize the Jacobin Terror. Robespierre was a protege and dupe of Necker's circles. And, so on and so forth.



8. Criton Zoakos, "Aristotle and the Craft of Intelligence."



9. On the Royal Society and Newton, cf. Carol White, "The Royal Society," Fusion, Vol. I, Nos. 3-4, Dec.-Jan. 1977-1978, pp. 44-53.



10. Criton Zoakos, "Aristotle and the Craft of Intelligence."



11. Criton Zoakos and Erini Levedi, "The Paleologue Dynasty as Instruments of the Hohenstaufen Grand Design" (Unpublished: New York, 1978). The Paleologues developed a humanist faction in Russia, reflecting the conceptions of statecraft associated with Georgios Gemistos Plethon. Ivan Ill's policies were derived from this work, as was the later campaign against the Aristotelian-oligarchical faction (e.g., the Boyars) by Ivan IV ("The Awesome").



12. Konstantin George, "The U.S.-Russian Entente That Saved the Union," to be published in The Campaigner, Vol. XI, No. 6 (July 1978).



13. Cf. Alien Salisbury, The Civil War and the American System (New York: Campaigner Publications, Inc., 1978).



14. Ibid. See also. The Political Economy of the American Revolution (New York: Campaigner Publications, Inc., (1977), passim.



15. Criton Zoakos, "Aristotle and the Craft of Intelligence."



16. Helga Zepp, Unpublished paper: Wiesbaden, 1978.



17. The characterization of the Roman Empire as economically fascist is no hyperbole. The fascism associated with Mussolini and Nazism are only varieties of states based upon Aristotelian policies of genocidal fiscal austerity in behalf of monetarist debt pyramids and in opposition to technologically vectored solutions to "depressions." It is significant that the fascist movements of Italy and Weimar Germany were products of the work of British intelligence networks, and that both Mussolini and Hitler were put in power on directives from London. Turning attention from the monetarist policies which essentially characterized Mussolini's and Hitler's policies, and focusing on the kind of social base created to support such a state machine, the "leftism" of Mussolini's followers and of most of the Nazis' SA base not accidentally compares in essentials with the Maoism and "environmentalism" of present-day North America and Western Europe. The sociology of those base forces is the elaboration of the doctrines of the Phrygian cult of Dionysus. To see Julius Caesar as a fascist, and to see his relationship to his lumpen social base in Rome in those terms, is not only admissible, but is the only efficient conceptual approach to understanding Caesar and the policies and unfolding history of the Roman Empire.



18. Information based on unpublished studies by Costas Kalimtgis, Steven Douglas, and others.



19. Humanist Perspective on Medieval Islam" (Unpublished: New York, 1978).



20. Kalimtgis, Douglas, et al.



21. Criton Zoakos, "The Order of the Assassins," Lecture: Chicago. April 17, 1978.



22. Ibid.



23. Criton Zoakos, "Ibn Sina and the Dawn of the Humanist Heritage," The Campaigner, Vol. X, No. 3 (July-August, 1977) pp. 10-43.



24. Zoakos and Levedi, "The Paleologue Dynasty."



25. Ibid.



26. Ibid. Zoakos secured much of this on the Byzantine phase of the matter through the works of Greek historians of the 1920s. These sources documented facts contrary to the mistaken views of the usual secondary sources concerning the role of Plethon in connection with the fifteenth century ecumenical negotiations.



27. This summary of the events surrounding Bruno is based in large part on the coordinated efforts of a number of researchers in Europe and North America. Work on the Ismailis by Criton Zoakos, Helga Zepp, Judith Wyer and others. Work on the Tudor period coordinated by Christopher White. Work on Bruno by specialists on both continents, work on Nicholas of Cusa by Helga Zapp and others. Work on Leibniz by Uwe Parpart, Carol White, and others. A short biography of Bruno is given by Nora Hammerman in her preface to the first English translation of Bruno's dialogue, "The Cabala of the Winged Horse, with the Addition of the Cyllenian Ass," in The Campaigner, Vol. XI, No. 2 (March 1978).



28. Bruno's short dramatic works provide a key .to the work of Christopher Marlowe and others. Christopher White has been able to demonstrate the secrets of Elizabethan drama by a closely analyzed treatment of the immediate references embodied in Shakespeare's Hamlet. See Christopher White, "Shakespeare's Revenge,1J New Solidarity, Vol. IX, Nos. 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, March 10, 14, 17, 31 and April 7, 1978.



29.Christopher White, et al.



II. THE KEY TO HISTORY

1. Alien Salisbury.



2. Cf. Dr. Richard Pollak, "Evolution — Beyond Darwin and Mendel." Fusion Energy Foundation Newsletter, Vol. II, No. 4 (May 1977), pp. 42-53.



3. Cf. Dr. Ned Rosinsky, "Drosophila Embryology — The Dynamics of Evolution," Fusion Energy Foundation Newsletter, Vol. II, No. 4 (May 1977), pp. 54-59.



4. Bertrand Russell, notably, threw himself into a sort of psychedelic literary fit on this point.



5. Criton Zoakos has employed Greek-language sources to the effect of more than corroborating this writer's established judgment concerning the lonians.



6. The research and related work on this matter has been developed in part by Anno Hellenbroich and others, and by a New York-centered group of collaborators including Dr. Peter Wyer, Vivian Freyre, Katharine Burdman. On Bacon and Bull, see P. Wyer and M. Stahlman, "Rock Music and the Mass Marketing of Terrorism," New Solidarity, Vol. VIII, No. 85 (Dec. 30, 1977). See also, Anno Hellenbroich, "Think Like Beethoven," The Campaigner, Vol. XI, No. 1 (February 1978), pp. 46-61; and K. Burdman, "The Case ofJ.S. Bach," New Solidarity, Vol. VIII, No. 75 (Nov. 18, 1977).



7. Felix Mendelssohn is usually credited, wrongly, with "resurrecting" Bach's music. Rather, the British elected to abandon their near-century efforts to suppress Bach through Mendelssohn's resurrecting the "simpler" Bach as part of his effort to direct music toward romanticism, away from the "complicated" music of Beethoven. Wagner's contribution to this wickedness was his effort to edit features of Beethoven's works and to poison the musicological doctrine respecting their performance. Both were working for the antihumanist Black Guelph networks, and doing so as a matter of political consciousness.



8. Cf. Carol White, Energy Potential (New York: Campaigner Publications, Inc., 1978), passim.



9. Uwe Parpart, "The Concept of the Transfinite," The Campaigner, Vol. IX, Nos. 1-2, (January-February 1976), pp. 6-66.



10. Cf. Dr. Steven Bardwell's series on the implications of nonlinear processes in controlled plasmas: "Fusion Plasma, An Overview of the Research," Fusion Energy Foundation Newsletter, Vol. II, No. 1 (July-August 1976), pp. 21-23; "The History of the Theory and Observation of Ordered Phenomena in Magnetized Plasmas," FEF Newsletter, Vol. II, No. 2 (September 1976), pp. 19-31; "The Implications of Nonlinearity," FEF Newsletter, Vol. II, No. 3 (March 1977), pp. 4-16; "Geometry and Causality," Fusion, Vol. I, No. 7 (June 1978). See also Dr. Morris Levitt, "Linearity and Entropy: Ludwig Boltzmann and the Second Law of Thermodynamics," FEF Newsletter, Vol. II, No. 2 (September 1976), pp. 3-18.



11. The problem was developed primarily by Dr. W. Bostick, in the form it was attacked by him and also by members of the U.S. Labor Party's science staff. Cf. Dr. Winston H. Bostick, "The Pinch Effect Revisited," International Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. I, No. 1 (March 1977).



12. Bostick et al. proposed the effort to apply the lessons of plasma-vortex physics to the electron, etc.



13. Louis De Broglie, Une tentative d'interpretation causale et non lineaire de la mecanique ondulatoire, (Paris: Gauthier Villars, 1956), chapter 18. This information was communicated to Uwe Parpart by Georges Lochak, director of La Fondation Louis De Broglie in Paris.



14. Lyn Marcus (Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr.), Dialectical Economics (Lexington, Mass.: 'D.C. Heath, 1975). This textbook embodies the lectures given as a one-semester. course beginning Spring 1966, at various locations.



15. This point is embodied as the kernel-conception of Karl Marx's accomplishments. Cf. The German Ideology, §1: "Feuerbach."





"Be Careful, very Careful as to where you receive your information... Get your information only from trusted sources!!" - Stalin

The History of Black Magic and Magicians in the World –

ELITE POLICIES AND TECHNIQUES - HOW VENICE AFTER THE DEFEAT OF CAMBRAI IN 1500 DECIDED TO MOVE TO LONDON AND REIGN OVER EUROPE

CATHOLICISM COUNTERED BY PROTESTANT RELIGION CREATED BY VENETIAN AGENT LUTHER, AND ZORZI - CARDINAL CONTARINI. OTHER RELIGIONS ALCHEMY, HERMETIC ART AND MASONRY CREATED BY VENETIAN AGENT ORTES. NETHERLANDS AND ENGLAND TAKEN OVER BY VENETIAN ELITE TO PRESENT DAY.

THIS IS THE SECRET HISTORY

Preface -- by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr.
January 9, 1993

Introduction

The evaluation of the respective roles of the Protestant and Catholic churches, in respect to the sixteenth-century schisms between Reformation and Counter Reformation, requires a few points of emphasis for clarity.

In point of fact, as we know in the case of the English established church, currents within that English established church did retain crucial, traditional elements of Christian belief, despite the fact that the schism of Henry VIII was completely a Venetian-orchestrated event, a playing upon the susceptibilities of a monarch who was, to all intents and purposes, clinically insane. [fn1]

The cases of the Calvinists and Lutherans is more complex. Let us turn to the case of Luther first, and then consider the Counter Reformation and the Council of Trent itself.

Essentially, whatever Luther may have believed otherwise, and whatever the Lutheran Church may have been otherwise, the fact is, that the essential issue of controversy over Lutheran doctrine involved in the schism, places Luther not only in mere opposition to Catholicism, but in opposition to the most fundamental principle of Christianity: such that, if one were to assume Luther's stated doctrine to be the true belief of Luther himself, rather than probably a factional sophistry, one would have to conclude that Luther were not a Christian. It is not a question of division of opinion, or a division of anything, in the ordinary sense; but Luther's constructed rationalization of his schismatic act is, in its ostensible form, a rejection of Christianity in its entirety.

The issue is as follows:

The essence of Christianity, and of Mosaic Judaism, is identified historically first, by Philo Judaeus in his commentary on the first chapter of Genesis, that is, the account of Creation given by Moses. The point to be emphasized, is that man is defined in the image of God, Imago Viva Dei: not by virtue of any outward physical attributes of form, but rather by the fact that man, unlike all animals, contains that spark of creativity which places the human species apart from and above the animals in general. That spark is the crucial thing.

This view of man, which is emphasized for Christianity by God become man in the form of Christ, defines all human beings as potentially reconciled with God, because of that within them, that divine spark, which is in the image of God.

Thus, the notion of any form of elect, or a preselection by grace, except by a merit of choice by the individual who is self-selected, is an abomination. It is an abomination, because it denies the fundamental principle of Mosaic Judaism and Christianity, the species of individual man in the image of God, by virtue of man's creative mental powers.

By creative mental powers, we mean to include the notions of agapë or caritas; formally, we signify those powers by which man changes human society's behavior through progress in scientific and technological progress. This does not mean that this exercise of creative powers is limited to that. It means, that without that included manifestation, the agapic function of the creative powers of man are certainly not realized, the self-development of man in the image of God, is not realized.

This is the point on which all these issues hang. It is a fact--forget the formalities of other kinds of argument--that, if one believes in an Aristotelian deductive system, then, for that person, as Philo indicated, God does not exist, and certainly God in the image of man does not exist. Thus, we have all the problems concerning the Averroists and the Aristotelians and the definition of the soul, including, of course, the case of the influential Pompanazzi.

All of this hangs on the one point: That man is in the image of God by virtue of his agapic creative powers, and not by virtue of anything else.




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The Myth of Protestantism

The popular falsehood, the myth which is pushed by the British Fabians and similar types, is that the rise of Protestantism was based and impelled by the rise of the modern nation-state. That myth is pure bunk, despite the fact that it is heavily documented to be bunk.
The concept of the modern nation-state was first defined as we have defined it many times, in terms of the work of Dante Alighieri, particularly in the issues pertaining to De Monarchia. The resolution of the idea of the state, was clarified as the doctrine by Nicolaus of Cusa, over the course of his work, initially in his major work of 1431, Concordantia Catholica which is written in the conciliar context, but nonetheless the argument there bears out, even though Cusa himself modified his sense of what the application of that meant in the process of writing his Concordantia.

So the idea of the modern nation-state, under a Concordantia Catholica of sovereign nation-states, was established by the Catholic Church in the middle of the fifteenth century. Thus, it is absolutely absurd to suggest that later, in the early part to middle of the sixteenth century, that this issue became the crux of division between the Catholic Church and the emerging nation-states. That sophist explanation of Protestantism is absolute nonsense, and there is obviously no ground on which to perpetuate that sophist explanation of Protestantism.

The problem is essentially the problem of Banker Vampire Venice, as documented below. The essential evidence, as opposed to the Venetian bought apologetics written from the North later on, is, that, as Paolo Sarpi's crowd emphasizes, that the Protestant formations in the North, were the basis for the casa nuovi, the group which became the modern imperialist group, the descendents of the Drug running, Slave trading British East India Company, later the modern British Anglo-Dutch imperialist group. And, that the other part of the Venetian oligarchical faction remained with its emphasis upon penetrating and corrupting the Catholic South.

Here is where the problem has arisen, addressed below.

There is no doubt, except to people who refuse to face facts, that the Protestant political formation in the North, was essentially, relative to Christianity, something rather evil, which moved men and women in society generally away from Christianity. This schism was the political basis for the emergence of the Enlightenment, which was the evil which threatened to destroy Europe from the inside.

But the other side of the matter, the casa vecchi, the Southern part of the usurious oligarchy, which professed to ally itself with the Counter Reformation, was essentially just as evil as that which went North--in the sense that what it did, is to focus on destroying the reconstituted church of the middle of the fifteenth century. The Reformation and Counter Reformation were both an attempt to eradicate the church associated with Nicolaus of Cusa and to eradicate Cusa's influence specifically.

The unfortunate thing has been that (putative) modern historians and other related commentators, have written on this subject from the standpoint of adhering to and apologizing for one faction or the other, Reformation or Counter Reformation as defined in the simplest terms, and have refused to see the matter from a truthful standpoint, from the standpoint of imago viva Dei and its implications, and to see it from the practical historical standpoint of the fifteenth-century reemergence of the church, in the context of the Council of Florence from the fourteenth-century Dark Age.



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The Crucial Issue

Now, focus more on the crucial issue. The key to understanding the religious schisms and wars of sixteenth-century Europe, is irreconcilable opposition by Venice and Genoa's usurers to that principled conception of imago Dei which is the common feature of Philo's Mosaic Judaism and of Christianity. On account of this central issue, the oligarchy of Banker usury-practicing families hated that Christian church which this oligarchy sought then, and still today, to divide and conquer. These usurers and slave-traders hated most fiercely the 1439-1440 Council of Florence, which had reunited the church temporarily. They hated in the highest degree that Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa who had played a crucial role in bringing about that reunification, and who was, not incidentally, also the Platonist founder of modern physical science.

The reason for this usurer's murderous hatred against the church and against Cusa is elementary.

The principle of imago Dei, as Cusa defined it, or, Philo of Alexandria nearly 1,500 years earlier, signifies that there exists but one, indivisible human race, such that every individual member of humanity is born with an innate distinction which sets all mankind apart from, and above the beasts. This quality, which casts the individual person in the image of God, is that divine spark of potential for developing the agapic power of true creative reason. The wisdom to know that we only have the free will only to do the right thing. This creativity, and nothing else, is the image of God in man.

This agapic creative reason is the power to create illustrated by the initial discovery, or fresh rediscovery of a valid, axiomatic-like principle of nature. This point is treated at length in sundry published locations, and so need not be redeveloped here. It is that quality of creative reason which renders each human life sacred, and defines all persons as born in the image of God, as imago viva Dei.

This principle of the first Mosaic Book of Genesis defines as a most horrid abomination the holding of any person in chattel slavery or any like condition of oppression. For related reasons, the practice of usury is among the most monstrous of all crimes against humanity. Venice's ruling oligarchy owed the basis for its wealth and international power chiefly to usury, but also to Venice's leading position in the Mediterranean slave-trade. Hence, the usury-practicing oligarchy, then, or, now, like the evil Confederacy of President Lincoln's adversaries, continues to be the mortal enemy of Christianity.

Usury is defined as private banks owned by families of Vampire Bankers. Families centuries, thousands of years old who vampirise through rates of interest of 20% and above. All banks are now private and belong to these families - even the national banks. Some people suggest that the American system of Franklin was based upon government created credit, for industry and other good things based upon that plenty, based upon 1% per annum rates of interest, to allow such good things to thrive, rather than be destroyed through Vampire Usury.

In Mediterranean history, since the time of Plato, Plato's deadly adversary Aristotle has been used as the leading apologist for slavery and usury, and as the official philosopher of those who denied the existence and free choice of the individual human soul. Aristotle was employed as a secret agent of the Babylonian oligarchs. Like the assassin James Bond he murdered and poisoned his masters enemies, such as Alexander the Great who was a student of the Platonic city builders, opposed to the Oligarchs.

The importance of Aristotle in service to the enemies of Mosaic Judaism and Christianity is located in Aristotle's deductive system of formal argument. In Aristotle's essentially nominalist system of deductive sophistries, the individual soul cannot exist except as something arbitrary deus ex machina. Aristotle's formalist method stultifies science, and eliminates the notion of imago Dei. For such and related reasons, the usurious oligarchy has adopted Aristotle as its official court philosopher.

The notion that God chooses arbitrarily to bestow the grace of election (of those to be saved) upon some members of society, is the most notable way in which these Venetian-sponsored sectarians rejected the principle of imago Dei, and allowed usury and chattel slavery in their system.

The schismatic quarrel of the sixteenth century is a reflection of about 2,600 years of European civilization to date, a continuation of the conflict between the evil, oligarchical model of slave society, Lycurgus's Sparta, and the contrasting overthrow of usury by the great Solon of Athens. Thus, are the issues of Christianity and law of nations joined still today.

If the person is imago Dei, then the welfare and creative self-development of all persons, and of all family households which give birth and nurture to new persons, are the standard of performance by which nations and laws as well as churches are to be judged.




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Notes
In fact, there are strong indications, that the entire family was clinically insane. I'm not suggesting any necessary hereditary reason for this, it probably was simply that they were all raised in the same, continuing, extended family household, which probably was not good for their mental health. Return to text

Writing in his 1540s Harmonice Mundi, the Venetian Francesco Giorgi (Szorzi) attacked Nicolaus of Cusa's De Docta Ignorantia as follows: ``Those who retreat from the direct knowledge of the universe will retreat into the Docta Ignorantia'' (as quoted in Francis A. Yates, The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979). Return to text.


Venice: The Methodology of Evil -- Part II
by Donald Phau
Printed in The American Almanac, May 23, 1994.

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End of Page Venice -- The Oligarchical System Site Map Overview Page

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Introduction
In the first part of this series, we introduced the reader to the Italian city-state of Venice, also called the Serenissima or ``most serene republic.'' This small city on the Adriatic Sea was, for over 600 years a major European empire. We learned how its methodology of evil, practiced by its ambassadors throughout the world, targeted, profiled, and corrupted the kings and the courts of Europe. We saw that an alliance of European nations with the Vatican wiped out Venice's empire between 1509-1513. Venice responded and rebuilt, by turning nation against nation through the perfected use of the art of ``divide and conquer.''
In this second part we hope to give the reader an understanding of how the Serenissima's methodology of evil sought to reach into and steal mankind's very soul. We will see how Venice instigated the religious wars of Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, killing millions and devastating nations.

As in Part I of this series, we will make extensive use of the contemporary reports written by the ambassadors of Venice, using their own words to illustrate one point: Venice's strategy was to never take sides, especially in the very battles they provoked. In the wars between Catholics and Protestants, Venice's goal was to turn the victims of both sides into a mindless, pagan mob. Such a mob could then be easily used as a battering ram against the institutions of Venice's enemies. Reflecting this knowledge are the words of one Venetian ambassador, who, commenting on the spread of Protestantism, said that ``as a result, doubts and uncertainties arise in men's minds; they don't know which is the true faith, and, not satisfied with any of them, they end up believing in none.''

Alarmed by Venice's near-annihilation by the League of Cambrai, a faction of the Venetian nobility decided to regroup, and to formulate a new war strategy. A network was formed, consisting of young nobles from the University of Padua, and another group which had decided to become Camaldolese monks, an order of the Benedictines. Together, these cultural warriors laid the ideological groundwork for radical Protestantism as the new weapon of religious warfare.

The Vatican and the Catholic Church, the one institution which could unite the Christian nations of Europe, was especially targeted by Venice. The strategy was twofold: to penetrate and corrupt the Church itself, while simultaneously creating a mass anti-Catholic movement to destroy the Church from the outside. Venice, of course, would be on both sides.

Venice's targeting of the Roman Catholic Church was on the level of epistemological warfare. Venice's real enemy was the concept that man is made in the image of God, and is therefore endowed by the Creator with a spark of divinity which separates men from the beasts. The Church's responsibility was to protect this spark given to man. Venice's strategy was to snuff out this spark forever or, like the Devil in Christopher Marlowe's play The Tragical Historie of the Life and Death of Dr. Faustus, to steal man's soul. Once this was accomplished, the Vatican would be just one more tool in Venice's policy of divide and conquer.



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Enter the Devil...
Venice's key agent in its new strategy was the Venetian nobleman Gasparo Contarini. Let's take a quick trip back in time to learn more.
The year is 1501 and we are sitting in a gondola on one of Venice's canals. We watch, as Gasparo Contarini, his belongings packed, leaves his palace for the day's trip to Padua. Gasparo is 18 years old and he is going to complete his education at the University of Padua.

All the noble families of Venice had been sending their brightest sons to Padua for many years. Gasparo's brothers had entered business or were managing the family's extensive land holdings. But he was being prepared for other things. The family itself dated its ancestors to the Roman tribunes of the fifth century. Throughout Venice's history, the Contarinis would give the city of Venice eight doges and 22 bishops.

Venice by this time had grown from a city of 65,000 people a century earlier to an empire of millions. But as Gasparo took the road to Padua, Venice was on the decline and the power of Spain, England, and France was growing. The discovery of the trade route around the Cape of Good Hope of Africa in 1486, 15 years earlier, had already shifted trade centers to the northern cities of Europe. Venice's role as the crossroads between East and West was being eclipsed.

At Padua, Contarini threw himself into his studies, especially of Aristotle. Four years before his arrival, the Venetian Senate had voted up funding for the first chair dedicated to the study of Aristotle, and had secured a renowned Greek scholar for the position. Gasparo's intensive study of Aristotle prompted a friend to say that, ``hypothetically,'' if all of Aristotle's works were lost, Contarini knew them so well he would be able to write them down from memory.

At Padua, Contarini embarked on a philosophic investigation which brought him in contact with the works of Pietro Pomponazzi. Pomponazzi's questioning of the immortality of the soul had caused a furor in the Catholic Church. A decade later, in 1514, the Lateran Council of the Church had declared such writings heretical. Nevertheless, two years later, in 1516, Pomponazzi would publish his famous work, On the Immortality of the Soul, dedicated to a member of the Contarini family. Gasparo and Pomponazzi would maintain an extensive correspondence, and jointly define the theological basis for the Enlightment and Protestantism.

Pomponazzi exerted tremendous influence over his student, Contarini. Pomponazzi's works were thoroughly based on Aristotle, but provided an up-to-date philosophical justification for Venice's empire-building as well as for its massive trade in human slaves. Pomponazzi's book, On the Immortality of the Soul, asserts that man is by nature an animal and is not capable of seeking higher ideals which, he says, is the province of the ``gods.'' Two hundred and fifty years later, Adam Smith in his Theory of Moral Sentiments, would pick up on the themes of Pomponazzi's work.

Pomponazzi writes:

``Nor ought a mortal to desire immortal happiness, since the immortal is not fitting for the mortal: just as immortal wrath is not fitting for mortal man, as Aristotle says in Rhetoric ii. Whence we first suppose that each thing a proportionate end is assigned. For if man will be moderate, he will not desire the impossible, nor does it suit him. For to have such happiness is proper to the gods, who are in no wise dependent on matter and change. The opposite of this occurs in the human race, which is a mean between the mortal and immortal'' (p. 357).
At Padua, Gasparo developed a circle of Venetian friends which included Sebastiano Zorzi, of the famous Zorzi family of which we will hear more later, and two nobles: Tammaso Giustinian and Vincenzo Querini who later became Camaldolese hermits. But Gasparo would never complete his studies in Padua; events outside the gates of the university would intervene.



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Justification By Faith
In 1508, most of Europe's Christian nations and the Pope formed the League of Cambrai. The League's treaty states that it was dedicated to end ``the insatiable cupidity of the Venetians and their thirst of dominion.'' A year later, in 1509, the University of Padua was forced to shut down, and Contarini returned home. By 1513, the first cannons were fired on Venice.
By 1516, the Peace of Brussels was signed. Venice lost all her territories, and barely saved herself.

In one of the numerous letters that Contarini wrote from Padua to his Venetian friends, now Camaldese hermits, he outlines the anti-Christian principles which would, two decades later, split the Church. The letter is important, for it expresses a view of mankind which would later be adopted by radical Protestants. Contarini, however, is writing at least three years before Martin Luther goes through his famous Thurmerlebnis, or tower experience, the revelation which leads to his break with the Church.

Contarini writes:

``I began to think to myself what that happiness [salvation] might be and what our condition is. And I truly understood that if I performed all the penances possible, and even many more, even if they were all taken together, they would not be enough to make up for my past sins, to say nothing of meriting that felicity. And having seen that that infinite goodness, that love which always burns infinitely and loves us little worms so much that our intellect cannot fathom it, having only by its goodness made us out of nothing and exalted us to such a height.... We must attempt only to unite ourselves with our head [Christ] with faith, with hope, and with that small love of which we are capable. As regards satisfaction for sins committed, and into which human weakness falls, His passion is sufficient and more than sufficient. Through this thought I was changed from great fear and suffering to happiness. I began with my whole spirit to turn to this greatest good which I saw, for love of me, on the cross, with his arms open, and his breast opened up right to his heart. This I, the wretch who had not had enough courage for the atonement of my iniquities to leave the world and do penance, turned to him; and since I asked him to let me share in the satisfaction which he, without any sins of his own, had made for us, he was quick to accept me and to cause his Father completely to cancel the debt I had contracted, which I myself was incapable of satisfying.''
Contarini's letter contains the kernel of the conception that man's salvation lies through faith alone, a kernel which would later grow until it split the Church. Yet equally important is his view of mankind, which he calls ``us little worms.'' Contarini's mankind is devoid of love or of what the Bible calls charity--[agapë]--for his fellow man. To be a real Christian means to act out of love for one's fellow man, by acting in the image of the Creator--doing creative works. In doing so, man is fulfilling God's command in Genesis Chapter 1, verses 26-28.
Contarini's beliefs are anti-Christian because without love or charity man is reduced to a creature whose sensual gratification becomes the central purpose of his existence and whose reason, or as Contarini says, intellect, plays no role. Indeed, Contarini's model of man is the lowest of the beasts, a mere worm, which can hardly be expected to act on love through creative works; instead the Venetian substitutes an empty construct of ``faith alone.''

The Venetian oligarchy was acutely aware that the success in defeating their enemies lies on this level of epistemology and that the battle was for the minds of the population.



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Religious Warfare
In the latter half of the sixteenth century, Venice's two main foes were Spain, led by the Holy Roman Emperor Philip II, and France, the most populous nation in Europe. In his 1573 final report, Leonardo Dona, the Venetian ambassador to Spain, writes of the devastating power that Venice had developed 50 years earlier and that the city-state now hoped to use against Spain.

Dona writes:

``Spain might be quick to rebel if there were a leader courageous enough to direct a revolt.... There would be a special danger if the rebels used religion as a battle standard, since religious faith lends itself very well to subverting and destroying monarchies. Spain would be particularly susceptible because there are so many there who are Moors at heart, many others who secretly remain Jews, and even some heretics'' [emphasis added].
Eight years later, in 1581, the Venetian ambassador to Spain, Gianfrancesco Morosini, was even more blunt about Venice's plans to use religious strife:
``Once an idea takes root in a Spaniard's mind it is very hard to remove it. If some misfortune allowed religious dissension to spread, some claim that present circumstances would make stamping it out a very dangerous process. The peasants might prove especially susceptible to this disease, because the tithe of all income which is paid to the churches is a particularly heavy burden for them....''
In France, in 1562, Venetian ambassador Michele Suriano was also reporting on the power of the Protestant movement to subvert nations, while maintaining Venice's public guise as defender of the Catholic faith. Suriano lays the blame on Martin Luther, whom he calls that ``insignificant man.''
Suriano reports:

``There is a great deal of truth in the old saying that you must look sharp at the beginning of things because when an evil is small no one considers it dangerous, and when it becomes great there is nothing to be done about it....
``Everyone knows that the first to revive old heresies and introduce the new sects of our own times was a single insignificant man, and yet the disease spread to many parts of the world in a few years, and changed the religion of not only Germany but also Denmark, Sweden ... and all the northern countries.''


But did the discussions of the young Contarini and his hermit friends ever get from Venice to Luther in Germany? Was Venice really behind the rise of Protestantism? In a speech at the Sept. 16, 1992 conference of the Schiller Institute, historian Webster Tarpley traces a pathway that Contarini's Venetian network could have used to spread their anti-Christian doctrine into Germany where it was then adopted by Martin Luther.
Key players in this transmission belt were the Venetian Aldus Manutius and the German Georg Burckhardt, also known as Spalatinus. Aldus directed one of the largest publishing houses in Europe from his headquarters in Venice. Aldus's extraordinary influence in publishing and distribution of books was one of Venice's key weapons of cultural warfare; his publishing house handled not only the Protestant authors, but leaders of the Erasmian faction of reformers, including Erasmus himself.

Aldus was also an admirer of Spalatinus. In 1501, both Spalatinus and Martin Luther resided in an Augustinian monastery. Later, Spalatinus became the personal secretary to the future protector and defender of Luther, Frederick the Wise, the Elector of Saxony.

Spalatinus was also in charge of the library of the University of Wittenburg, where he was responsible for ordering books from Aldus's publishing house in Venice. By 1514, Spalatinus and Luther were in regular correspondence. According to one historian, Spalatinus ``influenced Luther very strongly in the direction of clarity.''

The first written expression of Luther's doctrine of salvation through faith alone was in an Oct. 19, 1516 letter to Spalatinus. Later, in 1518, when Luther was ordered to Rome to face charges of heresy, it was Spalatinus who interceded with Frederick, the Elector of Saxony, to prevent his going. This incident incited a faction of German princes to later break from Rome.



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Ambassador Contarini
While many of Contarini's friends entered into the service of the Church, Contarini himself embarked on a different path--the diplomatic service of Venice. At age 39, Contarini was appointed ambassador to the court of Venice's most feared enemy, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. The appointment to such an important ambassadorship, is indicative of the degree of trust Venice already had in him.
Contarini spent 52 months at Charles V's court, starting in 1521. His instructions from the Serenissima were to keep ``an indissoluble league'' between Charles V and Venice's ally Francis I of France and also maintain England as an ally. Even more important, he was to keep Charles out of Italy and away from Venetian interests.

Contarini put a great deal of effort into profiling Charles's chancellor, Gattinara. A blunt example of the Venetian art of psychological manipulation is described in a dispatch Contarini sent to Venice on Aug. 16, 1524. After a meeting with Gattinara, Contarini reported:

``I urged the chancellor strongly to maintain the friendship with England, and made use of many arguments which the chancellor admitted, so I believe him now to be better disposed than he was formerly. It is requisite above all to sustain the fancies of the chancellor, and then adroitly to dispel them, because he is a man of very small brains, and when he once takes an impression he becomes obstinate....''
Contarini, according to his biographer Elisabeth Gleason, had a more difficult time in dealings with Gattinara's boss, the Emperor Charles V himself. Gleason reports that Contarini ``praised the Hapsburg ruler's seriousness, habits, and willingness to work long hours,'' and ``gave him credit for his devotion to the Catholic religion,'' but then cited a trait the Venetian is less than happy about. Contarini had made use of Charles's own confessor, who had informed him that the emperor had ``an inability to forgive injuries readily.'' For Venice, this trait was dangerous, especially since the Venetians were known to knife one in the back--and then ask forgiveness.
Contarini left Charles V's court in 1525. As we shall see, they were to meet again 15 years later in Regensburg, Germany.

Contarini's next assignment was as Venetian ambassador to the Vatican. It was here that Contarini honed his skills in the art of deception, while profiling the curia, and especially Pope Clement VII.

Contarini's appointment in 1528 came at a time when Venetian forces were occupying the papal cities of Ravenna and Cervia. The cities provided Venice with lucrative tax revenues which it did not want to lose. Venice had occupied the cities a year earlier when France, England, Milan, Venice, and the pope had joined forces against Charles V. Charles's Protestant mercenary forces had sacked Rome and captured the pope that year.

The pope was freed; nevertheless, Venice continued to occupy the papal cities of Ravenna and Cervia. Contarini's job as ambassador was to use his ``skill and pleasant manners'' to keep the pope focused on Charles V as the cause of all his sufferings, and to keep the papal cities in the possession of Venice.

With typical Venetian duplicity, Contarini tried to convince the pope, whom in his dispatches he called ``timid and cowardly,'' that it was Venice which had saved the papal cities. Contarini told the pope:

``In the past, we have been the Church's frontline defense against the Turks. So we are still.... Now the Lutheran Germans ... are greater enemies of the Holy See than the Turks!''
Contarini reports that despite his ulterior motives, he won the pope's confidence.
``I continually seek to placate the mind of His Holiness by various means. Therefore I sometimes try to be in his presence, seeing that I am not displeasing him. In this way I can always drop some word or make some courteous and appropriate gesture, which certainly does no harm. In my judgment, it is necessary to proceed step by step in this business, and to use all possible skill.''
In dispatches between 1528-1530, the doge continually exhorted Contarini, in Gleason's words, ``to draw Clement VII into firmly supporting anti-Hapsburg forces.''
Contarini reported that the pope had told him,

``I trust you to such an extent, that if you were not the Venetian ambassador, and a nobleman of that city, I would place all my disagreements in your hands.''
Despite this expression of confidence, Contarini's efforts failed. Pope Clement reached an accord with Charles V in 1529. The following year, Venice was forced to return Ravenna and Cervia to the Vatican.
Contarini spent three years in the halls of the Vatican, profiling, spying, and reporting back to Venice. In September 1530, he returned to Venice, where he was appointed to the government's ruling body, the Council of Ten. Shortly afterward, Contarini became part of the group that commanded life-and-death power over all of Venice and sometimes beyond, the dreaded Council of Three.

There is little known about Contarini's activities for the following five years when he served on the ``Three.'' As we noted in the first part of this series, the ``Three's'' operations were secret. What we do know, is that during Contarini's tenure, laws were passed which reinforced the Venetian oligarchy's top-down dictatorship. One law restricted even the nobility, making it a crime for more than eight members of the nobility, unless related, to meet in a private house. Another law placed the power of the Council of Ten above all state prosecutors and attorneys. Also, the ``Ten'' concluded a peace treaty with the Turk, without the knowledge of the Venetian Senate.



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Cardinal Contarini
In 1535, Contarini moved to his last and final assignment: He was named by Pope Paul III to the College of Cardinals. Like a termite which gnaws away at the foundation of an edifice until it collapses, Contarini used his position as cardinal to advance Venice's operations against Rome.
As cardinal, Contarini resumed his correspondence with Pomponazzi. Though he would publicly refute Pomponazzi, the two were in total agreement on fundamentals. Both men denied the possibility that man's faith in God could be based on his reason; instead, they asserted, true faith could only come through ``revelation'' and the ``non-rational.''

Though now a cardinal, Contarini's writings take a noticeable turn toward the Satanic. In today's terms, his philosophy could be summed up as ``doing your own thing,'' where there is no difference between good and evil, right or wrong, the Good being whatever one wants it to be.

In a letter to his friend Gabriele he writes, ``everyone should choose the good which is most appropriate and in accordance with his own nature, his condition, and his time.'' These same ideas would later be taken up again by the British, including ideologues such as Jeremy Bentham, and be the basis for a modern Satanic movement.

As cardinal, Contarini immediately began work to dismantle the Church from within. He joined what could be called today a ``Project Democracy''-type movement, a commission to ``reform'' the Church. Contarini's ``reforms'' would later be echoed by the Protestants. He attacked the absolute power of the pope over matters of Church doctrine and criticized the adoration of the saints, which, he said, took away from the worship of God. He also called for a halt to the visual portrayal of the saints through paintings by such contemporary artists as Michelangelo and Raphael. Labeling this great art irreligious, he struck out at the Italian Renaissance and its celebration of the power of human creativity. Such attacks would, a century later, be taken up by the English Puritans, and reified as religious doctrine.

Contarini's ``reform'' commission became the center of operations within the church called the ``spirituali.'' It included the English Cardinal Reginald de la Pole who, as potential heir to the throne of England, would play a major role in destabilizing the English monarchy after its break from the church. Another member, Cardinal Morone, would in 1557 be imprisoned by the Inquisition.

The reform commission, through its Consilium, attacked the pope for his ``worldly'' concerns, insisting that he remain solely a ``spiritual'' father. Contarini, in a letter to the pope, proposed that the Church stop granting benefices and charging fees for services. If his proposals had been accepted, which they weren't, fully half the income of the Church would have been cut and subsequently its operations drastically reduced. Contarini's reforms were later taken up by the Protestants, who accused the pope of practicing simony.

Despite rejecting his reforms, Paul III next asked Contarini to draft ``a formula to be used for preaching everywhere in Germany, Italy, and elsewhere....'' Contarini submitted a draft unabashedly reflecting Venice's contempt for man's ability to develop his reason. His draft urges priests to keep their ``sheep'' ``ignorant.''

Contarini writes:

``We must definitely avoid discussing these deep questions before the ignorant people. Let the pious and prudent preacher therefore descend to the [level of] knowledge and capacity of the people, and treat of the divine things in such a way as to be understood by the people and be able to instruct the sheep of Christ in clarity.''


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Regensburg
No history of Cardinal Contarini would be complete without including a discussion of his role in the 1541 Diet of Regensburg. The Diet was possibly the last chance to reconcile the split within the Church between Catholics and Protestants. Venice made sure the reconciliation would never happen.

The Diet was initiated by Charles V in an attempt to ally the German princes, split along religious lines. The Catholic principalities were in the south of Germany and the Protestant ones to the North. Luther himself was directly under the protection of the Elector of Saxony. Charles needed the support and money of the German princes to aid his brother Ferdinand, who was fighting to stop the Turks' advance into Hungary. The Turk had taken Buda, on the west side of the Danube, but Ferdinand's army was holding Pest on the east side. Raising the reinforcements was dependent on Charles's success at Regensburg.

Charles appointed six leading theologians, three Protestant and three Catholic, to come to Regensburg to work out an agreement to reunite the Church. Though the Vatican did not officially participate, it did send a legate--none other than Cardinal Contarini. On hearing the news that Contarini had been appointed papal legate to Regensburg, Florence's representative to Rome commented, ``May God grant that Contarini achieves something good ... since he is a blood brother of Lucifer.''

Venice saw the Diet of Regensburg as an opportunity to discredit both Charles V and the Vatican. Contarini performed the role at which he was a master: He played both sides. At first, he sided with the Protestants, only to abruptly turn against them. In the end, failure was ensured.

