AND REMEMBER THAT RELIGION IS NOT SCHOLARSHIP. You can learn the Vedas and the Bible and the Koran, and you can become really efficient, yet you will not be religious. The same work can be done by a computer in a far better way. Only one thing the computer cannot do, and that is: it cannot feel. The computer can think. Now we have machines which can think, but no machine can feel.

Religion has something to do with the feeling part of your being, not with the thinking part of your being. You can study, you can become very knowledgeable, you can be burdened with great knowledge, but all this burdening slowly slowly will dry the juices of your heart. This knowledge will be like rocks, and your heart will flow no more. Your heart will be too much surrounded by rocks. It needs a little freedom to flow. It is a small stream of love. And only that small stream of love knows how to go to God. No rock can go to the ocean—only that small stream of love knows how to reach the ocean. And it needs no maps, no guidebooks. It simply knows. The knowing is intuitive.

Every man simply knows how to love—there is no need to teach him. What is needed then? All that is needed is a loving atmosphere where the spirit can be imbibed. That's what happens when you go to a Master, when you enter a Sufi tekkia—a Sufi school, or a Buddhafield, or when you enter into the energy world of a Master: you are going into a magnetic field where love is flowing, where many hearts are dancing, where minds have been put aside, where feeling has become supreme. Just all that you need is a climate.

The Master is a climate, an atmosphere, in which you suddenly become aware of your own potential. Not that the Master gives you something—there is no need! All that is needed has always been given to you by God. But in the presence of the Master, some chord in your heart starts responding, as if somebody is playing music and the very hearing of it and a dance arises in you. Your whole body wants to dance. You are in the grip of the music; it has touched and moved your heart. You are connected, bridged.

A Master is a musician. He sings a song. He lives a song. He vibrates, pulsates a certain melody. And those who are intimate with him, those who allow themselves to be close to him, those who can be in a kind of let-go with him, those who relax with him... this is what satsang is: relaxing with a Master, dropping your tensions. There is a pool of energy; if you drop your tensions, suddenly you will become aware of your own pool too.

A very famous ancient story:

It happened, a small group of sheep was passing through a valley. A lioness jumped from one side to the other side, from one hillock to another hillock. And just while she was jumping, she gave birth to a child. The child fell into that small group of sheep.

The child was brought up by the sheep. Naturally, the child knew from the very beginning that he was a sheep. He never became aware of his being a lion—although he was a lion! Just by forgetting, your nature does not change. He became very big, but the growth came so slowly, so slowly, that the sheep also accepted him—he was a freak child, it appeared. Something strange, eccentric, a little bit off the track, outlandish, but in every other way he was a sheep. Absolutely vegetarian he was, and walked like sheep, and lived with sheep, and talked like sheep.

One day this miracle was seen by another lion. An old lion passing by looked at this miracle—he could not believe his eyes. It was impossible! The young lion was walking with the sheep and the sheep were not afraid. They were going so together, in such great friendship—he could not believe his eyes! He had never heard of such a thing.

He rushed to catch hold of the lion. "What has gone... has he gone mad or something?" And the sheep escaped, and the sheep-lion also escaped, naturally—so much afraid, trembling. But the old lion became very curious, and somehow he got hold of him, took him to the river. And he was not willing to go. He was shrinking back and holding back, and he was saying, "Just leave me, please. Leave me alone! Let me go with my people."

I know this story, because this is what I go on doing to you every day, and you say, "Leave me alone. Let me be a Hindu or a Mohammedan or a Christian—let me go to my people! Where are you taking me? I am just a sheep, and I am perfectly happy. Don't disturb me!"

But the old lion persisted He forced the young lion to the river, and there they both looked into the river, the silent river, no ripples. It was like a mirror. And the old lion said, "Look, you are not a sheep. Look in the river!"

Just the look... and do you know what happened? A great lion's roar, suddenly! This is what Zen people call 'sudden enlightenment'. It was not a gradual process. Not that he said, "Okay, I will think about it." Not that "First I will have to go to school and study how to be a lion." Not that "Sir, I am very grateful to you—let me become your disciple. And, slowly slowly, one day, in this life or in some other life, I will attain to this enlightenment. I am grateful that you have showed me the path."

Nothing of this sort.

Just seeing his face and seeing the old lion's face similar, a roar exploded. In a single moment! In fact, in no time, with no interval of time. Timelessly. Instantly. Immediately... the sheep disappeared and there was a young lion.

This is the meaning of being with a Master.

You are not what you think you are. You have been taught you are this and that. You are not these small identities, these small egos. You are vast. You are infinite. You are eternal. Tat-tvam-asi: Thou art That! Not less than that. You are gods and goddesses. But you have fallen into many traps.

So it is not a question of studying. Religion has to be imbibed from someone who has arrived. It is from a Master to a disciple. It is not from the book to the student. It is from the alive Master to the alive disciple. It is a transmission of insight.

The Master is not a person but only a climate, a music, a silence. If you love, you also become silent—because whatsoever you love, you become like that. Remember it! Be very cautious in loving something, because whatsoever you love, you will become that.

The man who loves money, becomes money. He thinks only in terms of money and nothing else. The man who loves things, possessions, himself becomes a possession and nothing else, becomes a thing. Love something great! If you love a flower, it is better than loving money. If you love the moon, it is better than loving a house. If you love a woman, a man, a child, it is better than loving power and prestige.

But if you can find a Master and fall in his love, then that is the door to the divine—because on this earth, nothing is closer to God than a Master. And 'the difference between you and the Master is not of quality: the difference is only of remembrance.

Remember again the old lion and the young lion. What is the difference? There is no existential difference, no difference at all fundamentally. But there is a difference, a small difference, but that makes all the difference. The young lion has forgotten who he is. His heart has forgotten the language of a lion. He knows no more how to roar, how to shake the mountains with his roar. In the presence of the old lion, he imbibed, he recognized. Looking in the eyes of a Master, you will recognize who you are. Walking with the Master, you will recognize who you are. Just think of sitting with a Buddha... how long can you go on thinking that you are a sheep?

Sooner or later the lion's roar.


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Testimonial From Gary Spaid a Wealth Counselor in Vail Valley, Colorado, USA.

... I recommend you try this Energy Enhancement for yourself.

They gave some inner WEALTH to me and Yoga and better relationships to Candy.
Candy even wants to accompany my daily meditation sessions now!!

I suggest you try the Video course or the Online Course first before you invite them to YOUR home or go to visit them wherever in the World they are. I guess Spain or India this year. You will not be disappointed.


Gary Says.. I suggest you try the Video course - CLICK HERE



Satchi and Devi have given so much of themselves that I do not know where to begin.

So I have been give the necessary tools to use in my everyday life to further me on my spiritual quest. My knowledge has been greatly increased in the area of herbalism, homeopathy, acupressure, all of which are more effective with the EE techniques. I have been shown the necessary yoga positions to focus upon to combat poor posture and the healing of a past shoulder injury. At the end of the course I can even keep my knees on the floor in meditation for an hour at a time now, showing the unblocking work done on my Base chakra and its Kundalini energy, whereas when I started I would have thought this was impossible.

I have been taught to test for pesticides in my food and understand the effect they are having on my health and the environment. I have been given methods, EE Initiation 5, to eliminate toxins when they are in my system. I have also been shown how to cook healthy energising food that will improve my life.

Devi has given me Reiki l and 2 initiations, which have been beautiful experiences and I will be able to practice them with those in need.

Satchi and Devi have given so much of themselves that I do not know where to begin. Their care and love has been with me throughout the past two weeks for which I am eternally grateful. They have openly shared their special gifts and knowledge, which has filtered into my life to make it more whole, which has helped me progress on my spiritual path far quicker than I expected.










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Channeling The Soul


"De Profundis (out of the Depths of Sorrow)" - Dead Can Dance
"Summoning of the Muse" - Dead Can Dance
"Masked Ball" - Jocelyn Pook
"Migrations" - Jocelyn Pook
"Comfortably Numb" - Pink Floyd
"Set The Controls For the Heart of the Sun" - Pink Floyd
"Marooned" - Pink Floyd



We are born in the light of God but become
corrupted by the world because we need
experience of the consequences of this
before we, using our free will, can ourselves
decide to seal that door where evil dwells
and enter into purity, Enlightenment,
and to work for the benefit of all beings.


"De Profundis (out of the Depths of Sorrow)"
and "Summoning of the Muse"
by Lisa Gerrard and Dead Can Dance

Like Circumradient Dawn,
as the Sun of God rises we are born in
Purity, Devotion and Light.
Totally connected to that energy of
Genius of the Muse which allows
all possibilities in our life.


"Masked Ball" and "Migrations"
by Jocelyn Pook


This music, purposely, was taken from the movie
"Eyes Wide Shut" by Stanley Kubrick, which shows
the corruption of the world of purity, of innocence
and into which we, all of us, enter in many
of our lifetimes on this planet.


by Pink Floyd

This song includes what has been voted by many people as
the best guitar solo ever by any performer in the world,
and was created by David Gilmour.

It takes its energy from a descent into corruption and drugs
into a world of happy cows chewing the cud but
with no meaning or significance.

Above all of this is the sun of the Soul.
Shining upon all this misery, existing,
and all we have to do is to get in contact with it.


And yet,
"When I was a child I caught a fleeting glimpse,
out of the corner of my eye.
I turned to look but it was gone,
and I have become comfortably numb"

A person who has seen the soul, but lost it
and the Guitar Solo mourns this loss,
because the Soul is purpose, meaning and significance
and is more important than all the kickbacks
which corruption can give.


"Set The Controls For the Heart of the Sun"
and "Marooned"
by Pink Floyd

This sequence Fuses together one of the First of the
performances of Pink Floyd 30 years ago, with one
of the Latest and yet their meaning is the same.


We need to connect with the Soul,
part of ourselves which we have lost
and we do it by projecting ourselves
out of our time limited bodies into an
immortal part of ourselves called the Soul
which is part of us and which we join when we die.


Meditation teaches us how to do that in life
and when we have it
then we are filled with happiness and light.

We are Enlightened.

<> Marooned is Alone, All One, in the Soul,
in the Atman.


I suggest you try the FOUR INITIATION Video course - CLICK HERE



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Here is Paul on his Energy Enhancement course. He’s been with us for a time and has had some wonderful experiences:

“After 5 weeks of developing my practice the method I now use for grounding negative energy is quick, efficient, and experientially extremely rich – I don’t think it will ever get boring because the focus of each meditation, now I’ve reached the 3rd Level, is totally unique.

What I love about the way I meditate now, with the Energy Enhancement training, is that it’s so much more structured and focused - a clear intent is set out at the beginning of the meditation and by the end, it’s done! The techniques are so powerful, and I can feel the energy change as I ground the negativity from the focus of meditation. When clearing relationships I can feel atmospheres of untainted, pure energy enter me, like a huge, expansive, windswept sky. I really feel lighter!

The visualization of the energy is a wonderful indicator of progress – everything in life has markers of progress through stages and cycles: seasons pass, fruit ripens, skin ages, rivers flow, wars begin and end. With other meditative techniques the markers of progress are general, such as a sense of well being, and specifically within that moment. In Vipassana meditation, sometimes you get a flow, sometimes not. In Mindfulness of Breathing and Metta Bhavana meditation, sometimes you engage, sometimes not. It is difficult to gauge where you are on the path, and therefore what challenges you now face.

The Energy Enhancement teachings set out such a clear structure towards spiritual progress, with each stage having to be focused on and cleared before the next can be attempted, that I have a much clearer idea of where I am and the tasks that must be accomplished before I can move on.

Along with all the indicators of the other techniques, such as bodily sensations, senses of well being and general demeanor and mood, Energy Enhancement traces particular problems to particular energetic blockages so that you can locate and solve them in a focused way. Along with that it allows you to see where you are in the evolutionary stream, and as you move through the stages you gain more energy to do more work, not only in meditation but also in life, so you remain in touch with what you must do at every stage. Now I can efficiently focus my meditation on the areas I need to work on in order to free up more energy so I can work on harder areas… and so on. It’s much quicker, and very thorough, because of that focus. Things are not left behind for the sake of speed. The course progresses very naturally from one stage to the next.

There is never a sense of having no direction in meditation. I have a friend who is a practicing Buddhist, and he has come to the stage where he is fairly content with life. He asks himself “Why do I meditate?” because the techniques he is using don’t allow him enough visions and scope to really progress – they are good techniques, and give definite results, if practiced with dedication. He thought enlightenment was too quixotic a goal, perhaps. But there are initiations on the path to enlightenment – if you know them you can mark your progress – this is very important – the heart must be set upon the highest goal, but there are many signs along the way.

You can read more about these in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, by Swami Satchidananda, and on the Energy Enhancement site. It’s helpful and good to know these signs and understand what they mean. The first thing to do is to remove all the energy blockages in your system so that you can increase your level of energy. Now I have done this I have enough energy to clear the negativity from all my relationships, on the way to an initiation called the mastery of relationships.

Now I’m near the end of the course I feel confident I can go home and integrate all I’ve learnt into my life. Since I’ve been here I’ve worked through some difficult times, but I’ve got through them and my mood, energy and sense of well being have been given a boost rather like having an atom bomb explode in my bottom.

The removal of all the negative energy in my system has put me in touch with my own flow of untrammeled energy. Removing these negative energy blockages have yielded some brilliant results, which I was not expecting. At one point, after removing a blockage in my base chakra I experienced an extended sensation of orgasm which was totally delicious! It was just a sign that my energy flow had increased and the work I had been doing was finally complete on that particular area.

Energy Enhancement is truly an atom bomb, extremely powerful stuff. When I return to real life I will be in such a kick ass state, I want to go dancing and engage with existence! Yes! The clouds have parted!

But seriously, it is great. What more can I say? I don’t want to oversell it, so I’ll simply say that in the end it’ll make you feel better, you’ll meet two wonderful people and have a great time. My spirits have been lifted and my mind expanded since I’ve been here, and I have a strong feeling inside that life will simply go on getting better and better for me and for everyone I know.”





I suggest you try the LEVEL ONE Video course -






Subject:  RE: Getting back again.
Date:  Wed,
08 Mar 2006 21:28:59 +0000
Dear Satchi

Yes, everything, all the DVD course and Online Course Downloads are here, all together they arrived, mighty excited i might add and all is downloaded and well.

Im getting stuck straight in, its amazing, because the very first time i got the sitting position correct. I could feel the energy flowing up my spine and over my head incredible heat and a real tingling in my face and a feeling of elation i cant describe and i did this while using sound for each chakra, when i struck the heart chakra tone my chest just expanded and it felt like it was being lifted up and the whole room seemed full of energy and and and what a feeling, phew. It was heaven.

I was sitting still  for about an hour and it felt like only a few minutes i think i just arrived.

I think i now have all the little pieces of my jigsaw, its taken a long time searching and im also seeing the numerous times when i was shown the direction but i was unable to see, There seems to be so much that i have missed and i wonder how come i was this blind for so long.

I wanted to say "Thank You" For your patience, For your time and most of all for being here on the planet at this time.

May Peace and Love always be your friends.

Don And Anne.


When I came to see Satchi at the airport for the first time I was struck by his energy but it was the second time, when he was talking to another student when meeting us off the train at Figueres that I really started to feel the Buddhafield of Energy Surrounding him. Suddenly I started yawning like the big healer guy in "The Green Mile" and then tears started from my eyes and I felt I was getting rid of a lot of Painful memories from the past.  Olympia Panza 2004


"Once this stage was reached I had tremendous energy!"
















REMOVE Traumas due TO Addiction, Anger, Depression, Drugs, Divorce, Bereavement, Multisexual problems, Rape and Sex, Heart Disease and Cancer.

With the Energy Enhancement DVD or Online Meditation Course we can learn how to Transmute Aches and Pains, Traumatic Emotional Memories and Negative Thoughts.  With Energy Enhancement Ground Negative Energies and learn The Mastery of Relationships, Increase your Good Luck, Happiness and Purpose.


I suggest you try the Video course -


NOW!! for details







Gary Says..

I suggest you try the Video course -


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One year later I called to follow up and arranged to come and do the full Energy Enhancement programme for 4 weeks.  

email for details


I was not sure if this was wise, as I knew nothing other than what I had read on the web site and the testimonials, which I was a bit sceptical about!

However, I am now adding my own because if you read this you might be a bit like me. 

Don't hesitate - go for it!









Meditation DVD course imageMeditation DVD course image


I suggest you try the FOUR INITIATION Video course - CLICK HERE



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One of my Teachers, Zen Master Hogen said, We are all History Paintings. We start with a clean white sheet and then every day we apply paint. Usually our History Paintings become very messy!!! "I am a clean white sheet which is washed constantly. Everytime we meet, it is as if there is no emotional holdover from the past. Everytime, I see you clearly, as if for the first time!" Zen Master Hogen.








Is created by the influence of pain on pure spiritual energy which changes it in the way that sunlight is turned into Coal or Petroleum, Oil, Black Gold, Texas Tea.

Trauma-Formed Negative Karmic Mass is pure, concentrated pain which creates all the hard knots of pain and discomfort in the body which eventually, if left, turn into disease and surgical intervention.

By removal of these Physical Energy Blockages we can create Health, Strength and Energy and Long Life in Energy Human Being who uses the Energy Enhancement Techniques.

Trauma-Formed Negative Karmic Mass is pure concentrated pain which creates the symptoms of Manicism, Depression, Worry, Anger, and Fear in every human being.

By removal of these Emotional Energy Blockages we can Remove all Negative Emotions and create the Positive Emotions of Optimism, and the Love, Energy and Will to get things done.

Trauma-Formed Negative Karmic Mass is pure concentrated pain which creates a lack of Conscience and Heartlessness which are the symptoms of Psychopathy.

By removal of these Spiritual Energy Blockages we can Remove psychopathy, one of the greatest diseases of humanity, which through War, Torture Chambers, Labour Camps, Re-Education Camps, Concentration Camps, Gulags and Pogrom destroyed and tortured 200 Millions of people in every country in the World throughout the 20th Century.


Trauma-Formed Negative Karmic Mass is pure concentrated pain which creates a lack of Conscience and Heartlessness, Corruption and Greed which are the further symptoms of Psychopathy.

By removal of these Spiritual Energy Blockages we can Remove the Corruption and Greed which caused all the Financial Bubbles where Pension Plans, Real Assets and Wealth are stolen to feed the endless Desires of the Robbers and Thieves.

"We've Stolen All Your Money!!"







The Watchmen Movie is taken from a graphic Novel by Alan Moore who also wrote V for Vendetta and uses the same plot tricks to serve up its surprising ending.

Like the Batman Movie The Dark Knight - CLICK HERE FOR MY TAKE ON THIS -  It posits a parallel World where the unstoppable force meets the Immoveable Object - Vigilante Batman fights the Terrorist Joker - the ending being this is a bad bad world. There is no resolution. Whereas Energy Enhancement says that both the Vigilante and the Terrorist are formed from Trauma-Formed Negative Karmic Mass from the Dark side which can be, and for an Enlightened World, must be dissolved by the higher advanced techniques of Energy Enhancement.


The Watchmen shows a world where Vigilante Super Heroes battle crooks.

But it shows that the roots of their purpose and enjoyment of fighting comes from Trauma-Formed Negative Karmic Mass created during their upbringing.

The Comedian "Living the American Dream" as he shotguns down innocent protestors, rapes another super hero and shoots his pregnant girl friend.

These two superheroes enjoy violence - breaking arms and killing villains and then make love afterwards to Leonard Cohen.

Dr Manhattan ending the Vietnam War to the "Apocalypse Now" music, the Ride of the Valkyries.

 Watchmen shows a world where every human being is filled with Trauma-Formed Negative Karmic Mass which must end in Nuclear Annihilation as the Vigilantes fight the Crooks so the USA fights USSR over resources in Afghanistan.

The aim of the Dark side is to show that human beings come from animals, act like animals, and indeed are animals. This justifies the fact that the elite do indeed treat human beings like animals.

Whereas the true nature of Humanity is Imago Viva Dei - Humanity is the Living Image of God.

So, although every human is indeed born with Negative karmic mass and Energy Blockages and indeed do act in horrible ways, humanity always has the choice. And in exercising that choice can develop a Soul and become enlightened like Jesus Christ and Buddha and many thousands of Illuminated Saints over all Human History..

So, in the justification of the Dark Side we come to the real aim of this movie which is the Fascist, Nazi, Hitlerian Concept that, "The End Justifies the Means"

The aim of this movie is to show that all human beings are animals. 

As in the the Dark Knight there can be no resolution.

But in the Watchman and in V for Vendetta the solution comes from Chaos management using an ancient trick used for thousands of years - The Reichstag Fire!

Hitler blames the Communists and the Jews for burning down the German Parliament, the Reichstag, and so takes power democratically by vowing undying hatred towards the perpetrators - "Something Must Be Done!" Whereas the person who burnt the Reichstag down was Hitler himself!

In V for Vendetta, the Chancellor takes power by being strong against the terrorists who used Biological warfare against the British People and creates a Terror State where all opposition to him, enemies of the People, are black bagged, tortured and killed, whereas the person who created the biological disease was the Chancellor himself.

In Latin there is a word for this trick, Causus Belli, or Cause for War, which shows the antiquity of this trick which has been used for thousands of years on people who have never heard of it. Who have no inkling that their Govern Mente (Govern Mente, Govern Mind, Mind Control) could lie. This trick again comes from, "The End Justifies the Means"

"You can fool most of the people most of the time" ..  and this is enough in any democracy!

In the public record on the internet and in many history books you can read about the Lusitania, Pearl Harbour, The Gulf of Tonkin, The Two Towers and Weapons of Mass Destruction.

The Lusitania was a causus belli which drew the USA into the Great War, the First World war against the Kaiser. The Germans said it was packed the gills with armaments to feed the war effort in Britain and said if it sailed it would be Sunk by U Boats. The USA said it was peaceful and contained no guns and when it sailed it was torpedoed and sunk and thus the USA entered the War against the Kaiser.

A few years ago divers explored the Lusitania and found it packed to the Gills with Armaments.

There are Transcripts of conversations between Roosevelt and Churchill, 12 days before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour where they say they have the secret records of the Japanese saying they will attack Pearl Harbour and they are both very happy that because of this the USA can come into the war against Hitler.

The creation of Communism by Marx - Engels was his handler, Ambassador Urquhart ran him, Karl Marx was given an office in the British Museum to write works designed to create problems for the Czar, and for any other country we wanted to destabilise through fanning the flames of rebellion with our Agents. Thus Anarchists, Communists, Mazzini's Young Turks, The Muslim Brotherhood, Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria starting WW1, Lawrence of Arabia - See the Movie, Saudi Arabia, Oil, Weapons of Mass Destruction, Brezinski, Soros's Colour Revolutions, Georgia, Ukraine, The Arab Spring, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Syria. All normal stuff..

In the Watchman one superhero a non smoking vegetarian (Hitler was a non smoking vegetarian) sets off powerful tachyon bombs based on research with another superhero, Dr Manhattan (From the Manhattan Project which created the Atomic Bomb during the Second World war) and sets them off in every major city in the world, and blames it all on Dr Manhattan.

He does this because of the theories of Satanic Jeremy Bentham, Head of British Intelligence, "M" under Prime Minister of Great Britain and Head of the British East India Company, Lord Shelburne or William Petty, who was in charge of the British Slave and Opium Trade in those days. Satanic Jeremy Bentham started the French Revolution and wrote the speeches of Robespierre from London.

Satanic Jeremy Bentham's Hypothesis is, "The greatest Good for the greatest number" which allows, in this movie, 15 millions of people to be murdered to save 6 billion - a really psychopathic theory but one which all causus belli adheres to.

The whole world comes together, all thoughts of war forgotten to fight Dr Manhattan and thus nuclear Armageddon is averted. The problem is that the secret is always revealed and Rorschach, another super hero, leaves his records in the hands of a newspaper, and so the secret is revealed, as it always is...

We have records of every causus belli. The truth always comes out in the end.

You see the levels of the movie??

In the same way nuclear bombs are being used as a stick, formed by the Dark Side's Lord Bertrand Russell, in order to frighten this world into Integration under the New World Order and as a side effect stop the Almost free electricity produced by safe Fourth Generation Nuclear Technology which could supply the whole world with almost free electricity for one billion years!

Only one country has used two atomic bombs in all human history!!

Fourth Generation Nuclear Technology - The IFR Reactor - burns 97% of all Uranium with only 3% waste product unlike current technology which burns only 3% of all uranium with 97% waste products. It is safe, it is high flux density, it can solve all humanities poverty.

But it can't solve the Elite, "Principle of Poverty" or Austerity as it is called under carefully planned David Rockefeller funded Austrian Economics.

And the constant economic depressions, as if we wanted to, humanity can not plan to have a good economy with sufficient good organic food, education, hospitals, energy, plenty..

That we cannot use the Hamilton and List "Credit" Economics where instead of the Fed Central Bank giving one Trillion Dollars to the Banksters, instead we give that money to all the good things like infrastructure, irrigation, fusion power, roads, education, health, housing, etc. Whenever the American Credit System of Economics has been used, GNP rises at 10% per annum.

The only inference we can make is  that if we have a bad economy then that has been planned.

That we planned to use Hessian theories in our Educational System (Start Page, "Iserbyte" or goto ).

That we planned to put cancer producing pesticides/bisphenol A/Glyphosate and fluoride into the water in order to sterilise humanity.

That we planned to put the Salk SV40 Cancer Virus and Chemical Lobotomiser Mercury into every Vaccination.

That we planned to feed humanity on GMO Frankenstein food which sterilises completely in three generations.

That the World we inhabit has been planned.

And the problem of Trauma-Formed Negative Karmic Mass creating more pain, fighting, war , sterilisation (Children of Men Movie where suddenly the whole World is sterilised, and after 20 years, one woman is found pregnant, and we see the effect on every member of humanity on seeing that pregnancy in front of them. The awe. The love. The sacrifices made to protect. The love we have for every child every baby who comes to us, into our families, our grandchildren, who we see...) and nuclear annihilation is not resolved.

As yet there is no movie which provides a solution to the problem and this is because of pervading existentialism in the minds of all confirmed heartless eugenic intellectuals who glory in the psychopathic nature of humanity in all the movies above and in all the movies of Stanley Kubric or see

"Once you are an Existentialist there is only one question; how to commit suicide" said Camus, and so Rorschach begs to be killed by Dr Manhatten who complies leaving a bloody Rorschach Blot on the snow.

Because with existentialism there is no way out of this Human nature Trauma-Formed Negative Karmic Mass problem which has been solved by all the sages and saints from time immemorial.