When the six theologians first sat down to work out the articles of agreement, the talks went surprisingly well. Each morning and each night, however, Contarini met privately with the Catholic delegation.

When it came to the critical discussion of how a human being may be redeemed, a compromise was made. Called ``Article V,'' the compromise was actually an endorsement of the Protestant belief that man is justified by faith alone, without the necessity for good works.

Contarini's stand on the key issue addressed by Article V is pure Venetian obfuscation. In his commentary supporting the article, he wrote,

``Those who say that we are justified through works are right; and those who say that we are not justified through works but through faith are also right.''
At the beginning of the Diet, Charles V had ordered that all negotiations be conducted in secret, but word of Article V leaked out. Let us look in on John Calvin as he sits with the Protestant members of the Strasburg delegation at Regensburg. On reading Article V, he exclaims,
``You will marvel when you read the copy [of the article on justification] ... that our adversaries have conceded so much. For they have committed themselves to the essentials of what is our true teaching. Nothing is to be found in it which does not stand in our writings.''
Despite the compromise, Luther opposed the Regensburg program, as did a number of the German princes. Some of the Catholic princes wanted to lead a war against the Protestants and get rid of Charles.
On June 8, 1541, the very day the princes had agreed to meet to review all the Articles, everything came to a halt.

The Vatican had sent a dispatch to Contarini charging that he or someone in his household had leaked the content of the discussions at Regensburg. Copies of Article V and letters detailing the talks were being published in Venice and circulated throughout Italy. The dispatch called Article V ``ambiguous,'' and Contarini was ordered not to approve any resolution either as the papal legate or privately. He was ordered to submit everything to the Apostolic See for approval.

At this point, the Diet broke down and Contarini made a total policy reversal. Charles had wanted to grant the Protestants limited toleration, allowing them back into the Church. Contarini rejected this completely.

Contarini now told the Catholic princes that he rejected any agreement ``in toto.'' He then urged the Pope to call a council immediately. Four years later, Contarini's call would be joined by others, and the Council of Trent, considered the founding council of the Counter-Reformation, would be convened.

Soon some of the German princes left Regensburg. Charles V commanded the theologians to remain to complete the agreements.

On July 10, Contarini was called before the emperor. Charles angrily told him that he neither got a religious agreement or money for stopping the Turk. He accused Venice and France of allying with the pope against him. Two weeks later, there was a bare outline of an agreement after all-day sessions at Charles's quarters. The Diet was declared over and Charles left Regensburg.

After the Diet, Contarini sent a letter to Venice in which he wrote that the failure of the discussions at Regensburg was ``the greatest good fortune.'' He wrote,

``Now concord is entirely out of the question.... I now see clearly that the greatest good fortune which I had in the course of this legation was that no concord was achieved, because I would certainly have been stoned by various groups, and some would have even become heretics in order to make me appear to be one.... Be of good cheer, more are with us, than with them'' [emphasis added].
The reader should take note of Contarini's concluding sentence. Clearly, when he writes ``more are with us,'' he is speaking not as a Catholic or a Protestant, but as a Venetian.
After Regensburg, Contarini maintained a lively correspondence with the ``spirituali'' network within the Church. In his letters to Cardinal Pole, he addresses him ``as a friend who, like myself, accepts justification by faith....'' Contarini continued to play both sides, writing to Pole,

``The foundation of the Lutheran edifice is most true and we must not contradict it in any way, but must accept it as true and catholic, indeed as the basis of the Christian religion.''


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Religious Wars in France
The seeds of evil that Venice germinated in the discussions between Contarini, Pomponazzi, and the Camaldolese monks in the second decade of the sixteenth century had, by the century's end, led to 300,000 deaths in religious wars. The seventeenth century would be far worse. To conclude this section we'll examine what happened in France as a case study and as recorded through the eyes of Venice's ambassadors.
Between the years 1562-1598, France was wracked by eight different wars of religion. Next to Spain, Venice considered France the power most to be feared. Despite her small territory, France's population of 16 million was twice that of Spain's. Militarily, France's armies, when united, were capable of defeating any enemy.

In his 1562 final report to Venice, Ambassador to France Michele Suriano writes that France is the ``eldest daughter of the Church,'' having accepted Christianity in the fifth century. He describes how France has more people, arms, and wealth than any other nation in Europe but then adds,

``yesterday her power and smiling fortunes made her a bulwark to her friends and the terror of her enemies, but the truth is today that great engine rests on weak supports.''
The king was also in debt for 15 million ducats in gold.
His report, that France ``rests on weak supports,'' must have been for Venice a signal, much like blood in the water is a signal to a pack of sharks.

By the time of Suriano's report, the Calvinism of the Huguenots had spread throughout France. By 1572, one-sixth of the French nobility had converted. The Huguenots had originally come from Germany and Switzerland to be recruited into the French army.

The worst of the French wars of religion had occurred under the reigns of King Charles IX and Henry III. Both were little boys when they became king, and both were under the regency of their mother, Queen Catherine de Medici. The queen, a Florentine, was a primary target for Venetian profiling and manipulation. Ambassador Suriano reveals just how effective Venice had been when he writes:


``I don't know her Majesty's personal religious opinions, I can say that I noticed definite signs that she is not happy about the disorders in the kingdom. If she has not been that energetic about suppressing them as we would like to see, this is because she is afraid that if she uses force this will lead inevitably to civil war. I also know that she has always been glad to hear urgings of others on the matter, especially what the signory of Venice has had to say, and has been so receptive to them that they were by no means ineffective.''
Ten years after Suriano's report, France would suffer one of the most brutal religious holocausts in history, the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. The Venetians would report, ``the whole thing was the work of the Queen.'' The massacre began late on a Saturday night and led to the wholesale slaughtering of tens of thousands of French Huguenots by Catholics. The ghastly events are described by Suriano's successor, Giovanni Michiel, in his 1572 final report. He wrote:


``The massacre showed how powerfully religion can affect men's minds. On every street one could see the barbarous sight of men cold-bloodedly outraging others of their own people, and not just men who had never done them any harm but in most cases people they know to be their neighbors and even relatives. They had no feeling, no mercy on anyone, even those who kneeled before them and humbly begged for their lives. If one man hated another because of some argument or lawsuit all he had to do was say, `This man is a Huguenot' and he was immediately killed. (That happened to many Catholics.) If their victims threw themselves in the river as a last resort and tried to swim to safety, as many did, they chased them in boats and then drowned them....
``The killing spread to all the provinces and most of the major cities and was just as frenzied there if not more so.''

The massacre began with the failed assassination of the military and Huguenot leader Admiral de Coligny. It brought to an end a period of religious peace in France. The ``explanation'' for the massacre was that the Catholics attacked out of fear of a suspected retaliation by the Huguenots for the assassination attempt.

Venice's Michiel placed the entire responsibility for the massacre on Catherine, claiming that Catherine was jealous of the admiral's influence over the young king. He wrote:


``Serene Prince, there are different opinions as to whether the death of the admiral and what was done to the Huguenots was spontaneous or planned. I think I should tell your Serenity what I have managed to learn from some very important people who are in on the secrets of the government. I can state to your Serenity that from start to finish the whole thing was the work of the queen. She conceived it, plotted it, and put it into execution.''
Since the ambassador's final reports were semi-public, Michiel made no mention of Venice's own part in the massacre. The whole matter was placed on Catherine's shoulders. But the reader should recall the ``urgings'' by the previous Venetian ambassador ten years earlier. The Venetian Senate did vote to send congratulations to France afterward, and King Philip of Spain wrote Catherine that ``to hear of it was the best and most cheerful news which at present could come to me.''

The nation of France suffered from the loss of Admiral Coligny, who was stabbed to death in the holocaust. The admiral had acted as a unifying force between the religious factions and was in the process of rebuilding France's divided army, an army which was the terror of Europe and especially Venice. The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre ended that immediate threat and soon led to the fourth war of religion followed by the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth.

Finally, in 1598, a new King of France, Henry IV, issued the Edict of Nantes and reconciled the Huguenots to his rule. Henry united France once again, but on his death, Europe would be devastated by religious turmoil. This time the Thirty Years' War, accompanied by the plague, would bring on the death of millions.

In England, Venice would consolidate its grip over the monarchy that had begun with the divorce of Henry VIII. By the end of the seventeenth century, Venice permanently established its base of operations in London. This story will be told in the next and last part of this series.

To be continued. See "Venice Moves North -- The Metamorphosis of England" for Part III.



Venice: The Methodology of Evil -- Part III
by Christina N. Huth
Printed in The American Almanac, May 30, 1994.

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This article is the final installment of this series. Parts 1 and 2, written by LaRouche associate and political prisoner Donald Phau, appeared in the American Almanac editions of May 9 and May 16, 1994 (Vol. VIII, No. 17 and No. 18).
In 1527, Henry VIII of England resolved to divorce his wife. His concern was predominantly dynastic. The Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon, his queen of 18 years, had failed to produce a male heir, after suffering several miscarriages and losing two sons in the early stages of infancy. The single surviving Tudor child, Princess Mary, was not considered by her father or his advisers to be a suitable candidate to rule England after Henry's death.
The divorce and remarriage of a Catholic king was infrequent, but not unheard of. Annulments of royal marriages for dynastic and political reasons were even more common. Around 1450, the pope even granted Henry VI of Castile a dispensation to marry a second wife, while still married to his first wife, who had borne no royal heir. At the outset of his negotiations with the Vatican, Henry had every reason to expect that, in time, his request would be granted.

Instead, the case of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII of England was to become the most famous divorce in history. Before the curtain fell on this historical drama, the nation of England had been transformed. Henry VIII had pulled England out of the Catholic Church, establishing the Church of England under the authority of the monarchy; he had beheaded Sir Thomas More, one of the greatest thinkers of the Renaissance, for not supporting his break with Rome; and he had steered his country off the path leading to industrial-capitalist economic development and republican government.

Henry VIII had also thrown open the door for the cultural, political, and financial takeover of England by agents of the city-state of Venice. By the middle of the 1530s, Henry's government was in the hands of Venetian agents, and being shaped into a model of police-state political terror. By the end of Henry's reign, Venetian bankers were in control of a burgeoning English foreign debt, and dictating terms to the English throne. Within slightly over a century following Henry's death, England had been transformed into the usurious, slave-trading, imperial power of Great Britain, under the dictatorship of a Venetian party, which had been transplanted directly from the lagoons of Venice.



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Cui Bono?
Who benefitted?
The manipulation of Henry's divorce was a foreign policy matter of some importance to the ruling oligarchy of Venice. As Donald Phau has documented in the first two parts of this series, the tiny Italian city-state established and maintained its vast influence over the economies, trade, and governments of Europe by the artful application of ``divide and conquer'' trickery, applied with the help of the largest and most sophisticated diplomatic corps in all the known world. Though successful during the first decades of Henry's reign in provoking two expensive and bloody wars between England and France--the most populous country in Europe--Venetian diplomacy had failed to do serious damage to cooperative relations between England and Spain, the homeland of Henry's queen.

Together, England and Spain controlled the Straits of Gibraltar, Atlantic entry-point to the Mediterranean; the English Channel, entry-point to the North and Baltic seas, as well as the location of rich Low Countries (what today are Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) port cities; and, in the case of Spain, half of the New World. As recently as the 1480s, Henry VII had overturned the privileges of Venetian merchants in English ports, awarding this carrying trade to ships of his own citizens; in 1494, the first Tudor king successfully challenged Venetian monopolies in trading of French wines and Spanish sherry. Together, Henry VII and King Ferdinand of Spain had played a forceful role in encouraging reforms from within the Catholic Church.

This alliance was to come to an abrupt end over the matter of Henry and Catherine's divorce.

The Venetian oligarchs, who hated the Christian view that all men are created in the image of God, (particularly as it was reflected in the Church's disapproval of slavery and prohibition of usury) were also interested in cutting down the influence of the Catholic Church. Venice spawned, nurtured, and sponsored both the leadership and footsoldiers of the Protestant Reformation. The theological apologetics for the schismatic movement within the Church were manufactured in the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Giustina, and in the salons of Lucca and other Italian cities, satellites of Venice, from whence they were injected into the academic institutions and courts of Europe. It was not until Henry VIII's break with Rome, however, that the Venetian efforts resulted in the establishment of a Protestant state church.

No wonder the Venetian gamemasters pounced on the opportunity to use Henry's dissatisfaction with Catherine to their own ends. And, they succeeded in doing just that by 1535, with the death of Thomas More, Henry's break with the Church, and the destruction of the English-Spanish alliance.



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Cultural Warfare
Thus far, however, we have examined only Venice's tactical considerations vis-a-vis the King's Great Matter. The oligarchs of the lagoons had far more important, strategic goals in mind. These longer-term projects centered on questions of culture, especially Venice's hatred of the conceptions of man and nature which were the foundations of Western Judeo-Christian culture, in particular as it was being spread throughout Europe and the New World in the decades following the Golden Renaissance in Italy.
The Venetian deployment into England around Henry's divorce reveals the nature of the cultural warfare directed from Venice against the influence of the Golden Renaissance. From every nook and cranny popped out-and-out Venetian agents, ready to assist Henry. Right behind--in a classic display of the Venetian maneuver known as ``playing both sides against the middle''--followed Venice's candidates to enter the lists on the side of Queen Catherine.

And with them came everything bad Venice wished to impose on humanity: Aristotelianism, occultism, gnosticism, and other forms of mysticism and irrationalism. In short order, this invading force was to deal a mortal blow to English humanist circles led by Thomas More and Erasmus, which had struggled to build institutions to uplift society to the level befitting each individual human being's identity as man made in the image of God. England, a strong outpost of the Renaissance Christian cultural tradition in Europe, was to be turned into a new Venice of the north. < p>


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Cromwell Comes First
First with his foot in the door was the Venetian-trained bureaucrat Thomas Cromwell, who rose to power on the corpse of Thomas More. Cromwell lay in wait as a court underling during the latter 1520s. He assumed the chancellorship upon More's resignation in 1532, after he had--according to More's son-in-law and biographer William Roper--presented the King with a theory of government based on the idea ``that his will and pleasure [be] regarded as law.''
Cromwell surrounded himself with a coterie of radical Protestants, similarly trained in Venice or at the University of Padua. These included Thomas Starkey and Richard Morison, both of whom entered Cromwell's service in the early 1530s. Morison and particularly Starkey served as the pamphleteer-propagandists during Cromwell's reorganization of the English church and government. Cromwell's thoroughgoing reforms--accompanied by a reign of terror and hundreds of political conspiracy trials and executions--transformed England from a polity based on the rule of law, toward the ideal of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, in which the rule of men--in this case the suggestible and unstable Henry VIII--was concealed behind the appearance of the rule of law.

One historian of the period summarizes Cromwell's outlook thus:

``Cromwell wished to free statutes from that older limitation which wished to test it by reference to some external law--the law of nature, the law of Christendom (Thomas More's test). He held that [the positive law of a nation or state] was omnicompetent, and must be obeyed.''
It was this lawless regime which framed up and murdered Thomas More.
To fortify Henry's case for divorce from Catherine, Cromwell compiled reports from more than a dozen royal emissaries, including John Stokesley, Richard Croke, and Thomas Cranmer (later to be named the first Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury) who had been sent to comb Europe's universities and religious institutions for scholars and divines who would buttress the King's position. This dragnet produced, among others, one Marco Raphael, a Venetian Jew converted to Christianity, and the reputed inventor of a new invisible ink. Though he held the high position of chief cipherist for the diplomatic service of Venice, Raphael traveled to England to assist the King.

Also materializing at the English court, one might imagine in a puff of grey and aromatic smoke, was Francesco Giorgi, nicknamed the ``Cabalist Friar of Venice,'' by the Warburg Institute's late occult-specialist, Frances Yates. Giorgi was there to help Henry VIII, and brought with him armfuls of manuscripts, letters, and other documents supporting Henry's arguments for the divorce. Giorgi remained in England for more than five years, gaining the king's ear and entry into the inner court circle.

Meanwhile, partisans of Catherine's cause were busy trying to recruit another leading occultist--Henry Cornelius Agrippa--on her behalf.



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Black Magicians
Giorgi and Agrippa were two sides of the same coin. They were both political-intelligence agents, deployed at the instruction of their oligarchist masters. They were also agents of cultural warfare, carrying and propagating the Venetian currency of antiscientific irrationalism. Their occultist poison was--and remains--Venice's most powerful weapon to prevent the development of an educated and rational population, equipped to dispense with aristocrats and govern itself.
Let us take a longer look at the necromancer and black magician, Henry Cornelius Agrippa, keeping in mind that Agrippa's outlook, and even his main writings, were virtually identical in essential content to those of Henry VIII's adviser and confidante, Francesco Giorgi.

Agrippa, who learned astrology at his mother's knee, was perhaps the leading occultist of early sixteenth-century Europe, rivaling Johannes Reuchlin for that title by dint of his energetic travels across the continent and back again, to build the sixteenth century occultist movement. He was born about 1486, in Nettesheim, Germany, and educated at the University of Cologne. How he was started on the road toward black magic and the occult is not known. But he spent a significant portion of his younger years in Italy, studying the mystical and occultist works of Pico della Mirandola, and in Paris, in the circles of occultists who were very active there. In Italy, France, and later Germany, Agrippa organized and recruited for a secret society reminiscent of the later freemasons.

This secret society was unabashedly gnostic. Its brotherhood was committed to the study of an ancient knowledge [Gnosis is the Greek word for knowledge] which it believed must be limited to an elite, kept secret as it had the power to be dangerous to the inferior masses of humanity. This secret knowledge could secure eternal salvation for initiates, while the common man was excluded from knowledge of God and eternal life. Agrippa wrote in his 1516 The Three Ways of Knowing God (De triplici ratione cognoscendi Deum), ``even the Gospel, like the Mosaic law, has one meaning on the surface for the more simple, another in its core, which has been separately revealed to the perfect ... nothing could be more absurd'' than the law, if taken literally.

Agrippa's tome, De occulta philosophia (1510) catalogued the elements of this secret knowledge, and became the virtual bible of the occultist movement. It was the handbook of John Dee around the turn of the fifteenth century in England, and later of Robert Fludd, the founder of the Rosicrucian cult which prefigured freemasonry.



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The Cabala
What superstitious nonsense did Agrippa peddle in De occulta philosophia? Among other things, the conjuring of demons, magic rituals, astrological formulae, numerological combinations, and songs, poems and spells for controlling the actions of angels, demons, other human beings, and the physical universe. This passage from Book III discusses a spell for changing the weather:
``I have seen and known a certain man inscribing the name and sign of a certain spirit on virgin paper in the hour of the moon. When afterwards he had given this to a river frog to devour, and had murmured a certain song, having replaced the frog in the water, soon showers and storms rose up.''
De occulta philosophia delved at length into the so-called Jewish Cabala, the secret knowledge believers asserted had been handed to Moses by God when he declared the 10 Commandments. Cabalists like Agrippa asserted that God revealed his law in a literal form for the masses, but in an elaborated form for the inner elite. To this was added the study of other ancient secret knowledge, passed from the Egyptians, through the Greece of Plato and transmitted to the West during the middle of the fourteenth century with the Greek texts brought to Florence by Gemisthos Plethon. Among these texts were those attributed to Hermes Trigmegistus, the probably fictional Egyptian high priest whose writings are known as hermeticism.
Christian cabalists like Pico, Giorgi, and Agrippa sought to syncretize this ancient secret knowledge with the tenets of Christianity. In his Three Ways of Knowing God, Agrippa described three paths to knowledge of the Almighty: the natural world, which reveals only a reflection of God in His creations; the cabala--the ancient, secret knowledge; and, after the coming of Christ, the divinely inspired Holy Gospels. But, specifies Agrippa, the New Testament, like the Old Testament, is divided into an open revelation available to all who read it, and a secret revelation, available only those who possess the secret knowledge.

At their irrational extremes, Giorgi and Agrippa studied the numerological significance of the Hebrew letters in the name of Jesus Christ, which they believed proved that Jesus was the Messiah. Both Giorgi and Agrippa also asserted that the universe is divided into three realms--the natural world, the celestial world, and the supercelestial world, Heaven--all under the control of angels and demons upon whom a magician may call for special aid. Giorgi's elaboration of this three-fold system appears in his 1525 textbook of the occult, De harmonia mundi (The Harmony of the World).

Also on the occult fringe were astrology, alchemy, and magical music and poetry, such as the so-called Orphic hymns which fascinated Pico. These date back to Attic Greece in the centuries before Christianity. The Orphic hymns were part of violent orgiastic rituals, in which maddened women, known as Maenads, drugged or otherwise intoxicated, roamed through the forests at night, tearing animals from limb to limb; the same fate befell any man who was unfortunate enough to cross the path of one of these rampaging bands.

(Agrippa--perhaps under the influence of an Orphic hymn--argued vociferously that women are superior to men. In his De nobilitate et pracellantia foeminei sexus of 1509, Agrippa advanced a number of occultist and feminist arguments that women are more perfect than men.)

The influence of the stars on the human personality traits (which Agrippa called ``humours'') is put forth in the following passage from De occulta philosophia:


``The humor melancholicus, when it takes fire and glows, generates the frenzy (furor) which leads us to wisdom and revelation, especially when it is combined with a heavenly influence, above all with that of Saturn.... Therefore, Aristotle says in the Problematica that through melancholy some men have become divine beings, foretelling the future like Sybils ... while others have become poets ... and he says further that all men who have been distinguished in any branch of knowledge have generally been
``Moreover, the humor melancholis has such power that they say it attracts certain demons into our bodies, those whose presence and activity men fall into ecstacies and pronounce many wonderful things.... This occurs in three different forms, imagination ... the rational ... and the mental... [When] the soul is fully concentrated in the imagination, it immediately becomes a habitation for lower demons, from whom it often receives wonderful instruction in the lower arts.... But when the soul is fully concentrated in the reason, it becomes the home of the middle demons; thereby it attains knowledge of natural and human things;... But when the soul soars completely to the intellect, it becomes the home of the higher demons, from whom it learns the secrets of divine matters....''


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Witchcraft
Though Giorgi, Agrippa, and other occultists of the day moved in the intellectual circles of the university and the church, their ideas radiated with some intensity into society around them. By the 1530s, De occulta philosphia was the handbook for sorcerers, witches, and wizards all over Europe. Giorgi's De harmonia mundi was translated into French in 1578, and spurred the witchcraft movement in France.
Jean Bodin, the leader of France's politiques faction, which sought to promote religous toleration, took very seriously the extent of Giorgi's influence, and fiercely attacked him as a chief architect of the witchcraft movement plaguing Europe. In 1580, Bodin published a his De la démonomanie des sorciers, a treatise on the philosophical foundations of satanism, with suggestions for dealing with witchcraft.

In Elizabethan England, where the ideas of Agrippa and Giorgi were at work in the occult movement that was to become freemasonry, dramatist Christopher Marlowe attacked black magic head on. In his Tragical History of the Life and Death of Dr. Faustus, Marlowe presents the cynical, devil-conjuring Dr. Faustus as a student of Agrippa. When Faustus conjures up Mephistopheles using cabalist numerology and anagrams, Faust tells the devil that he is too ugly to appear as himself: ``Go and returne an old Franciscan Frier, That holy shape becomes a devill best.'' < p>


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Dark Age in England
Under the influence of Venetian agent Thomas Cromwell's Aristotelian ``might makes right'' philosophy of government, and the occultism spewed by such as Giogi and Agrippa, it is no wonder that Henrican England descended toward a new dark age, both culturally and economically, after Thomas More's death in 1535. The country which, on the occasion of Henry VIII's coronation in 1509, Erasmus had hailed as a new opportunity to develop a society based on the dignity of man, was set on the downward path toward slave-trading, drug-dealing, and imperialist conquest. So today, those who love the United States must fight to reverse our nation's takeover by the very same ideology of bestialism.
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Captions and Displays
St. Mark's Cathedral, adorned by the four bronze horses looted from Constantinople in 1201, overlooks the Grand Canal of Venice.
lead display:
``The Venetian deployment around Henry's divorce reveals the nature of the cultural warfare directed from Venice against the influence of the Golden Renaissance. From every nook and cranny popped out-and-out Venetian agents....''

Display:

``Giorgi and Agrippa were two sides of the same coin. They were both political-intelligence agents.... They were also agents of cultural warfare, propagating the Venetian currency of antiscientific irrationalism.''

``Their occultist poison was--and remains--Venice's most powerful weapon to prevent the development of an educated and rational population, equipped to dispense with aristocrats and govern itself.''

The title page of Francesco Giorgi's De harmonia mundi.

From De harmonia mundi, Giorgi's illustration of the relationships among the physical, celestial, and spiritual realms.

This passage from Giorgi's De harmonia mundi discusses the manipulation of the letters in the Hebrew name of Jesus, to prove that He was the Messiah.

The Cave of the Illuminati from the writings of seventeenth-century occultist H. Khunrath.




The Role of the Venetian Oligarchy in the Reformation, Counter-Reformation, Enlightenment and the Thirty Years' War -- Part I


by Webster Tarpley
Printed in The American Almanac, March 22, 1993.

The following speech, which will be presented in the New Federalist in three parts, was delivered on September 6, 1992 at a conference co-sponsored by the Schiller Institute and the International Caucus of Labor Committees in Northern Virginia.

During the last dozen years, our philosophical association has advanced the thesis that many of the disasters of modern history have been rooted in the heritage of the former Venetian Republic. This includes the central role of the Venetians in cutting short the Golden Renaissance of Italy, in precipitating the Protestant reformation and the wars of religion, and in creating the pseudo-scientific, irrationalist currents of thought that are called the Enlightenment. I would like to return to some of these themes today in order to explore them in greater detail.
Our interest in exposing the Venetian war against the Italian renaissance of the Quattrocento is coherent with our commitment to the Renaissance as an ideal, and with our efforts to launch a new Renaissance today. As has just been stressed, the benchmark for civilization, culture, religion and morality in the last half millennium is constituted by the work of Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa, the founder of modern science, and of his associate Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, Pope Pius II. Through their cooperation with the best representatives of Medici Florence in the time of the Council of Florence of 1439, Nicolaus and Aeneas Silvius saved western civilization from the Dark Age that had begun with the defeat of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen at the hands of the Black Guelph oligarchs.

During that Dark Age, the Roman Catholic Church had been substantially destroyed by the Avignon captivity and the Great Schism, both against the backdrop of such events as the Hundred Years' War, the Wars of the Roses, and the advance of the Ottoman Empire. Without Nicolaus and Aeneas Silvius, there would have been no Europe and no church by 1500; Venice opposed both through the Morosini agent Gregory von Heimburg [Gilbert, 191]. Paolo Morosini dedicated to Heimburg one of the landmark propaganda pieces on the Venetian oligarchical system to be published during the fifteenth century, ``Concerning the affairs and structure of the Venetian Republic, dedicated to Gregory of Heimburg, the most eminent doctor of the Germans.''

Gregory was the thug and agent provocateur who attempted to sabotage the work of Pius II, Cusanus, and Bessarion, and who is thus a prominent and typical representative of the anti-papal, anti-imperial current among the electors and other princes (Fuersten) of the Holy Roman Empire. This was the stratum of oligarchs played by the Venetians during the conciliar movement, mobilized by Venice against Pius II's proposed crusade, and which would form the basis of Luther's support during the ``Reformation.''

The essence of Venice is oligarchism, usury, slavery, and the cult of Aristotle. The traditional rate of interest was above 20%--a Volcker prime rate. The Venetians were the first in western Europe to read Aristotle directly in the Greek text--first at the School of the Rialto, where leading patricians lectured on Aristotle, and later, after about 1400, at the University of Padova, where the Venetian nobles studied. We must remember that Venice was a branch of the Byzantine Empire which became powerful enough to capture Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, shortly after 1200. Venice, like Byzantium, saw religion as a tool of state power, with new cults to be concocted as the need arose.



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The Aristotelian Network
During the Quattrocento, Venice developed in Italy and in Europe an extensive Aristotelian network. Bernardo Bembo, the Venetian ambassador to Florence and the Florence handler for the Venetian Signoria was part of this (``The Venetians are called the new Romans,'' he wrote.), as was his son Pietro Bembo. The Barbaro family was represented by Francesco, Ermaolao the elder and Ermolao the younger. Giorgione's painting ``The Three Philosophers'' can be seen as depicting three Arsistotles: the scholastic Aristotle of the Paris Sorbonne, the Averroistic Aristotle derived from the Arabs, and the ``modern'' Aristotle of Padova-Rialto, perhaps depicted here with the features of the younger Ermolao Barbaro. Another family prominent in the effort were the Dona', who will pop up again and again in this account.
This painting hints at an important feature of Venetian method, namely the strategy of dominating culture, religion, and politics through the expedient of concocting a series of Aristotelian cults or schools which then contend among each other. In the 1400's the Aristotelian school-men of the Sorbonne were a formidable force in theology. But the Venetian oligarchs Giustinian and Quirini, in their pioneering 1513 reform proposals addressed to Pope Leo X attacked the decadent scholasticism of the Sorbonne, saying that the education of clergy must no longer be based on the ``fallacious erudition of the Parisians'' and similar ``pagan fables.'' [Jedin, ``Contributo,'' p. 112] (Instead, Giustinian-Querini recommended Holy Scripture and Church fathers, especially St. Augustine. They appear to have been thinking of the fundamentalism of isolated Biblical quotations as it has in fact flourished among the Protestant sects.) [See also Schnitzer, p. 236]

It should then come as no surprise to find Martin Luther, a few years later, packaging his own reform movement in a very similar ``anti-Aristotelian'' garb, despite the Manichean dualism in Luther which led right back to Aristotle's method. Similarly, the pseudo-scientific method cooked up by Francis Bacon using the epistemological writings of Paolo Sarpi portrayed itself as tearing down the authority of Aristotle in favor of scientific experiment. But this does not change the fact that Bacon's method was Aristotelian through and through. Bacon touted induction as the great alternative to syllogisms, but there is no qualitative difference.

Another prong of the Venetian war against the Renaissance was Venice's expansion inside Italy, on the terraferma, with the aim of conquering the entire Italian peninsula and then of using Italy to dominate the world. When it proved impossible to conquer Milan, Florence, the Papal states and Naples, Venetian diplomacy invited France and Spain, the emerging great powers, to invade Italy; the Venetians thought they could pick up the pieces. Between the French conquest of Milan in 1494 and the sack of Rome in 1527, Italy was indeed devastated by these rival armies. But the entry of the new great powers into Italy also prepared the greatest shock in Venetian history: the War of the League of Cambrai. Fighting began in 1509.

The League of Cambrai was the first broad coalition of European states against a nominally Christian nation. It included just about all of Europe: the France of Louis XII, the Holy Roman Empire of Maximilan I, Spain, Pope Julius II, the King of Hungary, the Duke of Savoy, the King of Cyprus, the Dukes of Ferrara, Milan, Florence, Mantova. Some accounts include England. There was a plan to carve up Venice. A painting by Palma Giovane in the Doge's palace depicts Doge Loredan and the lion of St. Mark fighting Europa, who rides a bull and carries a shield embossed with the arms of the member states of the league. Venice sought help from the Ottoman Empire, but was left with no allies. In the decisive battle of Agnadello, French troops crushed the Venetian mercenaries. Venice, as Machiavelli exulted, lost all the land it had stolen in the course of centuries. The Venetians were driven back to their lagoon; their destruction was imminent.

Pope Julius II was induced to drop out of the League of Cambrai, but between 1509 and 1513 the French forces, with Florentine money, kept the Venetians on the brink of doom. The state was close to bankruptcy, and had to borrow from the Chigi of Siena. It was also at this time that the Jewish community of Venice came into existence. Previously Jews had been restricted to the role of moneylenders on the terraferma. Jews were obliged to live in the quarter called the ghetto, whose residents were subjected to special discriminatory laws and were obliged to wear a yellow star of David. As the Cambrai crisis deepened, demagogic preachers attempted to blame the disasters of Venetian policy on the new Jewish community. [Gilbert, 18, 39]

In the midst of the hysteria in the lagoon, a religious revival broke out, spurred on by Antonio Contarini, the Patriarch of Aquilea. Religious processions and demonstrations multiplied, for the deified state and the immortal fondi were in gravest danger. Contarini, whose family will be at the center of our story, harangued the Senate on Venetian immorality: ``Nunneries served the sexual needs of the rich and powerful. Homosexuality was so widespread that female prostitutes had come to him complaining that they earned so little they had to exercise their profession into old age.'' [Gilbert, p. 38] Indeed: 10% of the population were female prostitutes at any given time; even more important was the prevalence of sodomy, a sure marker for the presence of the Bogomil-bugger tradition in epistemology.

A badly mauled, indebted and humiliated Venice survived the War of the League of Cambrai, but the Doge told the 2,500 patricians that the new Spanish power had reduced the republic from a great power to ``2,500 flies.'' [H. Brown, p. 150] At the deepest level, some patricians realized that the lagoon city could now be crushed like an egg-shell, and was not a suitable base for world domination. As after 1200 there had been talk of moving the capital, perhaps to Constantinople, so now plans began to hatch that would facilitate a metastasis of the Venetian cancer towards the Atlantic world. To make matters worse, the Portuguese access to India had undercut the Venetian spice monopoly through the Levant; there was talk of building a Suez canal, but this was abandoned. Venice had always thrived through divide and conquer. If Europe could unite against Venice, what could Venice do to divide and rend Europe so thoroughly that it would tear itself to pieces for more than a century?



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A Look At Contarini
To see how this was done, let us look at Gasparo Contarini, whose studies under the Aristotelian Pomponazzi were interrupted when Emperor Maximilian seized Padova. Contarini had helped entertain Agostino Chigi when he was negotiating that vital loan. Back at Venice, Contarini gravitated to a group of young patricians who gathered at the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele on the island of Murano to discuss the salvation of their souls. Remember what Pius II had said of the Venetians: ``they wish to appear Christians before the world, but in reality they never think of God and, except for the state, which they do regard as a deity, they hold nothing sacred.'' [Pius II Commentaries, p. 743]
One participant was Vincenzo Quirini, who had just been in Germany, where he had been serving as the Venetian ambassador to the Empire. ``All the princes of the empire, be they prelates or secular rulers, harbor a very ill will towards your most illustrious Lordship, which I have seen and touched with my hands....'' [Alberi, series 1, vol. 6, p.43], he warned the Doge. Quirini had seen that war was imminent. Another was Paolo Giustinian, who had gone to the Levant in 1507 (looking for Turkish help?). During the grim winter of 1510-1511, in the midst of the mortal emergency of Cambrai. Guistinian and Quirini turned away from their patrician state careers and entered the austere Camaldolese order, first on Murano and later near Arezzo. Giustinian and Quirini became the advance guard of the Catholic reformation, shaking up the Camaldolese order and later sending the first Catholic reform manifesto, ``Pamphlet to Leo X'' to the Lateran Council. (This proposes the death penalty for Jews who do not convert and a war with the Turks in alliance with the young leader of Persia, identified as ``Sophi.'' This is all in addition to the attacks on the schoolmen mentioned above. [Schnitzer, p. 227 ff.]

Gasparo Contarini corresponded with Quirini and Giustinian for more than a decade. Parts of this correspondence have survived, and illuminate the actual orgins of the Protestant Reformation. To put them in perspective, let us jump from Gasparo Contarini in Venice in 1511 to Martin Luther in the tower of his Wittenberg monastery in the years 1513-1514, the years of Luther's so-called ``Thurmerlbenis'' or experience in the tower, generally regarded as the starting point of the Protestant reformation.



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Faith and Works
The ``Thurmerlebenis'' brought Luther to the definitive standpoint of his theology: that salvation is by faith alone, with the good works of charity playing no role whatsoever. Luther describes the experience thus:
``These words `just' and `justice of God' were a thunderbolt in my conscience. They soon struck terror in me who heard them. He is just, therefore He punishes. But once when in this tower I was meditating on those words, `the just lives by faith,' `justice of God,' I soon had the thought whether we ought to live justified by faith, and God's justice ought to be the salvation of every believer, and soon my soul was revived. Therefore it is God's justice which justifies us and saves us. This knowledge the Holy Spirit gave me on the privy in the tower.'' [Grisar, ``Luther,'' VI, p. 506.]
This was Luther's celebrated explication of Paul's Letter to the Romans I.17:
``For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.''
This passage was ripped out of scriptural and traditional context and made the total passkey.
Luther's allegedly new insights into the problems of justification, faith, and works were a thoroughly disingenuous revival of an old controversy that had long been solved in theology by the magisterium of the Roman Church. St. Paul, at certain places in his epistles, was at pains to convince the non-Christians in his audience that first justification and thus salvation could only come through faith, and not through the works of the law without faith. These observations by St. Paul were part of his polemic against the so-called Judaizers. The New Testament itself contains a warning against one-sided interpretations of St. Paul such as the one practiced one and one-half millenia later by Luther:

``As also in all [St. Paul's] epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction.''
This prophecy of Luther comes from none other than St. Peter (2 Peter 3.16).
Of course, a balanced reading of St. Paul leaves no doubt that while faith is clearly primary and prior to works, both faith and works of charity are necessary for salvation. See for example Galatians 5.6:

``For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but faith which worketh by love.''
Beyond this, the epistle of St. James contains a lengthy and trenchant polemic against the obscurantists who, like Luther, attempt to separate faith from works. These lines are of special importance for all Protestants today, and may explain Luther's attempts to get St. James thrown out of the New Testament altogether. St. James says:
``What doth it profit, my brethren, though a man say he have faith, and have not works? can faith save him?... Seest thou how faith wrought with [Abraham's] works, and by works was faith made perfect? ... Ye see then how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only.... For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also.'' (James 2.14-26)
This debate was summed up several centuries later by St. Augustine. Here we must read carefully because of Luther's attempt to dress himself in a neo-Augustinian cloak. St. Augustine was in fact the author of an entire book in which he warned against precisely the kind of vicious error which Luther later promulgated. Looking back retrospectively over his life in his Retractiones, Augustine writes:
`` ... I received from certain laymen who however, were learned in the Scriptures, certain writings which so distinguished good works from Christian faith as to say that it was possible to obtain eternal life without the former but not without the latter.''
This is the subject of Augustine's book On Faith and Good Works. Considering the question of faith, Augustine warns,
``we feel that we should advise the faithful that they would endanger the salvation of their souls if they acted on the false assurance that faith alone is sufficient for salvation or that they need not perform good works in order to be saved.... When St. Paul says that man is justified by faith and not by the observance of the law, he does not mean that good works are not necessary or that it is enough to receive and to profess the faith and no more. What he means rather and what he wants us to understand is that man can be justified by faith, even though he has not previously performed works of the law. For the works of the law are meritorious not before but after justification.... [T]his opinion originated in the time of the apostles, and that is why we find some of them, for example, Peter, John, James, and Luke, writing against it in their epistles and asserting very strongly that faith is no good without works.... [St. Peter] was aware of the fact that certain unrighteous men had interpreted certain rather obscure passages of St. Paul to mean that they did not have to lead a good life, since they were assured of salvation as long as they had the faith.... See, then, what a great mistake they make who think that they can be saved by a faith that is dead!'' (On Faith and Works, pp. 23-30)
In the concluding chapter of this work, Augustine recapitulates his views, saying that:
``those who are preparing for baptism should be instructed not only in what they must believe but also in what they must do; that we should not tell the faithful that they will obtain eternal life if their faith is dead, if it is without works and therefore cannot save, but rather that they will obtain eternal life if they have that faith of grace that works by charity.'' (pp. 55-56)
These themes are constantly repeated in Augustine's writings. Compare for example the following segment of his treatise Grace and Free Will:
``Because they fail to grasp what the apostle means when he says: `We reckon that a man is justified by faith independently of the works of the law,' some men have understood him to say that faith is sufficient for man, even though he lives a bad life and is without good works. It is unthinkable that the Vessel of Election should hold this view. It was he who, after having stated in a certain passage, `For in Christ neither circumcision is of any avail nor uncircumcision,' at once added, `but faith which works through charity.'|''
The best Renaissance Christian humanist theology shared this same view. See Nicolaus Cusanus in his On Learned Ignorance:
``For without love faith is not living, but dead, and is not faith at all. But love is the form of faith giving to faith new being; indeed, love is the sign of the most steadfast faith.''
See also Nicolaus' On the Peace of Faith, where we find the following:
``it is impossible that someone please God without faith. However, it must be formed faith, for without works it is dead.''
``Fides caritate formata,'' faith formed by charity, is a common medieval and renaissance expression for the necessity that faith be expressed and developed by acts of charity towards one's neighbor. ``Fides caritate formata'' was not coincidentally a citation that was capable of throwing Luther into hysteria during theological debates.
For Luther, the devil is an independent power who rules over the material world, so good works belong to the devil; human reason is the ``bride and whore'' of the devil. In those days of greater theological knowledge, this could be clearly recognized as a new variation on Manicheanism, the idea that good and evil are equally necessary parts of the creation. According to such a gnostic view, the material world is inherently bad, and only the spiritual world can be good. Something not so different was professed by the Bogomils. Luther's contemporary and sometime associate Philip Melanchton saw Luther in exactly these terms: ``Manichaean delirium.'' Luther attempted to portray his own viewpoint as a return to St. Augustine's stress on grace as against the ethical notions of the late Graeco-Roman world, but this was disingenuous. Luther's marginal jottings to Augustine's Confessions have come to light; an interesting one recaptures Luther's reaction to Augustine's polemics against the Manichaeans and their idea of the two coequal cosmic forces locked in struggle. Luther's annotation: ``This is false. This is the origin of all Augustine's errors.'' [see Socci and Ricci, and Theobald Beer.] Luther appears to reflect the influence of the pseudo-Hermes Trismegistus and his ``Book of the 24 Philosophers.''