Dr Manhatten, almost a God with his abilities to see into the future, cannot be killed, can teleport himself anywhere says, "I can fix many things, but I cannot change Human nature!"

Yet successive revelations have been given sequentially to Humanity over many years...

Buddha said that human nature can be changed by Meditation and the use of the Intellect.

Jesus Christ came to say that Human nature can be transformed by Love, the energy of the Heart.

The New revelation of Energy Enhancement says that Trauma-Formed Negative Karmic Mass can be dissolved by the Grounding of Negative Energies using the Will, using the Samyama Seven Step Process of Energy Enhancement under the Aegis of the Chakras above the Head.

Human nature can be changed. "How can the leopard change his spots?" Every spot is an Energy Blockage. Remove all Energy Blockages with Energy Enhancement!!

It is the destiny of every human being on this planet, It is Your Destiny,  to become Enlightened.

It is the destiny of this planet to become a Sacred Planet.








The issue is as follows:<>
The essence of Christianity, and of Mosaic Judaism, is identified historically first, by Philo of Alexandria in his commentary on the first chapter of Genesis, that is, the account of Creation given by Moses. The point to be emphasized, is that man is defined in the image of God, Imago Viva Dei: not by virtue of any outward physical attributes of form, but rather by the fact that man, unlike all animals, contains that spark of creativity which places the human species apart from and above the animals in general.

That spark is the crucial thing...


Image of God, "Imago Dei" and Energy Blockages


Image of God, "Imago Dei" and Energy Blockages

Nicholas of Cusa, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, and the Concept of Natural Law -Imago Dei or Image of God - and the concept of Energy Blockage Talents

Confucianism and "Imago Viva Dei" in China - Liebniz, Mencius, Chu Hsi, Christ, Taoism, Buddhism








Spiritual Energy and Enlightenment, the Economics of Human Extinction Events and the Principle of Progress

It seems that human extinction events always proceed in order to destroy the violent so that people of the Heart, who would never hurt anyone, can move onwards to wards that Initiation event of Enlightenment.

And the Initiation of Enlightenment is also the Great Extinction Event.

In order to become Enlightened, there must be an extinction, a destruction, a transmutation of the Ego.

This is the destruction of the bad guys on the field of Kurukshetra where Arjuna with the help of his soul, Krishna, destroyed all of his Ego.

"The Selfish Competitive Ego is just a collection of Energy Blockages" - Swami Satchidananda, Guru of Swami Satchidanand

All the energy blockages, all the sub-personalities are removed in an extinction event which precedes the greater progress towards Spiritual Energy Intensity, Flux Density, the psychic charge of the Illuminated, Enlightened Sage.


Instead, now, seeing the truth, let us take a little time for ourselves, for meditation.

Not for the ordinary traditional meditation which has been so dumbed down over thousands of years, by the removal of any advanced meditational techniques which work.

But for a meditation which works quickly, which has been proven to work quickly, for our evolution, in the knowledge that every new enlightened being creates energy for the speed up and production of more enlightened beings - for the evolution of the whole planet.

To prevent the extinction of the whole human race!!

To promote a Planet of Plenty, Love and Light!!









King Kong



CLICK HERE FOR King Kong<> Movie - Meditation The Ego and the Soul

King Kong symbolises the Ego. As we ascend the Empire State building of the Antahkarana to the soul, then the ego must die and slip away.

As it says in the Movie as a Sufi saying - And the Prophet said, 'And lo, the beast looked upon the face of beauty. And it stayed its hand from killing. And from that day, it was as one dead.'

The beloved, beauty, is the soul, is God.

 This is the Sufi secret of the Troubadours and the Jesters (from Chisti)* who introduced the concept of courtly love in romantic poetry into Europe. Only the knowledge of the true self, the Soul, can overcome the selfish, competitive Ego, red in tooth and claw.

*Hazrat Nizamuddin Awlia Chisti (died.1325 A.D in Nizamuddin in Delhi.) represents in many ways the pinnacle of the Chisti* Order of the Sufis. "The heart of a lover (True lover of God) constantly burns with the fire of love, so much so that whatever impurity which intrudes upon its sanctity is burnt to ashes". The blockages which cut us off from our souls are burnt to ashes through the practise of meditation and the higher practices of meditation called Energy Enhancement.


King Kong symbolises the Ego. As we ascend the Empire State building of the Antahkarana to the soul, then the ego must die and slip away.





Apocalypse Now, ego, Kurtz, Brando, DID, MPD blockages, soul, psychopaths,






Well first of all, what makes a good movie? And what makes an Incredibly Profitable and Successful Movie? Because usually, the two go together, unless the bad guys against evolution successfully oppose.


Energy Enhancement and the Lord of the Rings.



Cate Blanchett as Galadriel

Healer, Highly Evolved Elven Air Ring Bearer .









Existentialism and Kubrick's Psychopaths,
Society and Human Nature in the Films, Movies of Stanley Kubrick


Introduction - Existentialism and Kubrick's Psychopaths

To my mind, no-one has brought up the similarity between existentialists and Psychopaths. An existentialist is a person cut off from their soul conscience and from their heart sympathy, living in a flat, intellectual drab wasteland devoid of meaning. And it is only the heart and the soul which give life meaning and significance, not the intellect.

Why are there psychopaths? And the answer is contained in the chakra multi-processor model of the human being together with the concept of Energy Blockages which block and cut off some chakra functions like soul conscience which conquers selfish desire and heart sympathy which allows you to imagine yourself in another persons place, Gurdjieffian external consideration, whilst sometimes leaving courage and the intellect intact.




George Lucas, Star Wars, the Revenge of the Sith




I ROBOT ENLIGHTENMENT AND ILLUMINATION Isaac Asimov and Alex Proyas Movie Review, Analysis of I Robot





For the future the Big Lie (A concept created by Goebbels) is that of Global Warming -

THIS IS A target set up, to be shot down - To confuse and disillusion -

The Real Problem is that of Global Pollution

The real Problem is that of POWER!!

A lie designed to confuse and allow a mix of fuels to create power and to keep Coal and Petroleum as highly polluting power sources in the so-called mix whereas their pollution properties should stop them dead!!

A Lie designed to move people in the direction of carbon dioxide-less yet and highly expensive (Who owns the uranium mines? Who owns the nuclear technology?) nuclear power which with IFR breeder reactors can provide 260 Terawatts per year (currently 13 Terawatts) for 100,000 years of electrical power.

The system will be that powerful countries will process the nuclear fuel thus removing atomic bombs from the menu of most countries, and thus supply electrical power and its technology for the whole world. It is planned that Nuclear power will supply 50% of the electricity of Europe by 2030.

Profit is the motive and the whole world held to ransom by the Uranium and technology and nuclear processing owners.

As we can see that the future of this world is to become one, integrated with one President, so we can see that evolution demands that electricity is provided by Sun Power.

Because of the Power and Control which oil and Nuclear power provides, the research and development of Sun Power has been very delayed - stopped!!

Power Generation by steam from sunlight reflected onto water pipes in deserts has been proven.

*DC lossless transmission of electrical power from desert to the cities has also been cracked.

Photo-voltaic cells look promising when efficiency and mass production nano-technology have been cracked together with cheap 50KW house batteries.

* Study on the pure DC transmission scheme for Chinaaposs future power transmission from the West to the East
Ying Huang; Zheng Xu
Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2004. IEEE
Volume , Issue , 10-10 June 2004 Page(s):1459 - 1463 Vol.2
Digital Object Identifier   10.1109/PES.2004.1373110
Summary:In the year after 2015, China's national power grid interconnection will have been completed. Most likely, there will be four synchronous power systems, that is, big East China power grids, central China power grids, South China power grids and Northwest China power grids. For the long distance (more than 1000 km) bulk power (more than 50 GW) transmission from the West to the East, if the pure DC transmission scheme is adopted, there will be more and more HVDC links feeding power to different points in the same synchronous AC network. An important issue arising in such a situation is the influence of the multiinfeed HVDC links on the security of the AC systems. This paper analyzes the transient stability of each system under various AC and DC disturbances. The recovery characteristics of the multiinfeed HVDC links are also investigated. The results show that pure DC power transmission from the West to the East of China is technically feasible




The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) project...













"In the decade from 1984 to 1994, scientists at Argonne National Laboratory developed an advanced technology that promised safe nuclear power unlimited by fuel supplies, with a waste product sharply reduced both in radioactive lifetime and amount. The program, called the IFR, was cancelled suddenly in 1994, before the technology could be perfected in every detail. Its story is not widely known, nor are its implications widely appreciated. It is a story well worth telling, and this series of articles does precisely that."
                        --- excerpt from Plentiful Energy and the IFR story by Charles Till

IFR story is a story of how the US government paid billions to our National Laboratories to engineer a solution to the energy and climate crisis (before it became a crisis), the solution worked!!

A nuclear power plant design invented at Argonne National Lab 24 years ago has none of the drawbacks of conventional nuclear plants

To control climate change, we must get rid of virtually all carbon emissions from coal. To do that, we need a way to generate power for a cost less than coal, that can generate power reliably 24x7, and that can be constructed virtually anywhere. Solar and wind don't meet the need; that is why even environmentally progressive countries such as Germany are still building coal plants. But we have a technology that can displace coal, but it is not well known. It was a billion dollar government research project...over 10 years at our top government national laboratory for energy (Argonne National Laboratory)...the largest energy research project in our history. Our government had finally done something truly visionary and great! But the project was quashed by President Clinton in 1994 because Clinton said it was unneeded and the scientists who worked on it were ordered to remain silent. One of our country's leading experts on global warming, Jim Hansen, recently re-discovered the IFR. Those who have been briefed on the IFR believe it is an essential  technology we must develop to combat climate change and should be restarted immediately. This led to Hansen including restarting 4th generation nuclear power as one of his 5 top priorities for President Obama (see the bottom of page 7 in Hansen's Tell Barack Obama the Truth -- The Whole Truth).

The DOE tried to restart it under GNEP, but Congress has zeroed the funding for GNEP (not for reasons relating to the IFR which nobody in Congress knows anything about). Talk about snatching defeat from the jaws of victory.

California Lt. Governor John Garamendi flew in the top IFR scientists and convened a meeting of experts in the field including one Nobel prize winner (Burton Richter, former Director of SLAC). Garamendi came away impressed and convinced that this is something we must do and is working to take the next steps in California.

by Steve Kirsch

August 10, 2008

Until now, I have been pretty agnostic about nuclear power. In fact, in May 2006, I wrote an op-ed for the San Jose Mercury News on why we shouldn't pursue nuclear power as a solution for global warming which infuriated the pro-nuclear people.

After reading Hansen's newsletter (where I first learned about the IFR) and doing months of research on the IFR listening to arguments on both sides, I've changed my opinion. And some really smart friends of mine have read the stuff below, done their research, and their minds have changed as well. In fact, I don't know anyone with an open mind who has met with the scientists who worked on the project who hasn't come away impressed. Even the harshest critics of the IFR admit that that they might be wrong.

I first heard about the IFR on August 4, 2008, in an email I received from James Hansen who is one of our nation's top climate experts. The email summarized his recent trip overseas to meet with foreign leaders.

The two most important things that Hansen tells foreign heads of state are (from page 5):

  1. Annual CO2 emissions, and thus percent reduction of annual emissions, is not an appropriate metric for controlling climate change. Instead, we must limit the total fossil fuel CO2 emission.
  2. Phase-out of coal emissions is the sine qua non for climate stabilization.

In other words, if we don't get rid of coal plants all over the planet, we're completely hosed. The sooner we do that, the better. Getting rid of every single coal plant is the single most important thing we can do to slow down global warming. If we cannot do that, then nothing else matters. We are basically re-arranging deck chairs on the Titanic. We will go down with the ship.

Displacing coal plants is hard because they are really cheap (since the utilities are not assessed of their pollution), they can be built anywhere where water is available (all thermal power plants, fossil or nuclear, have to be able to get rid of excess heat), and because they provide power 24x7. That's why every week to 10 days, another coal-fired power plant opens somewhere in China that is big enough to serve all the households in Dallas or San Diego.

Getting rid of them is hard. Even with all the awareness about the harm of coal plants to the environment in the US, we have been unsuccessful in displacing them. Today,  we still get 49% of our electric power from coal plants. If we can't displace coal plants in the US, how can we expect other countries, like China, to displace their coal plants?

Fundamentally, to get rid of coal plants and have any hope at all on controlling climate change, you must to come up with a power plant capable of 24x7 operation that can be built anywhere that is just as cheap (or cheaper) to build and operate as a coal plant. If you had that, then you'd have an economic incentive for people to make the environmentally responsible choice. There would be no reason to build coal plants anymore.

So if the US developed a way to generate electric power that had no CO2 emissions, was as cheap as coal, and provided 24x7 power, and could be built anywhere, and didn't require a lot of land to build, and was very safe, and didn't increase the risk from terrorism then that would be a great thing. It would mean that China would have an economic incentive to build these plants rather than coal plants.

We don't have that now. Concentrated solar plants can only be economically built in certain locations. Same for wind power. And both are intermittent sources (although if you have enough wind power over enough area in the right corridor, it can be pretty reliable).

Such an invention would, quite literally, save the planet from destruction. It would be the "holy grail" in the fight against global warming. It would arguably be the most important invention in history.

So you'd think that if such an invention existed, everyone would know about it, wouldn't you?

Well, would you believe that our top energy scientists invented a technology that does all those things and more! These plants can also get rid of the waste from existing nuclear power plants! And unlike nuclear plants where there is only a finite amount of nuclear material available (I think about 100 years), these plants make their own fuel so they will last 100,000 years. Remember Einstein's famous E=mc2? The point is that if you do it right, a little bit of matter can make a lot of energy.

And would you believe the research was done more than 20 years ago in 1984 by a large group of US scientists at Argonne National Laboratory?

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a fourth generation nuclear design that provides a clean, inexhaustible source of power, cheap, with virtually no waste, inherently safe (if you remove the cooling, it shuts down rather than melts down), and the added benefit that it consumes the nuclear waste from other nuclear plants that we can’t figure out how to get rid of.

Advantages include:

  1. It can be fueled entirely with material recovered from today's used nuclear fuel.
  2. It consumes virtually all the long-lived radioactive isotopes that worry people who are concerned about the "nuclear waste problem," reducing the needed isolation time to less than 500 years.
  3. It could provide all the energy needed for centuries (perhaps as many as 50,000 years), feeding only on the uranium that has already been mined
  4. It uses uranium resources with 100 to 300 times the efficiency of today's reactors.
  5. It does not require enrichment of uranium.
  6. It has less proliferation potential than the reprocessing method now used in several countries.
  7. It's 24x7 baseline power
  8. It can be built anywhere there is water
  9. The power is very inexpensive (some estimates are as low as 2 cents/kWh to produce)
  10. Safe from melt down because if something goes wrong, the reactor naturally shuts down rather than blows up
  11. And, of course, it emits no greenhouse gases.

What's wrong with that? Absolutely nothing...that is if you look at the facts and the science rather than the words.

Sadly, most people when they hear "nuclear reactor" or "breeder reactor" react negatively. "Not in my backyard," they say. But that's because of second generation nuclear technology. When people say "no nuclear," they really are referring to "second generation nuclear." Everything about the IFR and fourth generation technology is completely different. The words with negative connotations are no longer negative. Yet we have this bad habit of remembering the bad associations. We have to overcome that. For example, one scientist told me, "Breeding, however, is a dirty word these days, so the GNEP emphasis is on burning the transuranics, instead of using them to assure an expanding source of clean energy into the indefinite future." So, in other words, we are doing stupid things because "breeding" is a dirty word. "Breeding" for the IFR is the nuclear equivalent of "recycling and re-using." That's a good thing, not a bad thing. And the safe word, "burning," is actually a bad thing. So the connotations are actually reversed.

We actually gave a group of our smartest scientists funding for 10 years and left them alone to come up with something brilliant so that it could be completed before we actually needed to deploy it. Talk about visionary, long-term thinking! Of course today things are different. Today, Congress is completely shortsighted. After gas is at $4/gallon, they say we need to drill for more oil. Well if that is the solution, how come we didn't do that 10 years ago so we wouldn't have a crisis?

So here, in a rare instance of long term strategic investment and vision, our government did something really amazing in funding this project. And the scientists returned that trust by delivering on their promises. And then our government thanks them by pulling the plug on the project just before it was completed.

When Bill Clinton cancelled the funding in 1994, he said in his State of the Union speech that he did it because the project was unnecessary, not because it didn't meet any of its objectives. In his speech, he said, "We will terminate unnecessary programs in advanced reactor development."

He never asked the National Academy of Sciences to look into whether this project was unnecessary. Why not? Shouldn't you do a little objective research before you pull the plug on the biggest energy research project in history?

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) technology is arguably the single most important thing we can do to stop global warming. If it isn't the single most important thing, it's awfully close to the top.

So if this is so great, how come everyone isn't all over this technology?

Because nobody knew about it!

How can that be?

Because the DOE ordered the scientists working on the project not to talk about it.

Why would the government do that?

Why do you think the government would pour billions of dollars into the biggest energy research project in history and then not just cancel it, but do their best to bury it? The researchers at Argonne developed a safe and economical source of unlimited clean energy. Between that and the other renewable power technologies we wouldn't need oil, coal, gas or uranium mining/drilling anymore. We're talking about putting the most powerful corporations on the planet out of business. Not out of malice or spite, but simply because they won't be needed anymore and because what they're doing to the planet is killing us.

Some people think that the fossil fuel lobbyists could tell you why our government ordered the scientists not to talk about it. It's similar to the gag order (and edits to manuscripts and reports including IPCC reports) that the administration likes to put on scientists who try to talk about global warming. Jim Hansen can tell you a few stories about that since he's experienced it first hand.

In fact, Hansen himself just found out about the IFR recently. Hansen is very informed. So if he didn't know about it, it's probably not well known. And that's what I found when I asked around.

According to this article that just appeared in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Bill Gates is investing in a project at Intellectual Ventures to "create a new type of nuclear reactor that would use fuels other than enriched uranium -- including spent fuel from existing reactors." The article quoted Myhrvold as saying " The idea is to create a nuclear reactor that is simpler and cheaper than current reactors, and generates clean power without waste or proliferation problems."

Well that's exactly what the IFR did. They knew about the IFR. It would be great if he could help it succeed or has ideas on how to make it even better.

GE has created a commercial plant design called the S-PRISM. GE is ready and willing to build a plant (a) to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a commercial-scale operation, and (b) to narrow the existing uncertainty in the final cost. They are not proposing, yet, to plunge into mass production of S-PRISMs. We can start building a reactor vessel for around $50 million.

Apparently, Al Gore doesn't know about the IFR either. Check out this video where Senator Craig (a strong advocate of the IFR in 1994 but not really known for his advocacy of good science) chastises Gore for his role in cancelling advanced nuclear research in 1994. Gore doesn't know what Craig was talking about. More recently, people associated with the IFR tried to brief Gore, but they couldn't get past Gore's defensive linemen.

Cancelling the IFR was a huge mistake...One US Senator even commented how Congress will regret that decision. He said,

"I assure my colleagues someday our Nation will regret and reverse this shortsighted decision. But complete or not, the concept and the work done to prove it remain genius and a great contribution to the world."

"Through his work on the Integral Fast Reactor program, Dr. Till demonstrated that his technical solutions out paced the ability of the political process to appreciate them."

I couldn't have said that better. And Senator Kempthorne, who also isn't exactly known for his advocacy of science, is still waiting for his colleagues in Congress to regret and reverse their decision.

The good news is that DOE is trying to restart IFR with the GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership) initiative. The GNEP, if it is allowed to proceed, will involve a commercial demonstration that will establish the degree of economic competitiveness of the recycling process.  General Electric thinks they can build an economically viable system and they already have a complete commercial design completed (S-PRISM).

But it looks as though Congress, in a classic case of throwing the baby out with the bath water, might decide to zero the funding of GNEP due to other aspects of the GNEP program.

Once again Congress shows how easily they seem to snatch defeat from the jaws of victory. The same Congress that brought you the Iraq war is now making sure that the best solution to the global warming never sees the light of day.

Hansen was blunt in his most recent trip report when he wrote “we should not have bailed out of research on fast reactors.” Yet here we are doing it again. When are our politicians going to start listening to our scientists who are trying to solve the global warming problem?

Are there any other promising technologies that have no emissions and the potential to displace coal plants and can be sited anywhere? I don't know of any other than this.

But we should be looking at the ideas that are on the table now and funding the most promising 5 ideas with stable long-term funding (e.g., 10 years or more) that isn't subject to the capriciousness of Congress. That way, we'll have solutions available when we desperately need them instead of the normal short sighted approach we take which is to react to a crisis rather than take preventative steps. An energy crisis should never have occurred in the US. We should have been making huge investments in renewable research 10 to 20 years ago. 

In this case we got lucky and did make the investment in electric power generation and the technology is available today when we need it. What a miracle.

Now we need another miracle: we need our government to restart the research at Argonne, we need the NRC to accelerate the approval of the plant designs, and we need to allow utilities to start building these plants. GE is ready and willing to build a demonstration plant.

California has a ban on new nuclear plants until the waste problem is solved. But building the IFR solves the waste problem. So I hope California will be a leader in incentivizing our utilities to start building these plants here. If California needs to change the law to do that, it should.

For around $50M, we can build a reactor vessel to expedite certification and licensing by the NRC. That's a small price to pay to prove we have a silver bullet to solve the global warming problem. This is too good an opportunity to pass up.

I am not suggesting that the IFR is the be-all, end-all solution to the global warming problem. Some people believe other technologies (e.g., high-altitude wind, such as, solar thermal such as Ausra, the work MIT is doing on solar electrolysis and fuel cells, or enhanced geothermal (EGS)) might be a silver bullet. Maybe. Maybe not. Most experts think you need a mix of good solutions just like we have a mix of ways to generate power today.

From a risk management point of view, you certainly want to cultivate and develop at least a small portfolio of silver bullets, i.e., "silver buckshot." After spending a lot of time talking to the people who built this technology, it's clear to me that the IFR deserves a place in that portfolio. The research at Argonne should be restarted now and someone should ask GE to build one; either a big utility or Congress should give DOE the money so they can have GE build a pilot S-PRISM test plant.

We are running out of time. If we do not start using breeder reactors, such as the IFR, this century, then it appears we will reach "peak nuclear" this century. If we use 4th generation breeder reactors such as the IFR (whose only disadvantage seems to be perception), we can extend the usable life of our nuclear resources to 1,000 years or more (see GamePlan, p. 126) with the IFR folks estimating over 50,000 years.

Also, it's not something we can decide to do later. If our objective is to get to 20% nuclear in our energy mix, that means we must build one 3GW plant per week for the next 25 years (see GamePlan, p. 149)!

So unless we are absolutely 100% sure we don't need nuclear, we should start very soon, or that option will be lost forever.

Mary Nichols, the highly respected chair of California's Air Resources Board has been convinced for years, and has said publicly, that nuclear would be needed and would make a comeback but only with breeder technology. While she has not yet been briefed in the IFR, she wants to learn more about it and a meeting has been set up.

A number of people who have read the above had additional insightful questions, such as "how do you respond to the disadvantages listed on the wikipedia page on the IFR?" or "if this is so good, why doesn't GE have a customer for the S-PRISM?" or "how do you address the proliferation problem?" Those questions, and more, are answered here: The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) project: Q&A.

Here are some more interesting facts:

  • Nuclear provides 70% of the carbon free electric power in the US even though we haven't started building a new nuclear plant in 30 years!
  • With the used fuel plus depleted uranium that's on hand, we can power the world for centuries before having to mine new uranium. With fast reactors and eventual mining, uranium is inexhaustible
  • There's much more energy in the depleted uranium on hand than there is in the coal still in the ground.
  • Your typical coal plant emits well over 100 times more radioactive materials than a nuclear plant! See p. 89 of Blees' book for figures that will astound you.
  • Some 24,000 people die prematurely in the US from the effects of soot from coal plants (see p. 99). Annual health care costs due to soot, per year: $167 billion dollars (see p. 100)!
  • Even if you add the 56 deaths from Chernobyl, far more people have been injured or killed from hydropower, oil, and gas (see p.99 of Blees' book).
  • With the investment of (nuclear) energy, carbon can be extracted from CO2 and hydrogen from water, to make synthetic liquid fuel. No coal involved -- unless the CO2 comes from existing coal-fired plants. Simplest, perhaps, is to make methanol (CH3OH): 2CO2 + 4H2O + energy -> 2CH3OH + 3O2.  It is truly carbon-neutral, since the CO2 emitted when the fuel is burned is only equal to what was used in the first place. This would make use of the existing distribution infrastructure while a better system (batteries or boron, perhaps) evolves. While this has been known for several years, very few people seem to know about it. See Also, the Carbon Dioxide web page provides detail about recycling CO2: See the section titled: CO2 is valuable, don't waste it, recycle it! So this would solve our problem of how to eliminate CO2 for transportation with complete compatibility with our existing infrastructure. Experts think it would take 15 to 20 years of work before this is viable, however. Here are two excellent videos:     ("Syntrolysis" - Idaho National Laboratory)<>  (Northern Arizona State University)

  • We read about coal plant discharges all the time. The last time we heard about a nuclear discharge in the US was TMI. For example,
    • On December 22, one billion gallons of coal ash sludge and contaminated water, the waste product of coal-fired power plants of the Tennessee Valley Authority, broke through a containment area into the rivers of Kingston, Tennessee.
    • Last week a coal train operated by National Coal Corporation over turned spilling approximately 1100 tons of coal next to the New River in Scott County, Tennessee. Eight rail cars, which typically hold 120 tons of coal, were involved.
    • And now another spill occurred in Alabama at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek coal-fired plant, releasing up to 10,000 gallons of polluted sludge.
  • Nuclear operates without government subsidies
  • Toshiba is building a micro reactor that is 100 times smaller than a typical nuclear plant, at 6 feet by 20 feet. It produces 200 kilowatts of energy at about 5 cents per kilowatt hour — cheaper than coal-fired power in most places in the U.S. The Japanese company will begin marketing the reactors in the United States and Europe in 2009.
  • VCs are starting to invest in nuclear companies (see VCs have a nuclear reaction Technology, energy prices fire interest in new-era nukes).

There is a LOT of misinformation that is unfortunately being spread by seemingly credible sources. For example, here are some items to consider in response to an article that recently appeared in Scientific American:

--  The plutonium at WIPP is only "deadly" after a few thousand years if you go down there and live in close contact with it with it -- and maybe not even then.

        The problems with fast reactors have been non-fundamental.  Examples:
--  The Monju reactor was undamaged by the fire, and has been kept shut down for political reasons.  I think it has been given the go-ahead to start up.
--  The EBR-II fast reactor worked flawlessly for many years.
--  The Phenix fast reactor in France has been on-line for decades.
--  The Superphenix reactor was shut down for political reasons, after it finally had its problems behind it and was working well.
--  The Russian BN-600 has been working well for decades
--  As you well know, the IFR technology has not yet been implemented. so Lyman's claim that "it never worked" is nonsense.
--  The fast-reactor waste would consist of 1 ton of fission products per GWe-year.  True, "thousands of tons" if there were thousands of reactors.  Easily dealt with -- harmless in less than 500 years (unlike coal waste).

Comments on the IFR from one of Australia's top climatologists

It's not just noted climatologist Jim Hansen and noted British environmental author Mark Lynas who think that IFRs are critical to solving the climate crisis. Below are some comments I received from Barry Brook, of Australia's top climatologists.

Brook read Blees' book and wrote this review of Prescription for the Planet on his website:

This list of posts also include what will eventually be a 6-part review series of the book by Tom Blees, Prescription for the Planet, which, within its 400 pages, describes IFR and some related technologies (boron-powered vehicles and plasma burners for waste recycling) that together circumscribe the most practical and innovate energy and sustainability solution I have yet encountered. It also looks carefully at how to achieve the energy revolution required on an international scale. It is, in my opinion, the most important book ever written on energy and climate solutions.

That prompted Friends of the Earth Australia to write a critique of the IFR. Here is Brook's (and other's) response to the FOE critique of the IFR. Note that while Brook has several links to the FoE critique so that readers can see both sides of the issue, FoE doesn't reciprocate. FoE provides no links whatsoever to Brook's site. So much for FoE promoting an open, balanced discussion.

The other thing the critics lack is a viable alternative, but they really never focus on this. They'll talk about terrorism or proliferation risks or all the reasons why the IFR isn't a perfect solution. That's not the point. The point about climate change is we have to displace coal at a minimum. If not the IFR, then what? The critics never talk about that.

I wrote to Brook:

this is so infuriating since IFRs are FAR FAR better than existing nuclear plants and existing nuclear plants have an INCREDIBLE safety record....far safer than any other power source. Obama's new Secretary of Energy Steve Chu points out that existing nuke plants produce 70% of the GHG-free power in is even more amazing when you consider the fact that we haven't started building a new nuclear plant for 30 years!

He wrote back (emphasis mine):

It is infuriating, I agree, because environmental groups seem to be willing to sacrifice great opportunities to fix fundamental problems, completely, because of historical (and even then, mostly ill founded) biases, ideologies and misinformation. My primary goal is about fixing the climate change problem. I was utterly depressed when I worked through the numbers on renewables and found they didn’t stack up. But did I push that aside and pretend it was the solution anyway? No way! I got angry and felt without hope (until I found out about IFR). But I didn’t lie to myself or others in the interim (I just implied there was little hope, when pushed…). That form of disingenuous debating is what must be stamped out here, and that is why rebuttals of ‘propaganda’ pieces like that from FoE (the most strident anties in Australia who helped kill discussion on the Gen III issue here a few years back) MUST be pursued.


Even Gen III+ like the ESBWR are incredibly safe. IFRs just do it even better (good old physical laws). Anyway, I’ll get off my podium now.

Then I wrote:

In the FOE piece, they wrote:

Also ignoring the fact that 70-80+% of greenhouse emissions arise from sectors other than electricity generation - so Kirsch's claim that IFR's could be the "holy grail in the fight against global warming" is stupid.

but coal alone is responsible for 20% of global GHG emissions! See


More importantly, that pew page also says: 68 percent of India’s CO2 emissions are from coal


Yikes. The point is that if you can't get rid of coal, we're screwed.

To which he replied:


What he wrote is at best  grossly disingenuous. You need to solve the electricity carbon problem to fix the vehicular fuels problem, space heating and embedded energy in building and manufactured goods, and Tom has a solution for MSW [municipal solid waste] also. About half of agricultural emissions can also be solved if you have a zero-carbon energy source. Then you just need to worry about the ruminant methane and carbon from deforestation. But the bottom line is, if you fix electricity, every else will fall into place.


As you said in an earlier doc, Steve, if we don’t stop coal in places like China and India, we’re hosed, irrespective of what we might do in the US and Oz (and even if we could do with without advanced nuclear, which quite clearly we can’t: ).


If you want more on why renewables cannot do the job, read over the comments section in these two posts:

I also pointed out to him that when I ask the IFR critics in the US for their plan for how they propose to stop China and India from using coal, they don't have an answer and admit nuclear is the way to go. He asked the same question of the critics in Australia. Here's what he wrote:

I had a similar set of arguments with an anti-nuclear campaigner for the Australian Conservation Foundation recently – he started hammering me about proliferation risks, and so I asked him what his plan was for replacing the 484 GW of coal-fired power stations already installed in China, and the further 200 or so plants in the planning or construction pipeline. Like your critic, he had no answer.


Similarly a strong collection of climate action groups recently protested at the Australian Parliament House and came up with a manifesto on actions required to produce a zero-carbon Australia. But one of their ‘non negotiables’ was a ban on all nuclear power. So I pointed out to them that they’re obviously not 100% committed to solving the climate problem fully after all [this was their ambit claim] – at least if it conflicts with other entrenched ideologies [as an alternative example, I’m not a vegetarian, but for scientific reasons I will no longer choose to eat beef or sheep if I have the option because of the climate-forcing effect of ruminant methane]. No answer.


There is a critique of IFR here: I plan to post a response on my blog, since the author Jim Green linked to it from a comment. Let me know if you have anything specific to say in response to it and I’ll add it to the rejoinder I’m about to write [with acknowledgement).


Anyway, please do keep me in the loop – I’ve vitally interested in pushing this forward and am getting traction. My full list of articles on IFR is here:

Comments on Mark Lynas's website in debate between Greenpeace and Blees

Mark Lynas read Blees book, checked out the facts, and found out conventional "wisdom" about advanced nuclear was wrong. So he came out in favor of the IFR. He was quickly denounced by his peers (see Mark Lynas: the green heretic persecuted for his nuclear conversion). He offered Greenpeace a chance to respond on the Mark Lynas blog, and also published Blees' rebuttal to the Greenpeace comments. Here are some of the reader comments from Blees' rebuttal (since at that point readers could evaluate both sides):

Regardless of what Greenpeace states on environmental grounds, they are not independent and not objective. They have no reason to want nuclear power in any form even if they want to resolve AGW issues.

Thank you Tom for your article and also to Mark for posting it for us. A clear, concise and informative article which for me would seem to illustrate sensibly that nuclear power is not only viable in every way but also relatively safe. Additionally of course as Tom says we should explore and invest in renewables. What a great position it would be to not need nuclear power in the future, although like many I think we will need it. I will leave those better qualified to argue the science here but Tom’s points are well made. I await Greenpeace’s response again with baited breath!

An eloquent and in-depth rebuttal, Mr. Blees. If only all solutions were as rock solid as this one…

Thank you Tom for you rebuttal. Nuclear is here for the foreseeable future and in some places growing. There are also no guarantees that renewables can replace fossil fuels within the uncertain timeframe, even with the desired demand side reduction. On this basis alone I’m convinced that it would be logical to invest in testing S-PRISM. It sounds a little too good to be true and may well be just another pipe dream. But again that’s an argument for getting the testing done.

We seemed to be stuck in old school debate as usual; Mark Lynas and/or Tom Blees presents an optimistic picture, while Greenpeace presents the negative one. It kind of makes it difficult to take either side seriously. Most of us readers aren’t educated enough to know which bit we should be throwing our pinch of salt on.

In the meantime, nuclear is becoming smaller and  more affordable

Mini nuclear plants to power 20,000 homes

Toshiba Builds 100x Smaller Micro Nuclear Reactor

Summary of IFR benefits

  1. energy security
  2. global stability
  3. environmental quality
  4. anthropogenic global warming
  5. nuclear waste

You can justify the investment on just the waste problem alone, but the IFR is far more important. Calculations from a number of respected sources indicates that renewables are insufficient to solve our energy problems. That leaves nuclear. Even NRDC admits that. But the best nuclear by far is the IFR because existing nuclear is not sustainable (we'll run out of fuel unless we use breeder reactors like the IFR) and has higher costs and risks than IFRs. The IFR is simply a better nuclear design that is currently our best option as we move forward.

References on why renewables are insufficient to solve the climate crisis

Energy Secretary Chu, the President of MIT, and the renewable experts at the most recent Aspen Institute Energy Forum all agree that it is not responsible to believe that you can solve the climate crisis without nuclear. Here are a few more references.

Australia:,25197,25817955-601,00.html. MINING giant Rio Tinto has urged Kevin Rudd to immediately begin work on a regulatory regime allowing use of nuclear energy in Australia, arguing the viability of energy alternatives has been dramatically overstated. The company has advised the government to consider "every option" for power generation because its pledges on reducing carbon emissions and using renewable energy will expose industry and consumers to huge increases in their power bills. And it says that overly optimistic assumptions on the viability of alternatives such as wind and geothermal power, as well as so-called clean coal technologies, have created a "false optimism" which the government must challenge by commissioning new research. Some regions of Australia will not be located near good renewable energy resources or sufficient geological storage formations for CCS," the submission says. In these circumstances nuclear energy may provide the optimum clear, reliable and affordable energy option."

UK: is particular good. David MacKay examines five plans for the UK to move a pure renewable society. The conclusion is that renewables are not sufficient: "Any plan that doesn’t make heavy use of nuclear power or “clean coal” has to make up the energy balance using renewable power bought in from other countries."

Japan: In particular, here's a description of Japan's quandry with respect to renewables: Here's a statement from Japan's Federation of Electric Power (FEPC) companies on why renewables, while desirable, are not sufficient: says: Alternative energy sources such as solar and wind power are also attractive options in that they are clean and inexhaustible. And while their use will no doubt grow over the years, such resources remain hamstrung by a variety of drawbacks, from their susceptibility to the vagaries of weather and poor energy conversion rates to inferior cost efficiency. Continuous efforts will be made in research and development in order to utilize such alternative energy sources. However, until the technological hurdles obstructing them - and there are many - are overcome, nuclear power remains among the most viable means of power generation. 

Information on cost of nuclear reactors

See The New Economics of Nuclear Power by the WNA.

The dual CANDU-6 reactors at Qinshan were $2.88 billion for 1.4GWe of power and was put into operation for grid transmission on November 19, 2002 in Haiyan, Zhejiang Province.

Cost of Nuclear Power: The IFR cost is estimated by GE to be about $1,500 per kW. The first two ABWR's were commissioned in Japan in 1996 and 1997. These took just over 3 years to construct and were completed on budget. Their construction costs were around $2000 per KW. The Chinese Nuclear Power Industry has won contracts to build new plants of their own design at capital costs reported to be $1500 per KW and $1300 per KW at sites in South-East and North-East China. If completed on budget these facilities will be formidable competitors to the Western Nuclear Power Industry. If the AP1000 lives up to its promises of $1000 per KW construction cost and 3 year construction time, it will provide cheaper electricity than any other Fossil Fuel based generating facility, including Australian Coal power, even with no sequestration charges.

Here it is: Cost of 2 x Chinese CPR-1000 nuclear reactors cited as US$3.8 billion - that's $1,760/KW if they come in on budget: . Contrast that with the $8-10,000 often cited for building these in the USA. S

However, until there is competitive bidding on these reactors, it is admitted hard to assess the true cost.

In California, PG&E says that nuclear is the second cheapest power (the lowest cost is hydro but hydro isn't scalable). Diablo Canyon cost $5.52B according to the New York Times for 2.2GW of power. They need $1B every 20 years. The plant will probably last 60 years. So over 60 years, that's $7.5B invested to generate 2.2GW*24*365*60 GW of power which is less than 1 cent per kWh (.89 cents actually). But some of that power is wasted because it can't be used. And the capacity factor of one reactor is >101% and the other is 88.2%. So that increases the cost per kWh. And Diablo was very expensive due to the protestors and a costly engineering (mirror image) mistake. Even with all that, you can see the power is VERY VERY cheap.

Today, modular reactors are much less expensive than Diablo Canyon. Using multiple small reactors at a site allows you to shut down a reactor if needed and still deliver plenty of power. They are also cheaper to produce (since they are produced in a factory like cars) and more reliable since these are mass manufactured rather than 1 off designs.

Worldwide, nuclear power is undergoing a renaissance. There are 45 so-called generation III reactors under construction, including 12 in China, and another 388 are planned or proposed.

Cost comparison of nuclear vs. coal account for all costs shows nuclear is comparable to coal today

An objective look at costs of various power generation technologies can be found in Table 2 which is energy cost data from the CEC.

One of the biggest problems with the American reactor program and why it stalled in the '70s and '80s, Three Mile Island notwithstanding, was that the costs were escalating. When it cost $300 million to build a reactor in 1972 and it cost $6 billion in the early '80s, something has gone terribly wrong. Part of that was the legal suits that extended the reactor certification time over to a period of decades. So part of it was the anti-nuclear movement that did that, but also a part of it was each design was different. So everything was built anew, new features were tried out, every design needed a special certificate to actually be built and then another certificate to be run. So the whole system ultimately was set up to fail and things became more and more expensive.

If you can have a system where you have a standardized design with components that are built to a particular specification, if you can have components that are built in a factory and shipped to site rather than everything needed to be constructed on site, if you have modules where they're smaller such as they can be put on a rail car or on a large truck and taken to site and the many of these units put together to constitute a plant, then you can start to see that there's huge benefits in terms of efficiency, the fact that you don't need a standardized certificate for each and every new reactor, that there are economic benefits in building multiple units at a given factory. The places where this is happening is China and India right now. So although these have often been blamed as some of the worst carbon polluters, ultimately and ironically they could be the nations that lead us out of the carbon economy and into a low carbon economy based on nuclear power. AP-1000's made in China are expected to cost only around $1,000 per kW (see AP-1000 Reactor being built in China - current summary and possible problems)..

From New Life for Nuclear Power

Making a significant contribution to CO2 control would require a roughly 10-fold increase in the world's nuclear capacity. If nuclear reactors receive normal maintenance, they will "never" wear out, and this will profoundly affect the economic performance of the reactors. Time annihilates capital costs. The economic Achilles' heel of nuclear energy has been its high capital cost. In this respect, nuclear energy resembles renewable energy sources such as wind turbines, hydroelectric facilities, and photovoltaic cells, which have high capital costs but low operating expenses. If a reactor lasts beyond its amortization time, the burden of debt falls drastically. Indeed, according to one estimate, fully amortized nuclear reactors with total electricity production costs (operation and maintenance, fuel, and capital costs) below 2 cents per kilowatt hour are possible.

Electricity that inexpensive would make it economically feasible to power operations such as seawater desalinization, fulfilling a dream that was common in the early days of nuclear power.  says the
2 AP-1000s in florida will cost $14B. That's pretty pricey compared with the $1,000per KW claim (see

Yoon wrote:

What's been reported in Green Car Congress is misleading. Progress Energy Florida plans to build two nuclear units at their Levy County site. In the process of getting approval of the Florida Public Utility Commission, they submitted estimated project cost, which was very, very conservative --  I don't recall the numbers but they assumed high cost of money, high inflation rate, etc. And probably they doubled the capital costs that vendors were talking about. They wanted set the upper bounds so that they don't have come back to the PUC for revised cost estimates once the project was approved. As long as they carry out the project within the approved budget, they don't have to revisit the issue. The Green Car Congress assumed, based on the Florida numbers, $9448/kW which leads to 20 cents/kwhr at 14.57% fixed charge rate and O&M cost (including 2 cents/kwhr fuel cycle cost) of 8 cents/kwhr. The capital cost is probably a factor of 4 or so high and also the same for O&M. Today's total generating cost is less than 2 cents/kwhr and the fuel cycle cost is 0.55 cents/kwhr. 


Progrss Energy Florida has not signed a construction contract yet, so we don't know what the project cost will be. In fact, all 16 utilities who filed NRC license applications for 26 reactors have not signed contracts yet. Maybe the only exception might be NRG who is building ABWR in Texas. The capital costs for the next series of LWRs remain illusive. The estimate of $1000/kW for AP-1000 is probably too optimistic (with initial cost of $3500/kW in the U.S. About 60% of the reactors built in the last two decades or so probably is in the Southeast Asia. Typical costs there have been $2000-2500/kWe with construction period of less than four years. It behooves me why we cannot do the same in this country. Different labor rates or commodities costs do not explain it. I am concerned with the experience of the new Olkiluoto plant in Finland based on AREVA's 1600 MWe EPR. The project was to be completed this year, but the original fixed price cost has escalated by 50% with 3.5 years delay. I hope this is not a sign that will be repeated here again.

Barry wrote:

Steve, I wouldn't take that Florida price at face value. After all, there was the $26B figure coming out of Ontario recently (AECL and AREVA both came up with similar bids), and it took a bit of digging for me to find out what was behind that 'blowout'. Turns out the LCOE was a mere 5c/kWh:

I disagree with Ralph from NRDC in his confidence that regulatory ratcheting is a thing of the past (RR was, in my reading of history, the primary thing that killed NP construction in the US) -- there is nothing enshrined in law to guarantee that, which is one thing that makes the utilities nervous, I suspect.

Dan wrote:

Yoon et al: Similar experience here in Ontario. The RFP asked the vendor to assume 100% of the risk with massive contingencies, full risk coverage for the whole life of the plant, etc., etc. I was surprised that the AECL and AREVA bids came in as low as they did. 

The Ontario government behaved as if they were making every attempt to create an unbearable contract price. The anti-nukes were (and are) very happy.

Bottom line: Keep a close watch on the AP-1000 and ESBWR. In less than 4 years the first AP1000s should be coming on line in China. Additionally, the Chinese themselves have learned extensively from both S. Korea and Japan that have bought in reactors ahead of schedule and under or at budget. So it’s not entirely new territory we’re talking about.

Nuclear cost vs. solar

To compare with solar, for $50K, you can buy a solar rooftop system that has 8MWh annual output. So if you assume the annual output is actually completely steady 24x7, then that is producing an average of 913watts. So you spent $54,000 for a continuous KW of energy production capacity. So rooftop solar is 36 times more expensive than nuclear per watt installed (assuming nuclear at $1,500 per kW which is the GE IFR estimate which is below the $2,000 actual cost for the first two ABWRs in japan).

If the solar system works the same for 25 years, the cost per kwh of the power is $50,000/200,000= .25 per kwh. That's assuming no cost of capital for the $50K investment! So if you are an energy hog and you are getting hit paying 44 cents for a lot of your power, then solar panels actually can make sense. But in general, there are much more efficient ways to get the power than rooftop solar (see

There was a study of the real costs PV systems done in the UK that found results very similar to my calculation. They looked at a number of systems and the cheapest was slightly more than 20 pence per kWh assuming a 25 lifetime. That's 33 cents/kWh which is not far from my number. They also looked at the payback time compared to grid power and found that the most efficient installation would have to run for at least 45 years to make it a better deal than grid power. And the worst installation would have to run for 296 years before it would be a better deal than grid power. It short, all of the systems are a dumb investment; you never get your money back.

I see many others discovered the same thing. For example, see The economics and usefulness of domestic rooftop solar PV installations.
Nuclear lasts about 60 years compared to PV solar that lasts 25 years.

So it's actually 86 times cheaper to install nuclear capacity (not quite as much since you have to pay people to run your nuclear plant). Also, the nuclear capacity works 24x7. To utilize that 913W you would have to have a large, expensive and relatively short-lived (perhaps 10 years) battery to store energy when produced in excess, and to deliver power on demand when the sun isn't shining. So the system cost will be substantially higher than the figure I calculated. Or, you can use the grid for that storage/backup purpose -- but if everyone did that, well, it just wouldn't work, for obvious reasons, so grid backup cannot be part of a large-scale PV energy solution.

Lang's Solar Realities paper (see Solar power realities – supply-demand, storage and costs) came to a similar conclusion about PV solar:

By looking at the limit position, the paper highlights the very high costs imposed by mandating and subsidising solar power. The minimum power output, not the peak or average, is the main factor governing solar power’s economic viability. The capital cost would be 25 times more than nuclear power. The least-cost solar option would require 400 times more land area and emit 20 times more CO2 than nuclear power.

Conclusions: PV solar power is uneconomic. Government mandates and subsidies hide the true cost of renewable energy but these additional costs must be carried by others

Nuclear Safety

If you live next door to a nuclear reactor, there are a number of radiological studies done on a hypothetical person called Fencepost Man who's supposed to have his house on the fencepost on the boundary of a nuclear power site. He would get approximately one millirem of radiation more than the general public, and that might sound like a lot but in fact the general public gets over 300 millirems of radiation each year just from natural sources. So essentially there's no difference between living next door to a nuclear power plant and living in most other places in the world. And indeed, if you live on top of a granite intrusion you'd get about twice that. So people tend to be a bit irrational about radiation and we need to have a bit of an education campaign about that too.

Nuclear is one of the lowest risk forms of energy on a kWh basis

In the entire 50 year history of commercial nuclear in the United States, it is estimated that one person might have died. That was due to radiation release in the Three Mile Island accident (more below).

Modern reactors are designed on the principle of being inherently safe, and what that means is they have a number of design principles that are based on the laws of physics. So in order for them to melt down or explode there would have to be an extraordinary set of circumstances where you would have multiple systems failing, and in the new reactors that are being proposed, even more than that, you would have to have the laws of physics being violated, which of course is not particularly likely.

Design safety of modern day reactors are orders of magnitude better than original nuclear plants.

A Reactor Safety Study (RSS) was conducted in 1975 by Norman Rasmussen of MIT under NRC sponsorship. This probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) study was also known as the Rasmussen report and WASH-1400.  The RSS estimated that at the time (mid 70s) a reactor meltdown may be expected about once every 20,000 years of reactor operation; that is, if there were 100 reactors, there would be a meltdown once in 200 years. Three Mile Island (TMI) was NOT a full meltdown -- only partial, and it was still a watershed regarding changing safety systems and training (and the fateful regulatory ratcheting, but that's another story). There have been 400 water-moderated commercial reactors running for 30 years. That's 12,000 reactor years, with one partial meltdown (so far) -- entirely consistent with the prediction of an average of one meltdown every 20,000 years. And nobody was hurt. (Chernobyl doesn't count -- not water-moderated & not analyzed.)  notes the following:

The authors of the two principal reports on the Three Mile Island accident1, 2 agree that even if there had been a complete meltdown in that reactor, there very probably would have been essentially no harm to human health and no environmental damage. I know of no technical reports that have claimed otherwise. Moreover, all scientific studies agree that in the great majority of meltdown accidents there would be no detectable effects on human health, immediately or in later years. According to the government estimate, a meltdown would have to occur every week or so somewhere in the United States before nuclear power would be as dangerous as coal burning.

A thorough risk assessment was done on the GE-Hitachi ESBWR and found that a Three Mile Island style meltdown accident could occur once every 29 million reactor years. As you can see, a PRA puts the ESBWR about 3 orders of magnitude safer than the Gen II designs of the 1960s (and these have all been improved with later modifications).

Today's LWRs (i.e., those currently being built) incorporate safety features that are far beyond our current reactors (most of which were built 30 years ago) by orders of magnitude. Newer fourth generation reactors are even better since they rely on passive safety guaranteed by the laws of physics. They tested this to prove it would work: they disabled all the safety systems on the EBR-II reactor and all the alarms went off, but the reactor just shut down on its own with no release of radiation.

Chernobyl was a special type of reactor built by the Russians to breed plutonium for bombs, so it had a graphite core and it meant that if you had problems in the reactor where the water flow would stop, it would actually run out of control. No American reactor can actually do that. And Chernobyl also lacked a containment building, which was another problem because when it started a graphite fire all of the radioactive material was dispersed into the air, another disaster. That also can't happen in an American reactor. The Chernobyl nuclear reactor design would never have been approved in the US for a civilian power plant. Chernobyl was a RBMK type power plant. There are only a handful of these in the US and all of them are used for military purposes. There are no civilian RBMK power plants in the US generating commercial electricity. RBMK are considered unsafe for civilian use by the US Government. Only socialists use technology like that in populated areas. Current [obsolete] technology US Commercial Nuclear Power Plants are mostly Pressurized Water Reactors. TMI was one of these. Boiling Water Reactors comprise the rest.

These water reactors cannot have the kind of accident Chernobyl had. It is not physically possible.

Secondly, the operators allowed the scientists to experiment on the reactor and disable many of the safety systems. That's why it's important for the US to take a lead in having other countries adopt our designs rather than build their own. If we bury our head in the sand and pretend nuclear will go away, we are making a huge mistake. We should be taking a leadership role in reactor design and operator training, worldwide.

As far as Three Mile Island, the reactor was damaged but nobody was killed or injured from the radiation. Three Mile Island was a lesson where there was poor training of staff and a failed system for notifying the staff of actually what was happening. And so they made mistakes such as opening valves when they should have been shutting them and letting water in when they shouldn't have. But Three Mile Island didn't hurt anyone. There were no fatalities, there was no radioactivity of any note released into the environment. So even in that worst-case scenario for an American reactor there were essentially no problems. But of course the reactor was destroyed, it cost millions of dollars, and it set back the American nuclear program by decades really because of the effect on public opinion. That's gradually changed.  The accident resulted in improved operator training and the creation of more safety systems. According to the Report of the President's Commission on The Accident At Three Mile Island (the Kemeny Commission Report): "Just how serious was the accident? Based on our investigation of the health effects of the accident, we conclude that in spite of serious damage to the plant, most of the radiation was contained and the actual release will have a negligible effect on the physical health of individuals. The major health effect of the accident was found to be mental stress.... It is entirely possible that not a single extra cancer death will result. And for all our estimates, it is practically certain that the additional number of cancer deaths will be less than 10."

A study done 20 years after the Three Mile Island accident confirmed that the impacts were not significant:

Based on residential proximity and travel into and out of a 5-mile area during the 10 days after the accident, scientists estimated maximum and likely whole-body gamma exposures for each individual. The estimated average likely and maximum gamma doses were 0.09 mSv or 9 mrem and 0.25 mSv or 25 mrem, respectively. The range of likely gamma exposure was estimated to be 1-170 mrem. The average annual effective dose from natural background radiation in the United States United States is estimated to be approximately 3 mSv (300 mrem) [Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR BEIR Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations  V) 1990]. These exposures were therefore considered minimal.