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Contarini and Luther
But in the given historical context it is more than interesting that the top Venetian oligarch of the day--Gasparo Contarini--in 1511 went through a Thurmerlebnis of his own. In the Camaldolese monastery of Monte Corona above Frascati in the summer of 1943, the German scholar Hubert Jedin, acting on the advice of Giuseppe de Luca, discovered 30 letters from Gasparo Contarini to the Cambai Camaldolese, Giustinian and Quirini. One is from Eastertide 1511, when Contarini went first to the Benedictine monastery on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore, and then to San Sebastiano. Contarini would have us believe that he was contemplating becoming a monk himself, but concluded that even monastic life of asceticism and good works would never been enough to atone for his sins. This is similar to Luther's starting point. A holy father told Contarini that the way to salvation is ``much broader than what many people think.'' Contarini writes:
`` ... I began to think to myself what that happiness [salvation] might be and what our condition is. And I truly understood that if I performed all the penances possible, and even many more, even if they were all taken together, they would not be enough to make up for my past sins, to say nothing of meriting that felicity. And having seen that that infinite goodness, that love which always burns infinitely and loves us little worms so much that our intellect cannot fathom it, having only by its goodness made us out of nothing and exalted us to such a height ... We must attempt only to unite ourselves with our head [Christ] with faith, with hope, and with that small love of which we are capable. As regards satisfaction for sins committed, and into which human weakness falls, His passion is sufficient and more than sufficient. Through this thought I was changed from great fear and suffering to happiness. I began with my whole spirit to turn to this greatest good which I saw, for love of me, on the cross, with his arms open, and his breast opened up right to his heart. This I, the wretch who had not had enough courage for the atonement of my iniquities to leave the world and do penance, turned to him; and since I asked him to let me share in the satisfaction which he, without any sins of his own, had made for us, he was quick to accept me and to cause his Father completely to cancel the debt I had contracted, which I myself was incapable of satisfying.'' [Jedin, ``Ein `Thurmerlbenis' des jungen Contarini,'' p. 117 and Dermot Fenlon, ``Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine Ital.'' p.8.]
The parallels to Luther are evident, even though Contarini still allows hope and a little love a role in salvation, in addition to faith. Later, in a letter of 1523, after Contarini had seen Luther, he would go beyond this and wholly embrace the Lutheran position:
``Wherefore I have truly come to this firm conclusion which, although first I read it and heard it, now nonetheless through experience I penetrate very well with my intellect: and that is that no one can justify himself with his works or purge his soul of its inclinations, but that it is necessary to have recourse to divine grace which is obtained through faith in Jesus Christ, as Saint Paul says, and say with him: `Blessed is the man without works, to whom the Lord did not impute sin....' Now I see both in myself and in others that when a man thinks he has acquired some virtue, just at the moment it is all the easier for him to fall. Whence I conclude that every living man is a thing of utter vanity, and that we must justify ourselves through the righteousness of another, and that means of Christ: and when we join ourselves to him, his righteousness is made ours, nor must we rely on ourselves to the smallest degree, but must say: `From ourselves we received the answer of death.'|''[Jedin, p. 127]
Contarini was always much more careful in the writings he published; in his treatise De Praedestinatione he says that Chrsitians should
``seek to exalt as much as possible the grace of Christ and faith in him, and to humble as much as possible the confidence we feel in our works, our knowledge and our will.''
These letters, first published in 1950, make Contarini the first Protestant, the undisputed caposcuola among those in Italy who argued for salvation ex sola fede, and who were called evangelicals, crypto-Protestants, or ``spirituali,'' to whom we will return shortly.
To be continued.





The Role of the Venetian Oligarchy in the Reformation, Counter-Reformation, Enlightenment and the Thirty Years' War -- Part II


by Webster Tarpley
Printed in The American Almanac, April 5, 1993.

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The following speech, which is being presented in the New Federalist in three parts, was delivered on September 6, 1992 at a conference co-sponsored by the Schiller Institute and the Internatinal Caucus of Labor Committees in Northern Virginia.
Let us consider first whether there was any way that the tidings of Contarini's new stress on faith, developed during the Cambrai crisis, might have been transmitted to Germany. There was, in the form of a Venetian Aristotilean network which reached into the court of Frederick the Wise, the Elector of Saxony, who protected Luther from Pope Leo X's extradition demands and from the ban of the empire placed on Luther by Emperor Charles V.



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Mutianus Rufus and Spalatin
Our knowledge of this network begins with the figure of one Conradus Mutianus Rufus, who was in the early 1500s the Kanonikus of the Marienstift in Gotha, a Latin and Greek scholar and cleric who had travelled to Italy during the period 1499-1503, and who had studied in Bologna and visited other cities, including Venice. Mutianus Rufus had been in contact with members of the Signoria: ``I saw Venetian patricians wearing a silken belt which hung down on one side and went around one arm,'' [Briefwechsel des Conradus Mutianus, p. 249] he wrote to a correspondent in 1509. Mutianus came to know Aldus Manutius, the celebrated Venetian publisher of Latin, Greek, and other learned texts (and the target of Erasmus's satire in the hilarious Opulentia Sordida).
With Aldus we are at the heart of the Venetian intelligence networks among the self-styled humanists around 1500. In February 1506, with the Cambrai war clouds on the horizon, Aldus had written to Mutianus's disciple Urbanus: ``I most highly esteem S. Mutianus Rufus because of his learning and humanity and confess myself to be very much in his debt, on the one hand because he constantly speaks well of me, and on the other because he kindly procured for me the friendship of a man decked out with learning and holy ways like you. And therefore if I did not only esteem you and Mutianus and Spalatinus completely as men both learned and well-disposed towards me, but also love you so very much in return, I would be the most ungrateful man of all. But I love you and honor and render you immortal thanks because you have summoned me to this mutual good will.'' [See Briefwechsel, p. 37.]

The other disciple of Mutianus Rufus named here, Spalatinus, is the one we focus on.

Georg Burckhardt was born in the town of Spalt, near Nuremberg, in 1484. His birthplace is an omen, for Burckhardt, or Spalatinus in his humanist name, was destined to play a decisive role, second perhaps only to Luther himself, in the greatest church split [Kirchenspaltung] of recent history. Spalatin, a student at Erfurt, became a protege of Mutianus Rufus in 1504, visiting him in his Gotha office where ``Farewell to cares'' was inscribed on the door. Another of Mutianus's network was Johann Lang of Erfurt, who would shortly reside in an Augustinian monastery alongside a certain Martin Luther, who had studied in Erfurt after 1501 at the same time as Spalatin. [Irmgard Hoess, George Spalatin (Weimar, 1956)]

In 1505, Mutianus Rufus found Spalatin a job at the monastery in Georgenthal, where he was responsible for purchasing books for the library. The orders were made with Aldus Manutius in Venice, with payment by way of the Fugger copper mines in Hohenkirchen. In December 1505, Spalatin wrote to Mutianus to make sure that he included in the order the Castigationes Plinianae, written by Ermolao Barbaro the Younger. Later Spalatin became a personal secretary to the Elector of Saxony, Frederick the Wise, gradually acquiring responsibility for Frederick's prized collection of relics of the saints, and also for the newly founded University of Wittenberg and for its library. Gradually Spalatin became something like a junior minister, responsible for educational and religious affairs.

In 1512, during the Cambrai war, Mutianus and Spalatin received a report that Aldus was on his way to Germany with a cargo of precious Greek and Latin manuscripts; Spalatin wrote to Aldus on March 25, 1512, proposing that Aldus meet with Frederick the Wise for a major book purchase. Was Aldus planning a mission in order to secure strategic help for the Most Serene Republic in Venice's hour of need? Aldus apparently did not make the trip, but in December 1512, Frederick the Wise wrote to Aldus, and Spalatin prepared the Latin text. In 1515, Spalatin placed a new book order for Greek and Latin texts with the Aldus firm.

It is not known exactly when Spalatin met Luther for the first time, but Luther's first extant letter to Spalatin is placed in about February 1514, in the middle of the Thurmerlebnis [tower experience] period. Spalatin had asked Luther's opinion on the controversy over the Hebrew and Talmudic studies of Johannes Reuchlin, whom Frederick was supporting. This began a correspondence, of which 400 of Luther's letters to Spalatin, but only a few of Spalatin's to Luther, have survived. Spalatin appears as Luther's interlocutor in theology (``he influenced Luther very strongly in the direction of clarity,'' says Hoess), but his adviser and indeed his controller in matters of political tactics and strategy. The letters peak in 1521, but continue therafter; ``there is no one in our group whom I would prefer to you,'' wrote Luther to Spalatin on December 12, 1524.

In 1515-16 Luther gave his lecture on salvation through faith alone, although the first written expression of this seems to have been in a letter to Spalatin of October 19, 1516, where he wrote: ``First man must change himself; only then can his works be changed''--a leading idea expressed by Giustinian-Quirini.

In September 1516 Spalatin joined the Kanzelei of Frederick. Here Spalatin acted as Luther's intercessor, especially after he became the confessor to the vacillating and indecisive Frederick in 1517-18. After Luther, on Halloween 1517, had posted his theses on the door of the Wittenberg cathedral, it was Spalatin who convinced Frederick to keep the matter in Saxony, and not permit the case to go to Rome. When Luther went to Heidelberg for a theological debate, Spalatin made sure he had an escort provided by Frederick. In July 1518, Luther was summoned to Rome by the Holy See, and he appealed urgently for help: ``I now need your help most urgently, my Spalatin, and so does the honor of our whole university!'' At the next imperial diet, Cardinal Cajetan asked for money to fight the Turks, only to be answered by a rehearsal of the complaints of the German nation against the Holy See. Here Frederick was able to convince Maximilian to allow Luther's case to stay in Germany. The anti-papal and anti-imperial princely oligarchical party coalesced in support of Luther. This made what Leo X had dismissed as ``a quarrel among monks'' into the Reformation.

Later we find Spalatin unsuccessfully telling the hot-headed Luther to keep a low profile. At one point Luther was requesting that official documents of Saxony be falsely dated to protect him. (Hoess, p. 131) When Luther was called to Augsburg, Spalatin secured an escort, by indirect means.

So sure was Luther of Frederick's support (and Spalatin's influence) that he could write to Cardinal Cajetan on October 18, 1518: ``For I know that I can make myself more agreeable to our most illustrious prince by appealing rather than by recanting.'' (Hoess, p. 136) Later the same autumn, Spalatin, fearing Luther was in danger, warned him to flee, and Luther organized a farewell dinner in his cloister, but a message from Spalatin then arrived telling him that the danger was past, and he could remain. (This puts Luther's ``Hier stehe ich, ich kann nicht anders'' [``Here I stay, I cannot do otherwise''] in a new light.) After Luther had publicly burned Leo X's bull of excommunication in December 1520, Frederick protected him from extradition. Spalatin appealed for and got from Erasmus a statement in support of Luther against Rome. In his response, Erasmus warned that those handling Luther's case on behalf of the Roman curia were in effect acting as provocateurs, seeking to exploit the Luther issue in order to suppress humanistic learning. For Erasmus, humanistic learning was Platonic. There is every indication that Cajetan, Eck, Aleandro, and others acting in the name of Leo X were indeed doing what Erasmus suggested.

Spalatin accompanied Luther to the Diet of Worms in 1521 as his principal handler, spin doctor, and adviser. Here Contarini was also present, though all sources consulted are suspiciously emphatic that Contarini, present as the Venetian ambassador to Charles V, never met personally with Luther, although the two were at the plenary sessions. After Charles V had set the ban of the empire on Luther, Spalatin organized the coup de main which brought Luther into the safety of Frederick's Wartburg Castle. Here Luther's fame and following grew rapidly while he enjoyed immunity; the empire shortly went to war with France in one of the sequelae of Cambrai. Later, Spalatin would go on to become Saxony's chancellor or prime minister.

Were there other channels of Venetian communication between the lagoon and Saxony during this period? There was at least one other, which involved Frederick's hobby of collecting the relics of the saints, a practice Luther condemned as idolatrous.

``Since 1515, a German friar, Burckhard Schenk von Simau, had been a reader in theology at the Franciscan convent of San Nicolo' in Venice. Perhaps because of his kinship with the Ernestine branch of the Saxon ruling line, he had a standing commission from Frederick the Wise to purchase books and relics for the Elector's outstanding collections. One of Schenk's most useful Italian contacts proved to be [Pier Paolo] Vergerio's brother Giacomo, a fellow Franciscan, who told him that the eastern coast of the Adriatic was a rich hunting ground for relics and suggested that younger members of his family might be available to make deliveries to Saxony. Accordingly, in July 1521, Aurelio Vergerio set off on a trip to the domain of Frederick the Wise, only to turn back at Innsbruck on account of illness. Schenk then turned his attention to another member of the Vergerio clan. Writing on October 19, 1521 to Georg Spalatin, the Elector's counsellor, he stated that he had met Pier Paolo [Vergerio], a gifted youth who ranked high among the students of law at Padova [Padua] and was well trained in the humanities. The young Capodistrian, Schenk asserted, was interested in completing his legal studies at Wittenberg. Assuring Spalatin that Vergerio would be a credit to the university, the friar urged that he be strongly recommended to the Elector. Apparently the response from Spalatin was encouraging, for Pier Paolo made preparations to leave for Saxony; he was deterred from starting his journey, however, by reports of an outbreak of plague along the route. By the following summer the invitation had been withdrawn.
``On July 28, 1522, Spalatin informed Schenk that in the light of the recent religious developments in Wittenberg, Frederick the Wise considered it prudent to cease collecting relics. Spalatin added that he could promise nothing further to the Vergerios.'' (Schutte, pp. 30-31.)

According to another account, Spalatin wrote to an unnamed ``Venetian merchant'' at this time:
``I am returning herewith the relics as well as the crucifix, in hopes you will sell them as advantageously as possible, for in Venice they probably cost more and are valued more highly than here. Here the common man is so well instructed that he thinks (and rightly so) that only faith and confidence toward God, and brotherly love, are enough.'' [H.G. Haile, p. 8]


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The Spirituali
Pier Paolo Vergerio of Capodistria attended the University of Padova and married Diana Contarini of the Contarini family in 1526. [Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland, I, p. 14] He later became a papal diplomat and met with Luther in Wittenberg in 1535, during the period of the Smalkaldic League, the Protestant alliance which warred against Charles V in 1546-47. Later, Vergerio was to become an active publicist in the Protestant cause. Vergerio belongs to the group of Spirituali around Contarini.
When Contarini returned in 1525 from his mission with Charles V in Germany, the Low Countries, and Spain, he told the Senate:

``The character and customs of the Germans are close to feral; they are robust and courageous in war; they have little regard for death; they are suspicious but not fraudulent or malicious; they are not sublimely intelligent, but they apply themselves with so much determination and perseverance that they succeed as well in various manual crafts as they do in letters, in which many are now devoting themselves and make great profit.... The forces of Germany, if they were unified, would be very great, but because of the divisions which exist among them, they are only small....'' [Alberi, p. 21]
Venetian publishing and Venetian networks would now be mobilized to guarantee the spread of Lutheranism and its variants all over Germany in order to perpetuate and exacerbate these divisions...


In 1516, a year before Luther's Wittenberg theses, Contarini wrote De Officio Episcopi a treatise of church reform for his friend Lippomanno, who was about to become a bishop. Contarini then, as we have seen, served as Venetian ambassador to Charles V and the Pope. During the early 1530s, Contarini began meeting with a group of patricians who represented the heart of the Italian evangelical or crypto-Protestant movement, and who would launch the Reformation inside the Roman Catholic Church during the pontificate of Paul III Farnese. The meetings were often held in the gardens of Cortese's San Giorgio Maggiore. These were the Spirituali, interested in the writings of Juan Valdez of Spain, who had come to Naples to teach that justification was given to us as God's gratuitous gift. Our responsibility, said Valdez, was to take this Beneficio Cristo given to us through the Holy Spirit and manifested in good works, which were however without merit. Awareness of all this came to Valdez, like Contarini, through ``esperienza.'' Valdez's followers were mainly oligarchs, and his works were published in Venice.

Along with Contarini there were now: Gregorio Cortese, the abbot of the Benedictines of San Giorgio Maggiore; the English emigre Reginald Pole, a member of the former English ruling house of Plantagenet now living at Pietro Bembo's villa (Bembo had changed his lifestyle enough to become Bishop of Bergamo and would become a cardinal); and G.P. Caraffa of Naples, linked to the Oratory of Divine Love in Rome, co-founder of the new Theatine Order and later Pope Paul IV.

Arrayed later around these were the Bishop of Carpentras Jacopo Sadoleto, G.M. Giberti, the spirituale bishop of Verona on Venetian territory, and Cardinal Morone, who presided at the last sessions of the Council of Trent. There was the papal legate Vergerio. Later, through the circle set up by Reginald Pole at Viterbo, Vittoria Colonna and Giulia Gonzaga would come into the picture, joined by Marcantonio Flamminio, Ochino, Vermigli, and others. Vergerio, Ochino, and Vermigli later became apostates, going over to Protestantism.

Many ideas common to this group were expressed in a tract called the Beneficio di Cristo, and were popular among Benedictines. The Beneficio had been written by a Benedictine (Benedetto Fontanino) using Calvin's ``Institutes of the Christian Religion'' of 1539. This Benedetto had been at Cortese's San Giorgio Maggiore around 1534. [Fenlon, chapter 5] With the help of Marcantonio Flamminio, the Beneficio was published in Venice in 1543, and sold 40,000 copies in that city alone.

The Spirituali later tended to separate into two wings: The first were liberal, tolerant, conciliatory, open to dialogue with Protestants, and included especially Pole, Morone, and Vittoria Colonna. Then there were the zelanti, like Caraffa, who tended towards militant and inquisitorial methods, and who came into conflict with Spirituali like Pole and Morone, accusing them of heresy. Contarini had died before this division became pronounced.

Reginald Pole had been sent to Padova by Henry VIII because his claim on the English throne was as good as or better than Henry's: Pole was a Plantagenet. When he joined the general post-Cambrai shift out of Aristotelian letters and into piety, he was influenced by a certain Padre Marco of the Paduan Benedictines of Santa Giustina. Pole was close to the Venetian banker Alvise Priuli. Around 1540, Pole was the governor of Viterbo in the Papal states, where he developed a close relation with Vittoria Colonna of the Roman black nobility. She had been in the Juan Valdez circle and the Oratory of Divine Love. In 1541, her kinsman, Ascanio Colonna, waged civil war against Pope Paul III Farnese but was defeated. Vittoria Colonna was known as a poetess whose ``Rime Spirituali' expressed some of the favorite themes of the pro-Venetian Spirituali. Pole on one occasion advised Vittoria Colonna that she should believe as if salvation depended on faith alone, while acting as if it were dependent on good works as well. Contarini dedicated his treatise on the freedom of the will to Vittoria Colonna. As for Pole, he is important because of his later role in England.



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The English Schism
In 1527, the year of the Sack of Rome, King Henry VIII began to mature his plan to divorce his wife Catharine of Aragon, who had given him a daughter but no son, and to marry the court lady Anne Boleyn. When Pope Clement VII Medici, under occupation by Charles V, refused to grant an annullment, Henry VIII appealed to scholars and universities for their opinions. One such opinion came from the Franciscan Friar Francesco Giorgi, a member of the Venetian Zorzi patrician clan. Giorgi was the author of De Harmonia Mundi (Venice 1525), a mystical work with influences deriving from the Hebrew Cabbala. Giorgi assured Henry VIII that the Biblical text applicable to his situation was Leviticus 18:16, in which marriage between a man and his brother's wife was forbidden. Catharine had been previously married to Henry's brother Arthur. Deuteronomy 25.5-6, in which such a marriage is prescribed, was irrelevant, Giorgi-Zorzi told Henry.
Giorgi, accompanied by the Hebrew scholar Marco Raphael, journeyed to England, where they arrived in 1531; Giorgi remained at the English court until his death in 1540. Giorgi is reputed to have contributed mightily to the initiation of a school of Venetian pseudo-Platonic mysticism in England. This was later called Rosicrucianism, among other names, and influenced such figures as John Dee, Robert Fludd, Sir Philip Sydney, Edmund Spenser, and Sir Francis Bacon. Such were the masonic beginnings of the Venetian Party, which, by the accession of James I, became the dominant force in British life.

Bembo and Pole had their own contacts with cabbalists, but Contarini had the inside track: Giorgi lived in Contarini's immediate neighborhood, and Contarini grew up and went to school with Giorgi's nephews. Later, Contarini and Giorgi became close friends. (Dittrich, p. 456) Giorgi and Raphael were clearly acting for the Signoria and the Council of Ten.

Shortly before the arrival of Giorgi, Thomas Cromwell replaced Cardinal Wolsey as the chief adviser to Henry VIII. Cromwell had all the marks of the Venetian agent. Cromwell had reportedly been a mercenary soldier in Italy during the wars of the early 1500s, and, according to Pole, was at one time the clerk or bookkeeper to a Venetian merchant. One version has Cromwell working for 20 years for a Venetian branch office in Antwerp. This was the man who judicially murdered St. Thomas More, the eminent Erasmian.

``Yet it was apparently at this very time, just after Cardinal Wolsey's fall, that [Cromwell] found means of access to the king's presence and suggested to him that policy of making himself head of the Church of England,''
which would enable him to have his own way in the matter of the divorce and give him other advantages as well. So at least we must suppose from the testimony of Cardinal Pole, writing nine or ten years later. Henry, he tells us, seeing that even Wolsey
``could no longer advance the project [of his divorce], was heard to declare with a sigh that he could prosecute it no longer; and those about him rejoiced for a while in the belief that he would abandon a policy so fraught with danger. But he had scarcely remained two days in this state of mind when a messenger of Satan (whom [Pole] afterwards names as Cromwell) addressed him and blamed the timidity of his councillors in not devising means to gratify his wishes. They were considering the interests of his subjects more than his, and seemed to think princes bound by the same principles as private persons were. But a king was above the laws, as he had the power to change them, and in this case he had the law of God actually in his favor....''
Pole wrote this in a dedicatory epistle to Charles V. [Pole, Epistolae, 113-140] Pole says that Cromwell offered him a copy of Machiavelli's The Prince, which he highly recommended.
``I found this type of book to be written by an enemy of the human race,'' Pole wrote later. ``It explains every means whereby religion, justice, and any inclination toward virtue could be destroyed.'' [Dwyer, p. xxiii]
But The Prince was published years later.
Henry VIII later called on Pole for his opinion on ``the king's great matter.'' Pole responded with a violently provocative tirade designed to goad the paranoid Henry into a homicidal fit. ``I have long been aware that you are afflicted with a serious and most dangerous disease,'' Pole wrote.

``I know that your deeds are the source of all this evil.'' ``The succession of the kingdom is called into doubt for love of a harlot.... Anyone resisting your lies is punished by death. Your miserable apes of sophists talk nonsense.... Your pestilential flatterers.... By the stench of his mind a flatterer happens upon such tricks.'' [ Dwyer, p. xviii]
Pole also revealed to Henry that he had urged Charles V to cease hostilities with the Ottoman Empire, and direct his military might to wiping out Henry's regime. [Dwyer, pp. 271-78] Since Pole could easily have assumed the role of Plantagenet pretender, Henry had to take this very seriously, which added to his mental imbalance. Henry took revenge by executing Pole's mother and brother, who had both stayed behind in England and whose fate Pole had curiously neglected when he sent his challenge to Henry.
The creation and preservation of a Protestant regime in England was one of the principal goals of Venetian policy. Wars between England and France, and between England and Spain, were the essence of Venetian policy. After the death of Henry VIII and the death of his son Edward VI, Pole returned to England as the chief adviser and virtual controller of the Catholic Queen Mary Tudor, known as Bloody Mary. Earlier Pole had been considered a candidate to marry Mary, but now he was a cardinal and papal legate. Mary was wed to Philip II of Spain, creating the possibility of an Anglo-Spanish rapprochement that was highly unacceptable to Venice. Mary's succession was helped by Sir William Cecil, the first Baron Burghley, a Venetian agent who had been a key figure of the last period of Edward VI's reign. Pole, even though he was one of the Spirituali, could be highly inquisitorial when the interests of Venice required slaughter to create religious emnities that would last for centuries: Between 1553 and 1558, Pole and Mary presided over what many British historians claim to be the largest number of politically motivated executions in the history of England. Their claim is dubious, but some 300 persons were burned for heresy, and one Anglican prelate described Pole as ``butcher and scourge of the Anglican church.'' Pole, acting under instructions from Pope Paul IV, also insisted on full restitution of the church lands and property seized by Henry VIII, which would have wiped out a large section of the English nobility. These measures made Mary so unpopular that it was clear that she would not have a Catholic successor. That successor would be Elizabeth, under the dominant influence of Cecil, who had early gone over to the opposition to Bloody Mary Tudor. In his 1551 report to the Venetian Senate, Daniele Barbaro remarked on the religious habits of the English,

``among whom nothing is more inconstant than their decrees on matters of religion, since one day they do one thing and the next day they do another. This feeds the resistance of those who have accepted the new laws, but who find them most offensive, as was seen in the rebellions of 1549. And in truth, if they had a leader, even though they have been most severely punished, there is no doubt that they would rebel again. It is true that the people of London are more disposed than the others to observe what they are commanded, since they are closer to the court.'' [Alberi, series I, volume 2, pp. 242-43]


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The Counter-Reformation
What is called the Catholic Reformation or Counter-Reformation is said to begin with the pontificate of Paul III Farnese. Paul III had studied with the humanist Pomponius Laetus. He had been made cardinal by Alexander VI Borgia, usually seen by church historians as the most reprobate of the Renaissance popes. Because Giulia Farnese had been Alexander VI's mistress at this time, Cardinal Farnese was known as the petticoat cardinal. Paul III had several children of his own, two of whom he made cardinals and governors of provinces controlled by the church. It was Paul III who elevated Contarini, Pole, Sadoleto, and Caraffa and the rest of the Venetian group to the cardinalate. Later, Pietro Bembo, Morone, and other Venetians and Venetian assets followed.
In 1537, Paul III directed Contarini to chair a commission that would develop ways to reform the church. Contarini was joined by Caraffa, Sadoleto, Pole, Giberti, Cortese of San Giorgio Maggiore, plus prelates from Salerno and Brindisi--an overwhelmingly Venetian commission. This was the Consilium de Emendenda Ecclesia. The Contarini commission at the outset sought to identify the cause of the evils and abuses of the church, including simony, multiple benefices, bishops who did not live in their sees, moral failures, sybaritic lifestyles among prelates, and the like. The commission said nothing of oligarchism or usury, but gave all the blame to the excessive power which the Roman pontiffs had arrogated to themselves.

``From this results, even more because adulation always follows the supreme power just as a shadow follows a body, and the path of truth to the ears of the prince was always a very difficult one, that, as the doctors immediately proclaim, who teach that the pope is master of all benefices, on that account, since a master can by law sell what is his, it necessarily follows that the pope cannot be accused of simony, so that the will of the pope, whatever it might be, must be the rule which directs these operations and action. From which it results without doubt that whatever the pope wants is also sanctioned by law. And from this source, as if from a Trojan horse, have come into the church of God so much abuse and such serious sickness, that we now see the church afflicted almost by despair of recovery. The news of these things has reached the unbelievers (as Your Holiness is told by experts) who ridicule the Christian religion chiefly for this reason, to the point that because of us, because of us we say, the name of Christ is blasphemed among the peoples.'' [Concilium Tridentinum, XII, pp. 134-35]
The overall thrust of the document is best summed up in the following two passages:
``We think, Holy Father, that this has to be established before all other things: as Aristotle says in his `Politics', just as in any republic, so in the ecclesiastical governance of the church of Christ, this rule has to be observed before all others: that the laws have to be complied with as much as possible. For we do not think we are permitted to exempt ourselves from these laws, except for an urgent and necessary reason.'' (p. 135, emphasis in original)
Thus, Aristotle was made the guiding light of the ``reform,'' in the document that opened the campaign for the Council of Trent. The leading anti-Aristotelian Platonist of the day did not escape condemnation:
``And since they habitually read the colloquia of Erasmus to children in the schools, in which colloquia there are many things which shape these uncultivated souls towards impiety, therefore the readings of these things and any others of the same type ought to be prohibited in literary classes.'' (p. 141)
Erasmus had broken with Luther very early, despite the maneuvers of Spalatin, and had attacked Luther's ideas of the bondage of the will with a reaffirmation of the Platonic concept of the freedom of the will. Contarini and Pole had both corresponded with Erasmus, and Paul III offered to make him a cardinal on one occasion. The accusation made here is almost identical to Luther's, who had told Erasmus, ``You are not pious!''
The Vatican archives, then and now, contained the detailed reform proposals elaborated by Pius II and Nicolaus of Cusa during the previous century. An honest attempt at reform would have based itself explicitly on these proposals. The reform undertaken by the Contarini commission was going in a very different direction, and some of the works of Pius II were shortly placed on the Index of Prohibited Books.

The Vatican wanted the Contarini commission's report to be kept secret, but it was promptly leaked and published by such diverse sponsors as Vergerio, Luther, and the German Protestant Sturmius; the English version was issued by one Richard Morsyne in 1538.

In 1539, Contarini was instrumental in convincing Paul III to approve the creation of Ignazio de Loyola's Society of Jesus as a holy order. In 1541, Contarini was the papal representative along with Morone at the discussions among Catholics and Protestants in Regensburg, where he proposed a compromise solution on the key issue of justification; on the one hand recognizing a justitia imputata to satisfy the Lutherans, while retaining some role for the justitia inhaerens. The compromise was rejected by both Wittenberg and Rome, and to some it seemed that Contarini had been trying to create a third camp. Contarini died in 1542.

The first session of the Council of Trent was convoked under Paul III, with Pole and Caraffa as members of the committee of cardinals to oversee the proceedings. At the death of Paul III Farnese in 1549, Pole turned out to be the papal candidate of the Emperor Charles V and of the Spirituali. He was assisted by Priuli, the Venetian banker. The anti-Spanish Caraffa was the other homestretch contender, receiving support from the French cardinals led by Guise. At one point, Pole was almost made Pope by imperial acclamation. During one ballot, Pole came within a single vote of a two-thirds majority and thus of Peter's chair. Caraffa turned against Pole during the conclave and accused him of ``certain errors'' in religion; Caraffa claimed that Pole had maintained ``a platoon of heretics and of highly suspect persons'' in his home in Viterbo. Guise accused Pole of leaving the Council of Trent in order to avoid a debate on justification.




The Role of the Venetian Oligarchy in the Reformation, Counter-Reformation, Enlightenment and the Thirty Years' War -- Part III


by Webster Tarpley
Printed in The American Almanac, April 12, 1993.

The following speech, which is being presented in the New Federalist in three parts, was delivered on September 6, 1992 at a conference co-sponsored by the Schiller Institute and the International Caucus of Labor Committees in Northern Virginia.
Let us sample the epistemology of the giovani, using Sarpi and his precursor Paolo Paruta. The giovani were skeptics, full of contempt for man and for human reason. Sarpi admired the French essayist Michel de Montaigne, who had been educated by a father who had been in Italy as a soldier and probably imbibed Venetian teachings; Montaigne himself had made the pilgrimage to Venice. Sarpi agreed with Montaigne that man was the most imperfect of animals.
Sarpi was a precursor of Bentham's hedonistic calculus. Man was a creature of appetites, and these were insatiable, especially the libido dominandi.

``We are always acquiring happiness, we have never acquired it and never will,''
wrote Sarpi. [Pensiero 250]
Paruta had been an empiricist:

``Although our intellect may be divine from its birth, nevertheless here below it lives among these earthly members and cannot perform its operations without the help of bodily sensation. By their means, drawing into the mind the images of material things, it represents these things to itself and in this way forms its concepts of them. By the same token it customarily rises to spiritual contemplations not by itself but awakened by sense objects.'' [Bouwsma, p. 206]
Sarpi was an empiricist:
``There are four modes of philosophizing: the first with reason alone, the second with sense alone, the third with reason and then sense, and the fourth beginning with sense and ending with reason. The first is the worst, because from it we know what we would like to be, not what is. The third is bad because we many times distort what is into what we would like, rather than adjusting what we would like to what is. The second is true but crude, permitting us to know little and that rather of things than of their causes. The fourth is the best we can have in this miserable life. (Scritti filosofici e teologici, Bari: Laterza, 1951, Pensiero 146)
That is Francis Bacon's inductive method. Bacon's ideas about inductive method were taken from the Arte di ben pensare and other Sarpi writings.
For Sarpi, experience means the perception of physical objects by the senses. For Sarpi there are no true universals: ``Essence and universality are works of the mind,'' he wrote disparagingly. [Pensiero 371] Sarpi was brought up on Duns Scotus and William of Ockham.

Sarpi was also a pragmatist, arguing that ``we despise knowledge of things of which we have no need.'' [Pensiero 289]

Sarpi was also a cultural relativist, and a precursor of David Hume: Every culture has its own idea of order, he said, and ``therefore the republics, the buildings, the politics of the Tartars and the Indians are different.'' [Pensiero 159].

With Paolo Paruta, we already have the economic man enshrined in the myths of Adam Smith:

``The desire to grow rich is as natural in us as the desire to live. Nature provides the brute animals with the things necessary for their lives; but in man, whom it makes poor, naked, and subject to many needs, it inserts this desire for riches and gives him intelligence and industry to acquire them.'' [Bouwsma, p. 211]
A speaker in Paruta's dialogues expresses the views of the Physiocrats, saying that wealth derived from farming and grazing is ``more true and natural'' than other forms. [Bouwsma, p. 212]
Paruta's treatment of the fall of the Roman empire appears to be the starting point for Gibbon:

``This stupendous apparatus, constructed over a long course of years through the great virtue and the many exertions of so many valorous men, had finally run the course common to human things, that is to be dissolved and to fall to earth; and with its ruin it brought on the greatest revolution in things.'' [Bouwsma, p. 283]
In religion, Sarpi and his right-hand man, Fulgenzio Micanzio, were very much Spirituali on the ex sola fede line of justification. A papal nuncio assigned to surveil the two wrote that Fulgenzio ``greatly exalts faith in the blood of Christ and the grace of God for our salvation, and leaves out or rarely refers to works.'' [Bouwsma, p. 498]
Sarpi sounds very much like Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, and Hume. This is no surprise, since Sarpi and Micanzio were in close contact with Hobbes and Bacon, sometimes directly, and sometimes through the intermediary of William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire, a friend of Francis Bacon and the employer of Thomas Hobbes. Bacon was of course a raving irrationalist, a Venetian-style Rosicrucian, and a bugger. Cavendish may have introduced Bacon to Hobbes, who soon became a couple. In Chatsworth House in Cornwall there is a manuscript entitled ``Hobbes' Translations of Italian Letters,'' containing 77 missives from Micanzio to the Earl (called ``Candiscio''). According to Dudley Carleton, Cavendish visited Venice and Padova in September 1614, accompanied by Hobbes. At that time meetings with Sarpi and Micanzio would have been on the agenda. [De Mas, p. 155]




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Venice and England
The contacts between Venice and England during the period around 1600 were so dense as to constitute an ``Anglo-Venetian coalition,'' as Enrico De Mas asserts. The son of the Venetian agent William Cecil (Bacon's uncle) was Robert Cecil, who visited Venice shortly after 1600. Bacon himself was attorney general and lord chancellor for King James I. English ambassadors like Dudley Carleton and Sir Henry Wotton were also important intermediaries. Bacon was also in frequent contact by letter with the Venetian senator and patrician Domenico Molino. Bacon knew Italian because his mother had been active as the translator of the writings of Italian heretics. [De Mas, p. 156] Fulgenzio Micanzio was literary agent for Bacon in Venice, arranging for the translation and publication of his writings.
One letter in Latin from Bacon to Micanzio has been located; here Bacon discusses a plan for a Latin edition of his complete works. Another translator of Bacon was the Archbishop of Spalato and Venetian agent Marcantonio de Dominis, who turned against Rome and stayed for some time as an honored guest of the English court before returning to Rome. There was a Bacon cult among the Venetian nobility in those years, and Venice led all Italian cities in the number of editions of Bacon's works.

As for Sarpi, his History of the Council of Trent was first published in English in London in an edition dedicated to King James I, and translated by Nathaniel Brent.

Towards the end of the sixteenth century, Spain was showing signs of economic decline, and was attempting to retrench on her military commitments. Spain made peace with France in 1598, with England in 1604, and, after decades of warfare, began to negotiate with the Dutch. Spain also started peace talks with the Ottoman Empire. The Venice of the giovani was horrified by the apparent winding down of the wars of religion. Especially the Spanish truce with the Dutch was viewed with alarm by the Venetians, since this would free up veteran Spanish troops who could be used in a war against Venice. After taking over Venice in 1582, the giovani had favored a more aggressive policy against the papacy and the Hapsburgs. After 1600, Venice passed laws that made it harder for the church to own Venetian land and dispose of it; this was followed by the arrest of two priests by the civil authorities. Pope Paul V Borghese responded on profile by declaring Venice under the papal interdict, which remained in force for almost a year, well into 1607.

The use of the papal interdict against a nominally Catholic country caused a sensation in the Protestant world, where tremendous sympathy for Venice was generated by an avalanche of propaganda writings, above all those of Sarpi himself. The Jesuit Bellarmine and others wrote for the papacy in this pamphlet war. Bellarmine puffed the pope as the arbiter mundi, the court of last resort in world affairs. Sarpi, who was an official of the Venetian regime, soon became the idol of the libertines and freethinkers everywhere, and was soon one of the most famous and most controversial persons in Europe. In the end, the Vatican was obliged to remove the interdict without securing any expression of penitence or regret; the Venetian government released the two clerics to a French cardinal who had undertaken a mediation, and the French gave the clerics back to the pope.

Lutherans and Calvinists cheered Venice, which appeared to have checked the inexorable advance of the Counter-Reformation. Much was made of national sovereignty, which the Venetians said they were defending against the pope in the name of all nations.