In conclusion, the mortality surveillance of this cohort, with a total of almost 20 years of follow-up, provides no consistent evidence that radioactivity released during the TMI accident (estimated maximum and likely gamma exposure) has had a significant impact on the mortality experience of this cohort through 1998.

 Three Mile Island: cancer risk ambiguous said:

A court-ordered study finds no "convincing evidence" of inceased cancer risk among people exposed to radiation from the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant.

The findings are "consistent with all the medical and scientific evidence we have so far," says physicist Jacob I. Fabrikant of the University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university located in Berkeley, California, United States. Commonly referred to as UC Berkeley, Berkeley and Cal , who served on the staff of the 1979 presidential commission that investigated the accident. That panel concluded that the amount of radiation released during the mishap was a fraction of the region's normal annual background radiation from cosmic and geologic sources, and it predicted a maximum of one excess cancer death from the accident.

Also, nuclear is one of the safest forms of power generation and much much safer than coal that it would replace. Per

To compare the historical safety record of civilian nuclear energy with the historical record of other forms of electrical generation, Ball, Roberts, and Simpson, the IAEA, and the Paul Scherrer Institut found in separate studies that during the period from 1970 - 1992, there were just 39 on-the-job deaths of nuclear power plant workers, while during the same time period, there were 6,400 on-the-job deaths of coal power plant workers, 1,200 on-the-job deaths of natural gas power plant workers and members of the general public caused by natural gas power plants, and 4,000 deaths of members of the general public caused by hydroelectric power plants.[3][4][5] In particular, coal power plants are estimated to kill 24,000 Americans per year, due to lung disease[6] as well as causing 40,000 heart attacks per year[7] in the United States. According to esteemed journal Scientific American, the average coal power plant emits more than 100 times as much radiation per year than a comparatively sized nuclear power plant does, in the form of toxic coal waste known as fly ash.[8]

Current Gen III LWRs ARE inherently safe – the AP1000, for instance, uses a range of systems based on the laws of physics (in addition to engineered interventions), such as gravity-induced convention in the containment dome and emergency cooling takes that are forced by pressurised nitrogen and reliant on heat-based recirculation – that’s why it’s called the “Advanced Passive 1000”. It’s just the IFR does it more efficiently thanks to the properties of liquid metal coolants and metal fuels.

Nuclear waste

here's a reference from wikipedia page on nuclear_power:
Overall, nuclear power produces far less waste material than fossil-fuel based power plants. Coal-burning plants are particularly noted for producing large amounts of toxic and mildly radioactive ash due to concentrating naturally occurring metals and radioactive material from the coal. Contrary to popular belief, coal power actually results in more radioactive waste being released into the environment than nuclear power. The population effective dose equivalent from radiation from coal plants is 100 times as much as nuclear plants.[74]

The waste of LWR is actually incredibly safe compared to other energy technologies – about 5000 times safer than coal, for instance, based on a standard Loss of Life Expectancy (LLE) risk assessment (NOT counting climate-related damage). This is a great read:

But of course if you only have to deal with fission products and can recycle and use all the TRUs (which is true when using an IFR), the story is even better!

Worker safety

Remarkably, it is safer to work at a nuclear power plant than in the manufacturing sector and even the real estate and financial sectors.

The nuclear industry in the United States has maintained one of the best industrial safety records in the world with respect to all kinds of accidents. For 2008, the industry hit a new low of 0.13 industrial accidents per 200,000 worker-hours.[28] This is improved over 0.24 in 2005, which was still a factor of 14.6 less than the 3.5 number for all manufacturing industries.[29] Private industry has an accident rate of 1.3 per 200,000 worker hours.[30]

Uranium supply

See Once-through, using uranium from the oceans


Some anti-nuke people say nobody will insure nuclear plants. Here's the response from Rod Adams:

All nuclear plants in the US carry a required $300 million in private insurance and sign up to be part of a group insurance policy where all of the members are the owners of all of the other reactors in the country. If there is a claim against a nuclear facility that exceeds their private insurance, the members of the group kick in as much as $98 million each for a total pool of $10 Billion.

The only claims ever paid out in relationship to this system have been well below the private insurance limit. The pool has never kicked in and no taxpayer funds have ever been expended.

Compare that to the airline industry and the payouts that the government had to make back in 2001.

CO2 emissions

Life cycle CO2 emissions for nuclear power are lower than wind or solar (from )

On the carbon front, there is some CO2 emissions during the construction and as a result of fuel enrichment. The CO2 outputs of a nuclear plant are very, VERY low on a per kWh basis compared with other sources. It actually beats out wind and solar! - it is a little worse than hydro, since hydro has no fuel CO2 emissions over its lifecyle.

The "it produces plutonium argument"

See where the anti nuclear guy says fourth generation breeder reactors produce plutonium. Heck, every nuclear reactor produces plutonium. But the IFRs consume the plutonium and the IFR's don't require enrichment. Those are 2 key points. I particular enjoyed this comment:

It is like saying car engine factories produce engine blocks and this maximizes the risk of guns.

To work in that context, there would have to be a single word for any round channel in which expanding combustion gases propel a slider. He’s counting on the single word “plutonium” to mean two different things, without his audience knowing that it means two different things (a fallacy of equivocation).

I doubt Noonan expects any country or group to get nuclear weapons because it has power reactors. None ever has. Power reactors, if fed 238-U, make power reactor plutonium. Much cooler, smaller, simpler, cheaper reactors make weapon-grade plutonium, as different from the other kind as is a gun barrel from an Ecotec engine block.

The theoretical usability of the engine block as a multibarrel cannon represents a very long way around to a very inferior result, weapon-wise. Using power reactor plutonium for weapons is similarly believed to be a long way around to an inferior result, and so has apparently never been tried.

(When the American gas industry’s Hazel O’Leary was in public office, her government published a claim to this effect, but acknowledged that the yield of the bomb that was produced may have been zero, and did not acknowledge that the supposedly power-reactor-derived plutonium was quite unlike any being made today. More at Jeremy Whitlock’s “Canadian Nuclear FAQ”.)

The terrorist attack scenario argument

The WWF position paper on nuclear energy which is included in Climate Solutions - WWF's Vision for 2050 references a UCS study Impacts of a Terrorist Attack at Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant  which says a properly done terrorist attack could result in 44,000 short term deaths and eventually kill 518,000 people from cancer. The economic damages within 100 miles would exceed $1.1 trillion for the 95th percentile case, and could be as great as $2.1 trillion for the worst case evaluated, based on Environmental Protection Agency guidance for population relocation and cleanup. Millions of people would require permanent relocation.

To put that in perspective, 9/11 is estimated to have cause nearly $2 trillion in damage.

So WWF could have written a paper saying we shouldn't have buildings and airplanes because under a worst case scenario, they can combine to cause $2 trillion in damage and thousands of deaths.

And Greenpeace would argue that we shouldn't have any chemical plants at all since 15,000 are a ripe target for sabatoge. They argue that a study by the Army surgeon general, conducted soon after 9/11, found that up to 2.4 million people could be killed or wounded by a terrorist attack on a single chemical plant. So chemical plants are far more dangerous than our worse case nuclear attack. Should we now shut down all chemical plants?

The problem with the WWF scenario is that they never tell you what the likelihood of such an event happening really is.

Studies have been done to show that containment buildings would withstand the impact of a fully fueled jet aircraft. This scenario involves essentially a hollow tube of aluminium and steel, holding a few hundred thousand litres of gasoline, colliding with a heavily reinformed concrete dome designed to contain extreme internal steam pressure. Some relevant comments re: that particular Indian Point scenario are here:

The $2 trillion figure, even if you accept their assumptions (which are highly disputable), is the 99.9th percentile. That is, this cost would be incurred once in every 1,000 plane hits to a reactor like nuclear point. Of course if you bury an IFR, the risk is virtually zero. This is an example of disingenous people taking advantage of the general populace's gross ignorance on the matter of risk and probability.

There is a good discussion of this general by Bernard Cohen:
I like this quote:

"It is very difficult to predict the future of scientific developments, and few would even dare to make predictions extending beyond the next 50 years. However, based on everything we know now, one can make a strong case for the thesis that nuclear fission reactors will be providing a large fraction of our energy needs for the next million years. If that should come to pass, a history of energy production written at that remote date may well record that the worst reactor accident of all time occurred at Chernobyl, USSR, in April of 1986."

...and think this section is useful: Truly, the possibilities are limited only by ones imagination, and as the previous WWF treatment of nuclear emissions showed, the imaginations of those folks runs way, way into fantasy land.

The Worst Possible Accident

One subject we have not discussed here is the "worst possible nuclear accident," because there is no such thing. In any field of endeavor, it is easy to concoct a possible accident scenario that is worse than anything that has been previously proposed, although it will be of lower probability. One can imagine a gasoline spill causing a fire that would wipe out a whole city, killing most of its inhabitants. It might require a lot of improbable circumstances combining together, like water lines being frozen to prevent effective fire fighting, a traffic jam aggravated by street construction or traffic accidents limiting access to fire fighters, some substandard gas lines which the heat from the fire caused to leak, a high wind frequently shifting to spread the fire in all directions, a strong atmospheric temperature inversion after the whole city has become engulfed in flame to keep the smoke close to the ground, a lot of bridges and tunnels closed for various reasons, eliminating escape routes, some errors in advising the public, and so forth. Each of these situations is improbable, so a combination of many of them occurring in sequence is highly improbable, but it is certainly not impossible.

If anyone thinks that is the worst possible consequence of a gasoline spill, consider the possibility of the fire being spread by glowing embers to other cities which were left without protection because their firefighters were off assisting the first city; or of a disease epidemic spawned by unsanitary conditions left by the conflagration spreading over the country; or of communications foul-ups and misunderstandings caused by the fire leading to an exchange of nuclear weapon strikes. There is virtually no limit to the damage that is possible from a gasoline spill. But as the damage envisioned increases, the number of improbable circumstances required increases, so the probability for the eventuality becomes smaller and smaller. There is no such thing as the "worst possible accident," and any consideration of what terrible accidents are possible without simultaneously considering their low probability is a ridiculous exercise that can lead to completely deceptive conclusions.

The same reasoning applies to nuclear reactor accidents. Situations causing any number of deaths are possible, but the greater the consequences, the lower is the probability. The worst accident the RSS considered would cause about 50,000 deaths, with a probability of one occurrence in a billion years of reactor operation. A person's risk of being a victim of such an accident is 20,000 times less than the risk of being killed by lightning, and 1,000 times less than the risk of death from an airplane crashing into his or her house.7

But this once-in-a-billion-year accident is practically the only nuclear reactor accident ever discussed in the media. When it is discussed, its probability is hardly ever mentioned, and many people, including Helen Caldicott, who wrote a book on the subject, imply that it's the consequence of an average meltdown rather than of 1 out of 100,000 meltdowns. I have frequently been told that the probability doesn't matter — the very fact that such an accident is possible makes nuclear power unacceptable. According to that way of thinking, we have shown that the use of gasoline is not acceptable, and almost any human activity can similarly be shown to be unacceptable. If probability didn't matter, we would all die tomorrow from any one of thousands of dangers we live with constantly.

The "nuclear reprocessing is dangerous even if you use pyroprocessing" argument

UCS in their paper "Nuclear Power in a Warming World" claims pyroprocessing is just as dangerous as PUREX. They wrote:

According to a report from a 1999 workshop
at the DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory (LLNL), the transuranic elements or
other actinides in spent fuel could be used to build
nuclear weapons:
Examination of various cycles and the opinions
of weapons-design experts lead to the conclusion
that there is no ‘proliferation-proof’ nuclear power
cycle. Explosive Fissionable Material (EFM)
includes most of the actinides and their oxides.168
Dr. Bruce Goodwin of LLNL also maintained
at the workshop that “as nuclear weapons design
and engineering expertise combined with sufficient
technical capability become more common
in the world, it becomes possible to make nuclear
weapons out of an increasing number of technically
challenging explosive fissionable materials.”169
In other words, it is unwarranted to assume that
terrorists could not acquire the ability to build
nuclear weapons with the mixture of plutonium
and other actinides produced by UREX+.

A number of articles about making bombs from reprocessed material are available at

scroll down to articles published in Physics & Society.  The one titled Purex and Pyro refers to a LLL briefing that makes it clear that pyroprocessed fuel (Note that UCS concentrates on UREX+) is essentially useless for bombs.

Here are a few excerpts:

In his 1993 paper, J. Carson Mark wrote: “The difficulties of
developing an effective design of the most straightforward type are
not appreciably greater with reactor-grade plutonium than those
that have to be met for the use of weapons-grade plutonium.”[4]
That was based on his calculations, and on his apparent opinion
that the heat problem is trivial. However, to our knowledge no
weapons program, anywhere, ever, has made another attempt to
produce an explosion with reactor-grade plutonium. It is extremely
likely that the 1962 test demonstrated that reactor grade plutonium
is lousy material for making bombs, and that no nation, given the
data from that test, would want to use the stuff.

While the difference in weapons potential is one of degree rather
than principle, that difference is huge. The point is not that it can’t
be done, but rather that a would-be proliferator has far easier routes
to nuclear weapons.

By the way, it has sometimes been asserted that the chemically
impure plutonium produced by the pyrometallurgical process could
be used to make a bomb without further separation. This has been
convincingly refuted in an unpublished investigation by Livermore
National Laboratory (1994),which concluded that the transuranic
impurities render the material far too hot (thermally and
radioactively), and with far too many spontaneous neutrons, to
make it at all feasible.

Anyway, it is very much easier to make a bomb with highly
enriched uranium than with reactor grade plutonium. That route
would surely be taken by any organization that did not have access
to weapons-grade plutonium.

But making a bomb from highly enriched uranium is very very hard. And you'd still have to purify it to have any chance of success, and then make a reliable weapon out of it. And if you know how to do all that, then getting the material is going to be the least of your problems.

There are two scenarios here: either you think the terrorists are dumb or they are really smart. If they are dumb, they'll fail. If they are really smart, they'll know that the only way to realistically have any chance of making a bomb is to partner with a country like North Korea which already has the bombs. The scenario where they steal material, purify it, and build a bomb from scratch is unrealistic. Even highly organized countries with huge financial and scientific resources have a tough time making nuclear weapons. The easiest route for any terrorist is to partner with a rogue state who hates the United States and has nuclear weapons. The hardest route is to use the reactor waste product or pyroprocessed output. If you can do it with that, then eliminating pyroprocessing really isn't going to be much of a hurdle.

In any case, the IFR certainly isn't going to make a terrorist's task any easier than it is now.

The "nuclear gets huge subsidies" argument

I’d done a similar number crunch in response to an argument by a commenter
on my website about nuclear power being heavily subsidised. Here is my
reply, and a good follow-on comment by another guy who works for a CA

Many people are concerned that nuclear has received the lion’s share of
government funds. In the US (for which I have figures), Federal DOE energy
subsidies for solar+wind amounted to $0.026/kWh of electricity generated.
Nuclear power received $0.00038/kWh of electricity generated. That is,
‘technosolar’ got 68 times more funds per unit generation than nuclear. Of
course this is only direct subsidy — it does not include tax credits,
subsidies by power companies that must maintain spinning reserve for times
when wind is weak, or subsidies by customers who regularly pay a few cents
per kWh for Green Power. Wind in the US has also received a production
credit (subtracted from taxes, not income) of 1.8 c/kWh.

In the UK, between 1990-2005, total government allocations to renewables R&D
(including research council projects but leaving out fuel cells & embedded
generation) was about £180m while nuclear fission & fusion got about £370m-
more than double.

My numbers quoted for the US were subsidies for different generation sources
per kWh. Using the 2004 UK electricity figures, non-hydro renewables
produced 13.6 TWh of electricity and nuclear produced 73.7 TWh. Taking these
as average figures over the 1990-2005 period of 16 years, that amounts to
£0.00083/kWh for renewables and £0.000314/kWh for nuclear — so on that
basis, renewables gets 2.6 times more funds than nuclear. This is actually a
little unfair on nuclear, as over the period it has produced a lot more
energy, on average, than non-hydro renewables, which were close to nothing
in 1990 (whereas nuclear was 58 TWh).

Further, the  <> new ISA analysis
by Manfred Lenzen backs up the above — it puts subsidies for nuclear power
as lower than any other energy technology, based on the 2007-2009

Critique’s reply:
I guess that would be true if you only counted direct subsidies however you
must acknowledge the indirect subsidies over the 60 or so years that nuclear
power has been around as well as the technology transfer from military

It would be very difficult to exactly pin down the total amount of money
spent on nuclear however if you prefer the direct DOE figure then go ahead
and quote this one.

David Walter’s response:

Setting aside for a second the ‘indirect subsidies’ nuclear has received,
the main point is that wind and solar really wouldn’t even run, at all,
without these huge subsidies per kWhr they get. Period. They wouldn’t pay
for the maintenance and staffing on existing plant and material. This isn’t
true due to the massive revenue flow nuclear gets. Nuclear would keep on
going, *everywhere*, basically.

Now…the indirect subsidies. Yes, these are “historical” subsidies, 94%
(approx) received *prior* to 1974. In fact, it’s very hard to parse out.
Some were in fact *direct* and not “indirect”. But most it was as a result
of the Navy and Army nuclear program which the civilian side was a spin off.
The first civilian plant at Shippingport was a former Navy nuclear reactor
where they ran a variety fuels — including thorium — for R&D (all the while
pumping out MWs).

But how long does one ‘hold this ‘against’ nuclear? Really. The subsidy was
paid. Now, ever KW of power produced slowly reduces the % of that subsidy to
the overall ‘cost’ of a nuclear KW, doesn’t it? Should we NOT use nuclear
because it had massive subsidies, most of which was for military nuclear
propulsion programs?

Today, nuclear in my opinion is important enough TO subsidize. I’m all for
it. It’s a proven carbon mitigator. The subsidies have been more than worth
it. The US gov’t should set aside about 10 billion USD *specifically* to
deploy a variety of Generation IV reactors and get it over with.

From George Stanford:


     Our gov't is subsidizing "renewables" to the tune of $30 Billion (thanks to Jan van Erp for flagging the story).  See <>.

     Now let's do a little figgerin'.  "This administration has set a goal of doubling renewable electricity generation over the next three years," Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a statement."  That can't include hydro, so the "renewable" fraction would go up to 4.8% (see figure below), adding to the grid 2.4% of its present capacity of 1,000,000 MWe, or 24,000 MWe.  But that's nameplate capacity, and actual capacity is perhaps 30% of that, so the additional real capacity is more like 7,200 MWe. 

     Thus the subsidy per kWe of real added capacity would be $30B / (7,200,000 kWe) = $4k / kWe, or $4B / GWe.  That, dear friends, is roughly the total cost of building a new nuclear plant, according to some estimates (not the lowest).

     It would be legitimate to observe that the $30B includes something for transmission lines.  It also would be legitimate to point out that most of that new transmission capacity would not be needed if the same new power came from nuclear plants near regions of high population density, instead of from the remote areas where the wind blows and the sun shines.

     Important:  This subsidy is not seed money to bring a new technology up to economic competitiveness, which would be a proper use of public funds.  It's largely for construction, with known technology -- and it will only partially cover the construction costs, at that.

     Let's not hear any more comments about excessive subsidies for nuclear power.

The Von Hippel arguments

From Robert Hargraves (posted to LA Times site):

Von Hippel's article is partly right but incomplete. Yes, spent fuel can be safely stored in dry casks for decades; there is no reason to panic. Yes, France's pioneering reprocessing is not good enough. It separates the uranium and plutonium, leaving low volume radioactive waste to store, but leaves France with excess uranium and plutonium. He is wrong about the US "we don't reprocess, you don't need to either" success. Banning US reprocessing didn't stop India, China, Pakistan, Israel, South Africa, and North Korea from making nuclear weapons, and it has not impeded Iran. France, UK, India, Japan, and Russia reprocess spent fuel. Spent nuclear fuel still contains 97% of its original potential energy. Technologies such as the integral fast reactor allow spent fuel to be "deep burned" to generate electric power. The integral fast reactor can also consume the much greater, fallow stocks of depleted uranium created by uranium enrichment plants that manufacture today's US nuclear reactor fuel. Even more energy can be harvested from more plentiful thorium using the liquid fluoride thorium reactor. There is enough carbon-free nuclear power for millennia.  

CANDU reactor

Built for under $2000 per kw in china. Can run on broad range of fuel, but doesn't fully transmute all actinides.

CANDU has a good neutron economy because heavy water has lower parasitic neutron capture than light water. That's why they can operate with natural uranium. Which also means CANDU can be fueled with a lot of alternate fuels -- reconstituted LWR spent fuel (so-called DUPIC cycle), reprocessed uranium from LWR spent fuel (U-235 content is still higher than natural uranium), and even plutonium or TRU containing fuel.

However, CANDU as well as any other thermal spectrum reactors cannot transmute minor actinides effectively. They convert actinides to even higher actinides than consuming them. Some are consumed but the net effect in long term radiological toxicity is insignificant.

Actinides can be consumed effectively only in fast reactors.

Next Steps

A request by GE for a 810 determination that the IFR is not sensitive nuclear technology seems to me to be the next step so discussions can be held with Russia, China, India, Japan, and South Korea.

What are the easy steps that Dr. Chu can authorize?    

1) Start the NRC licensing process of PRISM (using the Fuel Cycle R&D funds).  This make progress transparent to all stakeholders.    

2) Start the DOE Project Management requirements to get Congressional funding.  (DOE Order 413.3)    

3) With 1 started.... confidence come back to the system.  With 2 done you use the 1992 Energy Policy Act to start PRISM.  This puts the government action into doing appropriations, which seems to be a bit easier than authorization language.

Miscellaneous factoids about the IFR

1. Even with LWR, the EROEI (energy returned on energy invested) is so high that you could profitably ‘mine’ seawater for U at a decent energy return. So with conventional (~10 MtU) + phosphates (~30 MtU) we have at least 40 MtU of mineable U [probably substantially more] and another 4600 MtU in seawater. Let’s imagine we ran 10,000 GWe of LWR to supply all worldwide energy needs (including liquid fuel replacement). That’s a 27 fold increase compared to the output of LWR today. Current 370 GWe needs 65,000 tU/yr (if we weren’t using weapons Pu also). So 10,000 GWe of LWR would need 1.75 MtU. We have over 2,500 years of fuel – before we go to Th. Sea water extraction has been estimated at <$1,000/kg, which is expensive, but still about 100 times cheaper than coal, per joule. Of course it would be ludicrous to continue to use LWR beyond the next 50 years or so, but the point is that U is not going to run out even with a major expansion of LWR over the next few decades, as IFRs ramp up.

Bottom line: IFRs win hands down in the sustainability, safety and waste management stakes, and pyroprocessing trounces PUREX in regards to proliferation resistance. But LWRs are still a superb clean energy generation technology and a massive rollout of these, side by side with fast reactors, is (now, after understanding the issues) fine by me. We need all the extra Pu for initial IFR loadings that we can get. There is no need to dismiss LWR to win the IFR argument, in my humble opinion.

Before Al Gore became VP, he wrote a book Earth in the balance: "Ecology and the Human Spirit." On page 328, he wrote: “The research and development of alternative approaches should focus on discovering, first, how to build a passively safe design (whose safety does not depend upon the constant attention of bleary-eyed technicians) that eliminates many risks of current reactors, and second, whether there is a scientifically and politically acceptable means of disposing of – in fact, isolating, nuclear waste.” So that's exactly what the IFR provides. So it meets his criteria, but he won't endorse it and will not explain why he won't.

IFRs can be used to replace the burners in a coal plant. You cannot do that with a normal LWR reactor.

Even if you don't believe in global warming, you should definitely believe in the Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC). It's coming our way. Nuclear and the IFR is the best way to stop it.

A kilogram of uranium contains about as much energy as two million kilograms of coal, and coal is already a concentrated form of energy. So it's an incredibly concentrated form of energy if you can harness it to its full advantage.

A short IFR pitch

IFR story is a story of how the US government paid billions to our National Laboratories to engineer a solution to the energy and climate crisis (before it became a crisis), the solution worked, then President Clinton cancelled the project telling the world in his State of the Union speech that this power was "unnecessary."

Nuclear provides 70% of our clean energy in the US, even though we haven't built a new reactor in 30 years!

Despite nuclear being the elephant in the room, the world "nuclear" appears only TWICE in Waxman-Markey. That is absurd since we have 10 times as much energy just in the Depleted Uranium waste (which is just sitting there) than we have coal in the ground.

We are currently not doing anything to exploit our largest energy resource (which is also one of our cleanest). This reactor is ready to be built, GE has a design ready to built, and we are doing NOTHING.

More information on the IFR

1.    Why We Should Build an Integral Fast Reactor Now. Opinion piece on my blog

2.    Meet the Man Who Could End Global Warming Esquire Magazine named the IFR expert at GE as the Best and Brightest of 2009

3.    Plentiful Energy and the IFR Story: Article by Charles Till explaining the IFR (a must read)

4.    Operating and test experience with EBR-II, the IFR prototype. An excellent paper discussing the IFR.

5.    DOE study: 242 experts from all over the world compared 19 different nuclear reactor designs on 27 criteria: The IFR was rated #1. The obvious conclusion is that if you are going to build new nuclear plants, this is the design to pursue.

6.    "Nuclear power plants - now safer and cheaper (15 minute audio)
I highly recommend this. Barry Brook traces the history of nuclear power. Today, about 440 nuclear power reactors are in use, known as Generation 2 reactors. These were designed between 1960 and 1980. Recently, Generation 3 reactors have adopted a standard design, allowing for faster approval. 45 are being built. 350 are planned. Chernobyl was a cheap design. There was no containment building. Barry Brook describes Chernobyl as an accident waiting to happen. Newer reactors are orders of magnitude safer than the older models. Generation 4 is the new excitement. Efficiency is much higher meaning uranium supplies will last so much longer. They can burn a range of isotopes of uranium and other elements producing short-lived waste."