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Venice and James I
French Gallicans and Huguenots, Swiss and Dutch Calvinists were for Venice, but none supported Venice more than the degenerate King of England, James I. James was the pedantic pederast who claimed that he got his divine right directly from God, and not by way of the pope. James was delighted with Sarpi's arguments, and with their seeming victory. Venice, by asserting an independent Catholic Church under state control during the interdict, also appeared to be following the example of Henry VIII and the Anglican (or Anglo-Catholic) Church.
Sir Henry Wotton advanced the idea of a Protestant alliance encompassing England, Venice, the Grisons (the Graubuenden or Gray league of the Valtellina region in the Swiss Alps, sought by Spain as a land route between Austria and Milan), Holland, and the Protestant princes of Germany. The former Calvinist King Henry IV of France might be won for such a league, some thought. The Doge Leonardo Dona' of the giovani group even threatened indirectly to lead Venice into apostasy and heresy. ``You must warn the Pope not to drive us into despair,'' he told the papal nuncio, ``because we would then act like desperate men!'' Sir Henry Wotton took this literally, and included in his alliance proposals plans to get Venice to go Protestant. He forwarded this to London where it was marked in the margin ``The Project of Venice, 1608'' by Robert Cecil. This was the Cecil who, as David Cherry has shown, staged Guy Fawkes' Gunpowder Plot, an alleged Catholic attempt to blow up the king and the Houses of Parliament, in order to guarantee that James would be suitably hostile to Rome and Spain. The project included a plan for James to become the supreme commander of the Protestant world in a war against the pope. This was clearly a line that Sarpi and company sought to feed to the megalomaniac James I. As part of the scheme, Charles Diodati, one of the Italian Spirituali who had fled to Geneva, was brought to Venice to preach. But later Sarpi and the Venetians found reason to be bitterly disappointed with the refusal of James I and Charles I massively to intervene on the European continent.

During this period, according to one account, an emissary of the Elector of the Palatinate reported that he had been taken by the English ambassador to Venice to visit a Calvinist Congregation of more than 1,000 people in Venice, including 300 of the top patricians, of which Sarpi was the leader. Sarpi invited the German Protestants to come to the aid of Venice in case of war, for in defending Venetian territory they would be helping the Protestant cause as well. [Scelte Lettere Inedite di Fra Paolo Sarpi, (Capolago, Canton Ticino: Tipografia e Libreria Elvetica, 1833, pp. cxi-cxii]



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The Roots of War
In reality, the Venetians used the conflict around the Interdict to inflame the religious passions of Europe so as to set the stage for a revival of the wars of religion. The seventeenth century would thus repeat the hecatomb of the sixteenth on an even vaster scale. The Venetian gambit of a clash with the Vatican set the stage for the Thirty Years' War.
The grand design Sarpi peddled to Protestants called for an apocalyptic war between Catholics and Protestants with the latter led by James I and the Dutch United Provinces. In a battle between Venice and the papal states, foreign Protestant armies would fight on Venetian soil, making possible the religious conversion of the terra ferma (Bergamo, Brescia, Verona, Vicenza, etc.) to some sort of Calvinism. [Cozzi, pp. 265-68] At a deeper level, Venice wanted a catastrophic general war in Europe from which Venice could hold aloof, thus surviving at least until the process of the metastasis of the fondi into northern Europe could be completed--until the time, say, of the founding of the Bank of England at the end of the 1600s. Beyond that, the oligarchs would seek to preserve the Rialto as a cultural and ideological center. But the survival of the withered mummy of Venice for a century or two would be possible only if all the other European powers were throughly devastated.

It is remarkable to observe how many of the key protagonists who detonated the Thirty Years' War can be identified as Venetian agents.

During the Interdict battle, Sarpi's intelligence agencies went into action to create the preconditions for such a war, not in Italy, but beyond the Alps in Germany. The first step was to organize Germany into two armed camps, similar to the pre-1914 or post-1945 European military blocs. First came the creation of the Protestant Union of 1608, helped by the crushing of the free city of Donauwoerth by the Counter-Reformation under Maximilian I of Bavaria.

The Protestant Union was organized by Prince Christian of Anhalt, the senior adviser to the Elector Palatine. Christian of Anhalt was a vital node of Paolo Sarpi's network, and in the 1870s the Archives of the German city of Bernburg contained a correspondence between Christian and Sarpi. [Julius Krebs, p. 45]

When Christian von Anhalt created the Protestant Union, he sent one Christoph von Dona (or Dohna) to talk to Sarpi in Venice about the entry of Venice into this alliance. Christoph von Dona and his brother Achatius von Dona kept up a correspondence with Paolo Sarpi in their own right [Cozzi, p. 245, 258].

In August 1608, Christoph von Dona met with Sarpi in Venice, and Sarpi told Dona about the measures taken by the giovani in 1582 to ``correct'' the functions of the Council of Ten and its subcommittee of three (Zonta), which up until that time had constituted a factional stronghold of the adversaries of the giovani, who were called the Vecchi (old) and who favored a more conciliatory line towards Spain and the papacy. The Ten had been accused, Sarpi told Christoph von Dona, of being arrogant, and of usurping the main functions of the government, including foreign policy, from the senate, or Pregadi.

The Venetian diplomatic corps was mobilized to exploit the Interdict to create the Protestant Union. The papal nuncio in Paris reported on March 3, 1609 to Pope Paul V on the activities of the Venetian ambassador, Antonio Foscarini, a close associate of Sarpi: ``From the first day that he came here, he has always comported himself in the same way: His most confidential dealings are with the agents of various German Protestants, with the Dutch, with the English ambassador and with two or three French Huguenots, who can be considered his houseguests. His business has been to attempt to impede in any way possible any peace or truce in Flanders.... In addition to these fine projects, he has been in a big rush to set up this league of Protestants in Germany, and although he has not been able to do much in this direction, in any case I am sure that if he can contribute to this, he'll do it.'' [Federico Seneca, La Politica Veneziana Dopo L'Interdetto, Padova, 1957., pp. 21-22]

Within a year of the creation of the Protestant Union in 1608, a Catholic League was formed under the aegis of Maximilian of Bavaria with Spanish support. The conflagration was set.

Academic accounts of the Thirty Years' War often stress the conflict over the succession in Juelich-Cleves (around Duesseldorf) after 1609, which embroiled the Dutch and the Protestants against the imperial Catholics. Some accounts portray Henry IV of France as eager to attack the Hapsburgs in Milan and on the Rhine during 1610, just before Henry IV was assassinated by the alleged Catholic fanatic Ravaillac, who accused Henry IV of being a threat to the Catholic Church. According to other accounts, Henry IV ``had decided to reveal to the pope and to the Venetian Republic what was being plotted in Venice by Sarpi, or at least by those who were moving around him.'' [Cozzi, p. 257]

From Venice, Giovanni Diodati wrote to his friend Philippe Duplessis Mornay telling him of the ``petite eglise reformee'' (small reformed church) there. Diodati added that ``the English minister and ambassador [William Bedell, Wotton's secretary] has been very helpful.'' This letter was intercepted by Henry IV of France, who passed it to the papal nuncio, who sent it on to Rome and to the Venetian government. Sarpi was soon aware of what had happened. Writing to Christoph von Dohna on 29 September 1608, Sarpi complained, ``The King of France has written that Venice is in favor of religion, and he has played a very bad role.'' ``How did it happen that that great principle was put to sleep?'' he wrote to another correspondent that summer, referring to the French mediation of the Interdict crisis; ``that is also the reason why it is impossible to incite others.'' [Cozzi, p. 259] Sarpi's animus against Henry IV suggests that the superficial explanation of Henry's assassination in 1610 may not be the correct one. In any case, Henry's death increased the tensions among the German Protestant leaders, since they had now been deprived of their protector. Henry's death meant that France, a power Venice ultimately hated and feared just as much as Spain, would be plunged again into the internal conflicts epitomized by the St. Bartholomew's massacre of 20,000 Huguenots in 1572; Pope Gregory XIII had called those killings ``more agreeable than fifty Lepantos.'' [R.R. Palmer, p. 106] In the 1600s this civil strife was called the Fronde, and it would be decades before the Fronde was suppressed to the point that France was capable of international action once again.



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The Thirty Years' War
In 1615, the Venetians started a border war with Austria, called the Guerra Arciducale. This was the signal that something big was coming. The Austrian Hapsburgs, in order to defend their frontier with the Ottoman Empire, employed a force of refugees from the Balkans called uzkoks (``uzkok'' is the Serbian word for refugees). Uzkoks settled in Segna and some other ports of the eastern Adriatic where they operated as corsairs against Turkish shipping, and also against the Venetians. The uzkoks, through their depradations and through the cost of measures undertaken against them, were depleting the Venetian treasury. So in December 1615, Venetian land forces crossed the Isonzo River and laid siege to Gradisca. Count John Ernest of Nassau-Siegen raised forces totaling 5,000 men in the Dutch Republic to assist the Venetians; ten English and twelve Dutch warships maintained a blockade of the Adriatic against any ships from Spain or Naples which might have sought to aid their Austrian Hapsburg allies. But Spanish forces did reach the front, forcing the Venetians to accept a negotiated peace. A recent study highlights the significance of this Venetian-staged conflict in the runup to the general conflagration:
``The uzkok war was one of the more bizarre episodes of the earlier seventeenth century, yet it offered an alarming example of how a minor political conflict in a remote corner of Europe could threaten to engulf the whole continent with war.... The uzkok war, although apparently minor, was important because it brought a general European conflict perceptibly nearer. On the diplomatic plane, it cemented or occasioned alliances that favored aggression.'' [ Parker, pp. 40, 42]
In the spring of 1618, executions in Venice were attributed to the discovery by the Council of Ten of an alleged Spanish plot to overthrow the Venetian regime. Some skeptical historians consider that this was a cover story for a Venetian intrigue in which the Spanish governor of Naples, Osuna, was to declare himself independent under Venetian auspices. [Carl J. Friedrichs, p. 151]
The immediate detonator for the Thirty Years' War is usually considered to be the revolt of the Bohemian nobles against the new Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, who was also the King of Bohemia. Under Rudolph II, the previous emperor, the Bohemian nobles had been granted the Letter of Majesty of 1609 which guaranteed them their religious self-determination (ignoring the cuius regio eius religio) and the right to elect their own king. The Bohemians, many of whom were Calvinists, Hussites, and Utraquists, feared that Ferdinand would introduce the militant Counter-Reformation into Bohemia. There followed the celebrated defenestration of Prague of 1618, in which two representatives of Ferdinand were thrown out of the window by a group of Bohemian nobles organized by the Count of Thurn. When Ferdinand sent troops to restore his authority, the Bohemian nobles deposed him and decided to elect a new king. They chose Frederick V, the Elector Palatine, who had his court in Heidelberg, and who, as we have seen, counted Christian von Anhalt and Christoph von Dona among his most trusted advisers. When the Electoral Palatine, now styling himself King Frederick of Bohemia, was routed at the battle of the White Mountain in 1620, he went into the history books as the ``unlucky Winter King.'' Let us attempt further to reveal the fine Venetian hand behind these events, which are the opening rounds of the Thirty Years' War.

The key figure among the Bohemians is the Count Heinrich Mathias of Thurn-Valsassina (1567-1633). This is the senior branch of the family, originally from Venetian territory, which is otherwise known as della Torre, Torre e Tasso, and later as Thurn und Taxis. Thurn's parents had become Protestants, but he entered the imperial army and fought during a campaign against the Ottoman Empire. As a reward he had gotten the important post of Burggraf of Marlstein in Bohemia. Here Thurn built a base among the local nobility, including especially the branch of the Hussites known as the Utraquists. His announced program was the maintenance of Bohemian liberties for these nobles. Heinrich Mathias von Thurn demanded and got the Letter of Majesty, which soon turned into the apple of Bohemian discord. He was named to a special committee of 30 Defenders of the Faith in Prague. He was vehemently opposed to the election of Ferdinand as Holy Roman Emperor, and Ferdinand responded by attempting to oust Thurn as Burggraf, within the framework of other anti-Protestant measures. Thurn then incited the Bohemians to rebel, and this led directly to the defenestration of Prague of May 23, 1618. In the face of Ferdinand's military response, Thurn was made the commander of the Bohemian armed forces. He had captured some of the suburbs of Vienna when he was forced to retreat. During the campaign leading up to the rout at the White Mountain, Thurn was constantly disputing with the Palatine Elector's generals about who was in command. After the rout, he made his career as a general in later phases of the war. [Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, XLV, pp. 104-06]

Finally, let us look at Frederick V the Elector Palatine himself. The future Winter King, a Calvinist, had married Elizabeth, the daughter of King James I of England, and the English presence at the Palatine court in Heidelberg was associated with the same sorts of cultist kookery we have observed in the cases of Zorzi and Bacon. Rosicrucians in particular were heavily present at the electoral Palatine court. One of them was the English irrationalist and freemason Robert Fludd, whose lengthy treatise on universal harmony, the Utriusque cosmi historia was published on the Palatine city of Oppenheim in 1617-19. During the course of the Thirty Years' War, after Frederick had been deposed by the Catholic forces, parts of the Heidelberg library, the Bibliotheca Palatina, were confiscated by the Inquisition and moved to Rome. [Yates, pp. 169-171] Frederick was not the only one infected by the Rosicrucian bacillus in these years in which the saga of ``Christian Rosenkreuz first appeared in Germany. One of Fludd's friends was a certain German Rosicrucian alchemist named Michael Maier, who was reputed to be close to the Hapsburg Emperor Rudolph II. [See Serge Hutin, Histoire des Rose-Croix, p. 125]

Such Venetian-Rosicrucian irrationalism may provide the key to the Winter King's legendary mental lability and failures of strategic planning. We must also remember that the Elector was constantly controlled and advised by Sarpi's friends Christian von Anhalt and Christoph von Dona. Christian was notorious for his adventurism and brinksmanship; one German account of these events speaks of ``Anhalt's crazy plans''; these included the ambitious project of wiping out the House of Hapsburg and making Frederick Holy Roman Emperor, a thoroughly utopian undertaking. Frederick V was encouraged to believe that with the aid of a few troops from Venetian-allied Savoy, plus the Bohemians, and support from a few other German states, he could break the Spanish-Austrian-Catholic hold on central Europe.

In August-September 1619, Frederick vacillated over whether or not to accept the Bohemian crown offered to him by Thurn and his cohorts. Bohemia was prime Hapsburg territory, and it was clear that Frederick could not keep Prague without some serious fighting. Some advisers wrote position papers for Frederick warning him not to take the crown, saying that ``acceptance would begin a general religious war.'' [Parker, p. 55] But Christian von Anhalt and his friend Camerarius answered that such a war was inevitable anyway as soon as the twelve years' truce between the Spanish and the Dutch ran out. The Sarpi networks were fully mobilized; Dudley Carleton, the Anglo-Venetian representative of James I in the Hague, wrote in September 1619 that ``this business in Bohemia is like to put all Christendom into combustion.''

Frederick accepted the Bohemian crown, rushed to Prague, and then found himself in a hopelessly exposed position. After the White Mountain, he never stopped retreating; he failed to rally the Palatinate for a war of self-defense, and was permanently ousted. The death of Gustavus Adolphus some years later closed the books on Frederick V's hopes of being restored in the Palatinate.

The Thirty Years' War, which extirpated about half of the population of Germany between 1618 and 1648, is thus exposed as a piece of utopian-geopolitical tinkering from the satanic cell around Fra Paolo Sarpi.



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More on Bacon
Even after he was ousted from all his court posts in the wake of confessed bribery and corruption, Francis Bacon remained a loyal Venetian agent. In about 1624, Bacon addressed a memorandum to the new King Charles I in which he urged that England declare war on Spain in order to help restore the Elector Palatine (and Charles's sister) in Heidelberg. The alliance proposed by Bacon was to include new variations on the usual Paoli Sarpi constellation: France, Navarre, Naples, Milan, Grisons, Savoy, Bavaria, the Protestant leader Gabor of Transylvania, and now even Persia, which was attempting to seize the straits of Hormuz. Bacon stressed the Venetian contribution:
``It is within every man's observation also that Venice doth think their state almost unfixed if the Spaniards hold the Valtoline.'' [Bacon, Considerations Touching a War...]
Sarpi had many English admirers; one was Izaak Walton, the author of the famous Compleat Angler. Another was John Milton, who had repeated praise for Fra Paolo. Milton called Sarpi ``Padre Paolo the great unmasker of the Tridentine Council,'' ``Padre Paolo the great Venetian antagonist of the Pope,'' and ``the great and learned Padre Paolo.'' Indeed, a whole passage in Milton's famous ``Areopagitica,'' the one dealing with the Council of Trent, closely follows Sarpi's account.
Ludwig Dehio and other historians have pointed out that the characteristic Venetian methods of strategy were also typical of the later English and British colonialism. It was the Venetian asset and architect of the English religious schism, Thomas Cromwell, who wrote, ``this realm of England is an empire.'' Gaining strength under James I, the Venetian party acted out its imperialist impulse during the Stuart and Cromwell periods, and most obviously under the post-1688 oligarchical system. [See Graham Lowry, How the Nation was Won] Thus it is that the Venetian methods that were used deliberately to provoke the wars of religion of the sixteenth century, and later the Thirty Years' War itself, can be discerned in the global strategic commitments of today's British oligarchy tending to unleash a global cataclysm, a bellum omnium contra omnes (war of each against all) which no nation and no people could seriously hope to survive.

The ascendancy of Venice after 1200 was instrumental in precipitating the near-collapse of European civilization between about 1250 and 1400. Later, the combined effect of the Venice-sponsored Protestant Reformation and the Venice-sponsored Counter-Reformation was to visit upon Europe the renewed horrors of 1520-1648, to which the British historian Trevor-Roper has referred under the heading of the ``little Dark Age.'' Today the shadows of another such nightmare epoch lengthen over the ruined economies, gutted cities and ethnic conflicts of the late twentieth century. Those wishing to survive must learn to defend themselves from the Anglo-Venetian hecatomb now looming.



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Bibliography
See the published and unpublished works of Al and Rachel Douglas, Graham Lowry, David Cherry, and Pietro Cicconi.

Eugenio Alberi (ed.), Le Relazioni degli ambasciatori veneti al Senato durante il secolo decimosesto (Firenze, 1853).

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (Leipzig, 1876), for Christian von Anhalt and Frederick V Elector of the Palatinate.

Aurelius Augustinus, On Faith and Works, ed. Gregory J. Lombado (New York: Newman Press, 1988).

Aurelius Augustinus, The Teacher, Thre Free Choice of the Will, Grace and Free Will, trans. by Robert P. Russell (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1968).

Theobald Beer, ``Der Froeliche Wechsel und Streit'' (Einsiedeln: Johannes Verlag, 1980).

Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums (Vienna, 1882).

Bouwsma, Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty (Berkeley, 1968).

Horatio Brown, The Venetian Republic (London, 1902).

Concilium Tridentinum (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1901).

Cozzi, Paolo Sarpi fra Venezia e l'Europa (Torino, Einaudi, 1978).

Dictionary of National Biography

(London, 1921). Franz Dittrich, Gasparo Contarini 1483-1542 (Nieuwkoop, 1972).

Stephan Ehses, ``Der Reformentwurf des Kardinals Nikolaus Cusanus,'' in Historisches Jahrbuch, XXXII, 1911, pp. 274-97.

Enrico De Mas, Sovranita' politica e unita' cristi






How The Venetians Took Over England and Created Freemasonry

Conference Address by Gerald Rose, Schiller Institute Conference, September, 1993

Printed in The American Almanac, November 29, 1993

Gerry Rose is a member of the editorial board of Executive Intelligence Review magazine and the International Caucus of Labor Committees' executive committee. He spoke on September 5, 1993.


I had become increasingly interested for many years, beginning with my research into the American Revolution, as to why England seemed to be the source of such evil. This is not only on the level of geopolitics and the unbelievable savagery that the British Empire carried out in its usury and slavery, but also on the level of culture. The British creation of Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, and Hume, leading to the outright Satanism of Bertrand Russell, Aldous Huxley, Aleister Crowley, etc. underscores the motivation that created the British Empire. As you look deeper, there is no doubt that the New Age issued from England. This includes emphatically the creation of the Jacobins at the hands of Lord Shelburne and the creation of communism--with its twin evil, fascism--at the British Foreign Office by Lord Palmerston and in his collaboration with Giuseppe Mazzini.

The stated goal of the New Age is the destruction of monotheistic religion and a return to outright paganism. Freemasonry is the instrument created to carry out this return to paganism. It is the Venetian takeover of England and its creation of Freemasonry that is our subject today.

I think it is important here, to reference the prime satanic evil that Venice really is. There are two works of art which deal most effectively with the methods of Venice. They are The Jew of Malta by Christopher Marlowe and The Ghostseer by Friedrich Schiller.

In both masterpieces, we see a portrait of pure evil, where there is no right or wrong, just corruption. The key to this is Aristotle, and it should not come as any surprise that it was the University of Padua, run by Venice, that trained the elite of Venice explicitly in Aristotle. Aristotle rejects Plato's method of successive approximations of perfection, which bring one closer to the Creator. For Aristotle, the Creator has nothing to do with the unfolding of the universe and the continuing creation. For Aristotle, man's progress is a mere illusion and we are always infinitely far from the Creator.

For Aristotle, there is no right or wrong, because there is no knowable truth. For Aristotle, there is only ethics but no morality, and ethics is only a matter of convention. In The Ghostseer Schiller captures this in the most profound way. He shows that the essence of Venice is that it is always on both sides of every issue--but the essence of its method is corruption: Find the adversary's weakness, and then corrupt him.

This is Satanic. It is evil for evil's sake. Its method is to degrade humanity and take delight in that. We will recount how this Venetian evil took over England and created the New Age.



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Cultural Warfare
How did the ``New Age'' come into existence? This story will be told today. Further, we will achieve a most startling result: We will learn that what we call modern scientific method is basically occult belief created by Freemasonry to destroy the work of Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa. It was the Venetian creation of Freemasonry that imposed upon science a radical split between the science of the Spirit which is theology and the science of matter. As you will learn, this is literally gnostic. This is not an epithet; it is quite literally true. Our major problem looking at this period is that we are trying to track two secret societies, both the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons. If you were Sherlock Holmes you would never find them. If they were careful, they would leave contradictory clues and you would never be able to reach a conclusion as to who they are, using traditional empiricist methods.
How do you proceed? you must use the method of the Necessary Existent.

What do I mean by that? We must proceed from what we know to be the case.

What do we know about all warfare? Ninety percent is cultural and only 10 percent is physical.

And the key is culture. Analyze the culture and no matter what name a thing is given, you will never be fooled.

It is on the level of culture that our enemy must drop his guard. He is not that bright and when Satan is forced out on the level of culture, he is scared. As we can document, after the initial debates with Lyndon LaRouche on the question of economics, these cultists never dared debate him again. They are, as Satan is, primarily frauds.

We will focus intensively on the Venetian takeover of England, for it was England that had the misfortune of becoming the new Venice and where Freemasonry was to establish itself.

At our conference a year ago, Webster Tarpley presented the documentation showing how Venice created the Reformation and the Counterreformation in order to implement the New Age [published in a longer version in New Federalist in three installments, March 22, April 5, April 12, 1992]. It is important to state this, because any competent approach must focus on the cultural climate as the basis on which any intelligence operation can be run. It is prima facie imcompetent to believe that history is run by assassinations and gossip, without first accounting for what are the cultural paradigms which are being fought out.

Now to our story.



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The Venetian Reformers
After the League of Cambrai almost destroyed Venice in 1509-13, Gasparo Contarini, from one of the leading noble families in Venice created a grouping, later known as ``I Spirituali,'' that decided that the hedonism that had overcome the Venetian ruling families would have to change. Contarini was able to create a a group of ``reformers'' that created all the essentials of protestantism while remaining nominally within the Catholic Church. Gasparo Contarini was trained by Pietro Pomponazzi, the leading Aristotelian at the University of Padua. Under the guise of Christian piety, Contarini led a dramatic return to Aristotle within the Catholic Church. It was Contarini who set up the commission that led to the Council of Trent, which was to prosecute the war against the Reformation, while on the other side, as Webster documents, Contarini and his associates created Luther. What was the purpose of this?
From a limited standpoint it was clear that the very existence of the Catholic Church and a powerful Spain would always threaten a Venice whose naval power was formidable, but whose ability to defend itself on land was very limited because of its size. As the Venetians saw in the League of Cambrai, the very existence of these institutions was a threat to Venice.

Yet, on a deeper level, something much more devastating was going on. As LaRouche pointed out in his paper ``On the Subject of God,'' the abiding commitment to Aristotelianism stemmed from an oligarchical outlook of tremendous contempt for humankind as imago viva Dei. Aristotelianism is an oligarchical disease. It was Christianity that asserted that all men were in the image of God, which represented a mortal threat to the Venetian oligarchy. They believed themeselves to be the ``Gods of Olympus'' and who thought themselves above God's law. Indeed they considered themselves the creators of the law. They hated Christianity and the Renaissance's reassertion of this idea, in a profoundly personal way.

We could develop this more if there were more time. I wanted to reference it because freemasonry and the New Age are a Venetian attempt to wipe Christianity from the face of the earth.



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Venice Invades England
It is not an accident that Venice focused much of its attention on England.
The Venetians said it themselves. In the Venetian ambassadors' reports to the Venetian Senate, which are now public, England was the key to the destruction of Spain. One report outlines that Flanders and the Netherlands were the workshop of the Spanish Empire. If you could control the English Channel, then you could break the Spanish sea route to the Netherlands and weaken Spain irrevocably. It is uncanny how accurate the Venetian report on this is. It is in fact exactly what happens during the Thirty Years' War.

I believe this story begins with the break of Henry VIII from continental Europe with his setting up of the Anglican Church. This cataclysm in English history set up the basis for religious warfare that was to rip England apart for centuries.

It was the hope of the Renaissance men such as Erasmus and Colet and emphatically Sir Thomas More that England would become an island of great learning and a benefit to all mankind. Erasmus dedicated his Enchiridion of the Militant Christian to England's Henry VIII, just as he dedicated his Education of a Christian Prince to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

The Venetians were not to allow this. Venice's big concern ever since the League of Cambrai almost wiped them out was to assure that Spain was never to have a league with France and England again. The papacy had some interest in this, because the contest between France and Spain tended to be fought out on Italian soil. I state this because the papacy was among the first to form the League of Cambrai and declare a war on Venice. The league came within an inch of crushing them forever, yet the papacy was the first to break ranks and conclude a peace with Venice. If we look at English diplomacy during the League of Cambrai, when Spain went into the league, so too, did England join. When the alliance broke down, and Spain had a quarrel with France, Henry immediately declared war on France. The obvious point is that, as long as Henry VIII was married to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of the Spanish king, the ability to manipulate Henry against Spain was greatly diminished. This came to a head after the Sack of Rome. At the Battle of Pavia in 1525, the French troops were so badly defeated by Charles V, that the French king was seized and held for ransom.

Venice panicked. Besides the fact that a victorious Spanish army was on Italian soil, the French, who were critical to the Venetian balance of power against Spain, had just fallen apart. This was the year 1525. From the Venetian standpoint, England had to break with Spain.

There was only one way to do that: Henry had to be induced to divorce Catherine. The pretext for divorce was to be Catherine's failure to produce a male heir. Clearly Henry was driven mad by this adventure if he were not mad already. There were ways that Henry could have resolved this matter peaceably without a divorce or a break with Rome. One way--it was suggested even by Henry--was to legitimize his bastard son so that this offspring could have been his rightful heir. This, by the way, had been sanctioned by the papacy in a previous case. Another way was to marry his lover Anne Boleyn while remaining married to Catherine, in order to produce male offspring for the succession. Such arrangements had been made before for reasons of state with papal sanction.

On the one hand, the papacy under Spanish control could not allow any of this, but more significantly it seems that Henry was induced to take the most violent path possible. His chief adviser for the initial phase was Cardinal Wolsey. Wolsey was perfectly happy to get some kind of dispensation from the papacy for Henry. Wolsey did not want anything too precipitous to happen because he had pretensions to be elected pope with French help.

Then something dramatic happened. Henry dumped Wolsey and the Howard family became Henry's top advisers. In their midst was the top Venetian agent Thomas Cromwell--I mean literally trained in Venice. One can speculate on the exact way this was done, but there can be no doubt of Venetian control of the split.

In the middle of this, in 1529, the Venetian friar and cabalist Francesco Giorgi (Zorzi) comes on the scene. He is sought out by Thomas Cranmer, who is soon to become the first archbishop of Canterbury agreeable to the break with Rome. The pretext for bringing in Giorgi was that he could read the original Hebrew of the Old Testament to discern whether Henry's marriage to Catherine had been valid in the first place. The background is that Catherine had originally been married to Henry's elder brother, the crown Prince Arthur, who then died within a few months. There is one passage in the Old Testament recognizing a man's obligation to marry his deceased brother's wife, and one passage forbidding the same. To cover all possibilities, a papal dispensation had been issued permitting Henry's marriage to Catherine. Giorgi was now brought in to persuade Henry that the biblical passage prohibiting such a marriage was authoritative, and that the opposing passage was not applicable. The dispensation on which Henry's marriage rested, by virtue of having contravened scripture, was null and void. The pope had exceeded his authority by issuing it, according to Giorgi. Catherine's credible testimony that her first marriage had never been consummated was simply ignored.

According to Giorgi, therefore, Henry had never been legally married to Catherine. Giorgi, with the full power of Venice behind him, assured Henry that he would be supported in his break. Henry was by now inflamed with passion for Anne Boleyn, the granddaughter of Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk, and eagerly grasped for Giorgi's conclusions.

Once Cranmer was named archbishop of Canterbury, he officially rendered a new decision using Giorgi's reasoning. Appeals to Rome had now been made high treason.



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Giorgi and the Occult
Giorgi was no minor figure. His family was one of the ten top ruling families of Venice and he became one of Venice's ambassadors during critical years after the sack of Rome in 1527.
Yet, more significant than his interpretation of scripture relating to the divorce, as critical as that was, was that he was the transmission belt for a counterculture movement which was to culminate in the occult takeover of England and eventually lead to the creation of Speculative Freemasonry. It is striking that Giorgi was aware of who his major enemy was. In his major work, Harmonice Mundi, Giorgi attacks Nicholas of Cusa. In what should become known as the very founding statement of Speculative Freemasonry, Giorgi states: ``The seeker after the Monas (the one) may retreat into negative theology and the Docta Ignorantia, or he may seek to follow the divine Monas in its expansion into the three Worlds.''

Harmonice Mundi is one of the first systematic works of the Neoplatonic so-called Christian Cabala. Giorgi makes a deadly cultural assault on England. He introduces two critical notions which set England up for Freemasonry. First, the Neoplatonic idea that the ``One'' is directly knowable. In Plato's Parmenides dialogue, he proves that there is only one way human beings can have knowledge of the One. He proves it by a method later called by Cusa ``docta ignorantia,'' by the method of proving exhaustively that any approach that attempts to resolve the paradox of the one and the many leads to hopeless contradiction. Therefore, he leaves the reader of the dialogue with the necessity to hypothesize another solution. The idea that the one is directly knowable is a direct distortion of Plato.

The idea that God is directly knowable is a mystical notion. Here we get directly to the point of Venetian epistemology. As Lyn elaborates in his paper on ``History As Science,'' the face of evil is empiricism, or the belief that the only thing you can know is what is verified directly by your senses. It would seem that mysticism and empiricism are directly polar opposites. This is the exact opposite of empiricism. The logic of the mystic Giorgi, is that indeed we can only know through our senses; therefore the only way to truly know God is to directly experience him through our senses. This is the essence of mysticism. It is also empiricism.



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Attack on the Renaissance
It is here I want to develop what might seem like a diversion--but there is no way you can understand what happens next without such a discussion. Frances Yates, an enemy of ours at the Warburg Institute, has done, from an enemy standpoint, some useful work on the creation of a pagan revival around the Platonic Academy of Florence. I must add a cautionary point here which is indicative of how our enemies create myths. The Warburg Institute is the major research institute into the Renaissance. It is Yates at Warburg who attempts to prove that the Renaissance came from an occult return to pre-Christian religions and a revival of Neoplatonism.
So in her typical fashion, she goes much too far, but her identification of the tendency is irrefutable. The attack on the Aristotelian Schoolmen issuing from the Renaissance is useful and has a spinoff effect, particularly in England, of creating a highly literate grouping around John Colet and others, who travel to Florence and learn ancient Greek. They group around Erasmus and Sir Thomas More. They create a flowering of real Christianity and culture which leads to Shakespeare.

It should also be noted that Erasmus came out of the great teaching movement called the Brethren of the Common Life and not predominantly from Ficino's Platonic Academy.

One has to understand what insanity it was for Aristotle to be allowed to remain the predominant force in universities, to understand what a relief it was to reintroduce Plato in the original. This useful work was translated by Ficino and funded by Cosimo De Medici.

Yet, alongside of this came a Neoplatonic fraud and the translation of an ancient mystic by the name of Hermes Trismegistus. According to the legend believed in the fifteenth century, which had come from Lactantius, a father of the Church, Hermes Trismegistus was supposed to have foretold the coming of Christ. Hermes Trismegistus, in the book titled The Perfect Word, made use of these words: ``The Lord and Creator of all things, whom we have thought right to call God, since He made the second God visible and sensible.... Since, therefore, He made Him first, and alone, and one only, He appeared to Him beautiful, and most full of all good things; and He hallowed Him, and altogether loved Him as His own Son.'' The fraud perpetrated by Neoplatonics of the second century was that Hermes was supposed to have been living at the time of Moses and his creation story and the quote which I read you was all about 1,500 years before Christ. In reality it was dated about the second century A.D. Ficino did not know that. Therefore, the reverence for Hermes was based on the belief that he foretold by 1,500 years the coming of Christ.

In the hermetic works that Ficino translated, he personally was very struck by some of the Natural Magic elements that were in the writings. He meant no heresy and was later defended by the Pope, but it opened the door to legitimizing what turned out to be a Neoplatonic fraud. The danger here is the same danger that was always inherent in the Neoplatonics as opposed to the real Plato. The Neoplatonics belived in a world spirit, and that one could coax the spirit into matter through the use of the soul, which was located midway between spirit and matter. This use of the soul is what is known as magic. Augustine was revulsed by this practice and strongly admonished Hermes for practicing such magic.



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The Cabala
The worst aspect of this came in through Pico della Mirandola. He went back to an idea of the world soul, asserting that man participated only as a receptacle of the world soul. Presumably, the body died but the world soul lived on. This denied the individual soul and the uniqueness of the individual. Pico, in his ``Oration on The Dignity Of Man,'' gives his most dramatic formulation of this idea:
``... Whatever seeds each man cultivates will grow to maturity and bear in him their own fruit. If they be vegetative, he will be like a plant. If sensitive, he will become brutish. If rational, he will grow into heavenly being. If intellectual, he will be an angel and the son of God. And if, happy in the lot of no created thing, he withdraws into the center of his own unity, his spirit, made one with God, in the solitary darkness of God, who is set above all things, shall surpass them all. Who would not admire this our chameleon? Or who could more greatly admire aught else whatever? It is man who Asclepius of Athens, arguing from his mutability of character and from his self-transforming nature, on just grounds says was symbolized by Proteus in the mysteries. Hence those metamorphoses renowned among the Hebrews and the Pythagoreans.''

Pico also went futher into mysticism, as he insisted that the Cabala was the fount of ancient wisdom that Moses passed down to elite disciples, an esoteric doctrine that only an elect can interpret. This is the idea that through the manipulation of symbols you could directly acess God and His universe. It is a rejection of scientific method in favor of the manipulation of symbols.

Pico wrote: ``35. In exactly the same way, when the true interpretation of the Law according to the command of God, divinely handed down to Moses, was revealed, it was called the Cabala, a word which is the same among the Hebrews as `reception' among ourselves; for this reason, of course, that one man from another, by a sort of hereditary right, received that doctrine not through written records but through a regular succession of revelations.... In these books principally resides, as Esdras with a clear voice justly declared, the spring of understanding, that is, the ineffable theology of the supersubstantial deity; the fountain of wisdom, that is, the exact metaphysic of the intellectual and angelic forms; and the stream of knowledge, that is, the most steadfast philosophy of natural things.''

It is this movement that Giorgi is a part of and this branch of Venetian philosophy founds Freemasonry and the New Age.

Here is a point of enormous importance. One of the main confusions that the present-day Catholic Church has on the question of the Renaissance is that Aristotelians in the Church used the identification of this Neoplatonic problem to attack the Renaissance as pagan and humanistic, when in fact this was launched as an operation by Paduan Aristotelians in the guise of Platonism to destroy Cusa and Christianity.

This occult Neoplatonism and Cabalism came pouring into England. No less than Christopher Marlowe took up the attack against it.

In his play on Faustus, Marlowe identifies the problem of the whole Elizabethan elite. Marlowe himself was an intelligence operative and was on the inside of major decisions being made by Walsingham, who was in a sense CIA chief under Elizabeth.

Marlowe sums up the problem of the age and exposes the mysticism and necromancy around the court of Elizabeth. The whole of Faust was that he was fed up with all knowledge. Presumably this was an attack on Aristotelian Schoolmen, but Faust, in the end, makes a deal with the devil. In this, Marlowe identifies the truth about the relationship between Arisotelianism and mysticism.

Marlowe's play caused complete pandemonium in the Venetian networks around Elizabeth. In a coup de grace, Marlowe directly references Giorgi. When Mephistopheles appears to Faust and he is too ugly, Faust says, ``Go and return an old Franciscian friar, that holy shape becomes a devil best.''

It was shortly after this play was written that Marlowe was assassinated.



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The Creation of Freemasonry
Now we pick up the story of the 1580s and how the Venetians created Freemasonry in England.
As I said, occultism was pouring into England. With the defeat of the Spanish Armada, a Venetian grouping around Fra Paolo Sarpi, called the Giovani, decided to become more aggressive.

Venice gets into a war with the papacy in 1606. It is a jurisdictional dispute over money and the right to try criminals who happen to be under papal jurisdiction. The pope puts Venice under the interdict. Sarpi is chosen by Venice to defend the city-state and is excommunicated. He successfully writes several pamphlets against Rome which are immediately translated into English and widely distributed. After Venice wins this battle, Sarpi is nearly assassinated, and despite several wounds to the neck and head, he survives. The assassination attempt is put correctly at Rome's doorstep. At that point, Sarpi becomes the most celebrated man in Venice and England. Henry Wotton, the English diplomat, was in touch with Sarpi the whole time, through go-betweens.

The next escalation occurred in 1616, when a royal marriage was arranged. This marriage was the talk of England and was called the Marriage of the Thames and the Rhine. James I's daughter was to marry the Elector of Palatine. This Protestant-Anglican marriage was, in the view of Venice, a significant counterweight to the Habsburgs.

Then the strangest thing occurs. The year of the marriage the first Rosicrucian tract is written. It is called the ``Fama.'' It calls for the formation of a Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross and for the reformation of all knowledge. It is not too distant from what Francis Bacon, a friend of Sarpi, is calling for. Shortly thereafter, another document, the ``Confession,'' again explicitly Rosicrucian, is written. It calls the pope the anti-Christ. Both are written in German and circulated in the territory of the Elector of Palatine.

This stuff is straight Neoplatonic Cabalism. Here is a description of the grave of Christian Rosenkreutz from the first pamphlet, ``Fama'':

``In the morning following, we opened the door, and there appeared to our sight a vault of seven sides and corners, every side five foot broad, and the height of eight foot. Although the sun never shined in this vault, nevertheless it was enlightened with another sun, which had learned this from the sun, and was situated in the upper part in the center of the ceiling. In the midst, instead of a tombstone, was a round altar covered over with a plate of brass, and thereon this engraven: ... ``This is all clear and bright, as also the seven sides and the two Heptagoni: so we kneeled altogether down and gave thanks to the sole wise, sole mighty and sole eternal God, who hath taught us more than all men's wits could have found out, praised be his holy name. This vault we parted in three parts, the upper part or ceiling, the wall or side, the ground or floor. ``Of the upper part you shall understand no more of it at this time, but that it was divided according to the seven sides in the triangle, which was in the bright center; but what therein is contained, you shall God willing (that are desirous of our society) behold the same with your own eyes; but every side or wall is parted into ten figures, every one with their several figures and sentences, as they are truly shown and set forth Concentratum here in our book.''