  1. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) project: Q&A: this page compiles answers the disadvantages brought up on the wikipedia page and other issues that people bring up
  2. Tell Barack Obama the Truth -- The Whole Truth November 21, 2008 article by James Hansen on why restarting the IFR should be a priority
  3. Mark Lynas: the green heretic persecuted for his nuclear conversion article by Mark Lynas describing how Lynas was surprised to find the "Green case against nuclear power is based largely on myth and dogma"
  4. Jim Hansen's August 4, 2008 trip report: Hansen describes, for the first time, how he first heard of the IFR
  5. IFR Q&A with Congress (Stanford answers)
  6. IFR Q&A with Congress (Kirsch answers)
  7. IFR Q&A with Congress (Blees answers)
  8. Comments on the Misguided Termination of the IFR Project: a must read!
  9. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) information page at UC Berkeley: An excellent summary of the technology and benefits
  10. PBS Frontline interview with Argonne Lab Director Charles Till
  11. Argonne Q&A: If the IFR is as good as it sounds, how come nobody is using it?
  12. Speech by Charles Till to Canadian Scientists about the IFR project
  13. Argonne Q&A about the IFR project
  14. Integral Fast Reactors: Source of Safe, Abundant, Non-Polluting Power: Article explaining the IFR by George S. Stanford, Ph.D., a scientist who worked on it.
  15. Wikipedia page on the Integral Fast Reactor
  16. Hannum, W. H., G. E. Marsh and G. S. Stanford, "Smarter Use of Nuclear Waste." Scientific American, December 2005, pp 84-91
  17. Opinion: How a 24-year-old technology can save the planet (Dec 7, 2008): an op-ed on how the IFR could save the planet
  18. Friends of the Earth Australia critique of the IFR where Blees responds with his comments Integral Fast Reactors for the masses. Barry Brook is currently drafting a direct response. Note that 68% of India's CO2 emissions are from coal! 20% of worldwide GHG emissions are from coal. See Coal and Climate Change Facts: The Pew Center on Global Climate Change
  19. Nuking green myths, an excellent op-ed written by Barry Brook and published in The Australian
  20. How Does Obama Expect to Solve the Climate Crisis Without a Plan? Huffington Post opinion on why nuclear is the best solution to the climate crisis
  21. Climate Bill Ignores Our Biggest Clean Energy Source: Huffington Post opinion on nuclear and the IFR.
  22. Nukes: a necessary part of our future?  A balanced look at the problem and the first comment sums up the situation quite nicely
  23. Kirsch Family Movie on How to Solve the Climate Crisis: This is a more entertaining version of what you've just read (3 minutes)
  24. The Truth About Energy: More generic site about nuclear power.
  25. Retirement of Dr. Charles Till: this says it all in one page.  "Unfortunately, this program was canceled just 2 short years before the proof of concept. I assure my colleagues someday our Nation will regret and reverse this shortsighted decision."

Knowledgeable people on IFR technology

  • Tom Blees: Author of Prescription for the Planet. He is a writer with absolutely no ties to the nuclear industry or any other interest, financial or otherwise, in the technologies presented in his plan for a global energy revolution. He simply wants to solve the world's most intractable problems
  • Jasmina Vujic: She's the chairperson of the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering at U.C. Berkeley, well-versed in the state of reactor design and current areas of research into commercial nuclear power.
  • Yoon Chang: Yoon is considered to be the world's leading expert on IFR technology. He worked with Charles Till for years on the project at Argonne Labs, and took over as director when Charles retired.  
  • Eric Loewen: Eric is the lead nuclear engineer for General Electric's Generation IV reactor project. GE has already proposed to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) that they be chosen to build the prototype plant, and they've developed the design (based largely on the IFR research at Argonne) to take nuclear power to this new level.
  • George Stanford: One of the IFR project nuclear physicists. George has not only a deep understanding of the technology but a knack for communicating that knowledge.

Steve Kirsch Home Page (short version)












"I have experience of many forms of meditation and practices for self improvement including: Transcendental meditation (TM) 12 years, Kriya Yoga 9 years, Sushila Buddhi Dharma (SUBUD) 7 years, and more recently the Sedona Method and the Course in Miracles. The Energy Enhancement programme encapsulates and expands all of these systems, it is complete and no questions are left unanswered."







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The Buddhafield of energy, in which evolutionary progress can quickly be made, and Kundalini Energy are absolutely necessary to any course of Meditation.


Energy Enhancement Advanced Techniques allow  progress above and beyond any other course.


Energy Enhancement Advanced Techniques only use ENERGY which underlies all other human functions.


With Energy Enhancement it is not necessary to go anywhere near  memory, negative emotions and catharsis which are the foundations of other courses.





It teaches  TOTAL Transmutation

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Thomas Blair

 White Light


COURSE IN SPAIN, Week 2 of 4

Having found yet another blockage in my base chakra, I couldn't help but feel rather despondent. After gritting my teeth and getting stuck in, I finally managed to remove it. This blockage in the Base Chakra was the last one there!!!

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When I came to see Satchi at the airport for the first time I was struck by his energy but it was the second time, when he was talking to another student when meeting us off the train at Figueres that I really started to feel the Buddhafield of Energy Surrounding him. Suddenly I started yawning like the big healer guy in "The Green Mile" and then tears started from my eyes and I felt I was getting rid of a lot of Painful memories from the past.  Olympia Panza 2004








My name is Jean, and I am a thirty seven year old Chartered Engineer from the UK  working in the Nuclear Industry.

I have been working for over 12 years with many well known techniques including Transcendental meditation and Kriya Yoga, Subud, A Course in Mircles and the Sedona Method.

 Although I have made good progress with these techniques I now consider these to have been preliminary techniques to prepare me for Energy Enhancement.

These methods that I have tried before simply don't provide for the systematic identification of Energy Blockages or contain the Advanced Techniques for the  removal of the energy blockages to enlightenment that Energy Enhancement does.


If you are serious about self-improvement, growth, change, enlightenment! Then the Energy Enhancement course is for you.


If you are tired of all the many systems of meditation which leave questions unanswered and where the path to enlightenment is ill defined and uncertain then don't delay end the suffering as soon as possible – learn Energy Enhancement.



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Both Satchiji and Devi are beautiful and inspiring souls, passionately committed to helping people grow spiritually and accelerating each students progress towards enlightenment. They allow the students to grow at their own pace, whilst passing on profound knowledge and techniques in a light hearted and joyful manner. Both of them have extensive knowledge, possess strong perceptive powers and bathe people around them in the strong Buddhafield of energy that surrounds them. They have both made my stay in Argentina a delightful and a memorable one. HONEY KALARIA- FILM STAR 2005




APPRENTICE LEVEL 1. Initiation 3.

The Grounding of Negative Energies.


That's why you are suffering. That's why you are poor -- because you have forgotten how to live on this earth! Nobody has taught you how to live on this earth, how to love this earth. They have all taught you that this earth is ugly, that it is a punishment that you have been sent here, that you are not supposed to enjoy. If you enjoy, you will be sent again. You are supposed to be very sad, detached. You have to renounce all the joys of the earth so next time you don't have to be born, and then you will enjoy heavenly pleasures.

 Because these people have been talking too much about the "other world", they have destroyed this world. I teach you this earth.

 This very earth, the paradise. This very body the Buddha - OSHO




TESTIMONIAL Our nurse was able to see what was happening with the blockage as she sent it up as she had by this time developed a most clear Psychic Vision, just like the medical sensitive Caroline Myss. She saw the blockage as a person whose negative energy power had all been stripped away by the grounding process. She eventually saw it changed into a skeleton which she was then able to totally remove and send up.


When it was over she was jubilant. She knew she would never have the same problem again. And when later, we started the process of clearing all the negative energy out of all of her previous lifetimes, she saw that this blockage had been with her for sixty lifetimes and had started its work ninety lifetimes ago. As she went backwards, lifetime by lifetime she became lighter and lighter. She felt her heart center become bigger and bigger until it was the size of her chest.

She felt great!!

All with the techniques of Energy Enhancement






The Energy Enhancement Buddha at the SOL Center, Escala, SPAIN

Testimonial By Vanessa Graham, BRIGHTON, ENGLAND



I am now out in Spain training to be a yoga teacher with Energy Enhancement and later training to be an Energy Enhancement Meditation teacher.  I was previously out here with Satchi and Devi two years ago when I did the first part of the Energy Enhancement course. 


I later completed it in Argentina this year.  I had needed that gap in between to assimilate what I had learnt and put it into practice. I teach meditation and have found it very helpful with my own personal growth as well as progressing on my spiritual path, so much so that I felt it would you very useful to those on a similar path and that I would like to teach it. 


If you meditate long enough and hard enough you can resolve your life's problems but that can take a lifetime and I felt I could not wait that long, I wanted things to happen now.  That's is why Satchi and Devi's Energy Enhancement Course appealed to me, it was all about doing, not just talking about it. 


Energy Enhancement is experiential,<> you learn by doing, it is not some others persons experience it is your own that you work on.  Only by doing do you learn, you are given the necessary techniques to tackle negative thought forms in your life and you work through meditation to eliminate them. 


Energy Enhancement saves hours of psychoanalysis;<> it is not necessary to rake up the past in fine detail.  You can acknowledge past events and how they affected you, recognising them intellectually is the first step but then you use the techniques taught to get rid of them.


I thought I would go through with and share the Energy Enhancement processes that have occurred for me over the last few days.  It is just a report of things as they are, no embellishments or make believe.... 


.... When I was getting the better of the energy blockage I felt the spaces in which I meditated expand.  I got an explosion of energy down the right hand side of my body. 


The energy was bumping around in my base chakra; in fact my whole body was pulsating with the energies.  It felt as though there was static electricity all along my arms making the hairs stand up on end. 


As the energies grew stronger I felt lighter, happier and freer.  My heart opened out to send blasts of energy out which returned back to me.


This was not just a quest for personal growth it was the quest for enlightenment.  It is the spiritual path I am on, these Energy Enhancement techniques are just part of it.  The ancient scriptures are followed and hatha yoga is practiced, it is all part and parcel of the same thing. 


Satchidanand said we only see these problems when we are able to deal with them and now was the time for me to deal them.  There are also positive images whilst meditating and one was of a large bird soaring in the sky, floating on the thermals, being taken by the wind.  That is the analogy of my quest.  I want to be free to follow my souls path; I want to be that bird. Out of this I was given a message "Let the soul sing its song through my heart".

Testimonial By Vanessa









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The purpose of the Third Initiation of Energy Enhancement is Alchemical "Rectificando", the "R" in VITRIOL, from the latin which has been translated as, "The right leading of the infinite transmuted energy along the path of the soul" The secret of enlightenment, which comes from the conscious changing of direction of the energy from the Taoist Heaven to Earth, "Which droppeth as the gentle dew from heaven upon its place beneath." - Shakespeare, or which is scattered like wheat onto the earth and then grows up to the stars or Sirius..


In the Masonic Royal Arch ceremony they mention the crypt. According to Masonic author David Ovason... "Symbolically speaking the crypt is the burial place. It is the earth into which the seed of wheat must be dropped to grow and to resurrect, emerging as a sprouting plant from the coffin. In Masonry the crypt is the burial place of the Master Mason, whose dross or ego has been burnt away, "die before you die", Nanak, under the Holy of Holies, the Sun or Sirius.... (See the Egyptian version of Isis who symbolises the star Sirius to your left. ABOVE HER HEAD THE HOLY GRAIL CONTAINING THE SUN) This idea of rebirth is continued even in modern times in the formal ritual of freemasonic cornerstone ceremonials (ceres) in which participants in the rituals scatter wheat upon the floor and sometimes even link this seeding with the stars". This also is the meaning of the stories, Jack and the Beanstalk and of "Rapunzel, Rapunzel, let down your hair"

 LIKE WHEAT SPROUTING FROM THE EARTH TOWARDS THE STARS - SYMBOLISING THE ANTAHKARANA - In the Center of the Earth the negative energy is Alchemically transmuted into pure positive spiritual energy - Kundalini energy which flows upwards to the stars.







The crypt is the center of the earth, the wheat is the kundalini energy which flows from the center of the earth (The point from which a master Mason cannot err) the energy comes from heaven to earth and then changes direction so it flows outwards in all directions from the center of the earth and as it does so it must come out at right angles to the surface of the earth (Squaring the Circle, of the earth) towards Sirius, "The Star of the Tarot and Isis, see the picture, ABOVE LEFT, showing the energy of the sun connected in through the antahkarana to the crown chakra of Isis" and higher.

Higher because Akhnaten revealed two suns above the head, although there are more. Also the lotus which grows upwards from the seed along the antahkarana like the spear of Saint George and the Dragon. The ego animal, dragon, bull or pig, is burnt in the center of the sun and in the fires in the center of the "H"earth. This is the secret of Zoroaster, Shiva, Demeter and the fertility rituals of Eleusis.


Demeter, the Eleusian Mysteries and the Initiations of Energy Enhancement

The Greek earth goddess par excellence, who brings forth the fruits of the earth, particularly the various grains. She taught mankind the art of sowing and ploughing so they could end their nomadic existence. As such, Demeter was also the goddess of planned society. She was very popular with the rural population. As a fertility goddess she is sometimes identified with Rhea and Gaia.

In systematized theology, Demeter is a daughter of Cronus and Rhea and sister of Zeus by whom she became the mother of Persephone. When Persephone was abducted by Hades, lord of the underworld, Demeter wandered the earth in search of her lost child. During this time the earth brought forth no grain. Finally Zeus sent Hermes to the underworld, ordering Hades to restore Persephone to her mother. However, before she left, Hades gave her a pomegranate (a common fertility symbol). When she ate from it, she was bound to spend a third of the year with her husband in the infernal regions. Only when her daughter is with her, Demeter lets things grow (summer). The dying and blossoming of nature was thus connected with Demeter.

The Statue of Liberty was created by a Mason and symbolises Isis and the Star Sirius. Isis is Liberty, Columbia, Astarte, Demeter, Ceres, Diana, Venus, and Aphrodite in her various aspects.



In the Eleusinian mysteries, Demeter and Persephone were especially venerated. When she was looking for her daughter, in the shape of an old woman called Doso, she was welcomed by Celeus, the king of Eleusis (in Attica). He requested her to nurse his sons Demophon and Triptolemus ¹. To reward his hospitality she intended to make the boy Demophon immortal by placing him each night in the center of the hearth, to burn his mortal nature away. The spell was broken one night because Metanira, the wife of Celeus, walked in on her while she was performing this ritual. Demeter taught the other son, Triptolemus, the principles of agriculture, who, in turn, taught others this art. In Demeter's honor as a goddess of marriage, women in Athens, and other centers in Greece, celebrated the feast of Thesmophoria (from her epithet Thesmophoros, "she of the regular customs"). Throughout Classical times members of all social strata came from all parts of the Mediterranean world to be initiated in and celebrate her Mysteries at Eleusis.

In ancient art, Demeter was often portrayed (sitting) as a solemn woman, often wearing a wreath of braided ears of corn or wheat. Well-known is the statue made by Knidos (mid fourth century BCE). Her usual symbolic attributes are the seeds of fruits of the earth and the torch, the latter presumably referring to her search for Persephone or the burning away of the ego in the center of the "h"earth and in the Star center of Sirius. Her sacred animals were the snake (symbol of kundalini) and the pig (a symbol of the ego). Some of her epithets include Auxesia, Deo, Chloe, and Sito. The Romans equated her with the goddess Ceres, thus Ceremony, the scattering of the wheat.


Free up your energies!

Learn these advanced meditational techniques which show how to Transmute stress and negative energy which is held psychically inside you.


Energy Enhancement Initiation Three is a Practical Guided Meditation which will put you in touch with your own earth energy connection.


My feeling and expectation from before coming on the course that Energy Enhancement is THE Core Energy Technique, has been met. 

Energy   Enhancement techniques can be applied to any of the above disciplines and it will improve them all



Energy Enhancement Initiation Three is to expand the energy orbit to the centre of the earth, and to ground and burn up blockages. Blockages can be grounded and burned, and you do not have to relive traumas or even remember the source of traumas. I felt hot in my spine, some of my blockages were burned and removed, and again at the end of the meditation I felt a higher level of energy.




Energy Enhancement is the fastest way to Enlightenment..

Yoga is good but Pranayama is 10 times faster at releasing Energy Blockages whiMeditation Courses The Energy Enhancement Meditation Course Symbol from the Synthesis of Light- Satchidanandch stop the Enlightenment process.

Pranayama is good but Meditation<>  is 10 times faster than even that at releasing Energy Blockages which stop the Enlightenment process.

Meditation is good but Samadhi<> is 10 times faster than even that at releasing Energy Blockages which stop the Enlightenment process.

Samadhi is good but Samyama<> is 10 times faster than even that at releasing Energy Blockages which stop the Enlightenment process.

Yoga, Pranayama, Meditation, Samadhi and Samyama are part of the Eight Limbs of Yoga<> in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and Samyama is talked about from over 5000 years ago in the THIRD AND FOURTH Chapter of The Yoga Sutras of PATANJALI.

And Samyama IS Energy Enhancement,


 10,000 times faster on the Path of Enlightenment.





You cannot afford NOT to try it!!

Love and Light,










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The KARMA CLEARING PROCESS - Mastery of Protection and the Mastery of Thoughtforms. The mastery of Blockages between the Base and Crown Chakras. The Mastery of the creation and dissolution of Blockages and Thoughtforms through the Advanced techniques of Taoism, Buddhist Meta, the Western Mystery Tradition and Merlin. The Jedi Knights. The White Magicians.MEDITATION HEAD


There are Four APPRENTICE LEVELs of Energy Enhancement Teaching, each APPRENTICE LEVEL is a Meditation Course having Seven Meditational Initiations which can be taken in a Week-Long Course.


Also one REIKI Initiation is AVAILABLE with each APPRENTICE LEVEL. You can become a Reiki Master with Energy Enhancement Meditation.


Each APPRENTICE LEVEL is entirely independent of the others and complete in itself. You do not have to take every APPRENTICE LEVEL, but the APPRENTICE LEVELs must be taken in the order of One, Two, Three and Four.















Once this stage was reached I had tremendous energy!


DeviDancer02.jpg (324500 bytes)


Devi is pure magic.

She said I just know where the point is. I can just see it, and when she treated it our client felt a terrible pain where Devi was touching her on the feet.

 The Pains at the back of the heart now were completely gone!

Devi used the light puncture and the Techniques of Energy Enhancement to ground all the negative energy in the point on the feet. It took her five minutes and after that treatment there was no more pain in the point of the feet and the pains on either side of the abdomen had also disappeared. Where did it go to?



The Meditation Room of the Energy Enhancement Villa - BUDDHA AND KRISHNA

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The Sunset is the star as we watch the Changing Colours from our favourite Cafe in L'Escala

The Cafe night Scene in Central L'Escala

The Ancient Roman Columns at the 3000 YEAR OLD Greek and Roman Ruins of Empuries as the Sun Goes down.


Empuries, just outside of L'Escala, is the Oldest Greek and Roman site in Spain, an Ancient Trading Center which was first Founded 3000 years ago.

We watch the sun go down over it and its 3 magnificent beaches as the Sun goes Down from our favourite Cafe, feeling the Energy of this Center of Energy which is Empuries.

Empuries contains this Statue of Asklepius, the God of Healing whose other name is the Egyptian Priest and Alchemist, Hermes Trismegistus, here pictured standing in the Temple of Asklepius in Empuries


Here is a Testimonial about our Three Level Energy Enhancement Course over One Month With MS, Human Resources Director Europe/Asia of a large Fortune 500 US Multinational Company

Looking for a way to spend a productive month in beautiful surroundings with great people?  Well I'm very happy to recommend Energy Enhancement run by SOL in Spain and to be specific Satchidanand and Devi Dhyani. 

Initially I was looking for some Yoga and meditation to mark a significant change in my life and to enhance my general health and wellbeing.

By accident I came across the SOL Web site over a year ago and just noted it - made a few enquiries and did nothing other than to file it for future reference. 

One year later I called to follow up and arranged to come and do the full Energy Enhancement programme for 4 weeks.  

I was not sure if this was wise, as I knew nothing other than what I had read on the web site and the testimonials, which I was a bit sceptical about!

However, I am now adding my own because if you read this you might be a bit like me. 

Don't hesitate - go for it!






Once this stage was reached I had tremendous energy!






The inflow of Spiritual Energy or Kundalini Energy is well known in all Spiritual Circles as being expected in all genuine Courses with teachers who have advanced experience with Enlightened Masters. Yet some people just cannot get their heads around Kundalini Energy which is talked about even in the Vedas which are a sacred spiritual resource thousands of years old. Even though Swami Sivananda of Rishikesh said that all meditation and Yoga was based upon Kundalini Energy.

If you are not experiencing spiritual energy in your Yoga or Meditation practise then What is UP!!













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EMAIL sol@energyenhancement .org for details



The Energy Enhancement Symbol

Meditation Energy Enhancement Symbol of ALL Reliogions as ONE!

The Energy Enhancement Symbol of the Twelve Petalled Lotus of the Heart Center with One of the Symbols of the Worlds Major Religions in Each One of the Petals. Inside the symbol is the Hexagram - The Seal of Solomon, with the Seven Chakras describing the Three Initiations on the Path of Enlightenment - Initiation 1. The Opening of the Heart. Solar Plexus to Heart Chakra. Initiation 2. The Mastery of Relationships, Abdomen to Throat Chakra. Initiation 3. Enlightenment, Base to all the Head Chakras which is taught on the Energy Enhancement Course plus many other Initiations. At the Very Center is the Heart Chakra radiating Peace and Light outwards.. like the Sun...

"The day is short and the work is Great and the workers are Lazy. But the reward is Large and our Master urges us to make Haste."

Writings of the Abbod of Halmyrach




The New Improved High Energy Meditation DVD Course







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I've been in La Escala with Satchy and Devi for a week now, Its the longest time I've been here!! and I noticed that every day I am going deeply inside of me.

When I arrived here, was very hard for me, but luckily Satchy and Devi helped me a lot and removed many of my blockages so that I can really think with my head! The first 2 days I was feeling very strange and uncomfortable inside of me. Half of myself wanted to improve and half wanted to stay like that, in a low energy level state, didn't want to grow neither change.

During these days I realized how the strategies control people and how they were controlling myself. Sometimes you are confused, sometimes happy, sometimes angry, and these don't have to be like that !!! but nobody knows! I didn't know.

Energy Enhancement Level 2 teaches you how to manage your emotions, it gives you a strong emotinonal IQ.

I feel so happy to meet Satchy and Devi, they are high spiritual teachers that can see deeply inside you, behind the mask that everybody has. They can see your soul, your real self!! If you need help you'll get it from them.



05 March 2006 07:19:15


Thanks for the email including my testimonial about Energy Enhancement in Spain! Its such a nice memory!

I think about these moments as the best of my life.

It was hard work for me but Ive never felt so happy and rewarded in my life, only when Ive been close to you both.

I been thinking about you lately a lot , I miss you guys, I really do. Im very busy here in Japan, thats why I didnt write to much, but now I have internet at home, and I hope we can be more in touch.

Im glad you are working hard there in Argentina and having a beautiful time.

Here is good, sometimes very hard. Japan is a good experience though but very intense.

I found some temples which I want to visit, but spiritual people are hard to find here. And lately I ve been feeling so many different things.

I hope one day I can be a really a  spiritual person and teacher like you, you are my example.

I know now, how many things I have to heal, how many are not finished yet.

Because Ive been through many tests, and Ive been far from you, and having some healing from you.

I hope to see you soon, I love you with all my heart.

I wish you the best and more

love you


Energy Enhancement APPRENTICE LEVEL 1.

Initiation 6.

- Psychic Protections

Energy Blockages tend to move from one person to another according to the Third Law of Thermodynamics - Energy flows from areas of high concentration to low concentration. This means...

1. Positive energy flows from Saints at a high energy level into people of low levels, thus raising them up and making them higher. Another byproduct is that Blockages tend to get thrown out by this raising of energies and in the process making their blockages really upset. Thus the attributes of Kundalini Energy. A feeling of Awe and Fear or Anger. Shaking and heat and cold in the presence of the Enlightened.

2. The Blockages of the unenlightened flow into the enlightened. Negative energy flows from High concentrations to low concentrations.  So, if you stick around people with these high negative energy concentrations then you will inevitably pick up these energies.

"Bringing an unformed man into the presence of the wise is like throwing a dead dog into a pool of rosewater." Sufi saying. This has the effect of healing the people who come into the presence of the wise, but unless they are coming to learn, rather than being just curious, the unenlightened will soon come back to their previous state.

Thus, protection is very necessary to prevent Energy Enhancement students from picking up the blockages of others, giving out too much spiritual energy or receiving too much positive energy, except when they want to....


a. The Spiral of protection.

How to further increase the connection with the Universal Energy Source, and the spiral flow of Energy throughout our Energy System so that we can use this connection to further cleanse all the psychic bodies and to increase the energy from all previous Initiations.


b. The Power Towers and the CIRCLE of protection 

How to learn higher methods of energy protection for yourself and every thing around you. Also, as your energy increases, so you will start to affect everything around you.

These Energy Enhancement Protection techniques show you how to create a "ring pass not" of energy around you so that you can learn how not to waste your energy unnecessarily. So that you will not affect other people unless you want to, and you will not be so affected by the negative energies around you.

It protects the people around you from unintentionally being exposed to your energy of change. With Energy Enhancement Techniques increasing your energies, you could start to affect the people around you. This shows you how to protect them from your evolutionary energy.


Pyramids are pictorial representations of enlightenment incorporating all the chakras. It is a Traditional Protection, effectively taught on the Energy Enhancement course to raise your energy levels to the Masonic Thirty Third Degree of Jesus Christ and above to protect against attack.


The Energy Enhancement Meditation Course APPRENTICE LEVEL 1. Initiation 7.

a. The Light Body, Mercaba Meditation Protection


 This is a highly effective meditation to protect from attack and help break all negative ENERGY BLOCKAGES. Here in Energy Enhancement we give it away almost free!!!




All protections provide a point of attack. As in computers, it is necessary to learn how to be invisible in order to prevent attacks on one.



Energy Enhancement


Adventure at The Taj Mahal

Available  Anytime

Satchidanand and Devi Dhyani with Group at the Taj Mahal

The Energy Enhancement Indian Adventure. The Energy Enhancement Course Plus Delhi and the Taj Mahal

You can come to the Taj Mahal and Learn Energy Enhancement Now! THIS WINTER


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Energy Enhancement Energy is the Foundation which will Enable you to Speed Up the Process of Evolution, Intelligence, Emotional Stability, Energy, Kindness, Wisdom and Leadership which many courses profess to teach but which Energy Enhancement has given in abundance to the many and varied students taught by it.

Whether you are a Management Corporate Executive, any sort of Alternative Practitioner, meditator, yogi or anyone who wants to evolve, - become better, smarter, more evolved, more empathic, more successful; this course will enable direct experience of superior life performance.








Speed Up the Process of Evolution, Intelligence, Emotional Stability, Energy, Kindness, Wisdom and Leadership which many courses profess to teach but which Energy Enhancement has given with both hands to the many and varied students taught by it.















Do not expect perfection, Expect EXPERIENCE!! Come on an Energy Enhancement Course and gain real meditational experience. As well as learning how to meditate as deeply as any Monk, the Buddhafield, the Kundalini Energy of Satchidanand and Devi Dhyani, and the Advanced Techniques of Energy Enhancement make certain that you too will receive REAL MEDITATIONAL EXPERIENCE.

Sick of just sitting? People meditate for years without any signs of deep meditational experience. Yet with Satchidanand and Devi Dhyani, students of Zen Master Hogen, and Swami Satchidananda, author of "The Living Gita" with whom they received many experiences of Initiation, the Buddhafield produces IMMEDIATE meditational experience in just about everyone who comes.


Just read any of our testimonials and you will see that every one of our clients has been given the meditational experience that they need.


From Shaktipat to the experience of Energy in all its forms and on into the Karma Clearing Process and the Grounding of Negative energies and emotions, Energy Enhancement WILL EXPERIENCE YOU!


You too can receive this EXPERIENCE of deep EVOLUTIONARY energy on the path of Enlightenment!!


Testimonial From Gary Spaid a Wealth Counselor in Vail Valley, Colorado, USA.

So, what did we get? I can say that practicing the technique of Stage 4 of Level One of Energy Enhancement with Devi and Satchy gave more power to the top down approach of Meditation. I had an experience of the MAGIC!! that I so longed for in my meditation.

Sitting in the flame of Kundalini and seeing my karma burn up was a POWERFUL experience.



"During past meditation sessions for over two years, I have twirled like a top when my bottom came into contact with the floor. After two years the swaying finally stopped in ONE session with Energy Enhancement! I later found out that Satchi had been working on this blockage at the same time using Energy Enhancement Level 2 Techniques...."
Vanessa Graham (UK)
Meditation Teacher/Writer



"The feeling was so strange. I was hot but felt cold at the same time. My hands, arms and legs were shaking and shivering and yet I was not cold………what a strange feeling and I felt connected...." read more

Read more on our testimonials page....







At the time of King Mahmud, the Conqueror of Ghazna, there lived a young man by the name of Haidar Ali Jan. His father, Iskandar Khan, decided to obtain for him the patronage of the Emperor, and he sent him to study spiritual matters under the greatest sages of the time.


Haidar Ali, when he had mastered the repetitions and the exercises, when he knew the recitals and the bodily postures of the Sufi schools, was taken by his father into the presence of the Emperor.


"Mighty Mahmud," said Iskandar, "I have had this youth, my eldest and most intelligent son, specially trained in the ways of the Sufis, so that he might obtain a worthy position at your Majesty's court, knowing that you are the patron of learning of our epoch."


Mahmud did not look up, but he merely said, "Bring him back in a year."


Slightly disappointed, but nursing high hopes, Iskandar sent Ali to study the works of the great Sufis of the past, and to visit the shrines of the ancient Masters in Baghdad, so that the intervening time would not be wasted.


When he brought the youth back to the court, he said, "Peacock of the Age! My son has carried out long and difficult journeys, and at the same time to his knowledge of exercises he has added a complete familiarity with the classics of the People of the Path. Pray have him examined, so that it may be shown that he could be an adornment of your Majesty's court."


"Let him," said Mahmud immediately, "return after another year."


During the next twelve months, Haidar Ali crossed the Oxus and visited Bokhara and Samarkand, Qasr-i-Arfin and Tashqand, Dushambe and the turbats of the Sufi saints


When he returned to the court, Mahmud of Ghazna took one look at him and said, "He may care to come back after a further year."


Haidar Ali made the pilgrimage to Mecca in that year.


He travelled to India; and in Persia he consulted rare books and never missed an opportunity of seeking out and paying his respects to the great dervishes of the time.


When he returned to Ghazna, Mahmud said to him, "Now select a teacher, if he will have you, and come back in a year."


When that year was over and Iskandar Khan prepared to take his son to the court, Haidar Ali showed no interest at all in going there. He simply sat at the fret of his teacher in Herat, and nothing that his father could say would move him.


"I have wasted my time, and my money, and this young man has failed the tests imposed by Mahmud the King," he lamented, and he abandoned the whole affair.


Meanwhile, the day when the youth was due to present himself came and went, and then Mahmud said to his courtiers, "Prepare yourselves for a visit to Herat; there is someone there whom I have to see."


As the Emperor's cavalcade was entering Herat to the flourish of trumpets, Haidar Ali's teacher took him by the hand, led him to the gate of the tekkia, and there they waited:


Shortly afterwards, Mahmud and his courtier Ayaz, taking off their shoes, presented themselves at the sanctuary.


"Here, Mahmud," said the Sufi sheikh, "is the man who was nothing while he was a visitor of kings, but who is now one who is visited by kings. Take him as your Sufi counsellor: for he is ready."



This is the story of the studies of Hiravi, Haidar Ali Jan, the Sage of Herat.

RELIGION IS A RISK, A REBELLION, AND A REBIRTH, RELIGION is not a consolation, it is not conformity, it is not convention. Religion is not part of the world—it is something of the beyond.


Religion cannot be learnt: it can only be imbibed. There is no study which is going to help you to become religious. All studies lead astray.


Religion is not a kind of learning. On the contrary, it is unlearning. Not that you have to know more, but that you have to come to a point where all knowing disappears, and you become innocent, and you are a child again. And again the wonder is fresh and the mystery of life is revealed to you.


The knower lives in his mind. And the mind goes on pretending that it knows. And because the mind pretends that it knows, it demystifies existence. Knowledge is the most irreligious phenomenon there is in the world—because without the experience of the mysterious there is no possibility of being in contact with God. The mystery is the door.


Knowledge has to be dropped so that you can open your eyes again like a child—fresh, young, full of wonder, knowing nothing, or, only knowing that you know nothing.


These few things have to be understood before we can enter into this beautiful story.


Why do I call religion a risk? and not only a risk but the greatest? Why? Because you have to lose yourself. There are other risks in life, but they are small risks. You have to lose your money, or you have to lose your prestige, or you have to lose your wife... or this or that. But in religion, nothing less than your totality is required—you have to lose yourself. Naturally, one shrinks back, one is frightened. It is a jump out of the ego and into the egoless abyss. It is a discontinuity with the past, with all that you have thought you are. It is a breakthrough.


You lose your identity—it is a great crisis in identity. You have known yourself as this or that—a name, a form, a society, a nation—religion requires that you lose all your identity. A religious person is neither an Indian nor a Chinese, neither a Hindu nor a Mohammedan. A religious person is neither black nor. white. All these things are stupidities.


Then who is a religious person? He is not a person at all, but only a presence. He drops his personality. He cannot say who he is. He cannot define himself. But in that indefinable state of consciousness, he knows who he is. This is a paradox: those who know who they are don't know; and those who are ready to risk their whole identity and come to a point where they don't know who they are, only they are the people who become capable of knowing. It is a gamble.... Very few people have that much courage.


Religion is not for the cowards. For the cowards is politics. Religion is not for the inferior. For the inferior is politics. The whole political world depends on the inferiority complex. When a man feels himself to be nothing, nobody, he starts projecting himself in the world of ambition—politically he wants to become somebody, a president, a prime minister. Or, moneywise he becomes a millionaire, famous. Or he wants to become a Nobel Laureate, or something...


These are the ways of ambition. And why does ambition arise in the first place at all? It arises out of the inferiority complex. You feel inferior within yourself, you feel nobody. It hurts. It is like an open wound. You want to hide it. You become occupied in ambition. You rush away from yourself as far as you can. You want to forget yourself! You want to get occupied in the world of money, power, prestige.


Religion is for those who are ready to go into this nothingness of their being, who don't think that they have to be somebody. All that they want is to know who they are. They don't want to be somebody. They don't project. They simply want to enter into the innermost shrine of their being and to see what is there. If it is nothingness, then it is nothingness. Then nothingness is beautiful. Then this is our nature. Then there is no problem, it is not a wound. One need not search for any medicine for it; it needs no healing.


The ambitious person runs out, afraid to encounter nothingness. The religious person rushes in to know "What is this nothingness that I am?"


Risk is there. Death is there. But out of this death is resurrection, is rebirth. But if you go to the temples and the churches and the mosques, you will find a totally different kind of person praying there—he is cowardly. His God is out of fear. He is as ambitious as anybody else. He is seeking support of the God so that he can succeed in his ambition. He is not interested in God himself. He wants to exploit God too, in some way or other. He has a motivation. He is cowardly, and out of his cowardliness he has created a great religion, ritual—the priest, the church.


Religion is in the hands of irreligious people. A Mahavir, a Buddha, a Mohammed, a Mansoor, a Rumi, a Kabir, a Nanak— these are not people who are afraid. These are not people who are praying out of fear! They are praying out of love, not out of fear. They are praying out of sheer joy. They are praying out of thankfulness. They are not asking for anything from God—because God has already given all that is needed.


The real religious person needs to be immensely courageous to enter into his nothingness—and inside there is a great nothingness... as vast as the sky, as infinite as the sky.


There is an outer sky and there is an inner sky. The worldly person moves out, the religious person moves in. To move out is very easy, because millions are moving there. You can become part of the crowd; you need not have any individual courage of your own. You can simply ride on the mob psychology. All the people are doing something—you can become part of it. Man is an imitator. If anything proves that man comes from the monkeys it is his tremendous capacity to imitate.


But to go in, you are alone. Absolutely alone. Nobody can be there with you, not even a friend. Great courage is needed for this internal journey—the courage to be alone. But only those who are ready to be alone will be able to know what God is—because God is found in your innermost aloneness. God is the innermost center of your aloneness.


God is not found as an object: God is found not as the sought but as the seeker. God is never found there: God is always found here. Never then: always now. God is not a goal, distant from you: God is your very consciousness, your very being, your very existence.


But for that, this courage is needed—courage to be alone, courage to drop the attachment to the crowd, courage to drop ambitions, projections, courage to be a non-entity. That's why the other day I said: I am a very ordinary person, extraordinarily ordinary. And I would like you also to become extraordinarily ordinary—because in that very ordinariness, God is found. To try to be somebody, to try to be special, is the way of ambition and the way of the ego. And the ego never meets God.


That's why the other day I told you that I am not perfect—or, I am perfectly imperfect. And that's what I would like you to be too. Imperfect—perfectly imperfect. Then you can relax. Then there is no way to go anywhere, and no need. Then there is no ideal to be fulfilled. Then you are not constantly trying to improve upon yourself—you simply relax. You are in a let-go. And when you are in a let-go, a prayer arises from the very ground of your being—which is not done by you. It arises as fragrance arises out of flowers, as light falls from the stars. It naturally arises! And when prayer is natural, it has tremendous beauty, tremendous power. It liberates.


Be courageous. And let me repeat: the greatest courage is to be non-ambitious.


Religion is not a formality; it is not a kind of behaviour; it is not a certain etiquette. You can learn the behaviour of the religious people. You can go through the whole act of being religious. You can bow down in the temple, you can pray, you can even manage tears to flow down your cheeks. And deep down you know you are not in it, It is just a put-on act. Maybe you have become very skillful in it. You have done it so long that it looks almost natural, but it is not. Your heart is not in it.


You can say to your wife during the day a hundred times, "I love you." But if your heart is not in it, you know that these words are dead, that these words have no wings. And you know that moment also when you really love, and you say, "I love you. And the difference!" And the difference is immense. The words are the same; there is no way to detect any difference in the words. No phonetic analysis, no analysis of the sound, is going to find any difference. But you know: when you love, those words are no more ordinary—they are radiant, they have a luminosity, they are aflame. Your heart beats in them, they are alive.

And when you arejust repeating it because it has to be repeated— because there are books in the world like Dale Carnegie's books and Napoleon Hill's books, which go on saying that even if you don't love, go on repeating—it helps. It lubricates relationship. Maybe they are right, it lubricates, but it is not the true thing. You may live a smooth life, but just to live a smooth life is worthless. One has to live a life of passion and prayer and love—not just a smooth life. One has to live a life of adventure, of exploration. Not just a smooth life! One has to live totally. One's life torch has to burn from both ends—even though it is only for one single moment, but then that single moment is eternity. When you live at the optimum, then you know what life is. And then you know the celebration of it and the benediction of it.

Religion is not a formality. Avoid formalities. If you really want to be religious some day, avoid formalities. The greatest danger with formality is that if you become accustomed to formality you will never become aware that you are missing the real thing. The man who carries false coins and thinks they are real coins will not search for the real. That is going to be his misfortune.

Never be formal about religion. Never be a Christian or a Hindu or a Mohammedan—these are all formalities. Be prayerful, but not in a formal way. Let prayer arise. Wait for it. Long for it! Search for it!

Imitation is borrowed. Formality is borrowed. Others teach you what to do. And religion requires a mature person, not just a person who is like a parrot.

It is not a formality because it is not part of culture, civilization, society. In fact, religion is basically asocial—not anti-social but asocial. It takes you beyond society. You are caught up by the society, you are conditioned by the society. The society is your prison. It does not allow you to move out of its boundaries. It gives you enough rope so that you can have a certain feeling of freedom, but you are not free. No society allows freedom. No society exists for freedom. The name of freedom is being exploited, but no society is free.

To have a free society will mean to have no society at all—then there will be pure individuals. And all that we know as society will be just a formal arrangement: like the post office and the railway department—a formal arrangement. No imposition of any inner structure. No imposition of any obedience, but a help, a nourishing help, so that everybody can become himself. Not that he has to conform to a certain mould.

No society yet exists which is religious, not even the Indian society. Indians like the idea very much, and their so-called gurus go on roaming around the world and declaring to the world that India is religious—it is all nonsense. Formally they are right, but .religion has nothing to do with formality.

Religion is rebellion; it is the spirit of rebellion. Rebellion of the individual. Rebellion of the soul. Search for freedom, and ultimate freedom. Great courage is, of course, needed. Guts are needed. That's why so many people think they are religious, but very few are. Only once in a while do you find a religious person.

AND REMEMBER THAT RELIGION IS NOT SCHOLARSHIP. You can learn the Vedas and the Bible and the Koran, and you can become really efficient, yet you will not be religious. The same work can be done by a computer in a far better way. Only one thing the computer cannot do, and that is: it cannot feel. The computer can think. Now we have machines which can think, but no machine can feel.

Religion has something to do with the feeling part of your being, not with the thinking part of your being. You can study, you can become very knowledgeable, you can be burdened with great knowledge, but all this burdening slowly slowly will dry the juices of your heart. This knowledge will be like rocks, and your heart will flow no more. Your heart will be too much surrounded by rocks. It needs a little freedom to flow. It is a small stream of love. And only that small stream of love knows how to go to God. No rock can go to the ocean—only that small stream of love knows how to reach the ocean. And it needs no maps, no guidebooks. It simply knows. The knowing is intuitive.

Every man simply knows how to love—there is no need to teach him. What is needed then? All that is needed is a loving atmosphere where the spirit can be imbibed. That's what happens when you go to a Master, when you enter a Sufi tekkia—a Sufi school, or a Buddhafield, or when you enter into the energy world of a Master: you are going into a magnetic field where love is flowing, where many hearts are dancing, where minds have been put aside, where feeling has become supreme. Just all that you need is a climate.

The Master is a climate, an atmosphere, in which you suddenly become aware of your own potential. Not that the Master gives you something—there is no need! All that is needed has always been given to you by God. But in the presence of the Master, some chord in your heart starts responding, as if somebody is playing music and the very hearing of it and a dance arises in you. Your whole body wants to dance. You are in the grip of the music; it has touched and moved your heart. You are connected, bridged.

A Master is a musician. He sings a song. He lives a song. He vibrates, pulsates a certain melody. And those who are intimate with him, those who allow themselves to be close to him, those who can be in a kind of let-go with him, those who relax with him... this is what satsang is: relaxing with a Master, dropping your tensions. There is a pool of energy; if you drop your tensions, suddenly you will become aware of your own pool too.

A very famous ancient story:

It happened, a small group of sheep was passing through a valley. A lioness jumped from one side to the other side, from one hillock to another hillock. And just while she was jumping, she gave birth to a child. The child fell into that small group of sheep.

The child was brought up by the sheep. Naturally, the child knew from the very beginning that he was a sheep. He never became aware of his being a lion—although he was a lion! Just by forgetting, your nature does not change. He became very big, but the growth came so slowly, so slowly, that the sheep also accepted him—he was a freak child, it appeared. Something strange, eccentric, a little bit off the track, outlandish, but in every other way he was a sheep. Absolutely vegetarian he was, and walked like sheep, and lived with sheep, and talked like sheep.

One day this miracle was seen by another lion. An old lion passing by looked at this miracle—he could not believe his eyes. It was impossible! The young lion was walking with the sheep and the sheep were not afraid. They were going so together, in such great friendship—he could not believe his eyes! He had never heard of such a thing.

He rushed to catch hold of the lion. "What has gone... has he gone mad or something?" And the sheep escaped, and the sheep-lion also escaped, naturally—so much afraid, trembling. But the old lion became very curious, and somehow he got hold of him, took him to the river. And he was not willing to go. He was shrinking back and holding back, and he was saying, "Just leave me, please. Leave me alone! Let me go with my people."

I know this story, because this is what I go on doing to you every day, and you say, "Leave me alone. Let me be a Hindu or a Mohammedan or a Christian—let me go to my people! Where are you taking me? I am just a sheep, and I am perfectly happy. Don't disturb me!"

But the old lion persisted He forced the young lion to the river, and there they both looked into the river, the silent river, no ripples. It was like a mirror. And the old lion said, "Look, you are not a sheep. Look in the river!"

Just the look... and do you know what happened? A great lion's roar, suddenly! This is what Zen people call 'sudden enlightenment'. It was not a gradual process. Not that he said, "Okay, I will think about it." Not that "First I will have to go to school and study how to be a lion." Not that "Sir, I am very grateful to you—let me become your disciple. And, slowly slowly, one day, in this life or in some other life, I will attain to this enlightenment. I am grateful that you have showed me the path."

Nothing of this sort.

Just seeing his face and seeing the old lion's face similar, a roar exploded. In a single moment! In fact, in no time, with no interval of time. Timelessly. Instantly. Immediately... the sheep disappeared and there was a young lion.

This is the meaning of being with a Master.

You are not what you think you are. You have been taught you are this and that. You are not these small identities, these small egos. You are vast. You are infinite. You are eternal. Tat-tvam-asi: Thou art That! Not less than that. You are gods and goddesses. But you have fallen into many traps.

So it is not a question of studying. Religion has to be imbibed from someone who has arrived. It is from a Master to a disciple. It is not from the book to the student. It is from the alive Master to the alive disciple. It is a transmission of insight.

The Master is not a person but only a climate, a music, a silence. If you love, you also become silent—because whatsoever you love, you become like that. Remember it! Be very cautious in loving something, because whatsoever you love, you will become that.

The man who loves money, becomes money. He thinks only in terms of money and nothing else. The man who loves things, possessions, himself becomes a possession and nothing else, becomes a thing. Love something great! If you love a flower, it is better than loving money. If you love the moon, it is better than loving a house. If you love a woman, a man, a child, it is better than loving power and prestige.

But if you can find a Master and fall in his love, then that is the door to the divine—because on this earth, nothing is closer to God than a Master. And 'the difference between you and the Master is not of quality: the difference is only of remembrance.

Remember again the old lion and the young lion. What is the difference? There is no existential difference, no difference at all fundamentally. But there is a difference, a small difference, but that makes all the difference. The young lion has forgotten who he is. His heart has forgotten the language of a lion. He knows no more how to roar, how to shake the mountains with his roar. In the presence of the old lion, he imbibed, he recognized. Looking in the eyes of a Master, you will recognize who you are. Walking with the Master, you will recognize who you are. Just think of sitting with a Buddha... how long can you go on thinking that you are a sheep?

Sooner or later the lion's roar.


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Demopheles. Between ourselves, my dear fellow, I don't care about the way you sometimes have of exhibiting your talent for philosophy; you make religion a subject for sarcastic remarks, and even for open ridicule. Every one thinks his religion sacred, and therefore you ought to respect it.

Philalethes. That doesn't follow! I don't see why, because other people are simpletons, I should have any regard for a pack of lies. I respect truth everywhere, and so I can't respect what is opposed to it. My maxim is Vigeat veritas et pereat mundus, like the lawyers' Fiat justitia et pereat mundus. Every profession ought to have an analogous advice.

Demopheles. Then I suppose doctors should say Fiant pilulae et pereat mundus,—there wouldn't be much difficulty about that!

Philalethes. Heaven forbid! You must take everything cum grano salis.

Demopheles. Exactly; that's why I want you to take religion cum grano salis. I want you to see that one must meet the requirements of the people according to the measure of their comprehension. Where you have masses of people of crude susceptibilities and clumsy intelligence, sordid in their pursuits and sunk in drudgery, religion provides the only means of proclaiming and making them feel the hight import of life. For the average man takes an interest, primarily, in nothing but what will satisfy his physical needs and hankerings, and beyond this, give him a little amusement and pastime. Founders of religion and philosophers come into the world to rouse him from his stupor and point to the lofty meaning of existence; philosophers for the few, the emancipated, founders of religion for the many, for humanity at large. For, as your friend Plato has said, the multitude can't be philosophers, and you shouldn't forget that. Religion is the metaphysics of the masses; by all means let them keep it: let it therefore command external respect, for to discredit it is to take it away. Just as they have popular poetry, and the popular wisdom of proverbs, so they must have popular metaphysics too: for mankind absolutely needs an interpretation of life; and this, again, must be suited to popular comprehension. Consequently, this interpretation is always an allegorical investiture of the truth: and in practical life and in its effects on the feelings, that is to say, as a rule of action and as a comfort and consolation in suffering and death, it accomplishes perhaps just as much as the truth itself could achieve if we possessed it. Don't take offense at its unkempt, grotesque and apparently absurd form; for with your education and learning, you have no idea of the roundabout ways by which people in their crude state have to receive their knowledge of deep truths. The various religions are only various forms in which the truth, which taken by itself is above their comprehension, is grasped and realized by the masses; and truth becomes inseparable from these forms. Therefore, my dear sir, don't take it amiss if I say that to make a mockery of these forms is both shallow and unjust.

Philalethes. But isn't it every bit as shallow and unjust to demand that there shall be no other system of metaphysics but this one, cut out as it is to suit the requirements and comprehension of the masses? that its doctrine shall be the limit of human speculation, the standard of all thought, so that the metaphysics of the few, the emancipated, as you call them, must be devoted only to confirming, strengthening, and explaining the metaphysics of the masses? that the highest powers of human intelligence shall remain unused and undeveloped, even be nipped in the bud, in order that their activity may not thwart the popular metaphysics? And isn't this just the very claim which religion sets up? Isn't it a little too much to have tolerance and delicate forbearance preached by what is intolerance and cruelty itself? Think of the heretical tribunals, inquisitions, religious wars, crusades, Socrates' cup of poison, Bruno's and Vanini's death in the flames! Is all this to-day quite a thing of the past? How can genuine philosophical effort, sincere search after truth, the noblest calling of the noblest men, be let and hindered more completely than by a conventional system of metaphysics enjoying a State monopoly, the principles of which are impressed into every head in earliest youth, so earnestly, so deeply, and so firmly, that, unless the mind is miraculously elastic, they remain indelible. In this way the groundwork of all healthy reason is once for all deranged; that is to say, the capacity for original thought and unbiased judgment, which is weak enough in itself, is, in regard to those subjects to which it might be applied, for ever paralyzed and ruined.

Demopheles. Which means, I suppose, that people have arrived at a conviction which they won't give up in order to embrace yours instead.

Philalethes. Ah! if it were only a conviction based on insight. Then one could bring arguments to bear, and the battle would be fought with equal weapons. But religions admittedly appeal, not to conviction as the result of argument, but to belief as demanded by revelation. And as the capacity for believing is strongest in childhood, special care is taken to make sure of this tender age. This has much more to do with the doctrines of belief taking root than threats and reports of miracles. If, in early childhood, certain fundamental views and doctrines are paraded with unusual solemnity, and an air of the greatest earnestness never before visible in anything else; if, at the same time, the possibility of a doubt about them be completely passed over, or touched upon only to indicate that doubt is the first step to eternal perdition, the resulting impression will be so deep that, as a rule, that is, in almost every case, doubt about them will be almost as impossible as doubt about one's own existence. Hardly one in ten thousand will have the strength of mind to ask himself seriously and earnestly—is that true? To call such as can do it strong minds, esprits forts, is a description more apt than is generally supposed. But for the ordinary mind there is nothing so absurd or revolting but what, if inculcated in that way, the strongest belief in it will strike root. If, for example, the killing of a heretic or infidel were essential to the future salvation of his soul, almost every one would make it the chief event of his life, and in dying would draw consolation and strength from the remembrance that he had succeeded. As a matter of fact, almost every Spaniard in days gone by used to look upon an auto da fe as the most pious of all acts and one most agreeable to God. A parallel to this may be found in the way in which the Thugs (a religious sect in India, suppressed a short time ago by the English, who executed numbers of them) express their sense of religion and their veneration for the goddess Kali; they take every opportunity of murdering their friends and traveling companions, with the object of getting possession of their goods, and in the serious conviction that they are thereby doing a praiseworthy action, conducive to their eternal welfare. [Footnote: Cf. Illustrations of the history and practice of the Thugs, London, 1837; also the Edinburg Review, Oct.-Jan., 1836-7.] The power of religious dogma, when inculcated early, is such as to stifle conscience, compassion, and finally every feeling of humanity. But if you want to see with your own eyes and close at hand what timely inoculation will accomplish, look at the English. Here is a nation favored before all others by nature; endowed, more than all others, with discernment, intelligence, power of judgment, strength of character; look at them, abased and made ridiculous, beyond all others, by their stupid ecclesiastical superstition, which appears amongst their other abilities like a fixed idea or monomania. For this they have to thank the circumstance that education is in the hands of the clergy, whose endeavor it is to impress all the articles of belief, at the earliest age, in a way that amounts to a kind of paralysis of the brain; this in its turn expresses itself all their life in an idiotic bigotry, which makes otherwise most sensible and intelligent people amongst them degrade themselves so that one can't make head or tail of them. If you consider how essential to such a masterpiece is inoculation in the tender age of childhood, the missionary system appears no longer only as the acme of human importunity, arrogance and impertinence, but also as an absurdity, if it doesn't confine itself to nations which are still in their infancy, like Caffirs, Hottentots, South Sea Islanders, etc. Amongst these races it is successful; but in India, the Brahmans treat the discourses of the missionaries with contemptuous smiles of approbation, or simply shrug their shoulders. And one may say generally that the proselytizing efforts of the missionaries in India, in spite of the most advantageous facilities, are, as a rule, a failure. An authentic report in the Vol. XXI. of the Asiatic Journal (1826) states that after so many years of missionary activity not more than three hundred living converts were to be found in the whole of India, where the population of the English possessions alone comes to one hundred and fifteen millions; and at the same time it is admitted that the Christian converts are distinguished for their extreme immorality. Three hundred venal and bribed souls out of so many millions! There is no evidence that things have gone better with Christianity in India since then, in spite of the fact that the missionaries are now trying, contrary to stipulation and in schools exclusively designed for secular English instruction, to work upon the children's minds as they please, in order to smuggle in Christianity; against which the Hindoos are most jealously on their guard. As I have said, childhood is the time to sow the seeds of belief, and not manhood; more especially where an earlier faith has taken root. An acquired conviction such as is feigned by adults is, as a rule, only the mask for some kind of personal interest. And it is the feeling that this is almost bound to be the case which makes a man who has changed his religion in mature years an object of contempt to most people everywhere; who thus show that they look upon religion, not as a matter of reasoned conviction, but merely as a belief inoculated in childhood, before any test can be applied. And that they are right in their view of religion is also obvious from the way in which not only the masses, who are blindly credulous, but also the clergy of every religion, who, as such, have faithfully and zealously studied its sources, foundations, dogmas and disputed points, cleave as a body to the religion of their particular country; consequently for a minister of one religion or confession to go over to another is the rarest thing in the world. The Catholic clergy, for example, are fully convinced of the truth of all the tenets of their Church, and so are the Protestant clergy of theirs, and both defend the principles of their creeds with like zeal. And yet the conviction is governed merely by the country native to each; to the South German ecclesiastic the truth of the Catholic dogma is quite obvious, to the North German, the Protestant. If then, these convictions are based on objective reasons, the reasons must be climatic, and thrive, like plants, some only here, some only there. The convictions of those who are thus locally convinced are taken on trust and believed by the masses everywhere.