Several other documents on the Rosicrucian thesis were written, all confessing to have solved the riddle of the relationship between the microcosm and the macrocosm. This was also the name of a book written by Robert Fludd. Fludd is attacked by Kepler as a mystic who uses numbers as a form of cabalistic symbolism, and engages in a wild defense of his writings. Almost immediately, several Rosicrucian documents are written and circulated, all published by the same publisher in the Palatinate.

The political, Venetian side to this was totally obvious. The military adviser to the elector was Christian Anhalt, a friend of Henry Wotton and Paolo Sarpi. Their hopes were that a Protestant League would form around the prince in his effort to take the Bohemian Crown and defeat the Habsburgs. The elector is massively defeated. This incident touched off the Thirty Years' War. It is reported that the reason he was so defeated was that James of England refused to go along with the plan. We would not be far off the mark if we said that from Venice's standpoint James was not adequate, and Venice had to bring a more radical government into power. It was they who supported Oliver Cromwell. Venice always wanted parliamentary sovereignty as a form of government to control any king.

What were the Venetians up to? Now it becomes interesting. Consider two quotes, one by Sarpi and the other by Paruta, you have a fundamental attack on scientific method. Paruta had been an empiricist:

``Although our intellect may be divine from its birth, nevertheless here below it lives among these earthly members and cannot perform its operations without the help of bodily sensation. By their means, drawing into the mind the images of material things, it represents these things to itself and in this way forms its concepts of them. By the same token it customarily rises to spiritual contemplations not by itself but awakened by sense objects.''

Sarpi was also an empiricist: ``There are four modes of philosophizing: the first with reason alone, the second with sense alone, the third with reason and then sense, and the fourth beginning with sense and ending with reason. The first is the worst, because from it we know what we would like to be, not what is. The third is bad because we many times distort what is into what we would like, rather than adjusting what we would like to what is. The second is true but crude, permitting us to know little and that rather of things than of their causes. The fourth is the best we can have in this miserable life.''

This is Francis Bacon's inductive method. Bacon's ideas about inductive method were taken from the ``Arte di ben pensare'' and other of Sarpi's writings.

Here I would like to quote from Webster Tarpley's series in The New Federalist: ``Sarpi sounds very much like Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, and Hume. This is no surprise, since Sarpi and Micanzio were in close contact with Hobbes and Bacon, sometimes directly, and sometimes through William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire, a friend of Francis Bacon and the employer of Thomas Hobbes. Bacon was of course a raving irrationalist, a Venetian-style Rosicrucian, and a bugger. Cavendish may have introduced Bacon to Hobbes, who soon became a couple. In Chatsworth House in Cornwall there is a manuscript entitled `Hobbes' Translations of Italian Letters,' containing 77 missives from Micanzio to the Earl (called `Candiscio'). According to Dudley Carleton, Cavendish visited Venice and Padua in September 1614, accompanied by Hobbes. At that time meetings with Sarpi and Micanzio would have been on the agenda.

``This is clearly the inspiration for Francis Bacon's ramblings on method.'' Now the most startling result.

Bacon, Fludd, and Descartes, all claim to be Rosicrucians or searching for the Rosicrucians. The coincidence is overwhelming.

What was this movement? It becomes the British Royal Society and Freemasonry. This Venetian cult actually runs the science establishment of Western Europe! Our scientists today are the most buggered epistemologically of any group in society!



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The Royal Society
Now to the creation of the British Royal Society. We date the formation earlier than was previously thought. There was a series of meetings in England in 1640. This is an important year because it was the beginning of the Long Parliament. Comenius and Samuel Hartlib were involved. Comenius was originally from Bohemia, and was in the Palatinate during the fateful Rosicrucian years, along with the Englishman Samuel Hartlib, with whom he was in close contact. With the defeat of the Palatinate they both, through different routes, end up in England. When the Long Parliament started, there was another outburst of ecstatic literature. One piece written by Hartlib in 1640, ``A Description of the Famous Kingdom of Macaria,'' is a utopian work addressed to the attention of the Long Parliament. A year later, Comenius wrote ``The Way of Light.'' They call for an ``Invisible College,'' which is a Rosicrucian code name.
Now the plot thickens. In 1645, a meeting takes place for a discussion of the natural sciences. Present at the meeting are Mr. Theodore Haak from the Palatinate and Dr. John Wilkins, who at the time was the chaplain to the elector of Palatine. Wilkins was the man behind the Oxford meetings which become, in 1660, the British Royal Society. Another founder of the Royal Society was Robert Boyle, who in letters in 1646, refers to, again, an invisible college. John Wilkins writes a book in 1648 called Mathematical Magic, in which he explicitly mentions the Rosy Cross and pays homage to occultists Robert Fludd and John Dee.

The key to the actual Rosicrucian tradition in the British Royal Society is Elias Ashmole. He was unabashedly a Rosicrucian and in 1654 wrote a letter to ask the ``Rosicrucians to allow him to join their fraternity.'' His scientific works were a defense of John Dee's work, in particular Dee's Monas Hieroglyphicas, and the Theatrum Chemicum Britanicum of 1652. This is a compilation of all the alchemical writings by English authors. In the opening of this work he praises a mythical event in which a brother of the Rosy Cross cures the Earl of Norfolk of leprosy.

Ashmole was one of the official founding members of the British Royal Society. The other major, explicitly Rosicrucian figure was Isaac Newton. He had copies of both the Fama and the Confessio in his possession, and the book compiled by Ashmole, The Theatrum, was Newton's bible. Also, as we uncovered earlier, Newton had a series of papers on the book of Daniel calculating the end times.

Historian Frances Yates, in her book The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, in a chapter entitled ``Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry,'' quotes one De Quincey, who states, ``Freemasonry is neither more nor less than Rosicrucianism as modified by those who transplanted it in England, whence it was re-exported to the other countries of Europe.'' De Quincey states that Robert Fludd was the person most responsible for bringing Rosicrucianism to England and giving it its new name. What is fascinating is that Elias Ashmole was one of the first recorded inductees into the Freemasons, but the actual first recorded induction was Dr. Robert Moray in Edinburgh in 1641. Both Ashmole and Moray were founding members of the British Royal Society. While there are many stories about the ancient origins of the Freemasons, here is an announcement for one of their meetings in 1676: ``To give notice that the Modern Green-ribboned Cabal, together with the ancient brotherhood of the Rosy Cross: the Hermetic Adepti and the company of Accepted Masons....'' It is interesting to note how clear the tradition is.

In conclusion, we have demonstrated that Venice created the Rosicrucian movement that dominates England and creates Freemasonry. Freemasonry in turn creates the British Royal Society, which engages in total war with Cusa's influence upon Kepler and Leibniz. We have also accomplished a surprising result in understanding the war over what is called modern scientific method.


This speech was prepared with the collaboration of Webster Tarpley and David Cherry.

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Captions
``What we call modern scientific method is occult belief, created by freemasonry to destroy the work of Nicolaus of Cusa. It was the Venetian creation of freemasonry that imposed upon science a radical split between the science of the spirit, theology, and the science of matter.''
(Bacon, Ashmole, Newton monument):


National Portrait Gallery

Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), from 1618, Baron Verulam and Lord Chancellor of England. Bacon, who corresponded with Venetian superagent Paolo Sarpi, is falsely credited with contributing to the founding of scientific method.

Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), alchemist, one of the founders of the Royal Society. Ashmole was deeply interested in Rosicrucianism, and wrote in defense of the Elizabethan astrologer John Dee.


Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

A monument to scientific fraud Isaac Newton, the other major Rosicrucian figure in the early Royal Society. Titled Allegorical Monument to Isaac Newton, it was painted by the Venetian artist Giovanni Battista Pittoni.

``This story begins with the break of Henry the VIII from continental Europe with his setting up of the Anglican Church. This cataclysm in English history set the basis for religious warfare that was to rip England apart for centuries.''

``As long as Henry VIII was married to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of the Spanish king, Venice's ability to manipulate Henry against Spain was greatly diminished. This came to a head after the Sack of Rome.''

British Museum

Henry VIII (1491-1547) toward the end of his life, in a drawing by Cornslys Matsys.

National Portrait Gallery

Henry VIII's queen, Catherine of Aragon, was a powerful living embodiment of the traditional alliance between England and Spain. Artist unknown.


The Duke of Norfolk

Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk, led the Venetian party among the English nobility until his death in 1524.

National Portrait Gallery

Anne Boleyn, granddaughter of the second Duke of Norfolk, was set up as sexual bait to detach Henry from Catherine. Venetian friar and cabalist Francesco Giorgi counseled Henry that his marriage to Catherine had never been valid.

Frick Collection, New York

Thomas Cromwell (1485?-1540) became Henry's first minister with the ascendancy of the Venetian party. Cromwell had a clear vision of an amoral state as a law unto itself, as delineated by Aristotle in his Nichomachean Ethics.

``Giorgi's work was the transmission belt for a counterculture movement which was to culminate in the occult takeover of England and eventually led to the creation of speculative freemasonry.''

``Venice created the Rosicrucian movement that dominates England and created freemasonry. Freemasonry in turn created the British Royal Society, which engaged in total war against Cusa's influence upon Kepler and Leibniz.''

The alchemical, occult, and mystical writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus from about the third century A.D. were insinuated into the Judeo-Christian tradition by its enemies. Robert Fludd continued this tradition in Elizabethan England, as did Newton (1642-1727), from his post as president of the Royal Society. Clockwise from top left, two woodcuts of Hermes Trismegistus; an illustration from the title page of Fludd's Summum Bonum, which defends Rosicrucianism.


The Venetian Takeover of England: A 200-Year Project
by Gerald Rose
Printed in The Executive Intelligence Review, April 15, 1994.

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It was one of the most well-known ``secrets'' of the British oligarchy, that the model for the British Empire was Venice. Benjamin Disraeli, the late-nineteenth-century prime minister of England, let the cat out of the bag in his novel Coningsby when he wrote, ``The great object of Whig leaders in England from the first movement under Hampden to the last most successful one in 1688, was to establish in England a high aristocratic republic on the model of the Venetian.... William the Third told ... Whig leaders, `I will not be a doge.'... They brought in a new family on their own terms. George I was a doge; George II was a doge.... George III tried not to be a doge.... He might try to get rid of the Whig Magnificoes, but he could not rid himself of the Venetian constitution.'' The well-known secret of all the Whig insiders was that the Venetian takeover of England was a 200-year project beginning with the break of Henry VIII with Rome and concluding in 1714, with the accession to the throne of George I.


What Disraeli was publicly referring to was that in 1688, for the first time, a non-hereditary king, William of Orange (William the Third), was invited to rule by a group of noble families. This was a decisive break with previous English history. For the first time, you had a king beholden to the English oligarchy, though William was not particularly happy about his power being circumscribed.

The English parliamentary system of government was modeled explicitly on the Venetian system of a Great Assembly and Senate that controls the doge. England officially in 1688 became an oligarchy.

This formality was merely the tip of the iceberg. The Venetian takeover of England had been nearly a 200-year project, proceeding in two phases. The first began in the 1530s under Henry VIII with the break from Rome engineered by Thomas Cromwell. The later, more radical, phase was the takeover of England by the Giovani (``the young ones'') of Paolo Sarpi, beginning 70 years later.



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What was Venice?
The best way to understand the evil of Venice is to look at the great poets' portrayal of the unbelievable duplicity that Venice represented: portrayals by Marlowe in The Jew of Malta, and by Shakespeare in The Merchant of Venice and especially in Othello, the Moor of Venice. The quintessential Venetian is Iago. Yet the most brilliant portrait of Venetian method was done by Friedrich Schiller in his The Ghostseer.

You can never understand Venice by studying what positions the Venetians took on an issue. The Venetians did not care what position they took. They always took all positions. Their method was one of looking for the weak point and corrupting the person. At this form of evil, they were the masters. Their diplomatic corps was the best in the world at the time, and the British diplomatic corps was trained by the Venetians.

The year is 1509. The League of Cambrai, representing the total combined power of western Europe, is called upon by the papacy to crush Venice. At the Battle of Agnadello, the Venetian forces are completely destroyed. France is poised to invade the very islands that comprise Venice to deliver the coup de grace. The papacy relents, fearing a war that will be fought on Italian soil by foreign troops. Several times before, such troops had seized parts of Italy. In a series of diplomatic moves, the alliance falls apart, and, miraculously, Venice is saved.

Venice, which worked with the Turks to create a republic of usury and slavery; Venice, the slave trader of Europe, so close to being destroyed, survived. Its survival would now wreak havoc on western civilization.

Modern history commences with Nicolaus of Cusa and the Council of Florence, and the Italian Renaissance that Cusa and his collaborators inspired. It was Cusa, with the help of Pius II, who created the basis for a war on the pagan idea of man as a beast, and to defend the concept of man as imago Dei and capax Dei. It was the power of these ideas which caused the greatest increase in human population in the history of man. This idea of the power of hypothesis and its relationship to transforming nature proved conclusively that man was fundamentally different from the beast, and as such could not be used as a slave. Venice reacted wildly against the ascendancy of this idea. With the papacy in the firm grip of Pius II and Cusa, Venice launched a war to destroy Christianity.



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Contarini and the evil of Aristotle
The figure of Gasparo Contarini is the key one for Venice in its war. Contarini was trained at Padua University, the son of one of the oldest families in Venice. It was said of him that he was so versed in Aristotle, that if all of Aristotle's work were lost, he could reproduce it in its entirety. He learned his Aristotle from his mentor at Padua, Pietro Pomponazzi Pompo-nazi. Every Venetian oligarchical family sent their children to Padua University to become trained Aristotelians. To understand Venice, you must understand that Aristotle is pure evil, and has been so since the time he wrote his diatribe against the method of Plato, approximately 2,300 years ago.
Since Aristotle is almost unreadable, you must ask the question, what is it about Aristotle that has made his writings so influential in western civilization? Aristotle is a thoroughgoing defense of oligarchical society.

In his Politics, Aristotle is most explicit. His theory of the purpose of politics is to maintain inequality. The state must carry on this natural idea and maintain it. The very basis for Aristotle's politics is the maintenance of the ``master-slave'' relationship, because it is, as he asserts, ``natural'': ``That one should command and another obey is both necessary and expedient. Indeed some things are so divided right from birth, some to rule, some to be ruled.... It is clear then that by nature some are free, others are slaves, and that for these it is both just and expedient that they should serve as slaves.'' One could accuse me of taking quotes out of context, but this would be false. It is true that even Plato makes a case for slavery, but, unlike Aristotle, Plato bases his state on the idea of Justice. Just compare Aristotle's Politics with Plato's Republic, where Plato from the very beginning launches a diatribe against arbitrary power. In the Thrasymachus section of the dialogue, he proves that the very basis for the Republic is a universal, that only universal ideas are fundamentally causal. That idea for the Republic, as he shows, must be based on the good.

Since Aristotle is functioning within a philosophical environment created by Plato, he cannot throw out the concept of universals altogether. What he does instead, is to assign them to the realm of vita contemplativa, since they are not known by the senses, and we can only have faith in their existence. Contrast that to Plato, in which the ideas of the Good and Justice are causal, not contemplative and unknowable. These innate ideas, which in another dialogue Plato proves by showing a slave to possess them, are the very basis for the Republic. I contend that the reason Aristotle was so widely influential in Venice, is that Venice was a slave society based on a principle of oligarchism. Renaissance Christianity is the antithesis of this bestial conception. For Venice and Contarini, the Christian idea of man and the rejection of slavery and usury called their very existence into question, and they reacted with cold, hard evil, in defense of their way of life.

This is Gasparo Contarini.

Contarini's Aristotelianism was highlighted by his early writings, in which he asserted, ``and in truth, I understood that even if I did all the penance I could and more, it would not suffice in the least to merit happiness or even render satisfaction for past sins.... Truly I have arrived at the firm conclusion ... that nobody can become justified through his own works or cleansed from the desires in his own heart.'' In another letter, he calls man a ``worm.'' Radical Protestantism and Contarini's Catholicism are the Aristotelian split between vita contemplativa (faith) and vita activa (works). Aristotelianism is the hatred of both God and man.

It is remarkable that there was no real difference between him and Luther, yet Contarini and several other Venetian noblemen later dominated the reform commission which nominally prosecuted the war on the Reformation.

Contarini's views were the essence of the Spirituali movement, which was to dominate a section of the most powerful Venetian oligarchy. Let us now look briefly at Contarini's career, to understand how critical he is to Venice.

Contarini was Venice's ambassador to the papacy. At another time he was the ambassador to the court of Charles V. He profiled both Charles V and the papacy. He was next appointed to the Council of Ten and later the Council of Three, the supreme ruling body of Venice. This council was justice in Venice; it ruled on all cases and could order assassinations. This was how Venice kept control of its oligarchical families. From the Council of Three, Contarini was appointed a cardinal. As a cardinal, he was first asked to create the reform commission for the Council of Trent. He and four other Spirituali dominated the commission. He was next appointed to negotiate with the Lutherans at Regensburg, at the behest of the Hapsburg Emperor Charles in 1541. At Regensburg, he gave away the Venetian game. Contarini, in what was to be called Article Five, reiterated his Lutheran beliefs. It is a bit of an embarrassment that Calvin praised Article Five at Regensburg: ``You will marvel when you read Article Five ... that our adversaries have conceded so much.... Nothing is to be found in it that does not stand in our own writings.'' Then, in typical Venetian fashion, Contarini created an Aristotelian (Fideist) faction inside the church, which insisted that the only thing that separates Protestants from Catholics be reduced fundamentally to the question of the Magisterium.

It can now be stated what happened to the Renaissance: Venice manipulated both the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, leading to a series of wars which drowned the Renaissance legacy of Cusa and Pius II in a sea of blood that culminated in the Thirty Years' War.

This war depopulated most of Europe. It set up the basis for an onslaught against Christianity, much like the cultural pessimism that dominated Europe after World War I.

This Venetian evil was now to descend on England.



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Designs on England
What was Venice's strategic objective?
It is now the 1520s.

According to the Venetians' profile of the Spanish Hapsburgs, the major vulnerability of the Hapsburgs was the strategic shipping lanes across the English Channel. Spain needed the Netherlands for massive tax revenue that these holdings brought, in order to maintain the Spanish army. The problem was that the Spanish were also very much aware of the strategic need to have good relations with England, and the Hapsburg monarchy married Catherine to Henry VIII to ensure such an alliance. For Venice to succeed, Henry had to be broken from Spain.

How was this accomplished, and through whom?

The Venetian faction in England got the upper hand when Henry VIII fell for the sexual bait that faction put before him: Anne Boleyn. Anne was the granddaughter of the leader of the Venetian faction in England, Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, of the powerful Howard family. The Howards continued to be agents of Venetian influence for a very long time, and may still be so today, even though they were also occasionally Venice's victims. Other great families such as the Russells, Herberts, and Cavendishes also became consistent carriers of the Venetian virus.

Henry's insistence upon divorce from Catherine of Aragon and remarriage to Anne entailed the fall of his chief minister Cardinal Wolsey. Wolsey knew very well what evil Venice represented and, at least on one occasion, told the Venetian ambassador so to his face. In Wolsey's place emerged a technocrat of the Venetian faction, Thomas Cromwell, who had learned the Venetian system while working in Venice as an accountant to a well-known leading Spirituali, Reginald Pole. Cromwell effectively ran the English government in the 1530s, until his own fall and execution in 1540.

Cromwell had cultivated those humanists who were favorable to the break with Rome, and a ``little Padua'' came to be developed around one of these figures at Cambridge University, by the name of Thomas Smith. Smith returned from Padua to become the head of Cambridge in 1544. He is best known for a book on English government which asserts that kings were too powerful. Other leading figures of this ``little Padua'' were Roger Ascham, John Cheke, and William Cecil. This was a tight-knit group, tutors to the Protestant children of Henry VIII, Edward and Elizabeth.

At this point, we must add the infamous Francesco Zorzi. Zorzi was the Venetian sex counsellor for Henry VIII. It was Zorzi who rendered Venice's official pronouncement that, according to his reading of the ancient Hebrew text, the pope did not have the right to grant dispensation for Henry to marry Catherine. Therefore, according to Venice, Henry never truly married Catherine. For Henry, this sealed the alliance with Venice against Spain, and unleashed his own ambitions.

How explicit they are on the question of Venice is identified by Thomas Starkey, a Spirituali who traveled through Venice with Reginald Pole. Pole is a Plantagenet, possibly one of the claimants to the English throne. He later became the chief adviser to Mary Tudor, who reigned in England after Henry VIII. Previously, Pole was almost elected pope. Starkey became one of Thomas Cromwell's chief spies. In a fictional dialogue between ``Thomas Lupset and Reginald Pole,'' Starkey states, ``For this cause the most wise men considering the nature of princes, and the nature of man as it is indeed, affirm a mixed state to be of all others the best most convenient, to conserve the whole out of tyranny.... For, as in Venice, is no great ambitious desire to be there Duke, because he is restrained to order and politic, so with us, also, should be our king, if his power were tempered after the manner before described.''

This tightly knit group of Venetian Aristotelians organized Henry's break with Rome. It was this break which opened England wide for Venetian operations.



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The role of Paolo Sarpi
The second phase of the Venetian operations was much more devastating. It was launched by the notorious Paolo Sarpi. It was in this phase that England's mind and soul were taken, and England was set up to become the bastion of the New Age. To understand this, you must understand the mind of Paolo Sarpi, and who in Venice deployed him.
This phase was highlighted by what was understood in Venetian history as the 1583 fight between the Giovani (young houses) and the Vecchi (old houses). In this phase, a very radical faction took over. The Giovani realized that time had run out for the Islands of Venice. They were increasingly less viable as a military force. For the Giovani, the only defense Venice had was a desperate attempt to destroy both the papacy and the Hapsburgs, by securing Germany for the Protestants with the help of France.

The Vecchi wanted to control the papacy and stay within a neutralized Catholic Church. The Giovani organized the Protestant rebellion and wanted to see the destruction of even the name of Christianity.

Further, the plan that evolved was to move part of the money from the massive funds in the vaults of the Church of St. Mark to the Dutch Calvinist republic, Holland, and to England.

For this phase, the takover of England was left to Paolo Sarpi.

Paolo Sarpi was nominally a Servite monk who was exceptionally talented. Yet he was much more. He was the leading organizer of the Giovani. Out of the Giovani salons and secret society, Venice planned the destruction of Christianity in what was later to be called Freemasonry.

In a book about Sarpi, a modern historian by the name of Wooton proves that Sarpi was the creator of empiricism and taught Francis Bacon his so-called scientific method. The thesis of this book, which the author proves conclusively, is that Sarpi, while nominally a Catholic monk, revealed himself in his philosophical work to be a radical atheist. Sarpi was to argue that the idea of the need for a providential religion, as the basis for the majority of men acting morally, was unnecessary. He insisted that belief in God was irrational, since it is not necessary to explain the existence of the physical universe by an act of creation. This is the empiricism of Bacon. It was later revealed by sources that Sarpi was a homosexual and a blasphemer, who believed that the Bible was just some fantastic stories. He especially attacked the idea that Moses was given the Ten Commandments by God. Since one could be burned for these beliefs, he never published his philosophical writings. Some of you may be aware of the phrase, ``The pope is the Anti-Christ.'' It was Paolo Sarpi that created that myth.

He is the real founder of modernism and the Enlightenment. With these ideas, he created a pagan cult later called Freemasonry, which dominates England to this day. Out of this salon came Giordano Bruno, Galileo (a complicated case), the Rosicrucian cult, and the Thirty Years' War.

How was this phase accomplished?

The story begins with an interdict by the pope against Venice in 1606. This dispute was nominally about two jurisdictional matters respecting the right of Rome to try two accused prelates, and the right to collect monies in Venice. Venice retained Paolo Sarpi as its defender. In this fight, Sarpi wrote pamphlet after pamphlet, defending the rights of the state against those of the papacy. Henry Wooten, the ambassador from England to Venice, sent all of Sarpi's writings back to England immediately, to be translated. In the course of this fight, Sarpi became the most famous man in Europe. The papacy ended the interdict without achieving its ends and breaking Venice. Sarpi had won. In the ensuing days after the interdict was lifted, an assassin tried to kill Sarpi, but he survived. The attempt was laid at the papacy's doorstep, and now Sarpi was a hero in England and throughout Europe. He had faced down the papacy and survived.

Sarpi immediately launched a thoroughgoing attack on the very existence of the church, in two works called History of Benefices, and the most famous work of his career, The History of the Council of Trent. The latter book was dedicated to James I of England, and was first published in England. It is ironic that the nominally Catholic Sarpi organized the radical Protestant opposition throughout Europe. After all, this is Venice.

Sarpi was introduced by a circle around Wooten to Francis Bacon, who corresponded with him. Bacon picked up Sarpi's writing on method from Sarpi's Arte del Ben Pensare, where he insists that the only way an individual can know anything is through the senses. With this, modern empiricism is launched, which later becomes the radical nominalism of David Hume.

The Giovani very consciously had to build up their own faction among the English nobility. England had to be totally controlled. The drawback that the Giovani had to correct, was the fact that England was not really reliable, because the kings tended to act independently of Venetian strategic considerations. The way the Giovani functioned was by the creation of a Protestant-controlled merchant class. This was most explicit with the creation of the Venice Company by the Earl of Leicester, the funder of the Puritan movement in England. It was he who was granted by Venice certain trading routes. In 1581, another trading company was created with Venetian agreement, called the Turkey Company. These two companies later merged and became the Levant Company, which later became the infamous British East India Company. The first governor of the East India Company was Thomas Smythe, who studied law in Padua. Through this process of creating a rich merchant class, predominantly Puritan, Venice also created a battering ram against the king. These radical Protestant cults took over England during the so-called Commonwealth period.

While it takes some 80 more years to complete the Venetian takeover of England (which will be detailed by Graham Lowry in another presentation), the empire of the mind became ensconced in England. Sarpi and Venice create the Rosicrucian cult of syncretic religion that becomes Freemasonry. Once that process of takeover is complete, England becomes the bastion of paganism: usury and slavery. In short, real Aristotelians. This hatred of imago Dei is the basis of England's promotion of the New Age. This was Sarpi's program and intention, and it completed the essential destruction of the English soul. Venice and Venetian methods had transplanted themselves in England.




How The Venetian Virus Infected and Took Over England

by H. Graham Lowry
Printed in The Executive Intelligence Review, April 15, 1994.

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Chorus: The consolidation of the Venetian Party in England and Britain was a question of culture. Francesco Zorzi of Venice, the close friend and relative of Gasparo Contarini, who was sent by the Venetian oligarchy to England as the sex adviser to Henry VIII, was a cabbalist and Rosicrucian. In 1529, Zorzi came to London to deliver his opinion, and he remained at the court for the rest of his life, building up an important party of followers--the nucleus of the modern Venetian Party in England. In 1525, Zorzi had published the treatise De Harmonia Mundi, which uses the cabbalistic Sephiroth to expound a mystical, irrationalist outlook and to undercut the influence of Nicolaus of Cusa.
In 1536, when he was at the English court, Zorzi wrote his second major work, In Scripturam Sacram Problemata. This is a manual of magic, with Zorzi assuring the aspiring wizard that Christian angels will guard him to make sure he does not fall into the hands of demons.

Zorzi was a great influence on certain Elizabethan poets. Sir Philip Sidney was a follower of Zorzi, as was the immensely popular Edmund Spencer, the author of the long narrative poem The Faerie Queene. Spencer is a key source for the idea of English imperial destiny as God's chosen people, with broad hints of British Israel. Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare both attacked Zorzi's influence in such plays as Doctor Faustus and Othello, but the Venetian school was carried on by the Rosicrucian Robert Fludd, and, of course, by Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes.

John Milton, the admirer of Paolo Sarpi and apologist for usury, is an example of the pro-Venetian Puritan of the Cromwell Commonwealth period. Milton taught that the Son of God is inferior to the Father, a kind of afterthought, and in any case not necessary. Milton was the contemporary of Sabbatai Zevi, the false messiah from Smyrna, Turkey, whose father was an agent for English Puritan merchants. Did Milton's Paradise Regained of 1671 reflect knowledge of Sabbatai Zevi's meteoric career, which burst on the world in 1665?

The British East India Company was founded in 1600. By 1672, adventurers, such as Diamond Pitt, were freebooting around India.

In December 1688, the armies of the Dutch Prince William of Orange invaded England, interrupting the Hobbesian nightmare the country had experienced under the deranged King Charles II and his brother James II. A worse nightmare was to follow when William seized the throne of James II, for he embodied a more highly distilled form of poison which Venice had perfected during its sway over the remains of the Dutch Republic. This outright usurpation is blithely referred to in British-Venetian parlance as the ``Glorious Revolution''--which should give you some idea of how little regard for truth prevails in these circles.

The notion of ``English rights and liberties'' was quickly transformed from fiction to fraud under William's dictatorial regime. When King James II fled to France, the rightful successor to the English throne was his eldest daughter Mary, who had married William of Orange reluctantly (he was a notorious homosexual). William's demand to be declared king was never submitted to Parliament for a ``constitutional'' veneer. Instead, he summoned a special ``convention,'' which granted him full power, rather than simply the rank of the Queen's Consort.

King William's Venetian baggage included the evil John Locke, who became the chief propagandist for foisting the Bank of England on that hapless country in 1694. This was not the sort of bank you turned to for financial assistance. It was a gargantuan Venetian swindle, which promptly created England's first national debt to finance ongoing wars of attrition in Europe, imposed a credit crunch by cutting the amount of circulating English coinage nearly in half, and loaded new taxes on an already-collapsing economy. The bank's chief architect was Venetian Party leader Charles Montagu, William's new chancellor of the exchequer, who later attained the loftier position of British ambassador to Venice. Montagu appointed the pathetic Sir Isaac Newton to oversee the ``recoinage'' swindle, and Newton repaid that debt by prostituting his own niece to serve as Montagu's mistress.

The bank's promotional hireling John Locke is better known as the peddler of the obscene notion that the human mind is nothing more than a tabula rasa--a passive register of animal sensations. He clearly had a higher regard for the cash register, however, and openly defended usury as a necessary service for those whose ``estates'' lie ``in money.'' Locke's theories of government approximate those of a casino operator who lays down rules rigged for the house, under which the bestialized players compete for sums of money, which then define their worth as individuals. This is Locke's ``liberty'' to pursue property. His notion of the ``social contract,'' which guarantees the players' club members the right to enter the casino, was in fact advanced in order to justify William of Orange's usurpation of the British throne. James II, in effect, was charged with having denied those rights to his more speculative subjects, thus breaking the contract. Locke argued that the Venetian mob was therefore entitled to move in under a new contract.

By 1697, the Venetian Party's coup inside England was nearly total, and its members filled William's ``ship of state'' from stem to stern. They looked forward to reducing a most troubling matter in the English colonies of America: the impulse toward building an independent nation, which had been driving the Venetians berserk since the 1630s founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1701, John Locke, as a member of England's Board of Trade, advocated revoking all the independent charters of the American colonies, placing their economic activity under royal dictatorship, and banning their manufacture of any finished goods.



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Leibniz builds anti-Venice movement
Yet, even as the Venetians were swaggering over their apparent triumph, a powerful republican opposition was building around a higher conception of the nature and purpose of man, which both inspired and opened the way for the later founding of the United States. Its leader was the great German scientist and statesman Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who led what might well be called a movement for the pursuit of happiness--the ultimate goal of the liberty which America embraced in its Declaration of Independence.
In the face of the new Venetian onslaught in England, Leibniz set forth his view of human happiness, from the standpoint of man's creation in imago Dei. Writing ``On the Notions of Right and Justice'' in 1693, Leibniz defines charity as ``universal benevolence,'' which he calls the habit of loving, i.e., ``to regard another's happiness as one's own.'' That joy is first approximated, he says, in the contemplation of a beautiful painting by Raphael, for example, ``by one who understands it, even if it brings no riches, in such a way that it is kept before his eyes and regarded with delight, as a symbol of love.''

When the object of delight ``is at the same time also capable of happiness, his affection passes over into true love,'' Leibniz says. ``But the divine love surpasses other loves, because God can be loved with the greatest result, since nothing is at once happier than God, and nothing more beautiful and more worthy of happiness can be known than He.'' And, since God possesses the ultimate wisdom, Leibniz says, ``the notions of men are best satisfied if we say that wisdom is nothing else than the very science of happiness.''

As the leading scientist and philosopher of his day, Leibniz was widely known throughout Europe, and among such republican leaders of New England as the Winthrops and Mathers, later extending to include, most significantly, Benjamin Franklin. From the 1690s onward, Leibniz's leading ally within England, Scotland, and Ireland, was the brilliant anti-Venetian polemicist Jonathan Swift, who directed a cultural onslaught against the bestial notions of Bacon, Hobbes, René Descartes, Newton, and Locke, for more than 40 years.

From the standpoint of reason, the Aristotelian empiricism of the likes of Descartes and Locke reduces the notion of man to the level of a mere beast, which, of course, is the prerequisite for imposing an empire of the sort the Venetians sought, then and now. When Jonathan Swift took up his cudgels on behalf of Leibniz's refutation of empiricism, he ridiculed their enemies' ideas for what they were: insane. Swift's ``A Digression on Madness,'' in his 1696 work A Tale of a Tub, examines ``the great introducers of new schemes in philosophy,'' both ancient and modern. They were usually mistaken by all but their own followers, Swift says, ``to have been persons crazed, or out of their wits;|... agreeing for the most part in their several models, with their present undoubted successors in the academy of modern Bedlam.''



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Oligarchical Families Move In
By 1701, the lunatics of the late-model incarnation of the Venetian Party had typically inbred a set of oligarchical families, mixing and matching Spencers, and Godolphins, and Churchills--the last headed by John Churchill, soon to become duke of Marlborough.
Churchill had begun as a page boy to Charles II in 1665, behind the skirts of his sister Arabella, the mistress of the king's brother James. Then, for similar services rendered, Churchill received £10,000 from Charles II's favorite mistress.

With things apparently moving so swimmingly, the Venetians set their course for their next major objective: the destruction of France, the most productive economic power in Europe. Under the ministry of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the patron of the scientific academy at Paris where Leibniz himself was engaged in the early 1670s, France had led the way in infrastructural and industrial development. So in 1701, England launched war on France. More than a decade of bloodshed and destruction followed--for the populations of both countries, and their European allies. It was yet another rigged game, in which Venice expected to be the only winner.

There are inevitably loose ends in any foul scheme. Queen Mary had died in 1694, leaving William without a direct heir. Her sister Anne was next in line to the throne, but the death of Anne's only surviving child in 1700 presented a new succession crisis. An Act of Settlement was imposed in 1701. James I's 71-year-old granddaughter Sophie, the head of the German House of Hanover, was designated as Anne's successor. King William died in 1702, and Anne became queen of England.

As the Venetian Party expected, she quickly bestowed preeminence at court upon the duke and duchess of Marlborough, who had spun their webs of influence over her for many years. The problem for the Venetians, was that Sophie's chief adviser and privy counsellor, was Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz.

- The battle for Britain -

With Leibniz virtually one step away from guiding policy in London, the final battle against Venetian Party dictatorship within England broke out in earnest. It was a conflict between the pursuit of happiness, and the lust for empire. The Marlboroughs resorted to deceit, terror, and treachery to cut off political relations--or even ordinary civilities--between Queen Anne and Sophie of Hanover. Swift maintained a fierce barrage both publicly and privately against Marlborough's Venetian gang, to the point that he broke their domination of Queen Anne's cabinet. He extended his own influence to her innermost circle, and, during 1710 and 1711, he drove the Marlboroughs and all their cronies from office.

London desperately hurled Isaac Newton into the fray against Leibniz, puffing the old fraud up with the lie that differential calculus was his invention rather than Leibniz's. Leibniz and Swift conspired to bring the great composer George Frideric Handel from Hanover to London in 1710, seeking to uplift English musical culture from decadent braying and outright snoring.



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The American Flank
And in the midst of all this, Swift managed to get two of his allies appointed to royal governorships in the American colonies. Robert Hunter in New York, and Alexander Spotswood in Virginia, launched a drive in 1710 which opened the door to our future continental republic.
That same year, in Massachusetts, Cotton Mather published his republican organizing manual, An Essay upon the Good, which spread Leibniz's notion of the science of happiness throughout America for more than a century. Benjamin Franklin paid tribute to Mather's book as the single most important influence upon his life.

Jonathan Swift said of this period, that he doubted there was another in history ``more full of passages which the curious of another age would be glad to know the secret springs of.'' The Venetians would not like you to know that Leibniz and Swift constructed some of the secret passages which led to the founding of the American Republic. But within Britain (as it came to be known after the 1707 union which England forced upon Scotland), the battle against the Venetian Party was soon lost.

Leibniz's patron, Sophie of Hanover, the designated successor to Queen Anne, died in May 1714, at the age of 84. Her son George was now the heir to the British throne. William of Orange had been George's idol, and Marlborough and the Venetian Party had bought him many times over. Barely two months after Sophie's death, Queen Anne's life was ended, probably by poison, at the age of 49. The duke of Marlborough, who had plotted in exile for years for Anne's overthrow, landed in England the same day; and George of Hanover was proclaimed Great Britain's King George I. Jonathan Swift had been forced to flee to Ireland, and George soon dismissed Leibniz from the court of Hanover.

How serious was the threat Leibniz and Swift posed to the Venetian Party's conspirators? Just consider the conspirators' satanic rage against the dead Queen Anne, who for all her faults had learned to seek something better in life than they could ever know. There was no public mourning, nor royal funeral; her corpse was left to rot for more than three weeks. Then a chosen few, serving George I, buried her secretly at night, in Westminster Abbey--beneath the tomb of her great-great-grandmother, Mary, Queen of Scots. To this day, no stone or tablet marks her grave.

Leibniz himself died in 1716. Jonathan Swift fought on from Ireland, from the position Queen Anne had granted him as the Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin.

He became the acknowledged political leader of all Ireland during the 1720s, building a mass-based movement on the principles of man's God-given right to liberty, and the right to national sovereignty based on natural law. Swift thereby extended Leibniz's movement for the pursuit of happiness, and immeasurably influenced the growth of republicanism in eighteenth-century America.

Britain, however, began a rapid descent into hell, under the new regime of George I. Previously secret Satan-worshipping societies such as the Hell-Fire Club now surfaced, heralded by the publication in 1714 of Bernard Mandeville's Fable of the Bees, or Private Vices, Public Benefits. Very simply, Mandeville argued that the interests of the state were nothing more than the maximum fulfillment of its individuals' hedonistic pleasures: The more private vices, the more public benefits. Therefore, the state thrives most upon the corruption of its subjects. Inevitably, Britain was soon locked into a Venetian orgy of corruption and new heights of financial speculation, leading to the massive blowout of the South Sea Bubble in 1720. Appropriately, the government which emerged in 1721 from this devastating collapse, was headed by Prime Minister Robert Walpole, who held that post in the service of evil for the next 20 years. The Hell-Fire Clubs not only proliferated; they became the inner sanctum of Britain's degenerate elite. The most prominent one, founded in 1720 by Lord Wharton, included on its dining-room menu ``Hell-Fire Punch,'' ``Holy Ghost Pie,'' ``Devil's Loins,'' and ``Breast of Venus'' (garnished with cherries for nipples). By the 1760s, when the American colonies began to openly break with Britain, most of the king's cabinet were members of the Hell-Fire Club. When Benjamin Franklin served as our colonial postmaster general, for example, his official superior, Sir Francis Dashwood, was the head of the Hell-Fire Club!

The murderous toll of such a regime upon the British population is expressed by the following statistics: From 1738 to 1758, there were only 297,000 births recorded--against 486,000 deaths. Typifying the bestiality of the emerging British Empire, was the phrase smugly coined by Robert Walpole, ``Every man has his price.''