Demopheles. Well, no harm is done, and it doesn't make any real difference. As a fact, Protestantism is more suited to the North, Catholicism to the South.

Philalethes. So it seems. Still I take a higher standpoint, and keep in view a more important object, the progress, namely, of the knowledge of truth among mankind. And from this point of view, it is a terrible thing that, wherever a man is born, certain propositions are inculcated in him in earliest youth, and he is assured that he may never have any doubts about them, under penalty of thereby forfeiting eternal salvation; propositions, I mean, which affect the foundation of all our other knowledge and accordingly determine for ever, and, if they are false, distort for ever, the point of view from which our knowledge starts; and as, further, the corollaries of these propositions touch the entire system of our intellectual attainments at every point, the whole of human knowledge is thoroughly adulterated by them. Evidence of this is afforded by every literature; the most striking by that of the Middle Age, but in a too considerable degree by that of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Look at even the first minds of all those epochs; how paralyzed they are by false fundamental positions like these; how, more especially, all insight into the true constitution and working of nature is, as it were, blocked up. During the whole of the Christian period Theism lies like a mountain on all intellectual, and chiefly on all philosophical efforts, and arrests or stunts all progress. For the scientific men of these ages God, devil, angels, demons hid the whole of nature; no inquiry was followed to the end, nothing ever thoroughly examined; everything which went beyond the most obvious casual nexus was immediately set down to those personalities. "It was at once explained by a reference to God, angels or demons," as Pomponatius expressed himself when the matter was being discussed, "and philosophers at any rate have nothing analogous." There is, to be sure, a suspicion of irony in this statement of Pomponatius, as his perfidy in other matters is known; still, he is only giving expression to the general way of thinking of his age. And if, on the other hand, any one possessed the rare quality of an elastic mind, which alone could burst the bonds, his writings and he himself with them were burnt; as happened to Bruno and Vanini. How completely an ordinary mind is paralyzed by that early preparation in metaphysics is seen in the most vivid way and on its most ridiculous side, where such a one undertakes to criticise the doctrines of an alien creed. The efforts of the ordinary man are generally found to be directed to a careful exhibition of the incongruity of its dogmas with those of his own belief: he is at great pains to show that not only do they not say, but certainly do not mean, the same thing; and with that he thinks, in his simplicity, that he has demonstrated the falsehood of the alien creed. He really never dreams of putting the question which of the two may be right; his own articles of belief he looks upon as à priori true and certain principles.

Demopheles. So that's your higher point of view? I assure you there is a higher still. First live, then philosophize is a maxim of more comprehensive import than appears at first sight. The first thing to do is to control the raw and evil dispositions of the masses, so as to keep them from pushing injustice to extremes, and from committing cruel, violent and disgraceful acts. If you were to wait until they had recognized and grasped the truth, you would undoubtedly come too late; and truth, supposing that it had been found, would surpass their powers of comprehension. In any case an allegorical investiture of it, a parable or myth, is all that would be of any service to them. As Kant said, there must be a public standard of Right and Virtue; it must always flutter high overhead. It is a matter of indifference what heraldic figures are inscribed on it, so long as they signify what is meant. Such an allegorical representation of truth is always and everywhere, for humanity at large, a serviceable substitute for a truth to which it can never attain,—for a philosophy which it can never grasp; let alone the fact that it is daily changing its shape, and has in no form as yet met with general acceptance. Practical aims, then, my good Philalethes, are in every respect superior to theoretical.

Philalethes. What you say is very like the ancient advice of Timaeus of Locrus, the Pythagorean, stop the mind with falsehood if you can't speed it with truth. I almost suspect that your plan is the one which is so much in vogue just now, that you want to impress upon me that

The hour is nigh
When we may feast in quiet.

You recommend us, in fact, to take timely precautions, so that the waves of the discontented raging masses mayn't disturb us at table. But the whole point of view is as false as it is now-a-days popular and commended; and so I make haste to enter a protest against it. It is false, that state, justice, law cannot be upheld without the assistance of religion and its dogmas; and that justice and public order need religion as a necessary complement, if legislative enactments are to be carried out. It is false, were it repeated a hundred times. An effective and striking argument to the contrary is afforded by the ancients, especially the Greeks. They had nothing at all of what we understand by religion. They had no sacred documents, no dogma to be learned and its acceptance furthered by every one, its principles to be inculcated early on the young. Just as little was moral doctrine preached by the ministers of religion, nor did the priests trouble themselves about morality or about what the people did or left undone. Not at all. The duty of the priests was confined to temple-ceremonial, prayers, hymns, sacrifices, processions, lustrations and the like, the object of which was anything but the moral improvement of the individual. What was called religion consisted, more especially in the cities, in giving temples here and there to some of the gods of the greater tribes, in which the worship described was carried on as a state matter, and was consequently, in fact, an affair of police. No one, except the functionaries performing, was in any way compelled to attend, or even to believe in it. In the whole of antiquity there is no trace of any obligation to believe in any particular dogma. Merely in the case of an open denial of the existence of the gods, or any other reviling of them, a penalty was imposed, and that on account of the insult offered to the state, which served those gods; beyond this it was free to everyone to think of them what he pleased. If anyone wanted to gain the favor of those gods privately, by prayer or sacrifice, it was open to him to do so at his own expense and at his own risk; if he didn't do it, no one made any objection, least of all the state. In the case of the Romans, everyone had his own Lares and Penates at home; they were, however, in reality, only the venerated busts of ancestors. Of the immortality of the soul and a life beyond the grave, the ancients had no firm, clear or, least of all, dogmatically fixed idea, but very loose, fluctuating, indefinite and problematical notions, everyone in his own way: and the ideas about the gods were just as varying, individual and vague. There was, therefore, really no religion, in our sense of the word, amongst the ancients. But did anarchy and lawlessness prevail amongst them on that account? Is not law and civil order, rather, so much their work, that it still forms the foundation of our own? Was there not complete protection for property, even though it consisted for the most part of slaves? And did not this state of things last for more than a thousand years? So that I can't recognize, I must even protest against the practical aims and the necessity of religion in the sense indicated by you, and so popular now-a-days, that is, as an indispensable foundation of all legislative arrangements. For, if you take that point of view, the pure and sacred endeavor after truth would, to say the least, appear quixotic, and even criminal, if it ventured, in its feeling of justice, to denounce the authoritative creed as a usurper who had taken possession of the throne of truth and maintained his position by keeping up the deception.

Demopheles. But religion is not opposed to truth; it itself teaches truth. And as the range of its activity is not a narrow lecture room, but the world and humanity at large, religion must conform to the requirements and comprehension of an audience so numerous and so mixed. Religion must not let truth appear in its naked form; or, to use a medical simile, it must not exhibit it pure, but must employ a mythical vehicle, a medium, as it were. You can also compare truth in this respect to certain chemical stuffs which in themselves are gaseous, but which for medicinal uses, as also for preservation or transmission, must be bound to a stable, solid base, because they would otherwise volatilize. Chlorine gas, for example, is for all purposes applied only in the form of chlorides. But if truth, pure, abstract and free from all mythical alloy, is always to remain unattainable, even by philosophers, it might be compared to fluorine, which cannot even be isolated, but must always appear in combination with other elements. Or, to take a less scientific simile, truth, which is inexpressible except by means of myth and allegory, is like water, which can be carried about only in vessels; a philosopher who insists on obtaining it pure is like a man who breaks the jug in order to get the water by itself. This is, perhaps, an exact analogy. At any rate, religion is truth allegorically and mythically expressed, and so rendered attainable and digestible by mankind in general. Mankind couldn't possibly take it pure and unmixed, just as we can't breathe pure oxygen; we require an addition of four times its bulk in nitrogen. In plain language, the profound meaning, the high aim of life, can only be unfolded and presented to the masses symbolically, because they are incapable of grasping it in its true signification. Philosophy, on the other hand, should be like the Eleusinian mysteries, for the few, the élite.

Philalethes. I understand. It comes, in short, to truth wearing the garment of falsehood. But in doing so it enters on a fatal alliance. What a dangerous weapon is put into the hands of those who are authorized to employ falsehood as the vehicle of truth! If it is as you say, I fear the damage caused by the falsehood will be greater than any advantage the truth could ever produce. Of course, if the allegory were admitted to be such, I should raise no objection; but with the admission it would rob itself of all respect, and consequently, of all utility. The allegory must, therefore, put in a claim to be true in the proper sense of the word, and maintain the claim; while, at the most, it is true only in an allegorical sense. Here lies the irreparable mischief, the permanent evil; and this is why religion has always been and always will be in conflict with the noble endeavor after pure truth.

Demopheles. Oh no! that danger is guarded against. If religion mayn't exactly confess its allegorical nature, it gives sufficient indication of it.

Philalethes. How so?

Demopheles. In its mysteries. "Mystery," is in reality only a technical theological term for religious allegory. All religions have their mysteries. Properly speaking, a mystery is a dogma which is plainly absurd, but which, nevertheless, conceals in itself a lofty truth, and one which by itself would be completely incomprehensible to the ordinary understanding of the raw multitude. The multitude accepts it in this disguise on trust, and believes it, without being led astray by the absurdity of it, which even to its intelligence is obvious; and in this way it participates in the kernel of the matter so far as it is possible for it to do so. To explain what I mean, I may add that even in philosophy an attempt has been made to make use of a mystery. Pascal, for example, who was at once a pietist, a mathematician, and a philosopher, says in this threefold capacity: God is everywhere center and nowhere periphery. Malebranche has also the just remark: Liberty is a mystery. One could go a step further and maintain that in religions everything is mystery. For to impart truth, in the proper sense of the word, to the multitude in its raw state is absolutely impossible; all that can fall to its lot is to be enlightened by a mythological reflection of it. Naked truth is out of place before the eyes of the profane vulgar; it can only make its appearance thickly veiled. Hence, it is unreasonable to require of a religion that it shall be true in the proper sense of the word; and this, I may observe in passing, is now-a-days the absurd contention of Rationalists and Supernaturalists alike. Both start from the position that religion must be the real truth; and while the former demonstrate that it is not the truth, the latter obstinately maintain that it is; or rather, the former dress up and arrange the allegorical element in such a way, that, in the proper sense of the word, it could be true, but would be, in that case, a platitude; while the latter wish to maintain that it is true in the proper sense of the word, without any further dressing; a belief, which, as we ought to know is only to be enforced by inquisitions and the stake. As a fact, however, myth and allegory really form the proper element of religion; and under this indispensable condition, which is imposed by the intellectual limitation of the multitude, religion provides a sufficient satisfaction for those metaphysical requirements of mankind which are indestructible. It takes the place of that pure philosophical truth which is infinitely difficult and perhaps never attainable.

Philalethes. Ah! just as a wooden leg takes the place of a natural one; it supplies what is lacking, barely does duty for it, claims to be regarded as a natural leg, and is more or less artfully put together. The only difference is that, whilst a natural leg as a rule preceded the wooden one, religion has everywhere got the start of philosophy.

Demopheles. That may be, but still for a man who hasn't a natural leg, a wooden one is of great service. You must bear in mind that the metaphysical needs of mankind absolutely require satisfaction, because the horizon of men's thoughts must have a background and not remain unbounded. Man has, as a rule, no faculty for weighing reasons and discriminating between what is false and what is true; and besides, the labor which nature and the needs of nature impose upon him, leaves him no time for such enquiries, or for the education which they presuppose. In his case, therefore, it is no use talking of a reasoned conviction; he has to fall back on belief and authority. If a really true philosophy were to take the place of religion, nine-tenths at least of mankind would have to receive it on authority; that is to say, it too would be a matter of faith, for Plato's dictum, that the multitude can't be philosophers, will always remain true. Authority, however, is an affair of time and circumstance alone, and so it can't be bestowed on that which has only reason in its favor, it must accordingly be allowed to nothing but what has acquired it in the course of history, even if it is only an allegorical representation of truth. Truth in this form, supported by authority, appeals first of all to those elements in the human constitution which are strictly metaphysical, that is to say, to the need man feels of a theory in regard to the riddle of existence which forces itself upon his notice, a need arising from the consciousness that behind the physical in the world there is a metaphysical, something permanent as the foundation of constant change. Then it appeals to the will, to the fears and hopes of mortal beings living in constant struggle; for whom, accordingly, religion creates gods and demons whom they can cry to, appease and win over. Finally, it appeals to that moral consciousness which is undeniably present in man, lends to it that corroboration and support without which it would not easily maintain itself in the struggle against so many temptations. It is just from this side that religion affords an inexhaustible source of consolation and comfort in the innumerable trials of life, a comfort which does not leave men in death, but rather then only unfolds its full efficacy. So religion may be compared to one who takes a blind man by the hand and leads him, because he is unable to see for himself, whose concern it is to reach his destination, not to look at everything by the way.

Philalethes. That is certainly the strong point of religion. If it is a fraud, it is a pious fraud; that is undeniable. But this makes priests something between deceivers and teachers of morality; they daren't teach the real truth, as you have quite rightly explained, even if they knew it, which is not the case. A true philosophy, then, can always exist, but not a true religion; true, I mean, in the proper understanding of the word, not merely in that flowery or allegorical sense which you have described; a sense in which all religions would be true, only in various degrees. It is quite in keeping with the inextricable mixture of weal and woe, honesty and deceit, good and evil, nobility and baseness, which is the average characteristic of the world everywhere, that the most important, the most lofty, the most sacred truths can make their appearance only in combination with a lie, can even borrow strength from a lie as from something that works more powerfully on mankind; and, as revelation, must be ushered in by a lie. This might, indeed, be regarded as the cachet of the moral world. However, we won't give up the hope that mankind will eventually reach a point of maturity and education at which it can on the one side produce, and on the other receive, the true philosophy. Simplex sigillum veri: the naked truth must be so simple and intelligible that it can be imparted to all in its true form, without any admixture of myth and fable, without disguising it in the form of religion.

Demopheles. You've no notion how stupid most people are.

Philalethes. I am only expressing a hope which I can't give up. If it were fulfilled, truth in its simple and intelligible form would of course drive religion from the place it has so long occupied as its representative, and by that very means kept open for it. The time would have come when religion would have carried out her object and completed her course: the race she had brought to years of discretion she could dismiss, and herself depart in peace: that would be the euthanasia of religion. But as long as she lives, she has two faces, one of truth, one of fraud. According as you look at one or the other, you will bear her favor or ill-will. Religion must be regarded as a necessary evil, its necessity resting on the pitiful imbecility of the great majority of mankind, incapable of grasping the truth, and therefore requiring, in its pressing need, something to take its place.

Demopheles. Really, one would think that you philosophers had truth in a cupboard, and that all you had to do was to go and get it!

Philalethes. Well, if we haven't got it, it is chiefly owing to the pressure put upon philosophy by religion at all times and in all places. People have tried to make the expression and communication of truth, even the contemplation and discovery of it, impossible, by putting children, in their earliest years, into the hands of priests to be manipulated; to have the lines, in which their fundamental thoughts are henceforth to run, laid down with such firmness as, in essential matters, to be fixed and determined for this whole life. When I take up the writings even of the best intellects of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, (more especially if I have been engaged in Oriental studies), I am sometimes shocked to see how they are paralyzed and hemmed in on all sides by Jewish ideas. How can anyone think out the true philosophy when he is prepared like this?

Demopheles. Even if the true philosophy were to be discovered, religion wouldn't disappear from the world, as you seem to think. There can't be one system of metaphysics for everybody; that's rendered impossible by the natural differences of intellectual power between man and man, and the differences, too, which education makes. It is a necessity for the great majority of mankind to engage in that severe bodily labor which cannot be dispensed with if the ceaseless requirements of the whole race are to be satisfied. Not only does this leave the majority no time for education, for learning, for contemplation; but by virtue of the hard and fast antagonism between muscles and mind, the intelligence is blunted by so much exhausting bodily labor, and becomes heavy, clumsy, awkward, and consequently incapable of grasping any other than quite simple situations. At least nine-tenths of the human race falls under this category. But still the people require a system of metaphysics, that is, an account of the world and our existence, because such an account belongs to the most natural needs of mankind, they require a popular system; and to be popular it must combine many rare qualities. It must be easily understood, and at the same time possess, on the proper points, a certain amount of obscurity, even of impenetrability; then a correct and satisfactory system of morality must be bound up with its dogmas; above all, it must afford inexhaustible consolation in suffering and death; the consequence of all this is, that it can only be true in an allegorical and not in a real sense. Further, it must have the support of an authority which is impressive by its great age, by being universally recognized, by its documents, their tone and utterances; qualities which are so extremely difficult to combine that many a man wouldn't be so ready, if he considered the matter, to help to undermine a religion, but would reflect that what he is attacking is a people's most sacred treasure. If you want to form an opinion on religion, you should always bear in mind the character of the great multitude for which it is destined, and form a picture to yourself of its complete inferiority, moral and intellectual. It is incredible how far this inferiority goes, and how perseveringly a spark of truth will glimmer on even under the crudest covering of monstrous fable or grotesque ceremony, clinging indestructibly, like the odor of musk, to everything that has once come into contact with it. In illustration of this, consider the profound wisdom of the Upanishads, and then look at the mad idolatry in the India of to-day, with its pilgrimages, processions and festivities, or at the insane and ridiculous goings-on of the Saniassi. Still one can't deny that in all this insanity and nonsense there lies some obscure purpose which accords with, or is a reflection of the profound wisdom I mentioned. But for the brute multitude, it had to be dressed up in this form. In such a contrast as this we have the two poles of humanity, the wisdom of the individual and the bestiality of the many, both of which find their point of contact in the moral sphere. That saying from the Kurral must occur to everybody. Base people look like men, but I have never seen their exact counterpart. The man of education may, all the same, interpret religion to himself cum grano salis; the man of learning, the contemplative spirit may secretly exchange it for a philosophy. But here again one philosophy wouldn't suit everybody; by the laws of affinity every system would draw to itself that public to whose education and capacities it was most suited. So there is always an inferior metaphysical system of the schools for the educated multitude, and a higher one for the élite. Kant's lofty doctrine, for instance, had to be degraded to the level of the schools and ruined by such men as Fries, Krug and Salat. In short, here, if anywhere, Goethe's maxim is true, One does not suit all. Pure faith in revelation and pure metaphysics are for the two extremes, and for the intermediate steps mutual modifications of both in innumerable combinations and gradations. And this is rendered necessary by the immeasurable differences which nature and education have placed between man and man.

Philalethes. The view you take reminds me seriously of the mysteries of the ancients, which you mentioned just now. Their fundamental purpose seems to have been to remedy the evil arising from the differences of intellectual capacity and education. The plan was, out of the great multitude utterly impervious to unveiled truth, to select certain persons who might have it revealed to them up to a given point; out of these, again, to choose others to whom more would be revealed, as being able to grasp more; and so on up to the Epopts. These grades correspond to the little, greater and greatest mysteries. The arrangement was founded on a correct estimate of the intellectual inequality of mankind.

Demopheles. To some extent the education in our lower, middle and high schools corresponds to the varying grades of initiation into the mysteries.

Philalethes. In a very approximate way; and then only in so far as subjects of higher knowledge are written about exclusively in Latin. But since that has ceased to be the case, all the mysteries are profaned.

Demopheles. However that may be, I wanted to remind you that you should look at religion more from the practical than from the theoretical side. Personified metaphysics may be the enemy of religion, but all the same personified morality will be its friend. Perhaps the metaphysical element in all religions is false; but the moral element in all is true. This might perhaps be presumed from the fact that they all disagree in their metaphysics, but are in accord as regards morality.

Philalethes. Which is an illustration of the rule of logic that false premises may give a true conclusion.

Demopheles. Let me hold you to your conclusion: let me remind you that religion has two sides. If it can't stand when looked at from its theoretical, that is, its intellectual side; on the other hand, from the moral side, it proves itself the only means of guiding, controlling and mollifying those races of animals endowed with reason, whose kinship with the ape does not exclude a kinship with the tiger. But at the same time religion is, as a rule, a sufficient satisfaction for their dull metaphysical necessities. You don't seem to me to possess a proper idea of the difference, wide as the heavens asunder, the deep gulf between your man of learning and enlightenment, accustomed to the process of thinking, and the heavy, clumsy, dull and sluggish consciousness of humanity's beasts of burden, whose thoughts have once and for all taken the direction of anxiety about their livelihood, and cannot be put in motion in any other; whose muscular strength is so exclusively brought into play that the nervous power, which makes intelligence, sinks to a very low ebb. People like that must have something tangible which they can lay hold of on the slippery and thorny pathway of their life, some sort of beautiful fable, by means of which things can be imparted to them which their crude intelligence can entertain only in picture and parable. Profound explanations and fine distinctions are thrown away upon them. If you conceive religion in this light, and recollect that its aims are above all practical, and only in a subordinate degree theoretical, it will appear to you as something worthy of the highest respect.

Philalethes. A respect which will finally rest upon the principle that the end sanctifies the means. I don't feel in favor of a compromise on a basis like that. Religion may be an excellent means of training the perverse, obtuse and ill-disposed members of the biped race: in the eyes of the friend of truth every fraud, even though it be a pious one, is to be condemned. A system of deception, a pack of lies, would be a strange means of inculcating virtue. The flag to which I have taken the oath is truth; I shall remain faithful to it everywhere, and whether I succeed or not, I shall fight for light and truth! If I see religion on the wrong side—

Demopheles. But you won't. Religion isn't a deception: it is true and the most important of all truths. Because its doctrines are, as I have said, of such a lofty kind that the multitude can't grasp them without an intermediary, because, I say, its light would blind the ordinary eye, it comes forward wrapt in the veil of allegory and teaches, not indeed what is exactly true in itself, but what is true in respect of the lofty meaning contained in it; and, understood in this way, religion is the truth.

Philalethes. It would be all right if religion were only at liberty to be true in a merely allegorical sense. But its contention is that it is downright true in the proper sense of the word. Herein lies the deception, and it is here that the friend of truth must take up a hostile position.

Demopheles. The deception is a sine qua non. If religion were to admit that it was only the allegorical meaning in its doctrine which was true, it would rob itself of all efficacy. Such rigorous treatment as this would destroy its invaluable influence on the hearts and morals of mankind. Instead of insisting on that with pedantic obstinacy, look at its great achievements in the practical sphere, its furtherance of good and kindly feelings, its guidance in conduct, the support and consolation it gives to suffering humanity in life and death. How much you ought to guard against letting theoretical cavils discredit in the eyes of the multitude, and finally wrest from it, something which is an inexhaustible source of consolation and tranquillity, something which, in its hard lot, it needs so much, even more than we do. On that score alone, religion should be free from attack.

Philalethes. With that kind of argument you could have driven Luther from the field, when he attacked the sale of indulgences. How many a one got consolation from the letters of indulgence, a consolation which nothing else could give, a complete tranquillity; so that he joyfully departed with the fullest confidence in the packet of them which he held in his hand at the hour of death, convinced that they were so many cards of admission to all the nine heavens. What is the use of grounds of consolation and tranquillity which are constantly overshadowed by the Damocles-sword of illusion? The truth, my dear sir, is the only safe thing; the truth alone remains steadfast and trusty; it is the only solid consolation; it is the indestructible diamond.

Demopheles. Yes, if you had truth in your pocket, ready to favor us with it on demand. All you've got are metaphysical systems, in which nothing is certain but the headaches they cost. Before you take anything away, you must have something better to put in its place.

Philalethes. That's what you keep on saying. To free a man from error is to give, not to take away. Knowledge that a thing is false is a truth. Error always does harm; sooner or later it will bring mischief to the man who harbors it. Then give up deceiving people; confess ignorance of what you don't know, and leave everyone to form his own articles of faith for himself. Perhaps they won't turn out so bad, especially as they'll rub one another's corners down, and mutually rectify mistakes. The existence of many views will at any rate lay a foundation of tolerance. Those who possess knowledge and capacity may betake themselves to the study of philosophy, or even in their own persons carry the history of philosophy a step further.

Demopheles. That'll be a pretty business! A whole nation of raw metaphysicians, wrangling and eventually coming to blows with one another!

Philalethes. Well, well, a few blows here and there are the sauce of life; or at any rate a very inconsiderable evil compared with such things as priestly dominion, plundering of the laity, persecution of heretics, courts of inquisition, crusades, religious wars, massacres of St. Bartholomew. These have been the result of popular metaphysics imposed from without; so I stick to the old saying that you can't get grapes from thistles, nor expect good to come from a pack of lies.