We must not pay it.








The Bestial British Intelligence Of Shelburne and Bentham

by Jeffrey Steinberg
Printed in The Executive Intelligence Review, April 15, 1994.

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Chorus:
British empiricism started from Francis Bacon's inductive method based on sense certainty, all of which was taken directly from such Venetians as Paul Paruta and Pietro Sarpi. With Bacon is Thomas Hobbes, who wrote of human society as a war of all against all, necessarily dominated by a tyrannical leviathan state. Then came John Locke, for whom the human mind was a blank slate destined to be filled by sense perceptions. Locke's hedonism led him to the conclusion that human freedom was an absurd contradiction in terms. Locke was followed by the solipsist George Berkeley, who denied any basis in reality to our sense impressions: They are a kind of videotape played in each one of our heads by some unknown supernatural agency. Perception was the only existence there was.

Then came the Scots lawyer and diplomat David Hume. For Hume also, there is really no human self, but merely a bundle of changing perceptions. In his ``Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding'' and other earlier works, Hume attacks the idea of cause and effect. For Hume, there is no necessary connection between a cause and an effect that the human mind can know with certainty; we only have a vague association or habit of thought that one phenomenon has been usually followed by another. But in these same earlier works, Hume had at least accepted the importance of filling the tabula rasa of each new human mind with a stock of received ideas of conduct which can be lumped under the heading of morals or custom, including religion.

During Hume's later years, the power of the Shelburne faction became dominant in Britain, and Hume's skepticism became bolder and more radical. The later Hume, as in his ``Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion,'' totally repudiated the notion of custom and morality in favor of an unbridled hedonism that points toward the depths of pederasty and degradation inhabited by Jeremy Bentham.

Immanuel Kant, during his long teaching career in Königsberg, Prussia, had been a retailer of Hume's ideas. The two liberals Kant and Hume had a broad common ground in their determination to eradicate the influence of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. But when Hume repudiated all notion of custom and traditional morality, even Kant could not follow. Kant responded with the Critique of Pure Reason to defend the notion of cause and effect as one of Aristotle's categories, against Hume, who had reached a sub-Aristotelian level. On this basis, Kant was able to defend customary ideas of religion and morality, das Sittengesetz.

The Kant-Hume split illustrates why British liberal empiricism tends to be several degrees more rotten than its continental European counterparts.

In October 1776, a 28-year-old English barrister named Jeremy Bentham wrote contemptuously of the American Declaration of Independence, which had been signed as an Act of the Continental Congress on July 4th of that year: ``This,'' he spewed, ``they `hold to be' a `truth self-evident.' At the same time, to secure these rights they are satisfied that government should be instituted. They see not ... that nothing that was ever called government ever was or ever could be exercised but at the expense of one or another of those rights, that ... some one or other of those pretended unalienable rights is alienated.... In these tenets they have outdone the extravagance of all former fanatics.''

Shortly after penning this venom, Bentham made his philosophical breach with the American republicans all the more clear in a lengthy tract titled An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1780). That manuscript would not only prescribe the founding principles of British philosophical radicalism; it would propel Bentham into the very center of a then-emerging new British Foreign Office and British Foreign Intelligence Service, consolidated under the guiding hand of William Petty, Lord Shelburne, a man who at the time was the de facto, if not de jure doge of Britain.

Bentham categorically rejected any distinction between man and the lower beasts, defining man instead as a creature driven purely by hedonistic impulses. To wit: ``Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do.... Every effort we make to throw off our subjection, will serve but to demonstrate and confirm it. The principle of utility--the greatest happiness or greatest felicity principle--recognizes this subjection, and assumes it for the foundation.... Systems which attempt to question it deal ... in caprice instead of reason, in darkness instead of light.''

Lord Shelburne was so taken with Bentham that he installed the writer, who fancied himself alternately as the reincarnation of Sir Francis Bacon and as the ``Sir Isaac Newton of the moral sciences,'' in an apartment at his Bowood estate. Shelburne assigned to Bentham an English and Swiss editor in order to ensure the widest dissemination of Bentham's works in both the English- and French-speaking worlds. Later, Bentham's works would be even more widely circulated throughout Latin America during his years of intimate collaboration with the American traitor Aaron Burr, and with revolutionists Gen. Francisco de Miranda--a Venezuelan by birth who played a leading role as a paid agent of the British East India Company in the Jacobin Terror in France--and Simón Bolívar. Burr, fleeing the United States, took up residence at the home of Bentham, and the two men conspired to establish an empire, first in Mexico, and later in Venezuela.



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Shelburne's political intrigues
At the very moment of his taking up with Bentham, Lord Shelburne was in the process of launching his most daring political intrigues.
In June 1780, weary of the failed prosecution of the war in North America, and convinced that the ministry of Lord George North would bring eternal ruin to his dreams of permanent empire, Lord Shelburne, through the East India Company and its allied Baring Bank, bankrolled a Jacobin mob to descend upon London, ostensibly in protest over the granting of Irish reforms. The so-called Irish reforms amounted to little more than forced conscription of Irishmen into the British Army to fight in North America--a move Shelburne hoped would also defeat the pro-American republican movement inside Ireland that had nearly launched its own revolt against Britain in 1779.

Led by Lord George Gordon, the Protestant rabble stormed Westminster, sending parliamentarians and lords alike down flights of stairs, out windows, and to the hospitals. For eight days, London was ransacked, culminating in the storming of the Newgate Prison and the freeing of all the prisoners, who joined in the assault on the Parliament building.

Lord Shelburne, as head of the interior committee of the House of Lords, personally ensured the maximum terror by delaying the reading of the Riot Act (which would have called out the Home Guard) until violence had spread to every corner of the city. When the flames subsided, the ministry of Lord North was in ashes as well. North resigned as prime minister, and within months, Shelburne was himself in the new Rockingham cabinet as foreign secretary for the Northern District, subsuming the North American colonies. From that post, he would be the principal negotiator in Paris across the table from Benjamin Franklin.

By this time also, King George III had declared himself wholly subservient to the Shelburne-led East India Company faction--the Venetian Party.

As the result of these events, the shadow government formally took charge of the official state apparatus. The intelligence operations formerly housed at the East India Company were henceforth run out of the Foreign Ministry and the British Secret Intelligence Services (SIS).

A postscript on Lord Gordon, Shelburne's agent provocateur: After a brief stay in the Tower of London, foreshortened by Shelburne's personal intervention with the crown, Lord Gordon made off to friendlier ground in the Netherlands, where, to the astonishment of his Scottish Presbyterian cronies, he became a convert to Jewish cabbalism, taking the name Israel Bar Abraham. He shortly thereafter surfaced in Paris as an occult adviser to Marie Antoinette, and from that position participated in Shelburne's intrigues against the French Bourbons.

The Jacobin insurrection in Paris during 1791-93 was a replay on grander scale of the earlier Shelburne-instigated Gordon Riots, down to the storming of the Bastille prison and the unleashing of the criminals.



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Smith Assigned To Scribble Against America
Lord Shelburne, as foreign minister, took the position that the former colonies in North America must be once again brought under the British yoke, but not through the deployment of military might or through claims of property title. For Shelburne, the battle cry of the New Venice/New Rome was ``free trade.''
As early as 1763, in a famous carriage ride from Edinburgh to London, Shelburne had commissioned two works from one of his East India Company scribblers, Adam Smith. First, he had commissioned Smith to prepare the research outlines for the study that would be later completed by another India House propagandist, Edward Gibbon, on the decline and fall of the Roman Empire--a study critical to Shelburne's commitment to establish a new third Roman Empire headquartered in London. In addition, he ordered the preparation of an apologia for free trade, which Smith completed in 1776 under the title The Wealth of Nations.

In 1787, Shelburne's leading intelligence agent Jeremy Bentham went one better than Smith by publishing a series of letters from Russia that were assembled in a pamphlet titled In Defense of Usury. The final letter, addressed to Smith, chastized the India House economist for not going far enough in his embrace of unbridled monetary dictatorship. Bentham demanded an end to all restrictions on usurious interest rates, employing the liberal argument that suppression of usury stifles invention. Smith immediately wrote of Bentham's In Defense of Usury, ``The work is one of a superior man.''

Shelburne's own most eloquent plea for unbridled free trade and usury came during his brief tenure as prime minister from 1782 to 1783. Although he had formerly preferred to steer British politics from behind the scenes in his capacity as chairman of the three-man ``Secret Committee'' of the East India Company, Shelburne felt compelled to briefly take the formal reins of government in order to ensure the launching of his new British imperium.



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"Destroy America with free trade"
On Jan. 27, 1783, Shelburne stood before the House of Lords to argue for ratification of the Treaty of Paris, formally bringing to an end the American Revolution and the conflict with France and Spain. ``You have given America, with whom every call under the heaven urges you to stand on the footing of brethren, a share in a trade, the monopoly of which you sordidly preserved to yourselves.... Monopolies, some way or other, are very justly punished. They forbid rivalry, and rivalry is of the very essence of well-being of trade.... I avow that monopoly is always unwise; but if there is any nation under heaven which ought to be the first to reject monopoly, it is the English. Situated as we are between the old world and the new, and between southern and northern Europe, all we ought to covet on Earth is free trade.... With more industry, with more capital, with more enterprise than any trading nation on Earth, it ought to be our constant cry: Let every market be open.''
Shelburne's policy of unbridled free trade between Britain and the United States nearly destroyed the American republic in its cradle. Some of the American Founding Fathers clearly understood the danger in Shelburne's free trade ruse. They launched a crucial debate over the need for a strong federal constitution. But for the Federalist debate and the resulting United States Constitution of 1787, Shelburne's scheme for rapidly bankrupting and re-absorbing North America into the British imperial domain, would have probably succeeded.

Alexander Hamilton was blunt in his Federalist Paper No. 11, published in November 1787: ``The adventurous spirit ... of America has already excited uneasy sensations in several of the maritime powers of Europe.... If we continue united, we may counteract a policy so unfriendly to our prosperity in a variety of ways.... Suppose for instance, we had a government in America, capable of excluding Great Britain from all our ports; what would be the probable operation of this step upon her politics? Would it not enable us to negotiate, with the fairest prospect of success, for commercial privileges of the most valuable and extensive kind in the dominion of that kingdom?''



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Shelburne unleashes Jacobins against France
Even with matters still unresolved in North America, Shelburne and Bentham turned their attention to another critical front across the English Channel in France. The Seven Years' War of 1756-63 had stripped France of its once formidable maritime capacity. Shelburne now sought to destroy France as an economic and military rival on the continent. From the outset, the Jacobin Terror was a British East India Company-, British Foreign Office-orchestrated affair. The bloody massacre of France's scientific elite was systematically carried out by French hands, manning French guillotines, but guided by British strings.
Jacques Necker, a Geneva-born, Protestant, slavishly pro-British banker, had been installed through the efforts of Shelburne's leading ally in France, Philippe Duke of Orléans, as finance minister. Necker's daughter, the infamous Madame de Staël, would later run one of Shelburne's most important Parisian salons.

Although Necker had failed to block France from allying with the Americans during the American Revolution, he did succeed in presiding over the depletion of the French treasury and the collapse of its credit system.

Economic crisis across France was the precondition for political chaos and insurrection, and Shelburne readied the projected destabilization by creating a ``radical writers' shop'' at Bowood staffed by Bentham, the Genevan Etienne Dumont, and the Englishman Samuel Romilly. Speeches were prepared by Bentham and translated and transported by diplomatic pouch and other means to Paris, where leaders of the Jacobin Terror, Jean-Paul Marat, Georges Jacques Danton, and Maximilien de Robespierre delivered the fiery oratories. Records of East India Company payments to these leading Jacobins are still on file at the British Museum.



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Bentham's Slave Labor Scheme
Bentham was so taken up with the events in France, that on Nov. 25, 1791, he wrote to National Assemblyman J.P. Garran offering to move to Paris to take charge of the penal system. Enclosing a draft of his Panopticon proposal, Bentham wrote: ``Allow me to construct a prison on this model--I will be the jailer. You will see by the memoire, this jailer will have no salary--will cost nothing to the nation. The more I reflect, the more it appears to me that the execution of the project should be in the hands of the inventor.''
At the same time, Bentham was proposing to assume the post of chief jailer of the Jacobin Terror, which sent many of France's greatest scientists and pro-American republicans to the guillotine or to prison. Bentham made no bones about his loyalties: In accepting the honorary title of Citizen of France, Bentham wrote to the Jacobin interior minister in October 1792: ``I should think myself a weak reasoner and a bad citizen, were I not, though a royalist in London, a republican in Paris.''

Bentham's Panopticon scheme was a slave labor camp first designed by him in Russia in 1787 while he was visiting his brother, a Shelburne spy. Asked by Prince Potemkin, the prime minister of Catherine the Great, to help procure a steam engine to build up Russian industry, Bentham argued that human labor--not steam power--ought to be sufficient.

His design, complete with elaborate architectural drawings, called for criminals, the indigent, and the retarded--along with their children--to be placed in jail cells equipped with primitive machinery run by a central power source, which in turn would be fueled by swings, merry-go-rounds, and see-saws in the children's cellblock. The energy expended by the children playing with the toys would drive the factory. A central guardroom equipped with two-way mirrors would permit one guard to oversee the slave labor of hundreds. Above the main door of the Panopticon was to be a sign, reading: ``Had they been industrious when free, they need not have drudged here like slaves.''

During his tour of Russia and the Ottoman Empire, when he devised his Panopticon scheme and wrote In Defense of Usury, Bentham wrote in his diary: ``It is an old maxim of mine that interest, as love, should be free.''



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"In Defense of Pederasty"
It is therefore of little shock that we find Bentham also writing in 1785 an essay on the subject of pederasty-- FREE LOVE!! arguing against any sanctions against homosexuality, lesbianism, masturbation, and bestiality. Bentham dismissed the harsh penalties then in force against pederasty as the result of irrational religious fears born of the Old Testament destruction of Sodom and perpetuated by society's ``irrational antipathy'' to pleasure in general and to sexual pleasure in particular. Christian morality, like every other expression of natural law, had no place in Bentham's world of pleasure and pain.
In the wake of the initial success in forcing France to its knees with the Jacobin Terror, Bentham sponsored several generations of philosophical radicals, ranging from his closest protégés, James Mill and John Bowring, to Mill's son John Stuart Mill, Thomas Carlyle, and David Urquhart. Carlyle, under the watchful eye of J.S. Mill, penned the official British history of the French Revolution, needless to say burying the role of the Shelburne-Bentham cabal in that blood-soaked tragedy. Bowring, Bentham's long-suffering personal secretary, would later supervise the publication of Bentham's collected works in an 11-volume series; would serve as Lord Palmerston's agent-handler of the notorious Giuseppe Mazzini; and would instigate the Second Opium War against China from his post as emissary in Canton. Urquhart, one of the youngest of the Benthamites, would later become the agent-handler for Karl Marx.

Upon his death in 1832, Bentham's body was dissected and stuffed; his head was cast in bronze and placed at his feet, with a mask affixed in its place. For years, the mummified Bentham, seated in his favorite chair inside a glass case, was an ever-present participant in meetings of his radical circle. In the 1990s, the mummy would still enjoy a place of prominence at London University.






Palmerston's London During the 1850's -- A Tour of the Human Multicultural Zoo

by Webster Tarpley
Printed in The Executive Intelligence Review, April 15, 1994.

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Speaking from the vantage point of Lord Palmerston's British Empire circa 1850, Schiller Institute U.S. President Webster Tarpley chaired the panel on ``Lord Palmerston's Multicultural Zoo'' at the Schiller Institute's conference on Feb. 20. Tarpley served as tour guide through the centuries, and as the ``choral'' backdrop to the historical drama, introducing each of the seven speakers in turn and concluding the panel. What follows is Tarpley's introduction. Subtitles have been added.
I am now standing in the shadow of the Houses of Parliament in the part of London called Westminster. It is the year of grace 1850. Around me lies Victorian London, the London of Dickens and Thackeray, of John Stuart Mill and Thomas Carlyle. This capital city is now the center of the greatest colonial empire the world has ever known, shortly to embrace between one-fifth and one-fourth of the total population and land area of the Earth. Although in theory there are still empires ruled by the French, the Spanish, the Portuguese, the Dutch, the Belgians, and the Danes, all of these, in this year of 1850, are but the satellites of the British Empire. Britain is the mistress of the seas, the empire upon which the sun never sets. It is the new Rome on the banks of the Thames.

The empress is Queen Victoria, who is largely occupied with Prince Albert in her business of breeding new litters of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to take over the royal houses of Europe. A quarter-century from now Victoria will be made empress of India to reward her for so much breeding. But for all of Victoria's wealth and power, Britain is not really a monarchy; it is an oligarchy on the Venetian model, and the most powerful leader of the British oligarchy in these times, between 1830 and the end of the American Civil War, is Lord Palmerston.

Henry Temple, the third Viscount Palmerston. Palmerston is the man the others--the Russells, Disraelis, and Gladstones--simply cannot match. Palmerston was first a Tory, then a Whig, always a disciple of Jeremy Bentham, and for 35 years there is scarcely a cabinet without Palmerston as foreign secretary or prime minister. In London they call him Lord Cupid, a Regency buck always on the lookout for a new mistress, perfectly at home in a ménage ô trois. On the continent they call him Lord Firebrand. The schoolboys of Vienna sing that if the devil has a son, that son is Lord Palmerston. ``Pam'' is an occultist who loves Satanism and seances. And here, between Big Ben and the Foreign Office, are the haunts of this nineteenth-century devil, Lord Palmerston, old Pam.



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A New Roman Empire
It is 1850. Lord Palmerston is engaged in a campaign to make London the undisputed center of a new, worldwide Roman Empire. He is attempting to conquer the world in the way that the British have already conquered India, reducing every other nation to the role of a puppet, client, and fall-guy for British imperial policy. Lord Palmerston's campaign is not a secret. He has declared it here in the Houses of Parliament, saying that wherever in the world a British subject goes, he can flaunt the laws, secure that the British fleet will support him. ``Civis Romanus sum, every Briton is a citizen of this new Rome,'' thundered Lord Palmerston, and with that, the universal empire was proclaimed.

During the Napoleonic Wars, the British managed to conquer most of the world outside of Europe, with the exception of the United States. After 1815, the French--be they restored Bourbons, Orleanists, or Bonapartists--are generally pliant tools of London.

But in central and eastern Europe, there was Prince Metternich's Austrian Empire, a very strong land power. There was vast Imperial Russia, under the autocrat Nicholas I or the reformer Alexander II. There was the Kingdom of Prussia. Lord Palmerston likes to call these the ``arbitrary powers.'' Above all, Palmerston hated Metternich, the embodiment and ideologue of the Congress of Vienna system. Metternich presided over one of the most pervasive police states in history. Men said his rule was shored up by a standing army of soldiers, a sitting army of bureaucrats, a kneeling army of priests, and a creeping army of informers.

For Britain to rule the world, the Holy Alliance of Austria, Russia, and Prussia had to be broken up. There is also the matter of the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. Starting with Lord Byron's Greek Revolution in the 1820s, British policy has been to play the card of national liberation against each of these rival empires.

The imperial theme was sounded in 1846 with the free trade policy, Britain's declaration of intent to loot the world in the name of the pound. Then, in January 1848, Lord Palmerston arranged an insurrection in Sicily, using British networks that went back to Lord Nelson.

That started the great revolutionary year of 1848, and in the course of that year, every government in Europe was toppled, and every monarchy badly shaken, at least for a time. Metternich of Austria and King Louis Philippe of France fled to London, where they now spend their time playing cards. There was war in Italy, civil war in Austria, barricades in Paris, and tumult in Germany.

The only exception to the rule was Russia, and now Lord Palmerston is preparing to invade Russia, with the help of his strategic catamite, Napoléon III, also known as Napoléon le Petit. That will start in about three years, and it will be called the Crimean War. As soon as the war against Russia is over, Palmerston and John Stuart Mill at the British East India Company will start the Great Mutiny in India, which some historians will call the Sepoy Rebellion. Muslim soldiers will be told that new cartridges are greased with pig fat, Hindu soldiers will be told the cartridges are greased with cow fat, and the result will be what you would expect. But in the conflagration the British will get rid of the Great Mogul and the Mogul Empire, and impose their direct rule in all of India. Typical John Stuart Mill. He, of course, is the author of ``On Liberty.''

The British would like to give China the same treatment they are giving India. Since 1842, Palmerston and the East India Company have been waging Opium Wars against the Chinese Empire, partly to get them to open their ports to opium from India, and also as a way to conquer China. Already the British have Hong Kong and the other treaty ports. By 1860, the British will be in Beijing, looting and burning the summer palace of the emperor.

Shortly after that, the British will back Napoléon in his project of putting a Hapsburg archduke on the throne of an ephemeral Mexican Empire--the Maximilian Project. These projects will be closely coordinated with Palmerston's plans to eliminate the only two nations still able to oppose him--the Russia of Alexander II and the United States of Abraham Lincoln. Lord Palmerston will be the evil demiurge of the American Civil War, the mastermind of secession, far more important for the Confederacy than Jefferson Davis or Robert E. Lee. And in the midst of that war, Palmerston will detonate a rebellion in Poland against Russian rule, not for the sake of Poland, but for the sake of starting a general European war against Russia.

But when the Russian fleets sail into New York and San Francisco, when Lee's wave breaks at Gettysburg, when the Stars and Bars are lowered over Vicksburg, the British Empire will be stopped--just short of its goal. Just short--and yet, British hegemony will still be great enough to launch the two world wars of the twentieth century, and the third conflagration that will start in 1991. And as we look forward for a century and a half from 1850, British geopolitics, despite the challenges, despite the defeats, despite the putrefaction of Britain itself, will remain the dominant factor in world affairs.



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Palmerston's Three Stooges
How do the British do it? How can a clique of depraved aristocrats on this tight little island bid to rule the entire world? Don't believe the stories about the workshop of the world; there are some factories here, but Britain lives by looting the colonies. The fleet is formidable, but also overrated, and very vulnerable to serious challenges. The army is third-rate. But the British have learned from the Venetians that the greatest force in history is the force of ideas, and that if you can control culture, you can control the way people think, and then statesmen and fleets and armies will bend to your will.

Take our friend Lord Palmerston. Pam has the Foreign Office, the Home Office, and Whitehall, but when he needed to start the 1848 revolutions, or when the time will come for the American Civil War, he turns to a troika of agents.

They are Lord Palmerston's Three Stooges. But instead of Moe, Larry, and Curly, these Three Stooges are named Giuseppe Mazzini, Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, and David Urquhart. These Three Stooges--far more than the Union Jack, Victoria, the bulldog breed, the thin gray line of heroes, and the fleet--are the heart of what is called the British Empire.

We will get to know Lord Palmerston's Three Stooges better. But first, one thing must be understood. Moe, Larry, and Curly often had to work together on this or that project. But their relations were never exactly placid.

[Slapstick episode from a ``The Three Stooges'' movie is shown to the audience.]

You understand: Their stock in trade was infantile violence. So do not be surprised if we find Palmerston's Three Stooges lashing out with slanders, knives, and bombs against each other, and even against their august master, Lord Palmerston himself.

Under Lord Palmerston England supports all revolutions--except her own--and the leading revolutionary in Her Majesty's Secret Service is Giuseppe Mazzini, our first Stooge.



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Mazzini's terrorist revolution
Mazzini has concocted a very effective terrorist belief structure. Mazzini is a Genoese admirer of the diabolical Venetian friar Paolo Sarpi. Mazzini's father was a physician to Queen Victoria's father. For a while Mazzini worked for the Carbonari, one of Napoléon's freemasonic fronts. Then, in 1831, Mazzini founded his Young Italy secret society. Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, today's President of France, sent him articles for his magazine. Mazzini's cry is ``God and the People,'' ``Dio e Popolo,'' which means that the people are the new God. Populism becomes an ersatz religion. Mazzini teaches that Christianity developed the human individual, but that the era of Christianity, of freedom, of human rights, is now over. From now on, the protagonists of history are not individuals any more, but peoples, understood as racial nationalities. Mazzini is adamant that there are no inalienable human rights. There is only Duty, the duty of thought and action to serve the destiny of the racial collectivities. ``Liberty,'' says Mazzini, ``is not the negation of all authority; it is the negation of every authority that fails to represent the Collective Aim of the Nation.'' There is no individual human soul, only a collective soul. According to Mazzini, the Catholic Church, the papacy, and every other institution which attempts to bring God to man must be abolished. Every national grouping that can be identified must be given independence and self-determination in a centralized dictatorship. In the coming century, Mussolini and the Italian Fascists will repeat many of Mazzini's ideas verbatim.
Mazzini thinks that each modern nation has a ``mission'': The British would take care of Industry and Colonies; the Poles, leadership of the Slavic world; the Russians, the civilizing of Asia. The French get Action, the Germans get Thought, and so forth. For some strange reason, there is no mission for Ireland, so Mazzini does not support the independence of Ireland. There is only one monarchy which Mazzini supports, because he says it has deep roots among the people: You guessed it, Queen Victoria.

Mazzini preaches an Italian revolution for the Third Rome: After the Rome of the Caesars and the Rome of the Popes comes the Rome of the People. For this, the pope must be driven out. Mazzini has tried to put this into practice just last year. In November 1848, armed Young Italy gangs forced Pope Pius IX to flee from Rome to Naples. From March to June of 1849, Mazzini ruled the Papal States as one of three dictators, all Grand Orient Freemasons. During that time, death squads operated in Rome, Ancona, and other cities. Some churches were sacked, and many confessionals were burned. For Easter 1849, Mazzini staged a monstrous mock Eucharist in the Vatican he called the Novum Pascha, featuring himself, God, and the People. During this time he was planning to set up his own Italian national church on the Anglican model.

The defense of Rome was organized by Giuseppe Garibaldi, who had joined Mazzini's Young Italy in the early 1830s. But a French army sent by fellow Stooge Louis Napoléon drove out Mazzini, Garibaldi, and their supporters. Lord Palmerston said that Mazzini's regime in Rome was ``far better than any the Romans have had for centuries.''

Right now Mazzini is here in London, enjoying the support of Lord Ashley, the Earl of Shaftesbury, a Protestant fanatic who also happens to be Lord Palmerston's son-in-law. Mazzini's direct access to the British government payroll comes through James Stansfeld, a junior Lord of the Admiralty and a very high official of British intelligence. Last year, Stansfeld provided the money for Mazzini's Roman Republic. Stansfeld's father-in-law, William Henry Ashurst, is another of Mazzini's patrons, as is John Bowring of the Foreign Office, the man who will provoke the second Opium War against China. Bowring is Jeremy Bentham's literary executor. John Stuart Mill of India House is another of Mazzini's friends. Mazzini is close to the protofascist writer Thomas Carlyle, and has been having an affair with Carlyle's wife.

One of Metternich's henchmen has said that Palmerston's policy is to make Italy turbulent, which is bad for Austria, without making her powerful, which would harm England. Mazzini's role in Italy has been that of a marplot, a wrecker, a terrorist, an assassin. His specialty is sending his brainwashed dupes to their deaths in terrorist attacks. He hides out and always succeeds in saving himself. Mazzini travels readily on the continent using false passports, posing as an American, an Englishman, a rabbi.

In the thirties and forties, Mazzini was targeting Piedmont in the north, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in the south. In 1848, he rushed to Milan as soon as the Austrians had been driven out and tried to start trouble. One of Mazzini's agents, General Ramorino, let the Austrian commander Radetzky outflank the Piedmontese and win the battle of Novara. Ramorino was executed for treason, but Piedmont had lost the first war for Italian liberation. The king abdicated, and Mazzini tried to break up Piedmont with a revolt in Genoa. Three years from now, Mazzini will stage an abortive revolt against the Austrians in Milan, mainly to stop Russia from allying with Austria in the Crimean War. A few years after that Mazzini will try another insurrection in Genova, still trying to break up Piedmont. In 1860, he will encourage Garibaldi to sail to Sicily, and then try to provoke a civil war between Garibaldi's dictatorship in the south and Cavour's Piedmontese government in the north. In 1860, he will be thrown out of Naples as a provocateur. By that time, Mazzini will be a hated and reviled figure, but British propaganda and British support will keep him going.

Mazzini is also an assassination bureau. In 1848, there was a chance that Pius IX's very capable reforming minister Pellegrino Rossi could unify Italy and solve the Roman Question in a constructive way, through an Italian confederation, chaired by the pope, arranged with Gioberti, Cavour, and other Piedmontese. Mazzini's agents, members of Young Italy, stabbed Pellegrino Rossi to death. The killer was in touch with Lord Minto, Palmerston's special envoy for Italy.

Stooge violence between Mazzini and Napoléon III is always intense, especially after Napoléon's army finished off Mazzini's Roman Republic. In 1855, a Mazzini agent named Giovanni Pianori will attempt to kill Napoléon III, and a French court will convict Mazzini. Have Napoléon's forces outshone the bungling British in the Crimea? Are the British nervous about Napoléon's new ironclad battleship, when they have none? Attempts to kill Napoléon are financed by the Tibaldi Fund, run by Mazzini and set up by Sir James Stansfeld of the Admiralty.

Later, in February 1858, there will be an attempt to blow up Napoléon by one of Mazzini's closest and best-known lieutenants from the Roman Republic, Felice Orsini. Napoléon will get the message that it is time to get busy and start a war against Austria in 1859.

At other times, Mazzini tried to kill King Carlo Alberto of Piedmont. Mazzini's Young Italy is always the party of the dagger, of the stiletto. ``In the hands of Judith, the sword which cut short the life of Holofernes was holy; holy was the dagger which Harmodius crowned with roses; holy was the dagger of Brutus; holy the poniard of the Sicilian who began the Vespers; holy the arrow of Tell.'' Vintage Mazzini. London's future ability to assassinate men like Walter Rathenau, Jürgen Ponto, Aldo Moro, Alfred Herrhausen, Detlev Rohwedder, stretches back in unbroken continuity to the Mazzini networks of today.

Mazzini is actually doing everything he can to prevent Italian unity. When unity comes, 20 years from now, it will come in the form of a highly centralized state dominated by Grand Orient Freemasons. For 30 years the prime ministers will be Mazzini's agents, like DePretis and Crispi. Because of the violent liquidation of the Papal States, the Catholics will refuse to take part in politics. Italy will remain weak, poor, and divided. After Mussolini, the Italian Republican Party will identify with Mazzini, and Ugo LaMalfa and his friends will continue Mazzini's efforts to make sure that Italy is weak and divided, bringing down one government after another, and ruining the economy.



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The Ethnic Theme Parks of Mazzini's Zoo
Mazzini's work for the British extends far beyond Italy. Like the Foreign Office and the Admiralty which he serves, Mazzini encompasses the world. The Mazzini networks offer us a fascinating array of movements and personalities. There are agents and dupes, professional killers, fellow-travelers, and criminal energy types. Mazzini's court of miracles was a public scandal. Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, now the king of Belgium, has been complaining to his niece Queen Victoria that in London there is maintained ``a sort of menagerie of Kossuths, Mazzinis, Legranges, Ledru-Rollins, etc. ... to let loose occasionally on the continent to render its quiet and prosperity impossible.''

Indeed. On Feb. 21, 1854, this crew will come together at the home of the American consul, George Sanders: Mazzini, Felice Orsini, Garibaldi, Louis Kossuth, Arnold Ruge, Ledru-Rollin, Stanley Worcell, Aleksandr Herzen, and U.S. traitor and future President James Buchanan. There will also be a Peabody from the counting house.

We can think of Mazzini as the zookeeper of a universal human zoo. Mazzini's human zoo is divided into theme parks or pavilions, one for each ethnic group. In a normal zoo there is an elephant house, a monkey house, an alligator pond, and the like. In Mazzini's human zoo there is an Italian house, a Russian house, a Hungarian house, a Polish house, an American house. Let us walk through the various theme parks in the zoo and identify some of the specimens.

Young Italy, as we have seen, was founded in 1831, attracting the young sailor Giuseppe Garibaldi and Louis Napoléon. Shortly thereafter there followed Young Poland, whose leaders included the revolutionaries Lelewel and Worcell. Then came Young Germany, featuring Arnold Ruge, who had published some material by an obscure German ``red republican'' named Karl Marx. This is the Young Germany satirized by Heinrich Heine. In 1834, Mazzini founded ``Young Europe,'' with Italian, Swiss, German, and Polish components. Young Europe was billed as the Holy Alliance of the Peoples, opposed to Metternich's Holy Alliance of despots. By 1835, there was also a Young Switzerland. In that same year Mazzini launched Young France. The guiding light here was Ledru-Rollin, who later became the interior minister in Lamartine's short-lived Second French Republic of 1848. There was also Young Corsica, which was the mafia.

By the end of this century we will have a Young Argentina (founded by Garibaldi), Young Bosnia, Young India, Young Russia, Young Armenia, Young Egypt, the Young Czechs, plus similar groupings in Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Greece. Mazzini is especially interested in creating a south Slavic federation dominated by Belgrade, and for that reason, he has a Serbian organization. That will have to wait for Mazzini's student Woodrow Wilson and the Versailles peace conference of 1919. Right now, a masonic group in the United States is gearing up to support the pro-slavery doughface Franklin Pierce for President in 1852; they are the radical wing of the Democratic Party, and they call themselves Young America. In the future there will be the Young Turks. And yes, there is also a Palmerston-Mazzini group for Jews, sometimes called Young Israel, and sometimes called B'nai B'rith.

For Mazzini, a nationality means a race, a fixed array of behavior like a breed of dog or a species of animal. He is not thinking of a national community united by a literate language and a classical culture to which any person can become assimilated through a political choice. For Mazzini, race is unchangeable, and race is destiny. It is a matter of blood and soil. Cats fight dogs, French fight Germans, Germans fight Poles, and so on through all eternity. These hatreds are the main datum of sensory perception.

Each of Mazzini's organizations demands immediate national liberation for its own ethnic group on the basis of aggressive chauvinism and expansionism. Mazzini's warhorse is the Territorial Imperative. Each is obsessed with borders and territory, and each finds a way to oppose and sabotage dirigist economic development. Each one is eager to submerge and repress other national groupings in pursuit of its own mystical destiny. This is Mazzini's racist gospel of universal ethnic cleansing.

We have seen some Italian cages; next comes the Hungarian theme park in the zoo. Our principal specimen here is Louis Kossuth, a leader of the Hungarian revolution of 1848-49. Kossuth was for free trade. He wanted equal status for Hungarians in the Austrian Empire--equal with the Austrians. But within the Hungarian part of the Hapsburg Empire there were many other national groups--Poles, Ukrainians, Germans, Serbs, Romanians, Croatians, and others. Would they receive political and linguistic autonomy? Kossuth's answer was to ban all official use of the Slavic and Romanian languages in favor of Hungarian. Kossuth was therefore on course for a bloody collision with the Illyrian movement for Greater Croatia, and with the military forces of the Croatian leader Jellacich. There was also conflict with the Serbs. Mazzini had promised the same territories to Hungary, to the Illyrian Croatians, and to his Serbian south Slav entity. Then there was the question of Transylvania, claimed by the Hungarians but also by the Young Romania of Dimitirie Golescu, another Mazzini agent. Young Romania's program was to restore the Kingdom of Dacia as it had existed before the Roman Emperor Trajan. So Young Hungary and Young Romania were pre-programmed to fight to the death over Transylvania, which they did, last year. Because of the ceaseless strife of Hungarians and Croatians, Hungarians and Serbians, Hungarians and Romanians, it proved possible for the Hapsburgs to save their police state with the help of a Russian army.

The ethnic theme houses of the zoo thus sally forth to fight, not only Hapsburgs and Romanovs, but most of all, each other. We will find the same thing in viewing the Polish and Russian pavilions.

The Young Poland of Lelewel and Worcell demands the re-creation of the Polish state and rollback of the 1772-95 partitions of Poland. But they go much further, laying claim to Poland in its old Jagiellonian borders, stretching from the shores of the Baltic to the shores of the Black Sea. This includes an explicit denial that any Ukrainian nation exists. In the orbit of Young Poland is the poet Adam Mickiewicz, a close friend of Mazzini's who was with him last year during the Roman Republic. Mickiewicz argues that Poland is special because it has suffered more than any other nation; Poland is ``the Christ among nations.'' Mickiewicz dreams of uniting all the west and south Slavs against the ``tyrant of the north,'' the ``barbarians of the north.'' By this he means Russia, the main target. Young Poland's program also foreshadows the obvious conflict with Young Germany over Silesia.

Young Russia means the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin and the aristocratic ideologue Aleksandr Herzen. Herzen is an agent of Baron James Rothschild of Paris. Right after the Crimean War, Herzen will start publishing The Polar Star and The Bell, both leak sheets for British secret intelligence that will build up their readership by divulging Russian state secrets. Herzen's obvious target is Czar Alexander II, the ally of Lincoln. Herzen prints the ravings of Bakunin, who preaches pan-Slavism, meaning that Russia will take over all the other Slavic nations. ``Out of an ocean of blood and fire there will rise in Moscow high in the sky the star of the revolution to become the guide of liberated mankind.'' Vintage Bakunin. If Mazzini relies on the stiletto, for Bakunin it is ``the peasant's axe'' that will bring down the ``German'' regime in St. Petersburg.

Herzen is interested in sabotaging Alexander II and his policy of real, anti-British reform in Russia. To block real industrial capitalist development, he preaches reliance on the aboriginal Slavic village, the mir, with ``communal ownership of the land'' plus the ancient Slavic workshop, the artel. The mir will never build the Trans-Siberian railway. Herzen sees Russia as the ``center of crystallization'' for the entire Slavic world. Herzen, although he is usually called a ``westernizer,'' is totally hostile to western civilization. He writes of the need for a ``new Attila,'' perhaps Russian, perhaps American, perhaps both, who will be able to tear down the old Europe. In the moment when the British will seem so close to winning everything, Herzen will support Palmerston's Polish insurrection of 1863, and will lose most of his readers. Once the American Civil War is over, the British will have little use for Herzen. By then, London will be betting on the nihilist terrorists of the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), who will finally kill Alexander II, plus the Russian legal Marxists, all British agents. But already today we can see the conflicts ahead between Young Poland and Young Russia. In the conflicts among Mazzini's national chauvinist operations, we can see the roots of the slaughter of World War I.

Now, let us view the cages in the American theme park in Mazzini's human zoo. This is Young America. The name was popularized in 1845 by Edwin DeLeon, the son of a Scottish Rite, Jewish slave-trading family of Charleston, South Carolina. Edwin DeLeon will later be one of the leaders of the Confederate espionage organization in Europe. The leader of Young America is George N. Sanders, the future editor of the Democratic Review. Young America's view of Manifest Destiny is a slave empire in Mexico and the Caribbean. In the 1852 election, Young America will back the dark horse doughface Democrat, Franklin Pierce, against the patriot Winfield Scott. Scott's Whig Party will be destroyed. Young America operatives will receive important posts in London, Madrid, Turin, and other European capitals. Here they will support Mazzini and his gang.

Mazzini's American contacts are either proto-Confederates or strict abolitionists, such as William Lloyd Garrison. During the American Civil War, Mazzini will favor both the abolition of slavery and the destruction of the Union through secessionism--the London line. This subversion will be showcased during the famous tour of Kossuth in the United States, next year and the year after. Kossuth will be accompanied by Mazzini's moneybags, the Tuscan Freemason Adriano Lemmi. On the eve of the Crimean War, with Palmerston doing everything to isolate Russia, Kossuth's line will be that the ``tree of evil and despotism'' in Europe ``is Russia.'' Kossuth will try to blame even the problems of Italy on Russia. Despite Kossuth's efforts, the United States will emerge as the only power friendly to Russia during the Crimean conflict. Kossuth will call for the United States to join with England and France in war against Russia--Lord Palmerston's dream scenario.

Kossuth will refuse to call for the abolition of slavery. Kossuth will get on well with the slaveholders, since he will also be attempting to mediate a U.S. seizure of Cuba, which meshes perfectly with the secessionist program.



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The Second Stooge: David Urquhart
Mazzini is the zookeeper for all of these theme parks. But there are other zookeepers, and still more theme parks in the human, multicultural zoo. The custodians are Palmerston's two other Stooges, David Urquhart and Napoléon III.

There is also a theme park for the English lower orders. The keeper here is the strange and eccentric Scot, David Urquhart, the most aristocratic of Palmerston's Stooges. Urquhart was chosen for his work directly by Jeremy Bentham, who lavishly praised ``our David'' in his letters. Urquhart took part in Lord Byron's Greek revolution, but then found he liked Turks better after all. He secured a post at the British Embassy in Constantinople and ``went native,'' becoming an Ottoman pasha in his lifestyle. Urquhart's positive contribution to civilization was his popularization of the Turkish bath. He also kept a harem for some time. Urquhart also thought that late Ottoman feudalism was a model of what civilization ought to be. In Turkey, Urquhart became convinced that all the evil in the world had a single root: Russia, the machinations of the court of St. Petersburg. A very convenient view for Palmerston's Britain, which was always on the verge of war with Russia. For Urquhart, the unification of Italy is a Russian plot. He once met Mazzini, and concluded after ten minutes that Mazzini was a Russian agent! The usual Stooge on Stooge violence again! For this Russophobe, the problem of Great Britain is that Palmerston is a Russian agent, having been recruited by one of his many mistresses, the Russian Countess Lieven. During the years of Chartist agitation, Urquhart bought up working class leaders and drilled them in the litany that all of the problems of the English working man came from Russia via Lord Palmerston. To these workers Urquhart teaches something he calls dialectics. Urquhart will be a member of Parliament and he controls a weekly paper, The Free Press.

Palmerston understands that his subversive methods will always generate opposition from the Tory gentry and the straight-laced crowd. So he has taken the precaution of institutionalizing that opposition under his own control, with a raving megalomaniac leader to discredit it. Urquhart's demonization of Russia foreshadows something that will be called McCarthyism a century from now.

Urquhart's remedy is to go back to the simplicity of character of Merrie England, in the sense of retrogression to bucolic medieval myth. ``The people of England were better clothed and fed when there was no commerce and when there were no factories.'' That is vintage Urquhart.

Does this talk of pre-capitalist economic formations strike a familiar chord? Do you smell a big, fat commie rat?

How interesting that Urquhart should be the controller of British agent Karl Marx, who earns his keep as a writer for Urquhart's paper. David Urquhart is the founder of modern communism! It is Urquhart who will prescribe the plan for Das Kapital. Marx is a professed admirer of Urquhart--acknowledging his influence more than that of any other living person. Marx will even compose a Life of Lord Palmerston, based on Urquhart's wild obsession that Pam is a Russian agent of influence. This says enough about Marx's acumen as a political analyst. Marx and Urquhart agree that there is no real absolute profit in capitalism, and that technological progress causes a falling rate of profit.

Another of Urquhart's operatives is Lothar Bücher, a confidant of the German labor leader Lassalle, and later of the Iron Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck himself. After Gettysburg, Urquhart will move to France, and open a theme park for right-wing Catholics; he will meet Pius IX and will join members of Cardinal Newman's Oxford Movement at the First Vatican Council in 1870.



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The Third Stooge: Napoléon III
Our third Stooge is the current President and soon-to-be emperor of France, Napoléon III. Napoléon le Petit. As we have seen, he started off as a Carbonaro and terrorist in contact with Mazzini. In 1836, Napoléon tried to parlay his famous name into a successful putsch; he failed and was exiled to America. Then Napoléon was given a private study at the new British Museum reading room and frequented Lord Palmerston. He began work on his book, Les Idées Napoléoniques. His main idea was that the original Napoléon was not wrong to be an imperialist, but only erred in trying to expand his empire at the expense of Great Britain. There is plenty of room for a French Empire as a junior partner to the British. The preferred form of government would be democratic Caesarism, with frequent plebiscites.
In 1848 Napoléon was working for the British as a special constable--a riot cop--to put down an expected Chartist revolution; he was then shipped to Paris. There Napoléon III used his name to become President, and then organized a coup d'état that made him emperor. Palmerston quickly endorsed the coup, causing hysteria on the part of the Victoria and Albert palace clique. Palmerston was forced out, but he was soon back, stronger than ever.

After hundreds of years of warfare, France at last had been broken, placed under a more or less dependable British puppet regime. The ``western powers,'' the ``Anglo-French,'' were born. Napoléon III gave Palmerston one indispensable ingredient for his imperial strategy: a powerful land army. Soon an open Anglo-French entente was in full swing. When Victoria came to Paris it was the first such visit by an English sovereign since Henry VI had been crowned King of France in Notre Dame in 1431. When Napoléon joined Palmerston in attacking Russia in the Crimea, it was the first war in 400 years to see France and England on the same side.

The French pavilion of the zoo is being redecorated with a new version of British empiricism: This is positivism, the miserable outlook of Auguste Comte and Ernest Renan. This will lead to the French structuralists, ethnologists, and even deconstructionists of the late twentieth century.

Napoléon III is Palmerston's strategic catamite, usually with as much will of his own as an inflatable sex doll. Think of him as a blow-up British agent. After the Crimea, Palmerston will need a land war against Austria in northern Italy. Napoléon, egged on by Camillo Benso di Cavour who knows how to play the interstices, will oblige with the war of 1859 and the great Battle of Solferino. When the time will come for Maximilian's Mexican adventure, Napoléon will be eager to send a fleet and an army. During the American Civil War, Napoléon's pro-Confederate stance will be even more aggressive than Palmerston's own. In 1870, Bismarck will defeat Napoléon and send him into exile in England. Here Napoléon will plan a comeback after the Paris Commune, but he will need to be seen on horseback, and he has a bladder ailment. The bladder operation designed to make him a man on horseback once again will instead kill him.

Napoléon III calls himself a socialist and will style the latter phase of his regime ``the liberal empire.'' That means all of France as a theme park in the British zoo. In 1860 Napoléon will sign a free trade treaty with the British. Along the way, he will pick up a junior partner colonial empire in Senegal and in Indo-China in 1862, something that will set the stage for the Vietnam War a century later. Under Napoléon, France will build the Suez Canal, only to have it fall under the control of the British. Napoléon III will furnish the prototype for the fascist dictators of the twentieth century. After his defeat in the Franco-Prussian war, he will bequeath to France a party of proto-fascist colonialists and revanchists beating the drum for Alsace-Lorraine, which Napoléon will lose to Bismarck. These revanchists will turn up again in Vichy, the Fourth Republic, and the French Socialist Party of today.

And so it will come to pass that Lord Palmerston will attempt to rule the world through the agency of a triumvirate of Stooges, each one the warden of some pavilions of a human zoo.

The reason why must now be confronted.



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The ideology of British Imperialism
The British Empire exists in the mind of its victims. This is the empire of senses, of sense certainty, the empire of empiricism. It is the empire of British philosophical radicalism, of utilitarianism, of hedonistic calculus, existentialism, and pragmatism.
Why are the British liberal imperialists called the Venetian Party?

Well, for one thing, they call themselves the Venetian Party. The future prime minister Benjamin Disraeli will write in his novel Conningsby that the Whig aristocrats of 1688 wanted ``to establish in England a high aristocratic republic on the model of [Venice], making the kings into doges, and with a `Venetian constitution.'|''

During the years after the Council of Florence in 1439, the Venetian enemies of Nicolaus of Cusa plotted to wage war on the Italian High Renaissance and Cusa's ecumenical project. To combat Cusa's Renaissance Platonism, the Venetians of the Rialto and Padua turned to a new-look Aristotelianism, featuring Aristotle's characteristic outlook shorn of its medieval-scholastic and Averroist outgrowths.

This was expressed in the work of Pietro Pomponazzi, and in that of Pomponazzi's pupil, Gasparo Contarini. During the War of the League of Cambrai of 1509-17, an alliance of virtually every power in Europe threatened to wipe out the Venetian oligarchy. The Venetians knew that France or Spain could crush them like so many flies. The Venetians responded by launching the Protestant Reformation with three proto-Stooges--Luther, Calvin, and Henry VIII. At the same time, Contarini and his Jesuits made Aristotle a central component of the Catholic Counter-Reformation and the Council of Trent, and put Dante and Piccolomini on the Index of Prohibited Books. The result was a century and a half of wars of religion, and a ``little dark age,'' culminating in the Great Crisis of the seventeenth century.

Venice was a cancer consciously planning its own metastasis. From their lagoon, the Venetians chose a swamp and an island facing the North Atlantic--Holland and the British Isles. Here the hegemomic Giovani party would relocate their family fortunes, their fondi, and their characteristic epistemology. France was also colonized, but the main bets were placed further north. First, Contarini's relative and neighbor Francesco Zorzi was sent to serve as sex adviser to Henry VIII, whose raging libido would be the key to Venetian hopes. Zorzi brought Rosicrucian mysticism and Freemasonry to a land that Venetian bankers had been looting for centuries. The Venetian Party in England grew under the early Stuarts as Francis Bacon and his wife Thomas Hobbes imported the neo-Aristotelianism of Fra Paolo Sarpi, the great Venetian gamemaster of the early 1600s, the architect of the Thirty Years' War.

When James I and Charles I disappointed the Venetians in that Thirty Years' War, Cromwell, Milton, and a menagerie of sectarians were brought to power in an all-Protestant civil war and Commonwealth. This was the time of the Irish genocide and the foundation of the overseas empire in Jamaica. After the depravity of the Restoration, the ``Glorious Revolution'' of 1688 gave birth to the most perfect imitation of the Venetian oligarchical system ever created. The great Whig and Tory aristocrats set as their goal a new, world-encompassing Roman Empire with its center in London. After the defeat of Leibniz's attempt to save England, Great Britain set off on the path of empire with its new Hanoverian Guelph dynasty.

The War of the Spanish Succession in 1702-13 was the first war fought on a world scale and the last gasp for rivals Spain and Holland. The Peace of Utrecht left the British supreme on the oceans. Louis XIV and Colbert were defeated by divide-and-conquer Venetian geopolitics, as British cash was used to hire states like Brandenburg and Savoy to fight the French. By winning the coveted asiento, the monopoly on slave commerce with Spanish America, the British became the biggest slave merchants in the world. The wealth of Bristol and Liverpool would be built on slaves.

After several decades of Walpole and the Hell-Fire Clubs, there came the great war of the mid-eighteenth century, the Austrian Succession followed by the Seven Years' War. This was the end of France as a naval power and worldwide rival for the British. William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, subsidized Frederick the Great of Prussia to win an empire on the plains of Germany. The British took Ft. Louisburg and then seized Quebec City, driving the French out of Canada. The British became the paramount power in India. The British oligarchs of the day, like their successors after 1989, were convinced that they could run wild, violating the laws of nature without penalty, for nothing could now stand against them. But, in loading the American colonies with their prohibitions of settlement and manufacture, their Quebec Act, Stamp Acts, Townsend Acts, and Intolerable Acts, they set the stage for the American Revolution.

In these years William Petty, Earl of Shelburne and Marquis of Lansdowne, gathered a stable of ideologues and operatives, his stooges. These were Jeremy Bentham, Adam Smith, Edward Gibbon. These were the founders of British philosophical radicalism, the most primitive form of Aristotle yet devised, and its Siamese twin, free trade. Shelburne was defeated by the superior ability of Hamilton, Franklin, and Washington, but he did succeed in destabilizing and nearly destroying France. The reign of terror in the French Revolution was the work of agents and dupes of Shelburne among the Jacobins, enragés, and sans-culottes.

By now British policy was in the hands of Shelburne's student and protégé, William Pitt the Younger. After letting the Jacobin horrors of Bentham's agents brew up for three years, Pitt was able to unite the continental powers against France in the first, second, and third coalitions. Using the armies raised by Lazare Carnot, Napoléon shattered each of these coalitions. Napoléon's final defeat was the work of Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and the Prussian reformers, but the beneficiaries were the British.

At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the British were clearly the dominant force, but they were still obliged to make deals with Metternich, Russia, and Prussia. But under the regimes of Castlereagh and Canning, the oligarchical stupidity, greed, and incompetence of Metternich and Co. made possible the revolts and revolutions of 1820, 1825, and 1830. By 1830, Lord Palmerston was ready to take control of the Foreign Office and begin his direct march to undisputed world domination. Metternich was still sitting on the lid of the boiling European cauldron, but Lord Palmerston and his Three Stooges were stoking the flames underneath.

There was a time when the center of oligarchy, usury, and geopolitics was Venice, the group of islands in a lagoon at the top of the Adriatic. In the sixteenth century, in the wake of the war of the League of Cambrai, Venice was a cancer planning its own metastasis. These were the years during which the patrician party known as the Giovani, the Youngsters, began meeting in a salon known as Ridotto Morosini. It is here that the future course of England and Britain was charted.





King Edward VII: Evil Demiurge of The Triple Entente and World War

by Webster Tarpley
Printed in the The American Almanac, May 8, 1995

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For long years, King Edward wove, with masterly skill, the Nessus robe that was to destroy the German Hercules.--Leipziger Neuste Nachrichten, after the death of Edward VII, May 1910.
What neither Azincourt nor Poitiers could do, the genius of Edward VII realized.--Emile Flourens, La France Conquise, 1906
There are no frictions between us, there is only rivalry.--Edward VII to State Secretary von Tschirschky of the German Foreign Ministry, at the Cronberg Anglo-German summit, 1906


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The Triple Entente is the name given to the alliance among Great Britain, France, and Russia which was formed during the first decade of this century, and which led to the outbreak of the First World War. This Triple Entente was the personal creation of King Edward VII of Britain.

It was King Edward who set up the British alliance with Japan, the Russo-Japanese War, and the 1905 Russian Revolution. It was King Edward VII, acting as the autocrat of British foreign policy, who engineered the Entente Cordiale between Britain and France in 1903-04, and who then went on to seal the fateful British-Russian Entente of 1907. It was King Edward who massaged Theodore Roosevelt and other American leaders to help bring about the U.S.-U.K. ``special relationship,'' which dates from the time of his reign. This diplomatic work was masterminded and carried out by King Edward VII personally, with the various British ministers, cabinets, round tables, and other apparatus merely following in his wake. Edward had a geopolitical vision in the Venetian tradition, and it was one of brutal simplicity: the encirclement of Germany with a hostile coalition, followed by a war of annihilation in which many of Britain's erstwhile ``allies''--notably France and Russia--would also be decimated and crippled.

Edward VII died in May 1910, before he could see his life's work carried through to completion. But he had created the war alliance of Britain, France, Russia, and Japan, with support from the United States, that would take the field in August 1914. He had created the nightmare world of crossed mobilizations among Germany, France, and Russia. And he had created a network of cothinkers, agents, and dupes in every chancery in England, Europe, and America, who would, when the time came, push the mobilization buttons and launch the war. The madmen of 1914--Sir Edward Grey, Izvolski, Sazonov, Delcassé, Clemenceau, Poincaré--were all agents of Edward VII's influence. It was Edward's crowd that made sure that the lights went out across Europe, not to be re-illuminated for a generation and more.

Edward VII was also Casanova with a crown, a satyr and sodomist on the throne of England, the royal rake of Edwardian legend. All of this provides useful insight, but is finally beside the point. Edward VII, far more than any other single human being, was the author of the First World War, and thus brought about what is probably the most destructive single event in the history of western civilization. Without Edward's exertions, the war could never have occurred.



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THE ANATOMY OF A MONSTER
Edward VII, Autocrat
Edward VII has been hailed by the British as the greatest political activist of the House of Windsor, and as the greatest monarch since William the Conqueror in 1066. He represents the case in which the monarch and the leader of the oligarchy are united in the same person. The result was an autocrat more absolute than the kaiser or the czar.
Edward VII's role as dictator of British foreign policy before the war, although denied by recent biographers, was a matter of common knowledge through the 1920s. During the last months of Edward's life, Robert Blatchford, the editor of the Clarion, wrote in the Daily Mail of Dec. 14, 1909 that:

``The king and his councellors have strained every nerve to establish Ententes with Russia and with Italy; and have formed an Entente with France, and as well with Japan. Why? To isolate Germany.'' (Farrer, p.|261)
J.A. Farrer, writing after the cataclysm of World War I, commented that Edward's:
``whole reign was a preparation and education for a war accepted as inevitable.... It is now plain that [Edward's] policy, though achieving peace in some directions, was in essence a policy of war, and one that ended in war. The panic of a German invasion, sustained by the Press during the whole decade, failed of such discouragement as might have prevented a needless enmity to arise between us and Germany. The king seems to have shared the popular belief in the will and power of Germany to invade us.'' (Farrer, p.|5, pp.|261-262)
The leading ambassadors and ministers of the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs clearly recorded their understanding of Edward's project. Here is the view of Baron Greindl, the Belgian ambassador to Berlin, as expressed in April 1906:
``One is driven to the conclusion that British foreign policy is directed by the king in person ... there is undoubtedly in England a court policy pursued outside and alongside that of the government.''
In 1907 Greindl added:
``The king of England's visit to the king of Spain is one of the moves in the campaign to isolate Germany that is being personally directed with as much perseverance as success by his Majesty King Edward VII.'' (Middlemas, pp.|173-174)
Austrian sources confirm the essential view of Edward the Encircler (Eduard der Einkreiser) as the architect of the Entente system. The following example is from the Vienna Neue Freie Presse of April 15, 1907, and came in response to Edward VII's overtures to Russia:
``Who can fail to receive the impression that a diplomatic duel is being fought out between England and Germany under the eyes of the world. The king of England ... is no longer afraid of appearing to throw the whole influence of his personality into the scales whenever it is a question of thwarting the aims of German policy. The meeting at Gaeta [of Edward VII with the king of Italy] is another fact connected with the burning jealousy between England and Germany. Already people are asking themselves everywhere: `What is the meaning of this continual political labor, carried on with open recklessness, whose object is to put a close ring around Germany?'|'' (Brooke-Shepherd, p.|283)
Born in 1841, Edward VII had the typical Saxe-Coburg-Gotha mug, like the current heir apparent. Edward VII was a pupil of Lord Palmerston, with whom he discussed a Russian alliance during the mid-1860s. The young Edward was also close to Palmerston's stooge Napoleon III, and the Empress Eugénie.
In that 1866 war, Edward's mother, Queen Victoria, sympathized with Prussia. But Edward supported Austria, even when Austria was crushed by Prussia at Königgrätz. In 1866, Edward favored what he called an Anglo-French Entente to contain Prussia. This was already the germ of the London-Paris Entente Cordiale of nearly 40 years later. Hostility to Prussia and later to Germany is thus the one fixed point of Edward VII's career. What is reflected here is classical Venetian geopolitics as applied by the British. For centuries, London's maxim has been to ally with the second strongest continental power to destroy the strongest continental power. Until 1870, the British perceived Russia to be the strongest land power. In the 1870s that abruptly changed with the emergence of a united Germany. Edward VII was quicker than other elements of the British oligarchy to take note of that momentous shift.

Edward visited Canada and the United States in the fall of 1860, helping to give a final push to secession and civil war. In 1862 he was in Egypt and the Middle East. In 1875-76 Edward visited India, where he helped to prepare the Afghan war of 1878, which was waged against the influence of Russia. One of the members of Edward's party on this tour was his fellow rake, lifelong friend, and political ally, Lord Carrington.




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Queen Victoria: Mrs. John Brown
Edward's apprenticeship for the monarchy was a long one. In 1861 his father, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, died. Edward's mother, Queen Victoria, went into deep mourning and did not emerge from it during the 40 remaining years of her life. The queen was an occultist, as befits a royal house which has always been dominated by Venetians.
Queen Victoria retreated to her castle at Balmoral in the Scottish highlands, 500 miles north of London. The court was organized as a death cult, with every pretense that Albert was still alive. His laundry had to be done, and his nightgown laid out every night. Hot water was brought to his room every morning, and the chamberpot cleaned. There were two guest books, one for the queen, one for Albert, and so on. Victoria made repeated attempts to contact the shade of Prince Albert in the underworld--or the beyond--and these became the origins of the modern British occult bureau. As a result of these seances, the queen became convinced that her Scottish gillie--or attendant--John Brown--was a powerful medium through whom the spirit of Albert addressed her. Gossip seeped out from Balmoral to London that John Brown was ``the queen's stallion,'' granted every conjugal privilege, including adjoining bedrooms far from the ladies-in-waiting. A pamphlet about the queen appeared entitled ``Mrs. John Brown.'' Victoria was very like Miss Habisham of Satis House in the Dickens novel Great Expectations. This was the woman for whom time had stopped when she had lost her husband. When we factor in the frequent orders made for opium and heroin at the local Balmoral pharmacy, we get a picture of Victoria's life in the Highlands. Prim and straightlaced it was not.



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Edward the Caresser
When Edward VII married, he chose Princess Alexandra of the Danish Royal House, who had her own anti-German revanche complex because of Bismarck's war against Denmark in 1864. Victoria remained in mourning, gazing at a marble bust of Albert. Victoria refused to appear at state occasions, so Edward had to assume these functions, for 40 years. Edward set up a household in Marlborough House in London, and began his career as a royal rake. He became the undisputed leader of British high society. Hence the Edwardian legend of the sybaritic hedonist and sex maniac whose mistresses included Lillie Langtry, Daisy Countess of Warwick, Lady Brooke, Mrs. George Keppel, and others too numerous to mention. Some of the can-can dancers painted by Toulouse-Lautrec had been Edward's girlfriends.
There was a fling with Sarah Bernhardt, the French actress. When Bernhardt was playing in ``Fedora'' in Paris, Edward told her that he had always wanted to be an actor. The next night, in the scene in which Fedora comes upon the dead body of her lover, few recognized the heir to the British throne: Edward VII had made his stage debut as a cadaver.

Edward's home at Marlborough House in London was also a center of the ``Homintern.'' One of Edward's friends, Lord Arthur Somerset--known to his friends as Podge--was arrested during a police raid in one of London's numerous homosexual brothels. A satire of Edward was written in the style of Tennyson's ``Idylls of the King.'' This was called ``Guelpho the Gay--the Coming K.'' Some recalled a predecessor on the throne, Edward the Confessor. This future king was to go down as Edward the Caresser.

Prince Felix Yussupov was the heir to the biggest fortune in Russia. He was also considered the most beautiful transvestite in Europe. One evening Yussupov, dressed as a woman, attended the theater in Paris. He noted a portly, whiskered gentleman ogling him through an opera glass from one of the box seats. Within minutes, Yussupov received a mash note signed King Edward VII. Remember that Yussupov is the man who assassinated Rasputin, the holy man and reputed German agent, in December 1916, detonating the Russian Revolution a few months later. Here we see the great political importance of King Edward's Homintern.



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The House of Jack the Ripper
Edward VII's first son was Prince Albert Victor Edward, known in the family as Prince Eddy and formally as the Duke of Clarence and Avondale. Prince Eddy, like his father, had been considered mentally impaired in his youth.
Prince Eddy was arrested at least once in a homosexual brothel. His main claim to fame today is that he is the prime suspect in the Jack the Ripper murders. This grisly series of crimes involved the murder of five prostitutes in the Whitechapel-Spitalfields slum of London in 1888-89. At the time of the murders, rumors abounded of the involvement of a member of the royal family, and of an obscure background of freemasonic intrigue. The papers of the attending physician of the royal family indicate that he had indeed treated Jack the Ripper. A number of exhaustive studies have concluded that this was Prince Eddy. According to some versions, Prince Eddy had contracted syphilis during a trip to the West Indies during his youth, and this had affected his brain. According to others, Prince Eddy was part of a homosexual clique that killed because they hated women. There is no doubt that Prince Eddy answered to the best available description of the Ripper. Young Prince Eddy conveniently died a few years after the Ripper murders ceased.

A quarter of a century ago, a British physician came forward with evidence supporting the thesis that Jack the Ripper was Prince Eddy. A wire service dispatch from Nov. 1, 1970 sums up the allegations made at that time:

``LONDON, Nov. 1 (AP)--The Sunday Times expressed belief today that Jack the Ripper, infamous London murderer of nearly 100 years ago, was Edward, Duke of Clarence, grandson of Queen Victoria and older brother of George V. The Times was commenting on the statement of an eminent British surgeon who said that the Ripper `was the heir to power and wealth.' The surgeon, Thomas E.A. Stowell, while claiming to know who the criminal was, refused to identify him in an article to be published tomorrow in The Criminologist.... The Sunday Times, in commenting on Dr. Stowell's article, said there was one name that fitted his evidence. It said: `It is a sensational name: Edward, Duke of Clarence, grandson of Queen Victoria, brother of George V, and heir to the throne of England. All the points of Dr. Stowell's story fit this man.'|'' (Spierig, p.|11)
Shortly after having published his article in The Criminologist and thus made his allegations public, Dr. Stowell wrote a letter to the London Times in which he disavowed any intention of identifying Prince Eddy or any other member of the royal family as Jack the Ripper. In this letter Stowell signed himself as ``a loyalist and a Royalist.'' Stowell died mysteriously one day after this letter appeared, and his family promptly burned all his papers.
An American study of the Jack the Ripper mystery was authored by the forensic psychiatrist David Abrahamsen, who sums up his own conclusions as follows:

``It is an analysis of the psychological parameters that enabled me to discover that the Ripper murders were perpetrated by Prince Eddy and J.K. Stephen.'' (Abrahamsen, pp.|103-104)
J.K. Stephen had been chosen as a tutor for Prince Eddy, who was mentally impaired. Stephen was a homosexual, was the son of the pathological woman-hater Fitzjames Stephen. J.K. Stephen's uncle was Sir Leslie Stephen, the writer. There is evidence that J.K. Stephen sexually molested his cousin, best known today by her married name, Virginia Woolf, the novelist. This experience may be related to Virginia Woolf's numerous suicide attempts.
While he was at Cambridge, Prince Eddy was a member of the Apostles secret society. Abrahamsen quotes a maxim of the Apostles:

``The love of man for man is greater than that of man for woman, a philosophy known to the Apostles as the higher sodomy.'' (p.|123)
Prince Eddy died on Jan. 14, 1892. J.K. Stephen died in a sanitarium on Feb. 3, 1892.
Prince Eddy's younger brother, the later George V, assumed his place in the succession, married Eddy's former fiancée, Princess May of Teck, and became the father of the Nazi King Edward VIII. If the persistent reports are true, the great-uncle of the current queen was the homicidal maniac Jack the Ripper. Perhaps the recurring dispute about what to call the British royal house--Hanover, Windsor, Guelph, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, etc.--could be simplified by calling it the House of Jack the Ripper.

Of the existence of a coverup there can be no doubt. One of the main saboteurs of the investigation was a certain Gen. Sir Charles Warren, the chief of the London Metropolitan Police. Warren suppressed evidence, had witnesses intimidated, and was forced to resign amidst a public outcry about masonic conspiracy. Warren was the master of a new freemasonic lodge that had recently been created in London. This was the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, number 2076 of the Scottish rite. The Quatuor Coronati lodge had been founded in 1884 with a warrant from the Grand Master of British freemasonry, who happened to be Edward VII.




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THE HOMICIDAL UNCLE OF EUROPE: EDWARD VII'S NETWORK
During these years, Edward VII built up an unparalleled personal network of politicians and others who owed their careers to him. They are historically significant because they constituted the international war party up through 1914, and have remained in power through two world wars and the cold war, into the Balkan crisis of the 1990s.



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The Churchill family
One of the habitués of Edward's Marlborough House fast set and a rising member of Parliament during the Disraeli era of the 1870s was Lord Randolph Churchill. Randolph was clearly headed for a great political career when he died of syphilis. Randolph's son was Sir Winston Churchill, who was promoted by Edward VII to a post in the Privy Council. Winston considered himself King Edward's protégé; Edward had urged him to pursue a career in politics and writing. For a time Winston sent the king a daily letter summing up the activities of the House of Commons.



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The Chamberlains
Another of Edward's most important political operatives was Joseph Chamberlain. Chamberlain had been mayor of Birmingham and known for his anti-royaltist rhetoric, but he soon became a member of the Marlborough House set. When Edward VII wanted to start the Boer War, he did so through Joseph Chamberlain, who was the Colonial Secretary between 1895 and 1903, serving for years in Lord Salisbury's cabinet. Chamberlain was an architect of the Fashoda crisis with France and of the Boer War. Chamberlain was also the point man for Edward's deception operation of an alliance with Germany. Edward also used Chamberlain to propose the Entente Cordiale to the French. Those who don't know Joseph Chamberlain may know his son, the later Prime Minister Sir Neville Chamberlain, the author of the Munich sellout of 1938.



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Sir Edward Grey
A family servant of Edward VII was Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary who actually started World War I. Grey's father was an army officer who had joined the household of Edward when he was Prince of Wales. The elder Grey was an equerry, or master of the royal horses. Edward was Lord Grey's godfather. Edward did the travelling, while Grey stayed in the Foreign Office to do the clerking. Grey's problem later, in August 1914, was to make Germany think that England would not go to war until the war had actually started. This he did with the help of Edward's surviving son, George V. At the same time, Grey had to convince the Russians and the French that Britain would indeed honor the Triple Entente and go to war in support of Russian aggression. In his effort to start the war, Grey also had to lie to his own prime minister and cabinet. He finally had to sell the entire result to the House of Commons. Grey was Perfide Albion with an Edwardian pedigree.



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Adm. Jackie Fisher
A leading proponent of preventive war against Germany was Edward's protégé Adm. Jackie Fisher, the man who introduced the new battleship called the Dreadnought. Fisher owed his entire career to Edward's patronage. As First Sea Lord after 1904, Fisher was constantly talking about the need for a sneak attack to destroy the German Navy. He called this the need to ``Copenhagen'' the German fleet, referring to British attacks on the Danish fleet in Copenhagen harbor during the Napoleonic wars. Fisher caused a war scare in November 1904, during frictions with Germany involving the Russo-Japanese war. At this time, his demand for Copenhagening leaked out. During the first Moroccan crisis of 1905, Fisher was at it again, telling Edward that the Royal Navy could ``have the German fleet, the Kiel canal, and Schleswig-Holstein within a fortnight.'' (Magnus, p.|340) In the Balkan crisis of 1908, Fisher again called for Copenhagening. Fisher once expressed his gratitude to Edward for protecting him from his many enemies who, he said, ``would have eaten me but for Your Majesty.'' (Magnus, p.|442)
Nobody in Europe, not the Austrian crazies Berchtold and Hoetzendorf, not the even crazier Russian Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich, was so outspoken a warmonger as Fisher.




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Sir Ernest Cassell
Sir Ernest Cassell typified another group that Edward VII cultivated assiduously: Jewish bankers. As Prince of Wales, Edward had to live on a limited allowance, and he was deeply in debt. Edward accordingly allowed a series of Jewish bankers to buy their way to presentability at court by their benvolent management of his personal finances, with the proviso that Edward would always make a handsome profit. The first of Edward's financial advisers was Baron von Hirsch of Vienna. Then came Sir Ernst Cassell, knighted by Edward. Edward also cultivated the Rothschild and Sassoon families. In short, Edward's personal household finance agency was identical with the leading lights of turn-of-the-century Zionism. Cassell was also a political operative for Edward, becoming the head of the Ottoman National Bank--the Banque Ottomane--at the request of the Young Turk regime in 1909.


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Battenbergs and Bastards
Edward was also a close friend of Prince Louis of Battenberg, who married Princess Victoria, the daughter of Edward's late sister Alice, in 1884. This marks the entrance of the Mountbatten family, including Lord Louis and Prince Philip, onto the British royal scene. Asquith, Balfour, and Lloyd George were all more or less Edward's stooges. Edward's influence also lived on through his bastards, one of whom, Sir Stewart Menzies, was a boss of British secret intelligence who betrayed vital U.S. secrets to the Soviets.


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Georges Clemenceau
Edward's French network was extensive, and included royalists and oligarchs. The common denominator of Edward's network was la revanche, the need for France to exact vengeance from Germany for the loss of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine in 1871. The central figure was a leftish radical, Georges ``Tiger'' Clemenceau, France's wartime premier and the chairman of the Peace Conference at Versailles. Clemenceau's talents for overthrowing governments gave the Third French Republic some of its proverbial instability. Clemenceau was attacked from 1892 on as a British agent and paid spy of the British Embassy.
Former French Foreign Minister Emile Flourens saw that the Dreyfus affair was concocted by Edward VII and his agents in order to break French institutional resistance to a dictatorial regime of Clemenceau. Flourens wrote that:

``Clemenceau is the pro-consul of the English king, charged with the administration of his province of the Gauls.'' (Flourens, 1906)
Flourens argued that the friends of the late French leader Leon Gambetta were determined to resist Clemenceau. At the same time, in Flourens's view, the French Army simply hated Clemenceau. According to Flourens, Edward VII used the 1890s Panama scandal to wreck the Gambetta political machine, and then unleashed the Dreyfus affair in order to break the resistance of the French Army to Clemenceau.
Flourens also showed how Edward VII was the mastermind of the post-1904 anti-clerical hysteria in France, which included the confiscation of Catholic Church property and the the break of diplomatic relations with the Holy See. For Flourens, Edward VII was seeking to shut down the French Catholic foreign missions, which had proved a barrier to British colonial expansion. Edward VII's ultimate goal was to create a schismatic church in France on the Anglican or Presbyterian model, wrote Flourens.

``As the schism in England dates from the reign of Henry VIII, so the schism in France will date from the reign of Edward VII.'' (Flourens, pp.|155-156)


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Théophile Delcassé
Delcassé was Edward's partner in the British-French Entente Cordiale of 1903-04. Delcassé had taken office in the British-French confrontation around the Fashoda crisis, when London and Paris had been on the verge of war. Delcassé's view was that France could survive only as a very junior partner of the British.
When Kaiser Wilhelm made his famous visit to Tangier, Morocco in March 1905, France and Germany came to the brink of war. At this time, Edward VII was vacationing on board his yacht in the Mediterranean. During the debate on the Moroccan question in the French National Assembly in April 1905, Delcassé came under heavy attack because of his refusal to seek a modus vivendi with Germany; one of Delcassé's severest critics was the socialist leader Jean Jaurès. When Delcassé was about to be forced into resignation, Edward VII docked his yacht, the Victoria and Albert, at Algiers, and asked the French governor-general to send a telegram to Paris. This was a personal messge to Delcassé dated April 23 in which Edward announced that he would be ``personally distressed'' if Delcassé were to leave office. Edward ``strongly urged'' Delcassé to remain in office, because of his great political influence but also because of England. As in the case of Alexander Izvolski, Edward VII was not reticent about standing up for his own puppets.

But it became clear that Delcassé had been acting as Edward's minister, not the republic's, and that he had been lying to his ministerial colleagues about the actual danger of war with Germany. Delcassé fell as foreign minister, but stayed on in other posts. Other members of Edward's network in France included Paul Cambon, for many years the French ambassador in London, and Raymond Poincaré, the wartime President and a leading warmonger.



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Alexander Izvolski
``A plumpish, dandified man, he wore a pearl pin in his white waistcoat, affected white spats, carried a lorgnette, and always trailed a faint touch of violet eau de cologne.''
So wrote a contemporary of Alexander Petrovich Izvolski, the Russian foreign minister who was Edward's partner for the Anglo-Russian Entente of 1907, which completed the encirclement of Germany. Edward first proposed the Anglo-Russian Entente to Izvolski in 1904, and at that point Izvolski entered Edward's personal service. Izvolski was made Russian foreign minister in May 1906, after Russia's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War; he served under Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin. With Izvolski, Russian diplomacy gave up all interest in the Far East, made deals with the British for Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet, and concentrated everything on expansion in the Balkans--the approach that was to lead straight to world war.
When Izvolski's position as Russian foreign minister became weakened as a result of his Buchlau bargain adventure, Edward VII took the singular step of writing to Czar Nicholas II to endorse the further tenure in office of his own agent. Edward wrote:

``You know how anxious I am for the most friendly relations between Russia and England, not only in Asia but also in Europe, and I feel confident that through M. Izvolski these hopes will be realized.'' (Middlemas, p.|170)
Izvolski had to settle for Russia's embassy in Paris, where he used a special fund to bribe the Paris press to write that France should go to war. In July 1914, Izvolski ran around yelling that it was his war. As Lord Bertie, the British ambassador to Paris, confided to his diary:

``What a fool Izvolski is! ... At the beginning of the war he claimed to be its author: C'est ma guerre!'' (Fay, I, p. 29)
Izvolski was succeeded as Russian foreign minister by Sazonov, another British agent who played a key role in starting the fateful Russian mobilization of July 1914.



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Theodore Roosevelt
Edward VII's favorite pen pal was U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, who was handled from day to day by Cecil Spring-Rice of Sir Edward Grey's Foreign Office. Edward can hardly have been ignorant of the British role in the assassination of President William McKinley. Starting in 1904, Edward wrote Teddy letters about how the two of them had been placed in command ``of the two great branches of the Anglo-Saxon race.'' Teddy wrote back about the need for ``understanding between the English-speaking peoples,'' and discussing his race theories about ``our stock.'' Teddy wrote to Edward his view that ``the real interests of the English-speaking peoples are one, alike in the Atlantic and the Pacific.'' Roosevelt served Edward's goals in his mediation of the Russo-Japanese War, in his support for the British at the Algeciras Conference, and in raising naval disarmament at the Hague Conference. Behind his back, Edward's envoys mocked the U.S. President as a semi-savage who gave primitive lunches at Oyster Bay. Later, Sir Edward Grey exerted a decisive influence on Woodrow Wilson through the intermediary of his key adviser, Col. Edward House.
Edward was called the Uncle of Europe--Uncle Bertie--because so many of Queen Victoria's other children married into the various royal houses, making one European royal family. This, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany was Edward's nephew. Czar Nicholas II was also his nephew, married to Edward's wife's niece. After 40 years as Prince of Wales, Edward knew Europe like a book. He was personally acquainted with every crowned head, every prominent statesman and minister, and

``he could accurately gauge their influence, their processes of thought, their probable action in a given emergency.''


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Ideological manipulation
Emile Flourens found that Edward owed his triumphs primarily to himself, to his
``profound knowledge of the human heart and the sagacity with which he could sort out the vices and weaknesses of individuals and peoples and make these into the worst and most destructive of weapons against them.''
Edward's empire was built on ``eternal human folly,'' on the ``intellectual and moral degradation'' of the subject populations. Flourens praised Edward's practical understanding of French ideology. Edward knew how to exploit the chauvinism of the Alsace-Lorraine revanchards to incite France against Germany. He knew how to play upon the fascination of the Russian slavophiles with the Greater Serbia agitation in the Balkans. He knew how to use the hatred of the Italian irredentisti against Austria to detach Italy from the pro-German Triple Alliance. He knew how to drive wedges between Germany and Austria by evoking Vienna's resentments of the 1866 war and Prussian preeminence, and their fear of Serbia. He could exploit an American racist's eagerness to be, like the king, a member of a mythical Anglo-Saxon race. He could use the aspirations of Japanese militarists, for the greater glory of the British Empire. Much of Edward's personal magnetism was exercised during his incessant state visits, where he was able to unleash highly orchestrated outbursts of ``Bertiemania.'' Those who recall the equally implausible Gorbymania of some years back will find the phenomenon familiar.