Demopheles. How often must I repeat that religion is anything but a pack of lies? It is truth itself, only in a mythical, allegorical vesture. But when you spoke of your plan of everyone being his own founder of religion, I wanted to say that a particularism like this is totally opposed to human nature, and would consequently destroy all social order. Man is a metaphysical animal,—that is to say, he has paramount metaphysical necessities; accordingly, he conceives life above all in its metaphysical signification, and wishes to bring everything into line with that. Consequently, however strange it may sound in view of the uncertainty of all dogmas, agreement in the fundamentals of metaphysics is the chief thing, because a genuine and lasting bond of union is only possible among those who are of one opinion on these points. As a result of this, the main point of likeness and of contrast between nations is rather religion than government, or even language; and so the fabric of society, the State, will stand firm only when founded on a system of metaphysics which is acknowledged by all. This, of course, can only be a popular system,—that is, a religion: it becomes part and parcel of the constitution of the State, of all the public manifestations of the national life, and also of all solemn acts of individuals. This was the case in ancient India, among the Persians, Egyptians, Jews, Greeks and Romans; it is still the case in the Brahman, Buddhist and Mohammedan nations. In China there are three faiths, it is true, of which the most prevalent—Buddhism—is precisely the one which is not protected by the State; still, there is a saying in China, universally acknowledged, and of daily application, that "the three faiths are only one,"—that is to say, they agree in essentials. The Emperor confesses all three together at the same time. And Europe is the union of Christian States: Christianity is the basis of every one of the members, and the common bond of all. Hence Turkey, though geographically in Europe, is not properly to be reckoned as belonging to it. In the same way, the European princes hold their place "by the grace of God:" and the Pope is the vicegerent of God. Accordingly, as his throne was the highest, he used to wish all thrones to be regarded as held in fee from him. In the same way, too, Archbishops and Bishops, as such, possessed temporal power; and in England they still have seats and votes in the Upper House. Protestant princes, as such, are heads of their churches: in England, a few years ago, this was a girl eighteen years old. By the revolt from the Pope, the Reformation shattered the European fabric, and in a special degree dissolved the true unity of Germany by destroying its common religious faith. This union, which had practically come to an end, had, accordingly, to be restored later on by artificial and purely political means. You see, then, how closely connected a common faith is with the social order and the constitution of every State. Faith is everywhere the support of the laws and the constitution, the foundation, therefore, of the social fabric, which could hardly hold together at all if religion did not lend weight to the authority of government and the dignity of the ruler.

Philalethes. Oh, yes, princes use God as a kind of bogey to frighten grown-up children to bed with, if nothing else avails: that's why they attach so much importance to the Deity. Very well. Let me, in passing, recommend our rulers to give their serious attention, regularly twice every year, to the fifteenth chapter of the First Book of Samuel, that they may be constantly reminded of what it means to prop the throne on the altar. Besides, since the stake, that ultima ration theologorum, has gone out of fashion, this method of government has lost its efficacy. For, as you know, religions are like glow-worms; they shine only when it is dark. A certain amount of general ignorance is the condition of all religions, the element in which alone they can exist. And as soon as astronomy, natural science, geology, history, the knowledge of countries and peoples have spread their light broadcast, and philosophy finally is permitted to say a word, every faith founded on miracles and revelation must disappear; and philosophy takes its place. In Europe the day of knowledge and science dawned towards the end of the fifteenth century with the appearance of the Renaissance Platonists: its sun rose higher in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries so rich in results, and scattered the mists of the Middle Age. Church and Faith were compelled to disappear in the same proportion; and so in the eighteenth century English and French philosophers were able to take up an attitude of direct hostility; until, finally, under Frederick the Great, Kant appeared, and took away from religious belief the support it had previously enjoyed from philosophy: he emancipated the handmaid of theology, and in attacking the question with German thoroughness and patience, gave it an earnest instead of a frivolous tone. The consequence of this is that we see Christianity undermined in the nineteenth century, a serious faith in it almost completely gone; we see it fighting even for bare existence, whilst anxious princes try to set it up a little by artificial means, as a doctor uses a drug on a dying patient. In this connection there is a passage in Condorcet's "Des Progrès de l'esprit humain" which looks as if written as a warning to our age: "the religious zeal shown by philosophers and great men was only a political devotion; and every religion which allows itself to be defended as a belief that may usefully be left to the people, can only hope for an agony more or less prolonged." In the whole course of the events which I have indicated, you may always observe that faith and knowledge are related as the two scales of a balance; when the one goes up, the other goes down. So sensitive is the balance that it indicates momentary influences. When, for instance, at the beginning of this century, those inroads of French robbers under the leadership of Bonaparte, and the enormous efforts necessary for driving them out and punishing them, had brought about a temporary neglect of science and consequently a certain decline in the general increase of knowledge, the Church immediately began to raise her head again and Faith began to show fresh signs of life; which, to be sure, in keeping with the times, was partly poetical in its nature. On the other hand, in the more than thirty years of peace which followed, leisure and prosperity furthered the building up of science and the spread of knowledge in an extraordinary degree: the consequence of which is what I have indicated, the dissolution and threatened fall of religion. Perhaps the time is approaching which has so often been prophesied, when religion will take her departure from European humanity, like a nurse which the child has outgrown: the child will now be given over to the instructions of a tutor. For there is no doubt that religious doctrines which are founded merely on authority, miracles and revelations, are only suited to the childhood of humanity. Everyone will admit that a race, the past duration of which on the earth all accounts, physical and historical, agree in placing at not more than some hundred times the life of a man of sixty, is as yet only in its first childhood.

Demopheles. Instead of taking an undisguised pleasure in prophesying the downfall of Christianity, how I wish you would consider what a measureless debt of gratitude European humanity owes to it, how greatly it has benefited by the religion which, after a long interval, followed it from its old home in the East. Europe received from Christianity ideas which were quite new to it, the Knowledge, I mean, of the fundamental truth that life cannot be an end-in-itself, that the true end of our existence lies beyond it. The Greeks and Romans had placed this end altogether in our present life, so that in this sense they may certainly be called blind heathens. And, in keeping with this view of life, all their virtues can be reduced to what is serviceable to the community, to what is useful in fact. Aristotle says quite naively, Those virtues must necessarily be the greatest which are the most useful to others. So the ancients thought patriotism the highest virtue, although it is really a very doubtful one, since narrowness, prejudice, vanity and an enlightened self-interest are main elements in it. Just before the passage I quoted, Aristotle enumerates all the virtues, in order to discuss them singly. They are Justice, Courage, Temperance, Magnificence, Magnanimity, Liberality, Gentleness, Good Sense and Wisdom. How different from the Christian virtues! Plato himself, incomparably the most transcendental philosopher of pre-Christian antiquity, knows no higher virtue than Justice; and he alone recommends it unconditionally and for its own sake, whereas the rest make a happy life, vita beata, the aim of all virtue, and moral conduct the way to attain it. Christianity freed European humanity from this shallow, crude identification of itself with the hollow, uncertain existence of every day,

    coelumque tueri
Jussit, et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus.

Christianity, accordingly, does not preach mere Justice, but the Love of Mankind, Compassion, Good Works, Forgiveness, Love of your Enemies, Patience, Humility, Resignation, Faith and Hope. It even went a step further, and taught that the world is of evil, and that we need deliverance. It preached despisal of the world, self-denial, chastity, giving up of one's will, that is, turning away from life and its illusory pleasures. It taught the healing power of pain: an instrument of torture is the symbol of Christianity. I am quite ready to admit that this earnest, this only correct view of life was thousands of years previously spread all over Asia in other forms, as it is still, independently of Christianity; but for European humanity it was a new and great revelation. For it is well known that the population of Europe consists of Asiatic races driven out as wanderers from their own homes, and gradually settling down in Europe; on their wanderings these races lost the original religion of their homes, and with it the right view of life: so, under a new sky, they formed religions for themselves, which were rather crude; the worship of Odin, for instance, the Druidic or the Greek religion, the metaphysical content of which was little and shallow. In the meantime the Greeks developed a special, one might almost say, an instinctive sense of beauty, belonging to them alone of all the nations who have ever existed on the earth, peculiar, fine and exact: so that their mythology took, in the mouth of their poets, and in the hands of their artists, an exceedingly beautiful and pleasing shape. On the other hand, the true and deep significance of life was lost to the Greeks and Romans. They lived on like grown-up children, till Christianity came and recalled them to the serious side of existence.

Philalethes. And to see the effects one need only compare antiquity with the Middle Age; the time of Pericles, say, with the fourteenth century. You could scarcely believe you were dealing with the same kind of beings. There, the finest development of humanity, excellent institutions, wise laws, shrewdly apportioned offices, rationally ordered freedom, all the arts, including poetry and philosophy, at their best; the production of works which, after thousands of years, are unparalleled, the creations, as it were, of a higher order of beings, which we can never imitate; life embellished by the noblest fellowship, as portrayed in Xenophen's Banquet. Look on the other picture, if you can; a time at which the Church had enslaved the minds, and violence the bodies of men, that knights and priests might lay the whole weight of life upon the common beast of burden, the third estate. There, you have might as right, Feudalism and Fanaticism in close alliance, and in their train abominable ignorance and darkness of mind, a corresponding intolerance, discord of creeds, religious wars, crusades, inquisitions and persecutions; as the form of fellowship, chivalry, compounded of savagery and folly, with its pedantic system of ridiculous false pretences carried to an extreme, its degrading superstition and apish veneration for women. Gallantry is the residue of this veneration, deservedly requited as it is by feminine arrogance; it affords continual food for laughter to all Asiatics, and the Greeks would have joined in it. In the golden Middle Age the practice developed into a regular and methodical service of women; it imposed deeds of heroism, cours d'amour, bombastic Troubadour songs, etc.; although it is to be observed that these last buffooneries, which had an intellectual side, were chiefly at home in France; whereas amongst the material sluggish Germans, the knights distinguished themselves rather by drinking and stealing; they were good at boozing and filling their castles with plunder; though in the courts, to be sure, there was no lack of insipid love songs. What caused this utter transformation? Migration and Christianity.

Demopheles. I am glad you reminded me of it. Migration was the source of the evil; Christianity the dam on which it broke. It was chiefly by Christianity that the raw, wild hordes which came flooding in were controlled and tamed. The savage man must first of all learn to kneel, to venerate, to obey; after that he can be civilized. This was done in Ireland by St. Patrick, in Germany by Winifred the Saxon, who was a genuine Boniface. It was migration of peoples, the last advance of Asiatic races towards Europe, followed only by the fruitless attempts of those under Attila, Zenghis Khan, and Timur, and as a comic afterpiece, by the gipsies,—it was this movement which swept away the humanity of the ancients. Christianity was precisely the principle which set itself to work against this savagery; just as later, through the whole of the Middle Age, the Church and its hierarchy were most necessary to set limits to the savage barbarism of those masters of violence, the princes and knights: it was what broke up the icefloes in that mighty deluge. Still, the chief aim of Christianity is not so much to make this life pleasant as to render us worthy of a better. It looks away over this span of time, over this fleeting dream, and seeks to lead us to eternal welfare. Its tendency is ethical in the highest sense of the word, a sense unknown in Europe till its advent; as I have shown you, by putting the morality and religion of the ancients side by side with those of Christendom.

Philalethes. You are quite right as regards theory: but look at the practice! In comparison with the ages of Christianity the ancient world was unquestionably less cruel than the Middle Age, with its deaths by exquisite torture, its innumerable burnings at the stake. The ancients, further, were very enduring, laid great stress on justice, frequently sacrificed themselves for their country, showed such traces of every kind of magnanimity, and such genuine manliness, that to this day an acquaintance with their thoughts and actions is called the study of Humanity. The fruits of Christianity were religious wars, butcheries, crusades, inquisitions, extermination of the natives in America, and the introduction of African slaves in their place; and among the ancients there is nothing analogous to this, nothing that can be compared with it; for the slaves of the ancients, the familia, the vernae, were a contented race, and faithfully devoted to their masters' service, and as different from the miserable negroes of the sugar plantations, which are a disgrace to humanity, as their two colors are distinct. Those special moral delinquencies for which we reproach the ancients, and which are perhaps less uncommon now-a-days than appears on the surface to be the case, are trifles compared with the Christian enormities I have mentioned. Can you then, all considered, maintain that mankind has been really made morally better by Christianity?

Demopheles. If the results haven't everywhere been in keeping with the purity and truth of the doctrine, it may be because the doctrine has been too noble, too elevated for mankind, that its aim has been placed too high. It was so much easier to come up to the heathen system, or to the Mohammedan. It is precisely what is noble and dignified that is most liable everywhere to misuse and fraud: abusus optimi pessimus. Those high doctrines have accordingly now and then served as a pretext for the most abominable proceedings, and for acts of unmitigated wickedness. The downfall of the institutions of the old world, as well as of its arts and sciences, is, as I have said, to be attributed to the inroad of foreign barbarians. The inevitable result of this inroad was that ignorance and savagery got the upper hand; consequently violence and knavery established their dominion, and knights and priests became a burden to mankind. It is partly, however, to be explained by the fact that the new religion made eternal and not temporal welfare the object of desire, taught that simplicity of heart was to be preferred to knowledge, and looked askance at all worldly pleasure. Now the arts and sciences subserve worldly pleasure; but in so far as they could be made serviceable to religion they were promoted, and attained a certain degree of perfection.

Philalethes. In a very narrow sphere. The sciences were suspicious companions, and as such, were placed under restrictions: on the other hand, darling ignorance, that element so necessary to a system of faith, was carefully nourished.

Demopheles. And yet mankind's possessions in the way of knowledge up to that period, which were preserved in the writings of the ancients, were saved from destruction by the clergy, especially by those in the monasteries. How would it have fared if Christianity hadn't come in just before the migration of peoples.

Philalethes. It would really be a most useful inquiry to try and make, with the coldest impartiality, an unprejudiced, careful and accurate comparison of the advantages and disadvantages which may be put down to religion. For that, of course, a much larger knowledge of historical and psychological data than either of us command would be necessary. Academies might make it a subject for a prize essay.

Demopheles. They'll take good care not to do so.

Philalethes. I'm surprised to hear you say that: it's a bad look out for religion. However, there are academies which, in proposing a subject for competition, make it a secret condition that the prize is to go to the man who best interprets their own view. If we could only begin by getting a statistician to tell us how many crimes are prevented every year by religious, and how many by other motives, there would be very few of the former. If a man feels tempted to commit a crime, you may rely upon it that the first consideration which enters his head is the penalty appointed for it, and the chances that it will fall upon him: then comes, as a second consideration, the risk to his reputation. If I am not mistaken, he will ruminate by the hour on these two impediments, before he ever takes a thought of religious considerations. If he gets safely over those two first bulwarks against crime, I think religion alone will very rarely hold him back from it.

Demopheles. I think that it will very often do so, especially when its influence works through the medium of custom. An atrocious act is at once felt to be repulsive. What is this but the effect of early impressions? Think, for instance, how often a man, especially if of noble birth, will make tremendous sacrifices to perform what he has promised, motived entirely by the fact that his father has often earnestly impressed upon him in his childhood that "a man of honor" or "a gentleman" or a "a cavalier" always keeps his word inviolate.

Philalethes. That's no use unless there is a certain inborn honorableness. You mustn't ascribe to religion what results from innate goodness of character, by which compassion for the man who would suffer by his crime keeps a man from committing it. This is the genuine moral motive, and as such it is independent of all religions.

Demopheles. But this is a motive which rarely affects the multitude unless it assumes a religious aspect. The religious aspect at any rate strengthens its power for good. Yet without any such natural foundation, religious motives alone are powerful to prevent crime. We need not be surprised at this in the case of the multitude, when we see that even people of education pass now and then under the influence, not indeed of religious motives, which are founded on something which is at least allegorically true, but of the most absurd superstition, and allow themselves to be guided by it all their life long; as, for instance, undertaking nothing on a Friday, refusing to sit down thirteen at a table, obeying chance omens, and the like. How much more likely is the multitude to be guided by such things. You can't form any adequate idea of the narrow limits of the mind in its raw state; it is a place of absolute darkness, especially when, as often happens, a bad, unjust and malicious heart is at the bottom of it. People in this condition—and they form the great bulk of humanity—must be led and controlled as well as may be, even if it be by really superstitious motives; until such time as they become susceptible to truer and better ones. As an instance of the direct working of religion, may be cited the fact, common enough, in Italy especially, of a thief restoring stolen goods, through the influence of his confessor, who says he won't absolve him if he doesn't. Think again of the case of an oath, where religion shows a most decided influence; whether it be that a man places himself expressly in the position of a purely moral being, and as such looks upon himself as solemnly appealed to, as seems to be the case in France, where the formula is simply je le jure, and also among the Quakers, whose solemn yea or nay is regarded as a substitute for the oath; or whether it be that a man really believes he is pronouncing something which may affect his eternal happiness,—a belief which is presumably only the investiture of the former feeling. At any rate, religious considerations are a means of awakening and calling out a man's moral nature. How often it happens that a man agrees to take a false oath, and then, when it comes to the point, suddenly refuses, and truth and right win the day.

Philalethes. Oftener still false oaths are really taken, and truth and right trampled under foot, though all witnesses of the oath know it well! Still you are quite right to quote the oath as an undeniable example of the practical efficacy of religion. But, in spite of all you've said, I doubt whether the efficacy of religion goes much beyond this. Just think; if a public proclamation were suddenly made announcing the repeal of all the criminal laws; I fancy neither you nor I would have the courage to go home from here under the protection of religious motives. If, in the same way, all religions were declared untrue, we could, under the protection of the laws alone, go on living as before, without any special addition to our apprehensions or our measures of precaution. I will go beyond this, and say that religions have very frequently exercised a decidedly demoralizing influence. One may say generally that duties towards God and duties towards humanity are in inverse ratio.

It is easy to let adulation of the Deity make amends for lack of proper behavior towards man. And so we see that in all times and in all countries the great majority of mankind find it much easier to beg their way to heaven by prayers than to deserve to go there by their actions. In every religion it soon comes to be the case that faith, ceremonies, rites and the like, are proclaimed to be more agreeable to the Divine will than moral actions; the former, especially if they are bound up with the emoluments of the clergy, gradually come to be looked upon as a substitute for the latter. Sacrifices in temples, the saying of masses, the founding of chapels, the planting of crosses by the roadside, soon come to be the most meritorious works, so that even great crimes are expiated by them, as also by penance, subjection to priestly authority, confessions, pilgrimages, donations to the temples and the clergy, the building of monasteries and the like. The consequence of all this is that the priests finally appear as middlemen in the corruption of the gods. And if matters don't go quite so far as that, where is the religion whose adherents don't consider prayers, praise and manifold acts of devotion, a substitute, at least in part, for moral conduct? Look at England, where by an audacious piece of priestcraft, the Christian Sunday, introduced by Constantine the Great as a subject for the Jewish Sabbath, is in a mendacious way identified with it, and takes its name,—and this in order that the commands of Jehovah for the Sabbath (that is, the day on which the Almighty had to rest from his six days' labor, so that it is essentially the last day of the week), might be applied to the Christian Sunday, the dies solis, the first day of the week which the sun opens in glory, the day of devotion and joy. The consequence of this fraud is that "Sabbath-breaking," or "the desecration of the Sabbath," that is, the slightest occupation, whether of business or pleasure, all games, music, sewing, worldly books, are on Sundays looked upon as great sins. Surely the ordinary man must believe that if, as his spiritual guides impress upon him, he is only constant in "a strict observance of the holy Sabbath," and is "a regular attendant at Divine Service," that is, if he only invariably idles away his time on Sundays, and doesn't fail to sit two hours in church to hear the same litany for the thousandth time and mutter it in tune with the others, he may reckon on indulgence in regard to those little peccadilloes which he occasionally allows himself. Those devils in human form, the slave owners and slave traders in the Free States of North America (they should be called the Slave States) are, as a rule, orthodox, pious Anglicans who would consider it a grave sin to work on Sundays; and having confidence in this, and their regular attendance at church, they hope for eternal happiness. The demoralizing tendency of religion is less problematical than its moral influence. How great and how certain that moral influence must be to make amends for the enormities which religions, especially the Christian and Mohammedan religions, have produced and spread over the earth! Think of the fanaticism, the endless persecutions, the religious wars, that sanguinary frenzy of which the ancients had no conception! think of the crusades, a butchery lasting two hundred years and inexcusable, its war cry "It is the will of God," its object to gain possession of the grave of one who preached love and sufferance! think of the cruel expulsion and extermination of the Moors and Jews from Spain! think of the orgies of blood, the inquisitions, the heretical tribunals, the bloody and terrible conquests of the Mohammedans in three continents, or those of Christianity in America, whose inhabitants were for the most part, and in Cuba entirely, exterminated. According to Las Cases, Christianity murdered twelve millions in forty years, of course all in majorem Dei gloriam, and for the propagation of the Gospel, and because what wasn't Christian wasn't even looked upon as human! I have, it is true, touched upon these matters before; but when in our day, we hear of Latest News from the Kingdom of God [Footnote: A missionary paper, of which the 40th annual number appeared in 1856], we shall not be weary of bringing old news to mind. And above all, don't let us forget India, the cradle of the human race, or at least of that part of it to which we belong, where first Mohammedans, and then Christians, were most cruelly infuriated against the adherents of the original faith of mankind. The destruction or disfigurement of the ancient temples and idols, a lamentable, mischievous and barbarous act, still bears witness to the monotheistic fury of the Mohammedans, carried on from Marmud, the Ghaznevid of cursed memory, down to Aureng Zeb, the fratricide, whom the Portuguese Christians have zealously imitated by destruction of temples and the auto de fé of the inquisition at Goa. Don't let us forget the chosen people of God, who after they had, by Jehovah's express command, stolen from their old and trusty friends in Egypt the gold and silver vessels which had been lent to them, made a murderous and plundering inroad into "the Promised Land," with the murderer Moses at their head, to tear it from the rightful owners,—again, by the same Jehovah's express and repeated commands, showing no mercy, exterminating the inhabitants, women, children and all (Joshua, ch. 9 and 10). And all this, simply because they weren't circumcised and didn't know Jehovah, which was reason enough to justify every enormity against them; just as for the same reason, in earlier times, the infamous knavery of the patriarch Jacob and his chosen people against Hamor, King of Shalem, and his people, is reported to his glory because the people were unbelievers! (Genesis xxxiii. 18.) Truly, it is the worst side of religions that the believers of one religion have allowed themselves every sin again those of another, and with the utmost ruffianism and cruelty persecuted them; the Mohammedans against the Christians and Hindoos; the Christians against the Hindoos, Mohammedans, American natives, Negroes, Jews, heretics, and others.

Perhaps I go too far in saying all religions. For the sake of truth, I must add that the fanatical enormities perpetrated in the name of religion are only to be put down to the adherents of monotheistic creeds, that is, the Jewish faith and its two branches, Christianity and Islamism. We hear of nothing of the kind in the case of Hindoos and Buddhists. Although it is a matter of common knowledge that about the fifth century of our era Buddhism was driven out by the Brahmans from its ancient home in the southernmost part of the Indian peninsula, and afterwards spread over the whole of the rest of Asia, as far as I know, we have no definite account of any crimes of violence, or wars, or cruelties, perpetrated in the course of it.

That may, of course, be attributable to the obscurity which veils the history of those countries; but the exceedingly mild character of their religion, together with their unceasing inculcation of forbearance towards all living things, and the fact that Brahmanism by its caste system properly admits no proselytes, allows one to hope that their adherents may be acquitted of shedding blood on a large scale, and of cruelty in any form. Spence Hardy, in his excellent book on Eastern Monachism, praises the extraordinary tolerance of the Buddhists, and adds his assurance that the annals of Buddhism will furnish fewer instances of religious persecution than those of any other religion.

As a matter of fact, it is only to monotheism that intolerance is essential; an only god is by his nature a jealous god, who can allow no other god to exist. Polytheistic gods, on the other hand, are naturally tolerant; they live and let live; their own colleagues are the chief objects of their sufferance, as being gods of the same religion. This toleration is afterwards extended to foreign gods, who are, accordingly, hospitably received, and later on admitted, in some cases, to an equality of rights; the chief example of which is shown by the fact, that the Romans willingly admitted and venerated Phrygian, Egyptian and other gods. Hence it is that monotheistic religions alone furnish the spectacle of religious wars, religious persecutions, heretical tribunals, that breaking of idols and destruction of images of the gods, that razing of Indian temples, and Egyptian colossi, which had looked on the sun three thousand years, just because a jealous god had said, Thou shalt make no graven image.

But to return to the chief point. You are certainly right in insisting on the strong metaphysical needs of mankind; but religion appears to me to be not so much a satisfaction as an abuse of those needs. At any rate we have seen that in regard to the furtherance of morality, its utility is, for the most part, problematical, its disadvantages, and especially the atrocities which have followed in its train, are patent to the light of day. Of course it is quite a different matter if we consider the utility of religion as a prop of thrones; for where these are held "by the grace of God," throne and altar are intimately associated; and every wise prince who loves his throne and his family will appear at the head of his people as an exemplar of true religion. Even Machiavelli, in the eighteenth chapter of his book, most earnestly recommended religion to princes. Beyond this, one may say that revealed religions stand to philosophy exactly in the relation of "sovereigns by the grace of God," to "the sovereignty of the people"; so that the two former terms of the parallel are in natural alliance.

Demopheles. Oh, don't take that tone! You're going hand in hand with ochlocracy and anarchy, the arch enemy of all legislative order, all civilization and all humanity.

Philalethes. You are right. It was only a sophism of mine, what the fencing master calls a feint. I retract it. But see how disputing sometimes makes an honest man unjust and malicious. Let us stop.

Demopheles. I can't help regretting that, after all the trouble I've taken, I haven't altered your disposition in regard to religion. On the other hand, I can assure you that everything you have said hasn't shaken my conviction of its high value and necessity.

Philalethes. I fully believe you; for, as we may read in Hudibras—

A man convinced against his will
Is of the same opinion still.

My consolation is that, alike in controversies and in taking mineral waters, the after effects are the true ones.

Demopheles. Well, I hope it'll be beneficial in your case.

Philalethes. It might be so, if I could digest a certain Spanish proverb.

Demopheles. Which is?

Philalethes. Behind the cross stands the devil.

Demopheles. Come, don't let us part with sarcasms. Let us rather admit that religion, like Janus, or better still, like the Brahman god of death, Yama, has two faces, and like him, one friendly, the other sullen. Each of us has kept his eye fixed on one alone.

Philalethes. You are right, old fellow.

by Arthur Schopenhauer, Translated by T. Bailey Saunders


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