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Kaiser Wilhelm II
Edward's mastery of psychological and ideological manipulation is most evident in his relation with his pathetic and unstable nephew, Kaiser Wilhelm. Edward made a detailed study of Willy's psychological profile, which he knew to be pervaded by feelings of inferiority and incurable anglophilia. As Flourens noted:
``Edward VII made an in-depth study of the defects of Wilhelm II. He counted them as his most precious allies.'' (Flourens, p.|58)
The British and Entente demonization of Wilhelm as the world's chief warmonger was always absurd. Wilhelm felt inferior to British royalty. Wilhelm's greatest secret desire was for acceptance by the British royals. Edward could modulate his own behavior to get the desired result from the kaiser. If he wanted a public tantrum, he could get that. One British writer, Legge, reports that Edward punched the kaiser and knocked him down in a meeting.
But if Edward needed to be friendly, he could do that too. During the Boer War, in November 1899, when Britain's diplomatic isolation was at its height, Edward was able to con the kaiser into making a state visit to Britain. The Boxer Rebellion in China, with its overtone of white racial solidarity against the ``yellow peril,'' was also made to order for duping the kaiser. In Wilhelm's dockside harangue to the German contingent setting out for Peking, he urged his soldiers on to cruelty against the Chinese:

``Give no quarter! Take no prisoners! Kill him when he falls into your hands! Even as, a thousand years ago, the Huns under their King Attila made such a name for themselves as still resounds in terror through legend and fable, so may the name of Germans resound through Chinese history a thousand years from now.'' (Cowles, p.|177)
This ``Huns'' speech has provided grist for the London propaganda mill for almost a century, from World War I to the Margaret Thatcher-Nicholas Ridley ``Fourth Reich'' hysteria of 1989. Not just once, but again and again, the kaiser muffed opportunities to checkmate Edward's plans.
Edward also played on the kaiser to sabotage the Berlin to Baghdad railway. At Windsor Castle in 1907, Edward demanded that the British keep control of a section of the railway between Baghdad and the Persian Gulf as a ``gate,'' supposedly to block German troops going to India. The kaiser was ready to grant such a gate. Otherwise, Edward demanded that all talks about the Baghdad railway should be four-way, with France, Russia, Britain, and Germany involved, so that German proposals would always be voted down 3 to 1.

When the war was finally over, and the kaiser had lost his throne, the f



Book Review of Raymond Massey's Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War
"THE LAMPS ARE GOING OUT ALL OVER EUROPE"

by Stuart Rosenblatt
Printed in the Executive Intelligence Review, October, 1992

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Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War, by Robert K. Massie, Ballantine Books, New York, 1992, pages, paperbound, $14.
As the world plunges toward another Dark Age, it is critical to examine the root causes of today's crisis, which can be traced efficiently to the period from the U.S. Civil War to the outbreak of World War I. Unfortunately the United States has never understood the lessons of the Civil War, i.e., the resurgence of British-inspired Confederate policy in the late 19th century, as a result of which the United States entered World War I on the side of our historic enemies! (See EIR, Nov. 6, ``LaRouche Broadcast: `We Wrestle against Principalities and Powers.'|'') Unless we unravel the wrongheadedness that led into the First World War, and extirpate all vestiges of Anglo-inspired foreign and domestic policy, the U.S. as a nation is doomed, and a third world war our future.

Robert Massie's Dreadnought allows us to study the events leading into World War I from the vantage point of an American who is pro-British, and we can therefore use it to draw the opposite conclusions from Massie, as to the causes and culprits for the war.

From the outset, Massie tries to legitimize British actions according to the Alfred J. Mahan interpretation of the 1850-1914 period:

``In 1890, an American naval officer, more scholar than sea dog, codified the Briton's intuitive sense of the relationship between sea power, prosperity, and national greatness. In The Influence of Sea Power upon History, Alfred Thayer Mahan traced the rise and fall of maritime powers in the past and demonstrated that the state which controlled the seas controlled its own fate; those which lacked naval mastery, were doomed to defeat or the second rank.... From the metaphor arose an imperative: to patrol the common, a policeman was needed; to protect shipping and trade routes, maritime powers required navies.''
Massie introduces his three-pronged thesis in the introduction:
British sea power was the guardian of the empire and implicitly the world and this global policing was necessary.

When Germany, in particular, began to catch up to England in naval power, balance-of-power theory dictated the necessity of an alliance of Britain, France, and Russia against it.

Germany should have realized that violation of this scheme would lead to war. Despite Massie's attempts to force events to conform to his thesis, his ample historiography allows the careful reader to gain tremendous insight into the real turn of events.


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Sunset on the empire
Britain created and maintained its empire throughout the 19th century at the point of a gun--its Navy--and through the spread of anti-industry ``free trade'' policies to halt the growth of rival nations. However, this policy began to fail by the second half of the century as Germany, France, Russia, and the United States made remarkable strides toward industrialization by their application of American System programs of rapid scientific and technological progress, coupled with protectionist trade policies. This growing threat to British global domination caused the empire to jettison its time-honored ``Splendid Isolation'' from affairs on the European continent, and to launch a full-blown encirclement of its major rival, Germany. This gambit was accomplished by the successful manipulation of bitter enemies France, Russia, Japan and the United States into an anti-German, anti-Austro-Hungarian entente.
Massie details quite well what Britain looked like from the inside and highlights the little-acknowledged French surrender at Fashoda in Sudan in 1898 as crucial to the process. He also provides excellent quotes from the treacherous French Foreign Minister Théophile Delcassé on his surrender to British superiority. When Delcassé took over as foreign minister at Quai d'Orsay, Massie reports, ``he had a personal goal. `I do not wish to leave this desk,' he told a friend, `without having established an entente with England.'|''

Following the Fashoda surrender, France--Britain's enemy for centuries--became an ally. Massie then documents the manipulation of another British rival--Russia--into the British camp. In the process, he also exposes the fact that England had deep-seated fears that Russia and China would come together around Russian Foreign Minister Count Sergei Witte's ambitious rail and infrastructure program, and that Russia's eastward expansion might sever England's link to India, the ``Jewel in the Crown.'' ``In private, Queen Victoria described Tsar Alexander III as `barbaric, Asiatic, and tyrannical.' Conservatives feared Russia thrusting towards the Dardanelles, into the Far East, against the frontiers of India, through Persia towards the Gulf. Liberals rejected the Russian autocracy as anti-democratic. Britain's first step away from Splendid Isolation had been the alliance with Japan, a treaty specifically aimed at containing Imperial Russia.''

The entente with Russia that was consolidated was hardly a ``community of principle.''

Massie also depicts events and personalities inside the degenerate court of Kaiser Wilhelm II that facilitated the British encirclement. He unmasks key advisers such as First Counselor Friedrich von Holstein, Count Paul Wolff Metternich and Prince Karl Lichnowsky as likely agents or at least pawns in the British Great Game. For example, Massie describes Holstein's maneuverings, which led Germany away from renewing its Reinsurance Treaty alliance with Russia in the late 1880s. This stratagem paved the way for Russia's unlikely embrace of previous enemies France and England, a move that would have been inconceivable for Holstein's previous master, Otto von Bismarck.



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Jacky Fisher and the "Dreadnought"
Once the encirclement of Germany is completed, and the United States and Japan are towed into the new alignment, Massie proceeds to document the rise of mercurial Jacky Fisher and the new Royal Navy in the 20th century, and its pivotal role in events leading toward war. In the early 20th century, Fisher was the architect of the new Dreadnought battleship, whose oil-powered turbine engine allowed it to carry very big guns that could fire from over the horizon. His name was synonymous with rebuilding the British fleet and with war against Germany. Massie provides quote after quote from Fisher on the deliberate targeting of Germany as England's only adversary from 1902 onward, such as the following scenario of Fisher's:
``Fisher was convinced throughout his term as First Sea Lord of the inevitability of war with Germany.... Fisher thought that the Germans would choose a weekend, probably a weekend with a bank holiday. He had no difficulty pinpointing the date, the name of the British admiral, and the name of the battle in which Britain's future would be decided. `Jellicoe to be Admiralissimo on Oct. 21, 1914 when the Battle of Armageddon comes along,' he wrote in 1911. Fisher's premise and most of the details of his prediction were correct. He picked the date because it corresponded with the probable completion of the deepening of the Kiel Canal, which would permit the passage of German dreadnoughts from the Baltic to the North Sea. War did come on a bank holiday weekend, although it was in August, not October, 1914. (The Kiel Canal had been completed in July.) At the Battle of Armageddon, which was the Battle of Jutland, when the whole strength of the German High Seas Fleet was hurled against the Royal Navy, the Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Fleet was Sir John Jellicoe. Jellicoe was in command because, over the years, Fisher had guided his career and insisted that no one else would do.''
As war became inevitable, Massie details, the British ruling class stepped up its preparation of cultural and psychological warfare against the British people to prepare them. He systematically goes through the contrived ``media events'' of 1908-12 that paved the way for combat. An example, among the numerous pulp novels that appeared in those years, was the ``futuristic'' The Invasion of 1910 by William Le Queux.

``...|On both sides, the war was fought with ferocity.
``The Germans are monsters who bayonet women and children, force terrified citizens to dig their own graves, and, in retaliation for the ambush of a German supply party, slaughter the entire population of an English town. The Kaiser is not a `splendid chap', but a bloodthirsty barbarian who craves the bombardment and sacking of London.

``|`The pride of these English must be broken,' commands the All Highest. The English are almost as brutal: Any German who falls into their hands is shot stabbed, hanged, or garrotted.''

Massie's final chapters reveal many of the machinations of Foreign Secretary Edward Lord Grey, who transformed the Serbian-authored assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand into the detonation of European genocide. While the crisis around the murder was crescendoing, Massie writes, Grey failed to brief the British cabinet, despite the fact that he was monitoring all European communiqués. The British government was not advised about the situation until one week prior to the German declaration of war. In Grey's mind, the trap of war against Germany, carefully plotted for over 15 years, had been sprung. Massie concludes his book with Grey's lament on the inevitability of it all: After delivering his ultimatum to Germany to halt its mobilization, Grey ``uttered the lines which memorably signaled the coming of the First World War. `The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime.'|''


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The preceding article is a rough version of the article that appeared in The American Almanac. It is made available here with the permission of The New Federalist Newspaper. Any use of, or quotations from, this article must attribute them to The New Federalist, and The American Almanac.



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The Versailles Treaty:
The War Guilt Clause

by Webster Tarpley
Printed in the American Almanac, March, 1995

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Links to other WWI Documents
The entire international public order of the post-1919 era, including the League of Nations and, by extension, the United Nations, has been based on the absurd lie that Germany was solely responsible for the outbreak of World War I. This finding was officially reported to the Paris Peace Conference at the close of the war by a ``Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors of the War,'' which was chaired by American Secretary of State Robert Lansing. Lansing refused to allow any Germans to take part in his deliberations, and the commission ignored a new ``German White Book'' compiled in 1919 by Hans Delbrûck, Professor Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Count Montgelas, and Max Weber, which contained enough evidence to show that the thesis of exclusive German war guilt was untenable. The kernel of Lansing's conclusions was as follows:

``The War was premeditated by the Central Powers together with their allies, Turkey and Bulgaria, and was the result of acts deliberately committed in order to make it unavoidable. Germany, in agreement with Austria-Hungary, deliberately worked to defeat all the many conciliatory proposals made by the Entente Powers.''

This false verdict was then incorporated into the infamous Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, which alleges:
``The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.''

The German delegates were coerced into signing the Versailles Treaty by threats of renewed war and by the economic blockade still imposed on Germany after the armistice by the fleets of the Entente. The thesis of exclusive German war guilt was required by the Entente as a premise for the Carthaginian peace imposed on the Central Powers, which included the demand for more than $32 billion in war reparations, especially to France, plus interest for servicing this debt over decades into the future.

In the years after the war, documentary evidence was published which further undermined the Big Lie of Versailles. This included Karl Kautsky's Outbreak of the World War, (New York, 1924), the Soviet Materials for the History of Franco-Russian Relations from 1910 to 1914, (Moscow, 1922), the Austrian Red Book of 1919, and the diary of Baron Schilling of the Russian Foreign Ministry (London, 1925).

The false verdict of Versailles had already become a scandal in America during the 1920s, when historians like H.E. Barnes demanded the revision of the war guilt clause. Typical is this conclusion from the academic historian Sidney B. Fay of Harvard in 1930:

``The verdict of the Versailles Treaty that Germany and her allies were responsible for the War, in view of the evidence now available, is historically unsound. It should therefore be revised. However, because of the popular feeling widespread in some of the Entente countries, it is doubtful whether a formal and legal revision is as yet practicable. There must first come a further revision by historical scholars, and through them of public opinion.''

Now, after fascism, a second world conflict, the Cold War, and the fall of the communist regimes in Europe, the time has come to reopen the Versailles Treaty. The treaty must be revised to specify the war guilt of an international conspiracy masterminded first by King Edward VII of England, and after him by Sir Edward Grey, in which figures like Izvolski, Sazonov, and Clemenceau were participants. The center of war guilt must be fixed in London.{--Webster G. Tarpley




LOOK FOR THESE DOCUMENTS..

- 2- Icke-Secret-History-Elite-Oligarchy-Policies-Techniques-LaRouche-Babylon-Secrets.doc
There are powerful families in each country in the World for thousands of years - their elites - so these policies and techniques are used in every country of the World. Only competition with other elites allows a richer and stronger humanity then the return of the normal policies.

About how there is a secret organisation, originally the Babylonian Secret service whose job is to maintain the most powerful elite in power. Agent of influence Aristotle who poisoned Alexander the Great Whose philosophy dummed down the nature of Genius through the promotion of induction over Hypothesis by retelling the discovery of all science through induction rather than by Hypothesis, thus stopping scientific progress through stopping the use of hypothesis. Low science economies are traditionally very poor.

The Venetian takeover after the Seige of Cambrai 1500 How they took over Great Britain and British Intelligence - MI6(secret agents)

- 6- Icke-Secret-History-laRouche-Russell.doc
Lord Russel agent of Influence of the elite creating the policy of fear of atomic bombs to control all the countries of the World and control the production of free nuclear electricity and thus keep humanity poor and downtrodden. His subversion - dumming down - of Science and Mathematics. Their agents of influence and their work to maintain an elite in power for thousands of years.

- 3- Icke-Secret-History-LaRouche-Carol-White-WW1-WW2.pdf
These techniques have been used for thousands of years to create the dark ages thus maintaining the relative strength of the elites, thus maintaining their power and control. Here is the recent Great Britain and USA elite use of war to destroy the economy of World and European countries thus maintaining the pre-eminance of Great Britains elites - their noble families. They do this by destroying the means of humanity rising up and defeating them. Assassination of Humanist Politicians and leaders and their replacement with elite workers. The creation of poverty, low science, low medicine, low education, famine - Malthusian Policies - and the propagation of money gaining perversions - drugs, sex, homosexuality, gambling and also control of the Words most important Industry - Banking; Britain now has control of 70% of this industry in the World.

Britain taken over by the Venetian families (Roman - Venetian - Phoenetian - from Babylon and Summeria) when Dutch William of Orange took over the British Throne. Great Britain controls 70% of the Worlds banks. Their imperialism maintained through control of money also through Assassination (Accidents and Poison to create cancer and heart disease) through James Bonds to remove impediments and put in the Vice President controlled by the elite. All wars created to reduce the intelligence of humanity, create poverty, reduce education, create famine.

Their Role in creating the French Revolution through agents of Influence like the Duke of Orleans and Cagliostro. Napoleon put in charge by Britain. Lord Shelburne and Jeremy Bentham - then control British Intelligence and employ terrorist creator Mazzini Agent of Influence creates european terrorism through Young Turks etc, and creates the Mafia. The Russian Revolution - Lenin was an Agent sent in to take over. Milner plan for World Empire through subverting USA elites. The British/USA elite created First and Second World wars to destroy European and Russian economies, but most other wars too. "To bomb them back into the stone age".

The fear of the elite to have a strong humanity which can remove these elites so the death of a thousand cuts to destroy the strength of humanity through Created Terrorists, War, genocide, pogroms also poison in the air, bad food, poison in the food. Control of Universities, Media, Newspapers, TV, Movies, Internet, Gambling, Prostitution and illegal drugs trade by the elites.

- 4- Icke-Secret-History-LaRouche-Drugs.pdf
Illegal drugs controlled by Britain and USA elites. Since 1850 Britain selling drugs - Indian Opium in China. Drugwar against China because of Free Trade - gained War and Hong Kong and the continuance of Business. Drugs out slaves in. Golden Triangle drugs funneled through Thailand elites working for Britain. Thaksin Shinawatra stops drugs. Reason for invasion of Afganistan. Taliban Fatwa on Opium. Since invasion, 99% of all World opium supplied from Afganistan - One Trillion Black Dollar per year industry once laundered by HSBC (Hong Kong and Shanghai bank) creating 20 Trillions of white credit.

- 1- David Icke - And The Truth Shall Set You Free.pdf
The Elite control of the World. American and British elites work together but the guys in charge are another race which can take over the bodies of Humans generation to generation for thousands of years. Cold, hard Reptiles.

- 5- Icke-Black-Magic-Fritz-Springmeier-Mind-Control.pdf
For thousands of years these methods have been used to program the minds of close helpers of the elite. This is the latest psychological Research on the drugs, trauma and methods to take over the minds of humanity through implantation so as to gain helpers..

Berne-Eric-The-Games-People-Play-The-Psychology-Of-Human-Relationships.pdf
and in spanish Berne-Eric-Juegos-En-Que-Participamos.pdf
The ego is a mass of energy blockages and talents perverted by trauma formed negative karmic mass. This is the way in which all people are distracted by their energy blockages or the implanted ego of humanity. Here we have reports on the sub-personalities and the programmed modes of "Normal" humanity. The difficulty of talking as a tool to remove blockages. The necessity of meditative techniques which are more efficient, powerful to remove programs, blockages.


 

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Love and Light,

Satchidanand

 

YOUR ENERGY ENHANCEMENT COURSE AT THE SEVEN STAR  TAJ LAKE PALACE HOTEL, UDAIPUR, INDIA

 

Grand Royal Suites

The Grand Royal Suites are the epitome of royal grandeur and offer guests a taste of the finest traditions and lifestyles of the princely kingdom of Udaipur. The resplendent Grand Royal Suites are the part of the original design of the palace and their decadence is legendary. Many Grand Royal Suites also flaunt an attached terrace. However lavish the suites may be, they are also warm and welcoming to a fault.
 

Grand Royal Suite Amenities

  • Average Room Size - 1000 to 1200 Square Feet.
  • Lake, City Palace & ancient summer retreat palace views
  • Contemporary décor with traditional influences
  • Exquisite King beds / Ploh feather duvet on each mattress
  • Turndown service
  • Plasma TV / DVD Player / Tea Coffee maker
  • Luxurious high-end Frette linen from Italy with 492 thread count
  • Full size bathtub with separate shower facilities.
  • Forest Essential bath amenities.
  • Cypress Bathrobes / Embroidered Slippers
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  • Pillow Menu / Quilt menu
  • Make up mirror / Hair dryer from Aliseo / Equinox weighing scale
  • Suit, skirt and padded hangers
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  • Dual line telephones with voicemail and data line capabilities
  • Desk
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  • In-room, electronic safe. Not laptop size.
  • Sewing kit on request
  • 24-hour in-room dining
  • Housekeeping service every 24 hours
  • Choice of smoking and non smoking rooms
  • Fruit Platter
  • Goodnite Chocolates
  • Bottle of Wine
  • Chocolate platter
 

 

Khush Mahal

Khush Mahal, tucked away in the rear of the palace, was once the queen’s chamber.Its understated, elegant interiors, cusped arches and other authentic details define the spectacular suite. An antique swing, suspended by decorative gleaming brass chains, invites you to sit back and enjoy the charm of this suite. Coloured glass panels transform sunrays into a kaleidoscope of colours, infusing the room with an enchanting warm ambience.

Udai Mahal

Udai Mahal pays tribute to the illustrious and foresighted ruler Maharana Udai Singh II, who laid the foundations of Udaipur, on a cluster of hills near Lake Pichola in the mid-16th century. The exquisitely furnished suite, embellished with original miniature paintings, brocade panelling and antique ivory inlaid chairs, recreate a regal world to be savoured by modern connoisseurs.

Sarva Ritu

Sarva Ritu or the All Seasons Suite is a seamless blend of royal living and contemporary luxury. The interiors are embellished with charming beds, decorative wooden headboards, rich furnishings, a brilliant Waterford chandelier and engravings. Closing the corner chattri, which was once a partly open pavilion, has enhanced the beauty of this suite. So you can soak yourself in complete privacy and drink in the spectacular view of the lake and mountains.

Kamal Mahal

Kamal Mahal or Lotus Palace alludes to the beauty of the flower, traditionally regarded as a symbol of purity in India. The pristine beauty of the suite, with its select artefacts, paintings, furniture and carpets, conveys a warm and welcoming ambience. A Pichwais, a revered, hand-painted cloth traditionally crafted in Nathdwara, for display behind idols, adds beauty to the suite.

Sajjan Niwas

The Sajjan Niwas suite, built by Maharana Sajjan Singh between 1874-1884, retains an old world charm in its lamps, portraits, glass mosaics, traditional cloth fans, inlaid doors and intricate furniture. The bedroom of the suite, decorated with frescoes depicting the Hindu deity Krishna, is suffused with romance. The Sajjan Niwas Suite Terrace opens onto the lake with spectacular views of Jagmandir Island and Aravallis.Intimate dinners and private parties easily suggest themselves for this idyllic venue.

Chandra Prakash

The Chandra Prakash, or Lustre of the Moon suite, glows like a celestial orb with golden-yellow chandeliers and lamps softly lighting the decorative gilt mouldings, and sinuously sculpted marble. Fine fretted screens, floors inlaid with yellow, diamond-shaped tiles and ceiling frescoes complete the luminescent décor. Maharana Bhopal Singh held court in this august room in the 1930’s making it the only suite to hold this honour.

Virkha

Virkha, or rains, are especially precious in desert and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan.Clouds fill the skies, and the rain gently fills the lakes, transforming the land into soothing shades of green and infusing the air with a soft scent of damp earth.This elegant suite, embellished with local crafts and textiles, includes a sitting area and two balconies that offer guests panoramic views of the lake to enjoy the special season.

Mayur Mahal

The resplendent beauty of the peacock with its iridescent blue, green and bronze hues, inspire the rich décor of Mayur Mahal. In India the beautiful bird has traditionally been regarded as a symbol of royalty, love, fertility and the rains. The artistically crafted with glass mosaic peacock motifs embellish the walls of this exquisite suite.The coloured glass window panels change the mood in the room as the light shifts so Mayur Mahal has a different regal ambience at every hour of the day.

Jal Tarang

The Jal Tarang suite evokes the idea of water waves. Located at the lobby level it offers scenic views of the tranquil waters of Lake Pichola and the mountains. The lake facing Jacuzzi and the magical frosted glass panels that change to clear ones with a flick of a switch add to the romance of this suite. Jal Tarang is an ideal place to savour the myriad colours of the sky and lake at sunset.

THAILAND LIVE COURSE

COME YOURSELF AND GET EXPERIENCED!!

Dear Satchy and Devi!

DANISA IN THAILAND

"I feel so happy to meet Satchy and Devi, they are high spiritual teachers that can see deeply inside you, behind the mask that everybody has. They can see your soul, your real self!! If you need help you 'll get it from them ... " Danisa de Paul (Spain) Dance Instructor/Yoga and meditation teacher - 2004 Course in Spain

 

DANISA WENT TO JAPAN TO TEACH AND EVERY YEAR NOW SHE WINTERS IN THAILAND - HERE IS HER NEW YEAR 2009 EMAIL ...


First of all , happy new year! I hope that this 2009 bring us together again!!! yes, why not?


I heard that you are coming to India... uhhhh I thought ill see you there..
anyway, we are here in Thailand with my mum. She is doing fine and happy!!


I talked to Hiromi in Japan and she'll do the Energy Enhancement Levels 3 and Level 4 with you this year, that's great!!!


I just thought about you and want to tell you that I am very thankful for everything and thanks soo much for your Energy Enhancement Level 1 and Level 2 DVDs, I am so happy to have then with me and be able to travel with your teachings, they are great!!


I'd like to know how you are doing and if you have changed any plans or have new plans for your future.


I'll be doing a Vipasana again in a month and a half around...
I'll let you know...


I'll be working soon and I'll keep you posted
love you both


Danisa

SEPTEMBER ENERGY ENHANCEMENT

COURSE IN SPAIN, Week 2 of 4

 

JEAN, THOMAS, AMY, SATCHIDANAND AND VANESSA IN SPAIN


Having found yet another blockage in my base chakra, I couldn't help but feel rather despondent. After gritting my teeth and getting stuck in, I finally managed to remove it. This blockage in the Base Chakra was the last one there!!!

The next time I sat down to meditate, I suddenly felt a tickling sensation in my pelvis above the perineum. This sensation increased in intensity, and felt like champagne bubbling up my body from below. The flow of energy around my body had risen to a new level giving me an increased ability to track down blockages and an increased confidence in myself. Wow!

I suddenly remembered the writings of the inspired Poet and Meditation Master, the Persian Shakespeare, Jal Al Uddin Rumi and that always he talked of the wine of his meditation and this feeling of energy was what he was writing about a thousand years ago and I was feeling it, here and Now!!



Next, I came across a particularly stubborn blockage to remove, and knew that I would have to prepare myself well during meditation. I consciously sourced as much energy from above to flow through my body, and in doing so, rather than my body being filled with golden light, I had somehow tapped into an immense source of white light.

 

As well as feeling this increased energy stream through my body, I realised I had involuntarily suspended breathing somewhere near the top of an in breath. My body felt like a beacon of light, with more than enough energy to direct toward a blockage and watch it dissolve in an instant.



Since that time I am always connected to and able to source the white light from above my head. Many times during this process I just forget to breathe as though my breathing is just naturally suspended. I am now living in the Light!!

 

 

My energies are naturally far higher than when I arrived on the Energy Enhancement course just two weeks ago. I am experiencing the fruits of meditation which normally arrive, if they do, after twenty years of meditation and it has only taken me two weeks.

This is the first meditation course I have been on. I have an injured knee from a few months ago in a motor cycle accident, yet the knee is now healed of its blockages and of its pain here on the Energy Enhancement Course and I am sitting in meditation for more than three hours a day, on the ground in the easy meditation posture, here in the light and working on more of my deep internal blockages.

Truly, perhaps Enlightenment is next!!

 
 

 

 

ENERGY ENHANCEMENT STUDENT REPORTS

THOMAS BLAIRS REPORT JULY 9TH 2010 AT THE ASHRAM OF SATHYA SAI BABA IN INDIA

 

I have been to see Satchi & Devi almost once a year since 2005, and I have to say, that I have never been let down. Every time they greet me at the airport I am received in an atmosphere of great warmth, positivity and generosity, into which I soon relax and know that it’s safe to be me with all my “luggage”. In June 2010 I recently went on a 6 week course they were holding in India.

 

In the weeks I spent with them it was clear that the blockages I was removing with their help, were increasing the amount of energy flowing through me during meditation. I have never been one to naturally take to meditating, but with these new experiences of Samadhi (sam – with, adhi – light), it was certainly making it possible for me to sit for much longer periods.

 

I must concede, that on more than one occasion I started to object and complain about what we were doing, and the methods employed to transmute the blockages in my being. Satchi & Devi would patiently wait for me to see that the person complaining was not the real me, it was not the soul infused personality that I really am, but rather the voice of the blockages that did not want to go. There are different types of blockages, and of course, the easy ones are the first to go, but I was now experiencing some really tough ones. They can certainly be very cunning these blockages, and its thanks to the experience and energy of Satchi & Devi that I was able to continue on my way to overcome some really strong blockages.

 

My experiences of Samadhi: The first time I experienced anything other than a calm mind in meditation was actually the very first course I attended with Satchi & Devi in Spain. The experience of energy surging through my body was first felt in my 1st and 2nd chakras. It was like having champagne bubbling away in my lower abdomen. Before I talk about my experience here in India, I think it would be useful to describe briefly and partly a technique used to commence the flow of energy and so the entry into Samadhi. It’s to do with using the mind to visualise chakras above the head and below the base chakra to infinity. For me, the concept of infinity and trying to imagine this distance above my head, kind of triggered a bypass switch in my mind, and all of a sudden my mind was quite literally replaced by a surge of electricity and light – Samadhi. 

 

"If the Map is Correct, Experiences Follow" - Satchidanand

 

This time here in India I was experiencing different levels of Samadhi. During meditation I notice the attainment of a constant flow of energy through my being which gets more and more intense, and rises further and further up my body, the higher I go up the chakras above my head to an inconceivably bright and intense sun. Quite often my breathing slows or even stops a while at the head of an in-breath as my head feels infused with light. My body feels like it is being purified, and in fact it is, as light is being shone through me. I always finish the meditation feeling more positive about my life and the world around me and a feeling that really everything is ok.

 

Over and above this, I receive what I would describe as bolts of light lasting between 2-5 seconds.

 

During these brief moments, I am no longer a body with senses or even a sense of weighing or being anything, and am unable to think.

"In the Buddhafield we find we can Move On More Quickly!" - Satchidanand

 

It’s my experience that the body is like a resistor in an electronic circuit. The more blockages we have, the greater the resistance to the light. By removing a significant number of blockages, I have reduced the resistance of my gross and subtle body, and am now able to sit in Samadhi with ease. And of course, the more light I can sit in, the more blockages I can remove - now that’s what I call spiritual progress!

 

WRITTEN BY Thomas Blair - AT THE ASHRAM OF SATHYA SAI BABA WITH SATCHI AND DEVI

 

 

LOVE AND LIGHT

SATCHIDANAND

LIKE THOMAS BLAIR, FEEL the ENERGY of INDIA!!

Energy Enhancement India Tour

JUST EMAIL ENERGY ENHANCEMENT AT THE FOLLOWING ADDRESS

EMAIL sol@energyenhancement.org for details

SATCHIDANAND GIVING THE SEPTEMBER 2006 COURSE

MANY OF OUR STUDENTS HAVE RETURNED FOR OUR COURSE IN SPAIN THIS YEAR WHICH SURELY SAYS SOMETHING ABOUT ENERGY ENHANCEMENT

 

HERE IS THE LATEST TESTIMONIAL FROM JEAN

I have put together a testimonial below. After last years testimonial - CLICK HERE!! I was struggling for something new to say, so I have gone for a different angle.......

Energy Enhancement Course

L’Escala SEPTEMBER 2006



The course for me was really a refresher as I had previously completed the course in 2005. You can see my testimonial from 2005 elsewhere on this site.

After a year of practicing the advanced techniques of energy enhancement I am enjoying the benefits of increased energy flow, and much less blockages.
From a material perspective my income has doubled in a year! But more importantly I feel I am moving swiftly along my spiritual path towards enlightenment.

Prior to Energy Enhancement, Enlightenment seemed like a faraway dream not for this lifetime. Now I feel it is almost inevitable - only a matter of a few years away.

As for the course - I can only reiterate what I said last year. After 12 years of Transcendental Meditation and experimentation with many other meditation and self improvement techniques it is my opinion that nothing comes close to the power and precision of energy enhancement.

There is little more I can say about the efficacy of Energy enhancement that I haven’t already said before so I will recount a wonderful experience I had whilst on the course.

The rest of the class were sat in a circle on the floor meditating with Master Satchidanand. It was my turn to receive an initiation from Devi so I was sat on a chair at the back of the meditation room with my eyes closed and hands together in a prayer like fashion.

As I became absorbed in the experience of the initiation it was as if my eyes opened to the scene before me. However this was not the scene to which I closed my eyes.

Satchi and the students had transformed into beings of intense white light. I think that I was being given a glimpse of their true nature, a peek at the world the way the enlightened see it.

The meditation room had opened and expanded. I felt we were outdoors in a place of great space, holiness and energetic purity maybe a forest or mountain top.

 

Then I became aware of the presence of others. A group of beings approached from my right and turned to face me one by one.

I felt immense happiness and peace at their presence, they had an aura of intense holiness and purity - great Saints and Sages.

 

As they faced me and bowed one by one I felt a feeling of unworthiness but the thought came immediately "worthiness is not necessary, by the grace of God infinite love and light is offered to each of us every moment all we need do is accept it".

 

I felt that they were very pleased with my practice and had appeared to me to let me know. I think it is important to say that I was in no way unique.

Most of the other students this year and last year had experiences of meeting beings of light, ascended masters and angels - EE has that effect!

Come and experience it for yourself you won't be disappointed.

JEAN

 

Truly, perhaps Enlightenment is next!!

You will probably find this interesting. Jenny who came on the Energy Enhancement course with me this year went to see her accupuncturist which she does routinely.

This guy (Ross) seems very talented, by reading her pulse he can tell her what she has been eating - certain energy patterns apparently. Anyway when he checked her pulses this time he found something interesting.

 Apparently there is a pulse which gives an indication of the level of spiritual energy.

Jennies' spiritual energy was reading off the scale, something Ross said he has never seen before with Jenny or anyone else.

He says people just don't have this pulse and as far as he knows the only way to get it is to connect to external sources which as you know we did on the Course - wow!

Truly, perhaps Enlightenment is next!!

 
Kindest Regards & Thanks as always
 
Jean

 

PHOTO OF SATCHIDANAND

 

ENERGY ENHANCEMENT MEDITATION STREAMING VIDEO DVDS - TALKS WITH THE MASTER JULY 2010

QUESTION AND ANSWER WITH SATCHIDANAND ON THE STREAMING VIDEO AND DVD ENERGY ENHANCEMENT COURSES

Hello Satchidanand,

Thanks for the the Streaming Video EE Level 1 Meditation.

Y
our last response must be full of love and light because I was able to watch those videos you sent me and practise meditation on the same day. It's a breakthrough for me.

Here's my first time experience with the EE Initiation 1 Meditation:

First, I have trouble straightening my spine (lower back) like you did in the video when I'm sitting on the floor in the cross legged posture. I will work on this, and I think stretching would probably help with this, right?

I also find myself having a hard time maintaining the posture. Like you said in the video, I'm a beginner, so I have to frequently adjust my posture throughout the meditation.

I'm not sure when I have aligned my spine correctly.

I feel a cool, refreshing sensation when I think I'm aligned properly, like the feeling you get when you walk into an air conditioned room on a hot summer day. It's a very wonderful feeling. Is this a symptom of aligning my spines correctly or is it all just my imagination?

A few minutes into the meditation, I can feel that my body starts to shake. I feel that the shaking comes from my heart beat, though I'm not sure, it could be the result of staying in the posture for the first time - my muscles could just be worn out.

I tried to follow the breathing you mentioned in the video during meditation, but I keep getting the urge to pause and stop breathing in between the in and out breaths. Should I ignore or follow my urge?


Today, I definitely feel that I have more energy. I feel the extra energy comes from the area of my body where my hands were placed during meditation.

I also loved the first talk!


Thanks again for your response.

Andy

IF A SIMPLE STUDENT CAN GET THIS ENERGY, THIS POWERING UP FIRST TIME WITH ONE INITIATION STREAMING VIDEO - AND EVERY STUDENT GETS THESE EXPERIENCES - THINK WHAT IS POSSIBLE FOR YOU!!

RECESSION BUSTER PRICES NOW!!

JUST EMAIL ENERGY ENHANCEMENT AT THE FOLLOWING ADDRESS

EMAIL sol@energyenhancement.org for details

Meditation Course Testimonial by Susan Wade - Nurse - Ramana Maharshi Experiences on the 1997 Southern India Tour

Click Here for Energy Enhancement India Tours

From Devi and Sat I have gained Support, friendship, healing and guidance in contacting our source of inner wisdom through the release of old patterns of behaviour - daily practice of meditation and Energy Work.

From the Energy Enhancement Work I got the importance of daily routine of meditation - time to be alone and get in contact with my higher self, also tune into my thought system and experience how I really feel about issues affecting my life eg. Trust - I find it hard to form close friendships through lack of trust, opening myself up may result in pain. Learning to take risks, trust in guidance from my higher self. If I do experience pain in any relationship - what lessons can I learn from this pain - see it as a teaching/growth experience rather than negative experience which reconfirms to my darker side Just can't trust anybody - told you so!

Hatha yoga - gentle form of yoga which allows you to proceed at your own pace - awareness of stiffness/pain of body joints. Correct breathing into the pain allows the body to relax and the pain to leave - allowing you to master the pain with awareness rather than give up. The chanting was good. I have felt a fire in the heart and heat in the spine after chanting with Devi and Sat in Sai Babas Ashram.

The Ashram of Sri Ramana Maharshi embraced me with love, gentleness and feeling of inner peace. On walking up the steps into the cave of Ramana Maharshi I was embraced by strong energy - a welcome energy. During meditating in his room (in the cave) I had a strong vision of him entering my forehead. He (Ramana Maharshi) told me it was time to go home.  The vision has reappeared to bring me support during periods of deep inner pain experienced throughout the tour.

RAMANA MAHARSHI

In the Ashram of Father Bede Griffiths  I felt strong presence of spiritual energy. The lectures from brother Martin about looking at life and teachings of Christs message through love and not fear, as man likes to believe, has allowed me, as a Catholic, to respect Christs teaching and see him as a teacher of love and wisdom. Happiness is here to obtain in this life, not the next.

Ashram of Sai Baba - Opening of my heart Chakra.
During a healing session with Devi and Satchidanand, a person who wronged me, raped me, 22 years ago, leaving me with pain and guilt, came through Satchidanand in a healing session to say he was sorry for the grief he had caused. This has helped me to release a lot of pent up tension, anger guilt, pain. To be asked for forgiveness awakens the part of you that would like to be forgiven for the times I have wronged people - to look at the areas in my life I need to resolve before I get a true picture of my inner qualities, strengths, accepting guidance within.

The power of forgiveness and to forgive is a very strong quality to possess, a wonderful friend to have.

 

(Since the course Susan has left UK where she has been working as a nurse for many years having been almost exiled there by the parochial consciousness of New Zealand after her rape 22 years ago. She is dealing with the Mastery of Relationships Initiation. She has now returned home to New Zealand after her spiritual vision in the cave at Arunachala - Ramana Maharshi "It is time to go Home" Love and Light, Satchidanand)

 

Click here for SRI RAMANA MAHARSHI, GURU, ENLIGHTENED ILLUMINATED SPIRITUAL MASTER

 

Hello Andy,

First, this is not your imagination.

Spiritual Kundalini Energy is real and this is your first meeting with it!!


First, use a cushion.

Use a BIG cushion sufficient to get your spine in alignment with the energies from the center of the Universe into the center of the earth.

Go with the feeling to hold the breath when you feel to.

Do not do it all the time. Just when you feel it!

You have to feel when you are in alignment. Air conditioned will do.

Then understand that it is possible to be more aligned, closer to the center.

Search.

Keep searching for the center.

Shaking is normal, but usually it is the result of energy blockages - tell me more next time.

Meditate every day, twice a day.

Try to increase your periods of meditation - do not push too much - easily.

Power Up!!

Get back to me with more experiences.


Copy to the blog!!

Love and Light
 

Satchidanand

...The straight spine is just a spine in alignment.

In reality the spine is curved forwards from the base, opening the abdomen, allowing breathing deeply into the abdomen.

The spine at the heart center is open, big heart, spine curved forwards there. Open your Heart!!

I say this on the video.

The shaking is a blockage symptom!!

Emotions, negative emotions which you cannot control, instead of the emotion of Love, are also symptoms of Energy Blockages

Level 2 is the removal of blockages.

Before that, you need to imagine the energy of your long out breath breathing through the blockage. Breath it out and burn it up in the center of the earth.

Remember, anger and fear are not you. It is the removable blockage!!

Experience of Energy Blockages and their symptoms is part of the course. You need to overcome the symptoms and eventually remove the blockage.

The blockage has been there for years. The energy of meditation makes it visible and thus removable!!

Love and Light,

Satchidanand

You're right! I watched the Video again, and I was surprised how much information I missed the first time.

My spine is curved a bit backwards when I sit, and I think this is due to my lack of flexibility. But, I can feel that my spine is more able to "curve forwards at the base" as I sit more and more.

I always looked for ways to improve my posture, and I found the methods of stretching through the heart and the back of the head perfect for it. Thanks for the great Video! And thank you Satchidanand for giving me these awesome suggestions!

I'll practise diligently to get into alignment and then remove all the Energy Blockages!

Andy

 

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